Sample records for manipulation orthopedic

  1. Orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gehrig, Laura M B

    2011-09-01

    Orthopedic surgery is a specialty of surgery dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system in all age groups. Careers in orthopedic surgery span the spectrum from general orthopedics to those of subspecialty expertise in orthopedic trauma, hand, pediatrics, total joint, foot and ankle, sports medicine, and oncology to name a few. PMID:21871990

  2. Medical Issues: Orthopedics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause several complications. ... difficulty sitting, standing, or performing normal daily activities. Orthopedic Considerations Doctors and therapists classify individuals with SMA ...

  3. 21 CFR 888.4540 - Orthopedic manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...nonpowered hand-held device intended for medical purposes to manipulate tissue, or for use with other devices in orthopedic surgery. This generic type of device includes the cerclage applier, awl, bender, drill brace, broach,...

  4. 21 CFR 888.4540 - Orthopedic manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...nonpowered hand-held device intended for medical purposes to manipulate tissue, or for use with other devices in orthopedic surgery. This generic type of device includes the cerclage applier, awl, bender, drill brace, broach,...

  5. 21 CFR 888.4540 - Orthopedic manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...nonpowered hand-held device intended for medical purposes to manipulate tissue, or for use with other devices in orthopedic surgery. This generic type of device includes the cerclage applier, awl, bender, drill brace, broach,...

  6. 21 CFR 888.4540 - Orthopedic manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...nonpowered hand-held device intended for medical purposes to manipulate tissue, or for use with other devices in orthopedic surgery. This generic type of device includes the cerclage applier, awl, bender, drill brace, broach,...

  7. Nanobiomaterial applications in orthopedics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Christenson; Kristi S. Anseth; Jeroen J. J. P. van den Beucken; Casey K. Chan; Batur Ercan; John A. Jansen; Cato T. Laurencin; Wan-Ju Li; Ramalingam Murugan; Lakshmi S. Nair; Seeram Ramakrishna; Rocky S. Tuan; Thomas J. Webster; Antonios G. Mikos

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in nanobiotechnology are revolutionizing our capability to understand biological intricacies and resolve biological and medical problems by developing subtle biomimetic techniques. Nanocomposites and nanostructured materials are believed to play a pivotal role in orthopedic research since bone itself is a typical example of a nanocomposite. This article reviews current strategies using nanobiomaterials to improve current orthopedic materials and examines

  8. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery.

    E-print Network

    1/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Simon;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation #12;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic motion with a near critical drift towards an absorbing barrier at the origin. #12;3/ 17 Spines, backbones

  9. Selfprotective smart orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Javad; Antoci, Valentin; Hickok, Noreen J; Shapiro, Irving M

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current advances leading to an exciting change in implant design for orthopedic surgery. The initial biomaterial approaches in implant design are being replaced by cellular-molecular interactions and nanoscale chemistry. New designs address implant complications, particularly loosening and infection. For infection, local delivery systems are an important first step in the process. Selfprotective 'smart' devices are an example of the next generation of orthopedic implants. If proven to be effective, antibiotics or other active molecules that are tethered to the implant surface through a permanent covalent bond and tethering of antibiotics or other biofactors are likely to transform the practice of orthopedic surgery and other medical specialties. This new technology has the potential to eliminate periprosthetic infection, a major and growing problem in orthopedic practice. PMID:17187471

  10. Orthopedic Gene Therapy in 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher H Evans; Steven C Ghivizzani; Paul D Robbins

    2009-01-01

    Orthopedic disorders, although rarely fatal, are the leading cause of morbidity and impose a huge socioeconomic burden. Their prevalence will increase dramatically as populations age and gain weight. Many orthopedic conditions are difficult to treat by conventional means; however, they are good candidates for gene therapy. Clinical trials have already been initiated for arthritis and the aseptic loosening of prosthetic

  11. Virtual reality orthopedic surgery simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Dar Tsai; Ming-Shium Hsieh; Shyan-Bin Jou

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a highly interactive virtual reality orthopedic surgery simulator. The simulator allows surgeons to use various surgical instruments to operate on virtual rigid anatomic structures, such bones, prostheses and bone grafts, to simulate every procedure on the rigid structures for complex orthopedic surgeries, including arthroplasty, corrective or open osteotomy, open reduction of fractures and amputation. A comparative study

  12. Blood management in orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Sculco

    1995-01-01

    The orthopedic surgeon has several options available for blood conservation. Preoperative autologous donation (PAD) of blood is a cost-effective measure when the cost of managing transfusion-transmitted infectious disease is considered; overuse and underuse are expensive problems, however. Hemodilution, while used successfully in prostate surgery, is logistically impractical in joint replacement centers. Intraoperative blood salvage, although costly, is useful in orthopedic

  13. Plasma Biomedicine in Orthopedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Satsohi

    2012-10-01

    Various effects of plasmas irradiation on cells, tissues, and biomaterials relevant for orthopedic applications have been examined. For direct application of plasmas to living cells or tissues, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with helium flows into ambient air were used. For biomaterial processing, on the other hand, either helium DBDs mentioned above or low-pressure discharges generated in a chamber were used. In this presentation, plasma effects on cell proliferation and plasma treatment for artificial bones will be discussed. First, the conditions for enhanced cell proliferation in vitro by plasma applications have been examined. The discharge conditions for cell proliferation depend sensitively on cell types. Since cell proliferation can be enhanced even when the cells are cultured in a plasma pre-treated medium, long-life reactive species generated in the medium by plasma application or large molecules (such as proteins) in the medium modified by the plasma are likely to be the cause of cell proliferation. It has been found that there is strong correlation between (organic) hydroperoxide generation and cell proliferation. Second, effects of plasma-treated artificial bones made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined in vitro and vivo. It has been found that plasma treatment increases hydrophilicity of the surfaces of microscopic inner pores, which directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells introduced into the pores and therefore causes faster bone growth. The work has been performed in collaboration with Prof. H. Yoshikawa and his group members at the School of Medicine, Osaka University.

  14. Roentgen Stereophotogrammetry In Orthopedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvik, Goran

    1983-07-01

    A system for roentgen stereophotogrammetry has been used in Lund, Sweden, since August 1972 and by August 1982 ten thousand stereo films have been evaluated using this method. Patient investigations started March 1973 and of the more than 500 patients investigated 300 have been referred by orthopedic surgeons. The skeletal parts investigated had been permanently marked with tantalum balls 0.5 or 0.8 mm in diameter. The causes for the investigation have been bone growth disorders in the Lower extremity (134 patients), spinal fusions (35 patients), high tibial osteotomies for gonarthrosis (21 patients) and endoprosthetic replacement of the knee (68 patients) or hip (42 patients) joint. By the roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), information on for instance the development of angular deformities and staple loosening in the leg, the healing process of the intended fusion in the spine or at the knee, and on the migration and stability of prosthetic components have been obtained. RSA is of value both for prognostic and followup purposes, and is versatile enough in proper setting to be used as a routine clinical investigation.

  15. Orthopedic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jeffrey D.; Segal, Lee S.

    2010-01-01

    The management of orthopedic problems in spina bifida has seen a dramatic change over the past 10 years. The negative effects of spasticity, poor balance, and the tethered cord syndrome on ambulatory function are better appreciated. There is less emphasis on the hip radiograph and more emphasis on the function of the knee and the prevention of…

  16. Prehospital care of orthopedic injuries.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Eitan; Blumenfeld, Amir; Kalmovich, Boaz; Kosashvili, Yona; Lin, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Orthopedic injuries are predominant among combat casualties, and carry the potential for significant morbidity. An expert consensus process (Prehospital care of military orthopedic trauma: A consensus meeting, Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps, May 2003) was used to create guidelines for the treatment of these injuries by military prehospital providers. The consensus treatment guidelines developed by experienced orthopedic trauma personnel from leading trauma centers in Israel are presented in this paper. For victims with open fractures, the first priority is hemorrhage control. Splinting, irrigation, and wound care should be performed while waiting for transport, or, in any scenario, in the case of an isolated limb injury. The use of traction splints was advocated for both the rapid transport scenario (up to one hour from the time of injury to arrival at the hospital) and the delayed transport scenario. In the urban setting, traction splints may not be necessary. Any victim experiencing pelvic pain following a high-energy mechanism of injury should be presumed to have an unstable pelvic fracture, and a sheet should be tied around the pelvis. The panel agreed that field-reduction of dislocations should be avoided by the medical officer unless it is anticipated that the patient will need to go through a long evacuation chain and the medical officer is familiar with specific reduction techniques. PMID:17484359

  17. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  18. Strategies for achieving orthopedic service line success.

    PubMed

    Lang, Stacey; Powers, Kristi

    2013-12-01

    Healthcare finance leaders can work with orthopedic surgeons to support better outcomes, clinically and financially, by: Establishing innovative partnerships among hospital leaders, orthopedic surgeons, and implant vendors. Developing and enforcing expectations around contracting and vendor behavior. Establishing a forum for open communication. Building a bundled payment structure. Finding ways to differentiate from the competition. PMID:24380256

  19. Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

  20. Blood utilization in orthopedic and trauma practice

    PubMed Central

    Tayara, Bader Kamal; Al-Faraidy, Moaad Hatim; Al-Sayel, Faisal Abdullah; Al-Omran, Abdallah S; Sadat-Ali, Mir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Very little is known about blood utilization in orthopedic and trauma surgery and there is no definite policy in this regard. Our objective is to perform an audit on our practice of blood utilization in the orthopedic department. Methods: We have retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who were admitted between January 2011 and December 2012 to the orthopedic male, female and pediatric wards for which blood products were requested. Results: Three hundred and eight patients were admitted for surgery during the study period. The average age was 35.12 ± 20.4 years and postsurgery they stayed in the hospital for 25.60 ± 10.5 days. Blood products were requested for 223 trauma surgeries. In elective orthopedic procedures, only 42.78% of the blood requested was utilized while in trauma patients it was 55.25%. Conclusions: A substantial amount of blood and its product was used in trauma and elective orthopedic surgeries. There was a major discrepancy between the blood requested and utilized and secondly in the majority single unit transfusion was utilized, which is not within the fundamentals of blood transfusion.

  1. [Digital video technology in orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Vuceti?, C; Milovanovi?, D; Duli?, B; Dimitrijevi?, I; Kalezi?, N; Tuli?, G

    2006-01-01

    Digital video technologies are new and powerful tools with wide applications in orthopaedics. Already integral to several common medical devices, digital images can be used for case documentation and presentation as well for diagnostic and surgical patient care information. Digital technologies allow easy manipulation of photographic, video and graphic materials in ways that were impossible with conventional techniques. Educational presentation has been transformed by use of computers and digital projectors. Understanding the basic foundations of digital imaging technology is important for effectively creating digital images, videos and presentations. In this review, we are going to discuss some of the issues that are raised by digital imaging in orthopaedics, digital image processing, as well as, we are giving some recommendations for good quality of pre-, post- and intra-operative photographs in clinical use. PMID:17688043

  2. Billing and coding knowledge: a comparative survey of professional coders, practicing orthopedic surgeons, and orthopedic residents.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Kevin F; Yousuf, Tariq; Pasque, Charles B; Yousuf, Khalid

    2014-06-01

    Medical knowledge and surgical skills are necessary to become an effective orthopedic surgeon. To run an efficient practice, the surgeon must also possess a basic understanding of medical business practices, including billing and coding. In this study, we surveyed and compared the level of billing and coding knowledge among current orthopedic residents PGY3 and higher, academic and private practice attending orthopedic surgeons, and orthopedic coding professionals. According to the survey results, residents and fellows have a similar knowledge of coding and billing, regardless of their level of training or type of business education received in residency. Most residents would like formal training in coding, billing, and practice management didactics; this is consistent with data from previous studies. PMID:24945481

  3. Diabetic foot: The orthopedic surgery angle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-L. Besse; T. Leemrijse; P.-A. Deleu

    2011-01-01

    As diabetes takes on pandemic proportions, it is crucial for the orthopedic surgeon to be aware of the issues involved in diabetic foot. Ulceration is related to neuropathy and to arterial disease, a vital prognostic factor for healing; infection plays an aggravating role, increasing the risk of amputation. At-risk feet need to be screened for. Ulcer classification is essential, to

  4. Orthopedically Handicapped Children in Ohio Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Victor J.; Todd, Joseph H.

    The historical development of programs for orthopedically handicapped children, class units and hospital classes approved during 1967-68, and the number of therapy units established are presented. Tables give data on program population: enrollment for years 1962-68, percent of handicaps enrolled, and IQ distributions. Aspects of occupational…

  5. Characteristics of highly successful orthopedic surgeons: a survey of orthopedic chairs and editors

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Guy; Hussain, Nasir; Sprague, Sheila; Mehlman, Charles T.; Dogbey, Godwin; Bhandari, Mohit

    2013-01-01

    Background Highly successful orthopedic surgeons are a small group of individuals who exert a large influence on the orthopedic field. However, the characteristics of these leaders have not been well-described or studied. Methods Orthopedic surgeons who are departmental chairs, journal editors, editorial board members of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (British edition), or current or past presidents of major orthopedic associations were invited to complete a survey designed to provide insight into their motivations, academic backgrounds and accomplishments, emotional and physical health, and job satisfaction. Results In all, 152 surgeons completed the questionnaire. We identified several characteristics of highly successful surgeons. Many have contributed prolific numbers of publications and book chapters and obtained considerable funding for research. They were often motivated by a “desire for personal development (interesting challenge, new opportunities),” whereas “relocating to a new institution, financial gain, or lack of alternative candidates” played little to no role in their decisions to take positions of leadership. Most respondents were happy with their specialty choice despite long hours and high levels of stress. Despite challenges to their time, successful orthopedic surgeons made a strong effort to maintain their health; compared with other physicians, they exercise more, are more likely to have a primary care physician and feel better physically. Conclusion Departmental chairs, journal editors and presidents of orthopedic associations cope with considerable demands of clinical, administrative, educational and research duties while maintaining a high level of health, happiness and job satisfaction. PMID:23706848

  6. Image guided Orthopedic Surgery using individual templates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Radermacher; F. Portheine; A. Zimolong; Ch. Eichhorn; H. Staudte; G. Rau

    Individual templates for Orthopedic Surgery provide a precise intraoperative reproduction of the geometries of work on bone planned preoperatively on the base of CT-image data. The general feasibility concerning the adaptation to different surgical applications has already been demonstrated in various in-vitro studies as well as within clinical application1,2,3,4,5. Within the framework of the European IGOS-project a demonstrator for image

  7. Orthopedic gene therapy--lost in translation?

    PubMed

    Evans, C H; Ghivizzani, S C; Robbins, P D

    2012-02-01

    Orthopedic gene therapy has been the topic of considerable research for two decades. The preclinical data are impressive and many orthopedic conditions are well suited to genetic therapies. But there have been few clinical trials and no FDA-approved product exists. This paper examines why this is so. The reasons are multifactorial. Clinical translation is expensive and difficult to fund by traditional academic routes. Because gene therapy is viewed as unsafe and risky, it does not attract major funding from the pharmaceutical industry. Start-up companies are burdened by the complex intellectual property environment and difficulties in dealing with the technology transfer offices of major universities. Successful translation requires close interactions between scientists, clinicians and experts in regulatory and compliance issues. It is difficult to create such a favorable translational environment. Other promising fields of biological therapy have contemplated similar frustrations approximately 20 years after their founding, so there seem to be more general constraints on translation that are difficult to define. Gene therapy has noted some major clinical successes in recent years, and a sense of optimism is returning to the field. We hope that orthopedic applications will benefit collaterally from this upswing and move expeditiously into advanced clinical trials. PMID:21948071

  8. Sensitive Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo

    2007-03-02

    This thesis presents an effective alternative to the traditionalapproach to robotic manipulation. In our approach, manipulation ismainly guided by tactile feedback as opposed to vision. Themotivation comes from the fact ...

  9. Spinal Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edzard Ernst; Elaine Harkness

    2001-01-01

    For many years, spinal manipulation has been a popular form of treatment. Yet the debate about its clinical efficacy continues. The research question remains: Does spinal manipulation convey more than a placebo effect? To summarize the evidence from sham-controlled clinical trials of spinal manipulation as a treatment of various conditions, and to assess the methodological quality of these studies, a

  10. Hunting stand-related injuries in orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Lebus, George F; Krueger, Chad A; Stinner, Daniel J; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-09-01

    Hunting remains an extremely popular recreational activity, with nearly 15 million Americans receiving a hunting license annually. Precautions have helped decrease accidents, but hunting-related injuries remain relatively common. The majority of severe, hunting-related accidents involve either a fall from a hunting platform or an accidental shooting. Both of these mechanisms frequently result in orthopedic injuries, many of which require operative care. Although firearms-associated injury has seemingly decreased, hunting platform falls and their sequelae are increasing. Understanding the mechanisms of these injuries and increasing awareness of them may minimize their morbidity and mortality or help prevent them altogether. PMID:25188622

  11. The efficient, enjoyable, and profitable orthopedic practice.

    PubMed

    Bert, Jack M

    2002-04-01

    For the practicing orthopedist to achieve his personal practice goals of developing an efficient, enjoyable, profitable orthopedic practice, he must commit himself to restructuring his practice environment. This restructuring involves bringing in-house as many ancillary services as the practice can support, creating efficiencies in the clinic and surgical practice, and increasing the size of the group to attempt to exert some control of the payers in the marketplace. By doing so, the orthopedist will improve the quality of his practice, increase his income, and dramatically improve the quality of his life. PMID:12122842

  12. Computer assisted 3D pre-operative planning tool for femur fracture orthopedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, Pavan; Xie, Sheng Quan; Delmas, Patrice; Xu, Wei Liang

    2010-02-01

    Femur shaft fractures are caused by high impact injuries and can affect gait functionality if not treated correctly. Until recently, the pre-operative planning for femur fractures has relied on two-dimensional (2D) radiographs, light boxes, tracing paper, and transparent bone templates. The recent availability of digital radiographic equipment has to some extent improved the workflow for preoperative planning. Nevertheless, imaging is still in 2D X-rays and planning/simulation tools to support fragment manipulation and implant selection are still not available. Direct three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT) are also still restricted to a minority of complex orthopedic procedures. This paper proposes a software tool which allows orthopedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose, plan and simulate femur shaft fracture reduction procedures in 3D. The tool utilizes frontal and lateral 2D radiographs to model the fracture surface, separate a generic bone into the two fractured fragments, identify the pose of each fragment, and automatically customize the shape of the bone. The use of 3D imaging allows full spatial inspection of the fracture providing different views through the manipulation of the interactively reconstructed 3D model, and ultimately better pre-operative planning.

  13. Improving Response Rates among Students with Orthopedic and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Christian P.; Kuntzler, Patrice M.; Cardenas, Shaun; O'Malley, Eileen; Phillips, Carolyn; Singer, Jacqueline; Stoeger, Alex; Kindler, Keith

    2014-01-01

    One challenge teachers of students with orthopedic and multiple disabilities face is providing sufficient time and opportunity to communicate. This challenge is universal across countries, schools, and settings: teachers want students to communicate because communication lies at the core of what makes us human. Yet students with orthopedic and…

  14. CRIGOS: a compact robot for image-guided orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Brandt; Andreas Zimolong; Lionel Carrat; Philippe Merloz; Hans-Walter Staudte; Stéphane Lavallée; Klaus Radermacher; Günther Rau

    1999-01-01

    The CRIGOS (compact robot for image-guided orthopedic surgery) project was set up for the development of a compact surgical robot system for image-guided orthopedic surgery based on user requirements. The modular system comprises a compact parallel robot and a software system for planning of surgical interventions and for supervision of the robotic device. Because it is not sufficient to consider

  15. Robot manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Smith; HENRIK I. CHRISTENSEN

    2009-01-01

    Robot manipulators were the topic of this article. A large number of robot manipulators have been designed over the last half century, and several of these have become standard platforms for R&D efforts. The most widely used is the Unimate PUMA 560 series. Recently, there have been attempts to utilize standard platforms, as exemplified by the learning applied to ground

  16. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  17. Co-Management Arrangements in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-06-01

    A co-management arrangement (CMA) is a contractual relationship between physicians and a hospital that results in a shared-responsibility management structure for a specific service line. In orthopedic surgery, CMAs are becoming increasingly popular as stakeholders in the health care market seek increased value (ie, higher-quality care at lower costs). A CMA can significantly improve the efficiency and the outcomes of a musculoskeletal service line if it adheres to the basic principles of a focus on the patient, evidence-based decision-making, physician leadership, appropriate physician compensation, transparency, reasonable and modifiable goals, and accountability. While the specifics of each CMA will vary, all CMAs have common operational elements that include the arrangement's legal structure, legal compliance, leadership and reporting structure, facilities management, personnel management, clinical data management, financial data management, and quality and effectiveness reporting. PMID:26047000

  18. Enhancing orthopedic implant bioactivity: refining the nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guocheng; Moya, Sergio; Lu, ZuFu; Gregurec, Danijela; Zreiqat, Hala

    2015-04-01

    Advances in nanotechnology open up new possibilities to produce biomimetic surfaces that resemble the cell in vivo growth environment at a nanoscale level. Nanotopographical changes of biomaterials surfaces can positively impact the bioactivity and ossointegration properties of orthopedic and dental implants. This review introduces nanofabrication techniques currently used or those with high potential for use as surface modification of biomedical implants. The interactions of nanotopography with water, proteins and cells are also discussed, as they largely determine the final success of the implants. Due to the well-documented effects of surface chemistry and microtopography on the bioactivity of the implant, we here elaborate on the ability of the nanofabrication techniques to combine the dual (multi) modification of surface chemistry and/or microtopography. PMID:25955126

  19. Orthopedic surgical analyzer for percutaneous vertebroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, Gye Rae; Choi, Hyung Guen; Lim, Do H.; Lee, Sung J.

    2001-05-01

    Since the spine is one of the most complex joint structures in the human body, its surgical treatment requires careful planning and high degree of precision to avoid any unwanted neurological compromises. In addition, comprehensive biomechanical analysis can be very helpful because the spine is subject to a variety of load. In case for the osteoporotic spine in which the structural integrity has been compromised, it brings out the double challenges for a surgeon both clinically and biomechanically. Thus, we have been developing an integrated medical image system that is capable of doing the both. This system is called orthopedic surgical analyzer and it combines the clinical results from image-guided examination and the biomechanical data from finite element analysis. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, this system was applied to percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a surgical procedure that has been recently introduced for the treatment of compression fracture of the osteoporotic vertebrae. It involves puncturing vertebrae and filling with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Recent studies have shown that the procedure could provide structural reinforcement for the osteoporotic vertebrae while being minimally invasive and safe with immediate pain relief. However, treatment failures due to excessive PMMA volume injection have been reported as one of complications. It is believed that control of PMMA volume is one of the most critical factors that can reduce the incidence of complications. Since the degree of the osteoporosis can influence the porosity of the cancellous bone in the vertebral body, the injection volume can be different from patient to patient. In this study, the optimal volume of PMMA injection for vertebroplasty was predicted based on the image analysis of a given patient. In addition, biomechanical effects due to the changes in PMMA volume and bone mineral density (BMD) level were investigated by constructing clinically relevant finite element models. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate the feasibility of our orthopedic surgical analyzer in a case for percutaneous vertebroplasty.

  20. Orthopedic Health: Osteoarthritis— What You Should Know (quiz)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Osteoarthritis— What You Should Know Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... Javascript on. How much do you know about osteoarthritis, its causes, and its therapies? Take this quiz ...

  1. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...impairment if the condition is severe enough to adversely affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability to maneuver in educational or non-educational...

  2. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...impairment if the condition is severe enough to adversely affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability to maneuver in educational or non-educational...

  3. Clinical and economic consequences of bleeding following major orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat Vera-Llonch; May Hagiwara; Gerry Oster

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundMajor orthopedic surgery patients who receive antithrombotics as prophylaxis against VTE may be at higher risk of bleeding. The clinical and economic consequences of this complication may be relevant to therapeutic decision-making.

  4. Orthopedic surgery and its complication in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Anselm

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic immune-complex mediated autoimmune condition which chiefly affects women during their prime year. While the management of the condition falls into the specialty of internal medicine, patients with SLE often present with signs and symptoms pertaining to the territory of orthopedic surgery such as tendon rupture, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteonecrosis, osteoporotic fracture and infection including septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis. While these orthopedic-related conditions are often debilitating in patients with SLE which necessitate management by orthopedic specialists, a high index of suspicion is necessary in diagnosing these conditions early because lupus patients with potentially severe orthopedic conditions such as osteomyelitis frequently present with mild symptoms and subtle signs such as low grade fever, mild hip pain and back tenderness. Additionally, even if these orthopedic conditions can be recognized, complications as a result of surgical procedures are indeed not uncommon. SLE per se and its various associated pharmacological treatments may pose lupus patients to certain surgical risks if they are not properly attended to and managed prior to, during and after surgery. Concerted effort of management and effective communication among orthopedic specialists and rheumatologists play an integral part in enhancing favorable outcome and reduction in postoperative complications for patients with SLE through thorough pre-operative evaluation, careful peri-operative monitoring and treatment, as well as judicious postoperative care. PMID:24653977

  5. Biofilm Disrupting Technology for Orthopedic Implants: What's on the Horizon?

    PubMed

    Connaughton, Alexander; Childs, Abby; Dylewski, Stefan; Sabesan, Vani J

    2014-01-01

    The use of orthopedic implants in joints has revolutionized the treatment of patients with many debilitating chronic musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoarthritis. However, the introduction of foreign material into the human body predisposes the body to infection. The treatment of these infections has become very complicated since the orthopedic implants serve as a surface for multiple species of bacteria to grow at a time into a resistant biofilm layer. This biofilm layer serves as a protectant for the bacterial colonies on the implant making them more resistant and difficult to eradicate when using standard antibiotic treatment. In some cases, the use of antibiotics alone has even made the bacteria more resistant to treatment. Thus, there has been surge in the creation of non-antibiotic anti-biofilm agents to help disrupt the biofilms on the orthopedic implants to help eliminate the infections. In this study, we discuss infections of orthopedic implants in the shoulder then we review the main categories of anti-biofilm agents that have been used for the treatment of infections on orthopedic implants. Then, we introduce some of the newer biofilm disrupting technology that has been studied in the past few years that may advance the treatment options for orthopedic implants in the future. PMID:25705632

  6. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  7. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, Phillip B. (Clairton, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  8. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  9. Orthopedic Injuries Following the East Azerbaijan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Asghar; Ganjpour Sales, Jafar; Tabrizi, Ali; Soleimanpour, Jafar; Mohseni, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Evaluating demographic characteristics, distribution and types of orthopedic injuries following major earthquakes may be helpful in future planning for disasters. Objectives This study aimed to analyze data from trauma patients with extremity injury resulting from the earthquakes of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Patients and Methods Medical records of 686 patients admitted to Shohada hospital, Trauma Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were reviewed. There were 200 patients with extremity injury assessed. Demographic characteristics and patterns of injuries in these patients were evaluated. Results In this study, there were 105 females (52.5%) and 95 males (47.5%), out of which, 6 (3%) patients with associated severe head injuries died. The most common sites of injury were lower extremities (81 patients, 41.5% of total victims) while 32 patients (16%) suffered from both upper and lower extremity injuries. Open Fractures were seen in lower extremities of 26 (13%) patients. Compartment syndrome was observed in 3 (1.5%) patients with lower limb fractures. Also, 42 (21%) patients living in Tabriz were injured while they were running away (falling down the stairs and jumping out of windows). Conclusions Extremity injuries especially open fractures of lower limbs account for the majority of hospitalized victims. Compartment syndrome is one of the main problems that should be addressed. Our study demonstrates that people still need more education regarding earthquakes and the government should direct more attention to this issue. PMID:24350141

  10. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  11. Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris JW; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results — Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation — CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

  12. Characteristics and Trends of Orthopedic Publications between 2000 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Ryu, Mi Sun; Chung, Chin Youb; Choi, In Ho; Kwon, Dae Gyu; Kim, Tae Won; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to investigate the trends of orthopedic publications during the last decade, and to document the country of origin, journal, funding source, and language of contribution using PubMed. Methods Orthopedic articles published between 2000 and 2009 were retrieved from PubMed using the following search terms: "orthopaedic[Affiliation] AND ("2000/1/1"[PDAT]: "2009/12/31"[PDAT])" and "orthopedic[Affiliation] AND ("2000/1/1"[PDAT]: "2009/12/31"[PDAT])." The articles were downloaded in XML file format, which contained the following information: article title, author names, journal names, publication dates, article types, languages, authors' affiliations and funding sources. These information was extracted, sorted, and rearranged using the database's management software. We investigated the annual number of published orthopedic articles worldwide and the annual rate of increase. Furthermore, the country of publication origin, journal, funding source, and language of contribution were also investigated. Results A total of 46,322 orthopedic articles were published and registered in PubMed in the last 10 years. The worldwide number of published orthopedic articles increased from 2,889 in 2000 to 6,909 in 2009, showing an annual increase of 384.6 articles, or an annualized compound rate of 10.2%. The United States ranked highest in the number of published orthopedic articles, followed by Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Republic of Korea. Among the orthopedic articles published worldwide during the last 10 years, 37.9% pertained studies performed in the United States. Fifty-seven point three percent (57.3%) of articles were published in journals established in the United States. Among the published orthopaedic articles, 4,747 articles (10.2%) disclosed financial support by research funds, of which 4,688 (98.8%) articles utilized research funds from the United States. Most articles were published in English (97.2%, 45,030 articles). Conclusions The number of published orthopedic articles has been increasing over the last decade. The number of orthopedic articles, journals publication, and funding sources were dominated by research conducted in the United States, while share and growth of Asian countries including Japan, the Republic of Korea, and China were notable. PMID:21909470

  13. Money Manipulative

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah State University

    2011-06-28

    "This manipulative uses United States currency, both coins and bills. Images of bills include a circled number to identify their value: one, five, ten, twenty, or fifty dollars. The coins (pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, and half dollars) should be easily identifiable, but it may take a little practice." (from NLVM) Tip: There are more instructions on the right side of the Java applet.

  14. Clothing manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeo Igarashi; John F. Hughes

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents interaction techniques (and the underlying implementations) for putting clothes on a 3D character and manipulating them. The user paints freeform marks on the clothes and corresponding marks on the 3D character; the system then puts the clothes around the body so that corresponding marks match. Internally, the system grows the clothes on the body surface around the

  15. Novel nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating for dental and orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huinan; Jiang, Wenping; Malshe, Ajay

    2009-09-01

    A novel hybrid coating process, combining NanoSpray® (built on electrostatic spray coating) technology with microwave sintering process, was developed for synthesizing hydroxyapatite- (HA-) based nanostructured coating with favorable properties for dental and orthopedic implants. Specifically, HA nanoparticles were deposited on commercially pure titanium substrates using NanoSpray technique to produce the HA coating, which was then sintered in a microwave furnace under controlled conditions. The study showed that the use of NanoSpray followed by microwave sintering results in nanoscale HA coating for dental/orthopedic application.

  16. [Orthopedic aspects in interdisciplinary multimodal therapy of chronic back pain].

    PubMed

    Weh, L; Marnitz, U

    2011-06-01

    The effect of interdisciplinary multimodal therapy of chronic back pain is well documented. With elapsing time changing diagnostic focuses, therapeutic strategies and objectives have to be considered. The chronicity leads to a modification of the relevance of structure-related diagnosis and therapy and changes the significance of the classic orthopedic instruments. The requirement of a rational causal therapy in chronic back pain still remains but the focal points shift to the consideration of somatic, psychological and social disposing and supporting factors.The aim of this paper is to reflect the necessary orthopedic expertise in the context of the pathomechanics of chronic back pain and the interdisciplinary teamwork. PMID:21523420

  17. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  18. Orthopedic Health: Healthy Joints for a Lifetime / Keep Your Moving Parts Moving

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Healthy Joints for a Lifetime Past Issues / ... being made every day in the world of orthopedic health and disease treatment —our bones, muscles, tendons, ...

  19. PEEK biomaterials in trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Kurtz; John N. Devine

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, polyaryletherketones (PAEKs) have been increasingly employed as biomaterials for trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants. We have synthesized the extensive polymer science literature as it relates to structure, mechanical properties, and chemical resistance of PAEK biomaterials. With this foundation, one can more readily appreciate why this family of polymers will be inherently strong, inert, and biocompatible. Due to

  20. Survey of 2582 Cases of Acute Orthopedic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Soleymanha, Mehran; Mobayen, Mohammadreza; Asadi, Kamran; Adeli, Alborz; Haghparast-Ghadim-Limudahi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Orthopedic injuries are among the most common causes of mortality, morbidity, hospitalization, and economic burden in societies. Objectives: In this research, we study the prevalence of different types of trauma requiring orthopedic surgery. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 2582 patients with acute orthopedic injuries admitted to the orthopedic emergency ward at the Poursina Hospital (a referral center in Guilan province (northern Iran), during December 2010 through September 2011. Patients were examined and the data collection form was filled for each patient. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 19 and were listed in tables. Results: Of 2582 included cases, 1940 were male and 642 were female, with a mean age of 34.5 years. Most injuries were seen in the 25 to 44 year age group from rural areas. The highest frequency of trauma related to falls. On the other hand, bicycling and shooting had the lowest frequencies. There were 18 cases with limb amputation. Overall, 66.5% of patients had fractures, 5% had soft tissue lacerations, and 10% had dislocations. Conclusions: Identification of risk factors and methods of prevention is one of the most important duties of healthcare systems. Devising plans to minimize these risk factors and familiarizing people with them is prudent. PMID:25717444

  1. Higher Education and Students with Orthopedic Disabilities: A Survey Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    A survey instrument is presented that was used in a national survey of 160 colleges and universities to explore facilities and services to students with orthopedic disabilities. The survey contains 33 items that focus on the following areas: structural accessibility, academic accessibility, dorm-living, and recreational opportunities. The total…

  2. Corrosion behavior of a welded stainless-steel orthopedic implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Reclaru; R Lerf; P.-Y Eschler; J.-M Meyer

    2001-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of combinations of materials used in an orthopedic implant: the spherical part (forged or forged and annealed) constituting the head, the weld (tungsten inert gas (TIG) or electron beam (EB) techniques), and the cylindrical part (annealed) constituting the shaft of a femoral prosthesis – has been investigated. Open-circuit potentials, potentiodynamic curves, Tafel slope, mixed potential theory and

  3. Creative Handwashing Campaign in an Orthopedic Surgical Institution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Gulczynski

    2004-01-01

    ISSUE: The CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene was to be implemented at New England Baptist Hospital (NEBH) and education on the use of alcohol-based handwash throughout the facility.PROJECT: In November 2003, a Hand Hygiene Campaign was presented at NEBH, a large orthopedic surgical institution with approximately 900 employees. The purpose was to educate healthcare workers (HCWs) on the CDC Guideline

  4. Ten strategies to reduce blood loss in orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl L. Nelson; H. Jerrel Fontenot

    1995-01-01

    In any operative procedure, careful surgical dissection with precise hemostasis is one of the most effective ways to minimize surgical blood loss and reduce the need for allogeneic red blood cell transfusion. Several other techniques contribute to reduce blood loss in major orthopedic procedures. These techniques are reviewed and include rehearsal of the procedure and positioning the patient to reduce

  5. Technical Approaches toComputer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Langlotz; Lutz-Peter Nolte

    2004-01-01

    Surgical navigation systems and medical robotic devices are increasingly being used during trauma and orthopedic surgery. This article tries to present the underlying technology of these devices and to describe different approaches to the various aspects of the methods. To structure the variety of available products and presented research modules, a new categorization for these approaches is proposed. Examples of

  6. Strategies for minimizing blood loss in orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D Tobias

    2004-01-01

    Several major orthopedic surgical procedures including hip arthroplasty, femoral osteotomy, and spinal fusion may result in significant blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood transfusions. Due to the heightened awareness of the potential deleterious effects of allogeneic blood product administration, several techniques have been evaluated to determine their efficacy in limiting perioperative blood loss. The following article will discuss

  7. Bioabsorbable Implants: Review of Clinical Experience in Orthopedic Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine G. Ambrose; Thomas Oscar Clanton

    2004-01-01

    Bioabsorbable implants are widely used in orthopedic surgery today and the worldwide market is expanding rapidly. Despite the popularity of these implants, reports of complications continue to appear in the literature. Although the complications rarely have an adverse affect on long-term outcomes, the reports are too numerous to be mere isolated incidents related to one specific implant. Complications have been

  8. Experimental and clinical performance of porous tantalum in orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett Russell Levine; Scott Sporer; Robert A. Poggie; Craig J. Della Valle; Joshua J. Jacobs

    2006-01-01

    Porous tantalum, a new low modulus metal with a characteristic appearance similar to cancellous bone, is currently available for use in several orthopedic applications (hip and knee arthroplasty, spine surgery, and bone graft substitute). The open-cell structure of repeating dodecahedrons is produced via carbon vapor deposition\\/infiltration of commercially pure tantalum onto a vitreous carbon scaffolding. This transition metal maintains several

  9. Block to succeed: the Canadian orthopedic resident research experience

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Robert K.W.; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hutchison, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Background We assessed the current state of Canadian orthopedic resident research and the effect of protected block research time on the numbers of grants obtained, research projects completed, submissions for publication, publications and conference presentations. Methods We administered a 27-item cross-sectional survey containing quantitative and qualitative questions to postgraduate year (PGY)-3 to -5 residents in all 16 Canadian orthopedic training programs in the academic year of Jul. 1, 2005, to Jun. 30, 2006. Results There was an overall response rate of 45% (85/188) from residents in 15 of 16 orthopedic programs: 56% (48/85) of respondents took block research time of at least 1 month (mean 5 mo). The number of months taken was positively correlated with the number of grants obtained (r = 0.28, p = 0.011) and publications (r = 0.23, p = 0.031). Residents who took block time obtained more grants (Fisher exact test 3.54, p = 0.048) and publications (Fisher exact test 6.09, p = 0.012) than those who did not take block time. About 41% (35/85) of respondents said time was the biggest obstacle to research. Conclusion Providing protected block research time during residency allows Canadian orthopedic residents greater research success. PMID:19503662

  10. Mainstreaming Preschoolers: Children with Orthopedic Handicaps. A Guide for Teachers, Parents, and Others Who Work with Orthopedically Handicapped Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieran, Shari Stokes; And Others

    This guide to mainstreaming preschoolers with orthopedic handicaps is one of a series of eight manuals on mainstreaming preschoolers developed by Project Head Start. The guide is addressed to parents, teachers, and other professionals and paraprofessionals. Chapter I presents information on the meaning, benefits and implementation of…

  11. Bromfenac, acetaminophen, and placebo in orthopedic postoperative pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J McQuay; Dawn Carroll; Terry Frankland; Mark Harvey; Andrew Moore; H J McQuay DM

    1990-01-01

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, parallel-group study, oral doses (5, 10 and 25 mg) of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor bromfenac were compared with acetaminophen (1000 mg) and placebo for postoperative orthopedic pain. Analgesic measurements were made by nurse observers by use of standard verbal rating and visual analog scales. For most pain intensity and pain relief measurements, 1000 mg acetaminophen

  12. Intrathecal neostigmine for postoperative analgesia after orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela R. Lauretti; Anita L. Mattos; Marlene P. Reis; Wiliam A. Prado

    1997-01-01

    Study Objective: To establish a dose-response curve for the analgesic effect of intrathecal neostigmine in patients undergoing below knee surgery with spinal anesthesia. To assess adverse effects, principally nausea and vomiting.Design: Randomized, double-blind, prospective study.Setting: Teaching hospital.Patients: 60 ASA physical status I and II premedicated patients undergoing orthopedic surgery (tibial or ankle reconstruction).Interventions: Spinal anesthesia was performed at the sitting

  13. Clinical conundrums and challenges during geriatric orthopedic emergency surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Despite so many advancements and innovations in anesthetic techniques, expectations and challenges have also grown in plenty. Cardiac, pediatric, obstetric and neuro-anesthesia have perfectly developed to fulfill the desired needs of respective patient population. However, geriatric anesthesia has been shown a lesser interest in teaching and clinical practices over the years as compared with other anesthetic sub-specialties. The large growing geriatric population globally is also associated with an increase number of elderly patients presenting for orthopedic emergency surgeries. Orthopedic emergency surgery in geriatric population is not only a daunting clinical challenge but also has numerous socio-behavioral and economic ramifications. Decision making in anesthesia is largely influenced by the presence of co-morbidities, neuro-cognitive functions and the current socio-behavioral status. Pre-anesthetic evaluation and optimization are extremely important for a better surgical outcome but is limited by time constraints during emergency surgery. The current review aims to highlight comprehensively the various clinical, social, behavioral and psychological aspects during pre-anesthetic evaluation associated with emergency orthopedic surgery in geriatric population. PMID:25810963

  14. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1990-01-23

    The patent describes in a manipulator system for use in hazardous environments including a manipulator adapted for reciprocal movement upon a guide device, a transfer platform. It comprises: a bed frame defining a generally horizontal bed projecting outwardly from the manipulator; and frame mounting means securing the bed frame to the manipulator in a generally cantilevered fashion, thereby essentially minimizing the structure necessary to support the platform outwardly of the manipulator while enhancing operator visibility of the platform and the manipulator during use of the manipulator system.

  15. Early Total Care versus Damage Control: Current Concepts in the Orthopedic Care of Polytrauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nicola, Ratto

    2013-01-01

    The management of the polytraumatized orthopedic patient remains a challenging issue. In recent years many efforts have been made to develop rescue techniques and to promote guidelines for the management of these patients. Currently controversies persist between two orthopedic approaches: the Early Total Care and the Damage Control Orthopedics. An overview of the current literature on the orthopedic management of polytrauma patient is provided. Subsequently, femoral shaft fractures, representing extremely common lesions, and pelvic ring injuries, that are associated with a high mortality rate, are analyzed in detail. PMID:24959356

  16. Effect of social media in health care and orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jenine; Robinson, Brooke S; Kugler, Nathan W; Illingworth, Kenneth D; Patel, Pranay; Saleh, Khaled J

    2012-04-01

    With the growth of social media platforms, their potential to affect health care, and orthopedics specifically, continues to expand. We reviewed the literature to obtain all pertinent information on social media in health care and examined its strengths and weaknesses from patient and physician perspectives. Health care professionals have slowly begun to use social media to stay connected with patients. The recent use of networking sites aims to improve education, provide a forum to discuss relevant medical topics, and allow for improved patient care. The use of social media, with the understanding of its limitations, may help promote patient happiness and safety and serve as an educational platform. PMID:22495836

  17. The Early Years of Organized Chiropractic Orthopedics, 1954–1973: A Social History

    PubMed Central

    Green, Bart N.; Johnson, Claire D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the origins and development of the organized chiropractic orthopedics movement in the United States from 1954–1973. Methods: Hand searches of early periodicals were performed and information was organized chronologically to create a timeline. Context for the timeline was provided by extracting pertinent information from audio recordings of interviews. Relevant background information was located using the cumulative index of the journal Chiropractic History and searching the MANTIS database. Historical Features: After World War I, The advent of third party reimbursement for health care created a new environment for health care practitioners. For doctors of chiropractic, this event provided the impetus to begin the postgraduate chiropractic orthopedics program over 50 years ago. In 1954, Alvin A. Hancock, DC and F. Maynard Lipe, DC successfully launched an active orthopedics movement after several earlier attempts failed during the 1940s and early 1950s. The movement generated from the desire to train and certify chiropractors to manage personal injury and workers’ compensation low back injuries. In addition to developing interdisciplinary educational programs, the chiropractic orthopedics group was responsible for producing a research agenda, some of the profession’s early orthopedic-focused research, and for starting the National Council on Chiropractic Orthopedics of the National Chiropractic Association, which later became the American Chiropractic Association Council on Orthopedics. These organizations produced thousands of specialists in chiropractic orthopedics, later known as Diplomates of the American Board of Chiropractic Orthopedists. Conclusion: Several orthopedics interest groups were formed and credentialing processes were created to qualify doctors as recognized chiropractic orthopedics specialists. The popularity of this movement resulted in the inclusion of orthopedics into core chiropractic college curricula and the production of various research studies before the development of the modern science of chiropractic. PMID:19488411

  18. Restructuring the Orthopedic Resident Research Curriculum to Increase Scholarly Activity

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Laura; Bostrom, Mathias; Marx, Robert; Roberts, Timothy; Sculco, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited time and funding are challenges to meeting the research requirement of the orthopedic residency curriculum. Objective We report a reorganized research curriculum that increases research quality and productivity at our academic orthopedic medical center. Methods Changes made to the curriculum, which began in 2006 and were fully phased in by 2008, included research milestones for each training year, a built-in support structure, use of an accredited bio-skills laboratory, mentoring by National Institutes of Health–funded scientists, and protected time to engage in required research and prepare scholarly peer-reviewed publications. Results Total grant funding of resident research increased substantially, from $15,000 in 2007 (8 graduates) to $380,000 in 2010 (9 graduates), and the number of publications also increased. The 12 residents who graduated in 2005 published 16 papers from 2000 to 2006, compared to 84 papers published by the 9 residents who graduated in 2010. The approximate costs per year included $19,000 (0.3 full-time equivalent) for an academic research coordinator; $16,000 for resident travel to professional meetings; reimbursement for 213 faculty hours; and funding for resident salaries while on the research rotation, paid through the general hospital budget. Conclusions The number of grants and peer-reviewed publications increased considerably after our residency research curriculum was reorganized to allow dedicated research time and improved mentoring and infrastructure. PMID:24455016

  19. Angiogenesis and osteogenesis in an orthopedically expanded suture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H. N.; Garetto, L. P.; Potter, R. H.; Katona, T. R.; Lee, C. H.; Roberts, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the angiogenic and the subsequent osteogenic responses during a 96-hour time-course after sutural expansion. Fifty rats were divided into: (1) a control group that received only angiogenic induction through injection of 5 ng/gm recombinant human endothelial cell growth factor (rhECGF); (2) an experimental group that received orthopedic expansion and rhECGF; (3) a sham group that received expansion and sodium chloride (NaCl) injection; and (4) a baseline group that received no expansion or injection. All rats were injected with 3H-thymidine (1.0 microCi/gm) 1 hour before death to label the DNA of S-phase cells. Demineralized sections (4 microm thick) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Angiogenesis and cell migration were analyzed with a previously established cell kinetics model. Analysis of variance was used to test the hypothesis that enhancement of angiogenesis stimulates reestablishment of osteogenic capability. Blood vessel number, area, and endothelial cell-labeled index significantly increased in experimental groups, but no difference was found between control and baseline groups. Labeled-pericyte index and activated pericyte numbers in the experimental group were also higher than in the sham groups. These results show that supplemental rhECGF enhances angiogenesis in expanded sutures but not in nonexpanded sutures. Data also suggest that pericytes are the source of osteoblasts in an orthopedically expanded suture.

  20. Species of Propionibacterium and Propionibacterium acnes phylotypes associated with orthopedic implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Fernandez Sampedro; Kerryl E. Piper; Andrew McDowell; Sheila Patrick; Jayawant N. Mandrekar; Mark S. Rouse; James M. Steckelberg; Robin Patel

    2009-01-01

    Propionibacterium sp. is commonly isolated in association with orthopedic implants, either as a pathogen or a colonizer. Microbial characteristics that indicate whether the isolated species is a likely cause of orthopedic implant infection versus a colonizing agent would be clinically useful. We performed a prospective trial to determine the species of Propionibacterium and the phylotype (IA, IB, II, III) of

  1. The Orthopedically Disabled Child: Psychological Implications with an Individual Basis. July 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…

  2. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Orthopedic Specialist, Classroom Course 10-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX. Health Care Research Div.

    These military-developed curriculum materials for a course for orthopedic specialists are targeted for students from grades 11 through the adult level. The course is designed to provide a working knowledge of the application of casts, traction, and splints to orthopedic patients and the removal of these devices; a working knowledge of assisting in…

  3. Convex hull-based power manipulability analysis of robot manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee-Byoung Choi; Jeha Ryu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the convex hull-based power manipulability analysis of robot manipulators. Since the manipulability analysis is essential for the design and performance evaluation of robot manipulators, many researchers have focused on the well-known manipulability ellipsoid and polytope based on the Jacobian analysis to investigate the corresponding information. In spite of the good reputation of the manipulability ellipsoid, it does

  4. Antibiotic-Loaded Cement in Orthopedic Surgery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bistolfi, Alessandro; Massazza, Giuseppe; Verné, Enrica; Massè, Alessandro; Deledda, Davide; Ferraris, Sara; Miola, Marta; Galetto, Fabrizio; Crova, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Infections in orthopaedic surgery are a serious issue. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement was developed for the treatment of infected joint arthroplasties and for prophylaxes in total joint replacement in selected cases. Despite the widespread use of the antibiotic-loaded bone cement in orthopedics, many issues are still unclear or controversial: bacterial adhesion and antibiotic resistance, modification of mechanical properties which follows the addition of the antibiotic, factors influencing the release of the antibiotic from the cement and the role of the surface, the method for mixing the cement and the antibiotic, the choice and the effectiveness of the antibiotic, the combination of two or more antibiotics, and the toxicity. This review discusses all these topics, focusing on properties, merits, and defects of the antibiotic loaded cement. The final objective is to provide the orthopaedic surgeons clear and concise information for the correct choice of cement in their clinical practice. PMID:24977058

  5. Combining orthopedic special tests to improve diagnosis of shoulder pathology.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Eric J; Cook, Chad; Lewis, Jeremy; Wright, Alexis; Park, Jin-Young

    2015-05-01

    The use of orthopedic special tests (OSTs) to diagnose shoulder pathology via the clinical examination is standard in clinical practice. There is a great deal of research on special tests but much of the research is of a lower quality implying that the metrics from that research, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios, is likely to vary greatly in the hands of different clinicians and in varying practice environments. A way to improve the clinical diagnostic process is to cluster OSTs and to use these clusters to either rule in or out different pathologies. The aim of the article is to review the best OST clusters, examine the methodology by which they were derived, and illustrate, with a case study, the use of these OST clusters to arrive at a pathology-based diagnosis. PMID:25178255

  6. One hundred years of automobile-induced orthopedic injuries.

    PubMed

    Duncan, G J; Meals, R

    1995-02-01

    As the automobile has evolved over its first 100 years, many changes have improved its safety and have resulted in lower fatality rates. To a great extent, physicians have provided the thrust for these improvements. Now, as more people survive automobile accidents, injuries to the musculoskeletal system take on importance as causes of individual disability and social cost. The patterns of automobile-induced orthopedic injuries continue to change. This article reviews the first 100 years of these injury patterns and relates their occurrence to specific automobile design features and oversights. Because any one automobile accident is likely to injury only a few people at most, trends and patterns are much more difficult to ascertain than for mass transit vehicular accidents. For this reason, physician awareness of contemporary injury patterns is the first step toward safer automobile design. PMID:7746751

  7. Applications of finite element simulation in orthopedic and trauma surgery.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Cegoñino, José; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Puértolas, Sergio; López, Enrique; Mateo, Jesús; Gracia, Luis

    2012-04-18

    Research in different areas of orthopedic and trauma surgery requires a methodology that allows both a more economic approach and the ability to reproduce different situations in an easy way. Simulation models have been introduced recently in bioengineering and could become an essential tool in the study of any physiological unity, regardless of its complexity. The main problem in modeling with finite elements simulation is to achieve an accurate reproduction of the anatomy and a perfect correlation of the different structures, in any region of the human body. Authors have developed a mixed technique, joining the use of a three-dimensional laser scanner Roland Picza captured together with computed tomography (CT) and 3D CT images, to achieve a perfect reproduction of the anatomy. Finite element (FE) simulation lets us know the biomechanical changes that take place after hip prostheses or osteosynthesis implantation and biological responses of bone to biomechanical changes. The simulation models are able to predict changes in bone stress distribution around the implant, so allowing preventing future pathologies. The development of a FE model of lumbar spine is another interesting application of the simulation. The model allows research on the lumbar spine, not only in physiological conditions but also simulating different load conditions, to assess the impact on biomechanics. Different degrees of disc degeneration can also be simulated to determine the impact on adjacent anatomical elements. Finally, FE models may be useful to test different fixation systems, i.e., pedicular screws, interbody devices or rigid fixations compared with the dynamic ones. We have also developed models of lumbar spine and hip joint to predict the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures, based on densitometric determinations and specific biomechanical models, including approaches from damage and fracture mechanics. FE simulations also allow us to predict the behavior of orthopedic splints applied to the correction of deformities, providing the recovering force-displacement and angle-moment curves that characterize the mechanical behavior of the splint in the overall range of movement. PMID:22550621

  8. Manipulability of Robotic Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuneo Yoshikawa

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the manipulating ability of robotic mechanisms in positioning and orienting end-effectors and proposes a measure of manipulability. Some properties of this measure are obtained, the best postures of various types of manipulators are given, and a four-degree-of-freedom finger is considered from the viewpoint of the measure. The pos tures somewhat resemble those of human arms and fingers.

  9. Rethinking Concrete Manipulatives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Douglas Clements

    1996-01-01

    This article provides information from research on the benefits and cautions associated with using manipulatives to teach children. The authors urge that much care be used in assessing whether the learner regards the activity with concrete objects in the same context as was intended by the instructor. The article looks at the comparative advantages of computer manipulatives and gives advice on the selection and use of both physical and computer manipulatives. An extensive reference list is included.

  10. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, James C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hoover, Mark A. (Idaho Falls, ID); May, Kay W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ross, Maurice J. (Pocatello, ID)

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  11. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1988-10-12

    This invention is comprised of a transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed fame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control. 5 figs.

  12. Clothing Manipulation Takeo Igarashi

    E-print Network

    Igarashi, Takeo

    Clothing Manipulation Takeo Igarashi Computer Science Department, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo techniques (and the underlying implementations) for putting clothes on a 3D character and manipulating them. The user paints freeform marks on the clothes and corresponding marks on the 3D character; the system

  13. Improved performance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for orthopedic applications 

    E-print Network

    Plumlee, Kevin Grant

    2009-05-15

    A considerable number of total-joint replacement devices used in orthopedic medicine involve articulation between a metallic alloy and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Though this polymer has excellent wear resistance, the wear...

  14. Rational design of nanofiber scaffolds for orthopedic tissue repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing; Xie, Jingwei; Jiang, Jiang; Shuler, Franklin D; Bartlett, David E

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews recent significant advances in the design of nanofiber scaffolds for orthopedic tissue repair and regeneration. It begins with a brief introduction on the limitations of current approaches for orthopedic tissue repair and regeneration. It then illustrates that rationally designed scaffolds made up of electrospun nanofibers could be a promising solution to overcome the problems that current approaches encounter. The article also discusses the intriguing properties of electrospun nanofibers, including control of composition, structures, orders, alignments and mechanical properties, use as carriers for topical drug and/or gene sustained delivery, and serving as substrates for the regulation of cell behaviors, which could benefit musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration. It further highlights a few of the many recent applications of electrospun nanofiber scaffolds in repairing and regenerating various orthopedic tissues. Finally, the article concludes with perspectives on the challenges and future directions for better design, fabrication and utilization of nanofiber scaffolds for orthopedic tissue engineering. PMID:23987110

  15. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Shannon M.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  16. Nanophase hydroxyapatite coatings for dental and orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Michiko

    In order to improve dental and orthopedic implant performance, the objective of this study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) powders to coat metals (specifically, titanium and tantalum). Precipitated HA powders were either sintered in order to produce UltraCaP HA (or microcrystalline size HA) or were treated hydrothermally to produce nanocrystalline HA. Some of the UltraCaP and nanocrystalline HA powders were doped with yttrium (Y) since previous in vitro studies demonstrated that Y-doped HA in bulk improved osteoblast (or bone-forming cell) function over undoped HA. The nanocrystalline HA powders were also mixed with nanophase titania powders because previous studies demonstrated that titania/HA composite coatings increased coating adhesive strength and HA nucleation. These powders were then deposited onto titanium by a novel room-temperature process, called IonTiteT(TM). The results demonstrated that the chemical properties and crystallite size of the original HA powders were maintained in the coatings. More importantly, in vitro studies showed increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion on the single phase nanocrystalline HA and nano-titania/HA coatings compared to traditionally used plasma-sprayed HA coatings and uncoated metals. Results further demonstrated greater amounts of calcium deposition by osteoblasts cultured on nanocrystalline HA coatings compared to UltraCaP coatings and conventionally used plasma-sprayed HA coatings. To elucidate mechanisms that influenced osteoblast functions on the HA coatings, the amount of proteins (fibronectin and vitronectin) onto the HA powders and the adsorbed fibronectin conformation were investigated. Exposure of cell integrin binding domains (in fibronectin III10 segments) was greater in fibronectin adsorbed onto 1.2 mole% Y-doped UltraCaP HA coatings compared to nanocrystalline HA coatings tested. However, 1.2 mole% Y-doped UltraCaP HA coatings did not increase mineralization by osteoblasts compared to the nanocrystalline HA coatings. These results suggested that the availability of integrin binding domains in fibronectin did not correlate to enhanced mineralization by osteoblasts on nanocrystalline HA coatings. Lastly, undoped nanocrystalline HA coatings were studied using a well-established rat calvaria in vivo. Histological analysis showed that nanocrystalline HA coated on tantalum scaffolds increased bone and fibrous tissue infiltration into the scaffolds while uncoated and UltraCaP HA coated scaffolds did not after as early as 6 weeks. In summary, these results encourage further studies on nanocrystalline IonTiteTM HA coatings on various metals for orthopedic and dental applications.

  17. Remodeling and repair of orthopedic tissue: role of mechanical loading and biologics.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Spencer E; Lee, Chang Soo; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2010-11-01

    Orthopedic tissues respond to mechanical loads to maintain normal homeostasis and in response to injury. As the body of work on this continues to grow, it is important to synthesize the recent studies across tissues and specialties with one another and with past studies. Hence, this review highlights the knowledge gained since 2000, with only few exceptions, concerning the effects of mechanical load and biologics on remodeling and repair of orthopedic tissue. PMID:21623418

  18. II Italian intersociety consensus statement on antithrombotic prophylaxis in orthopedics and traumatology.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, G; Danelli, G; Randelli, F; Romanini, E; Biggi, F; Laurora, N R; Imberti, D; Palaretti, G; Prisco, D

    2013-07-01

    Pharmacological prophylaxis for preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide established procedure in hip and knee replacement surgery, as well as in the treatment of femoral neck fractures, but few data exist to its regard in other fields of orthopedics and traumatology. Indeed, no guidelines or recommendations are available in the literature, except for a limited number of weak statements about knee arthroscopy and lower limb fractures. The present paper represents the first multidisciplinary effort to provide suggestions on the prophylaxis of VTE in the remaining fields of orthopedic surgery (minor orthopedic surgery and orthopedic trauma). The Italian Society for Studies on Hemostasis and Thrombosis (SISET), the Italian Society of Orthopedics and Traumatology (SIOT) and the association of Orthopedic Traumatology of Italian Hospitals (OTODI) together with the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) and the Italian Society of General Medicine (SIMG) have set down quick and easy suggestions for VTE prophylaxis in a number of surgical conditions for which only scarce evidence is available. This inter-society consensus statement aims at simplifying the approach to VTE prophylaxis in the single patient with the goal of improving its clinical application. PMID:23511358

  19. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Termsuksawad, Preecha

    2014-08-01

    Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH4F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO2 nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH4F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (-4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO2 nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO2 nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO2 nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that growing on titanium plate surface.

  20. Observation of orthopedic force distribution produced by maxillary orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Chaconas, S J; Caputo, A A

    1982-12-01

    A three-dimensional anatomic model was duplicated from a human skull, using different birefringent materials to simulate the various craniofacial structures. Individual bones of the midface were fabricated separately and then articulated in their correct sutural relation. One removable and four fixed maxillary appliances were used. The fixed appliances included the Haas, Minne-expander, Hyrax, and quad helix devices. The removable appliance incorporated an expansion screw in a full acrylic palate with appropriate retentive clasps. After the insertion of each appliance, intraoral forces were produced by incremental activation. The model was examined and photographed in the field of a transmission polariscope. Each appliance used produced a different range of load-activation characteristics. This was reflected by the differences in the stresses transmitted through the bones of the craniofacial complex and the effect on the various sutures. Stresses produced by the fixed appliances were concentrated in the anterior region of the palate, progressing posteriorly toward the palatine bone. The Haas, Minne-expander, and Hyrax appliances produced stresses that radiated superiorly along the perpendicular plates of the palatine bone to deeper anatomic structures, such as the lacrimal, nasal, and malar bones, as well as the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid. Similar stress characteristics were seen with the removable appliance. However, increased activation decreased retention of the appliance, thereby lessening the stress. The quad helix appliance proved to be the least effective orthopedic device. Although the effects of palate separation were seen with increased activation, this appliance primarily affected the posterior teeth. PMID:6760725

  1. Why medical students choose orthopedic surgery as a specialty?

    PubMed Central

    Erraji, Moncef; Kharraji, Abdessamad; Abbasi, Najib; Najib, Abdeljawad; Yacoubi, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    Before the crisis announced the Moroccan surgery, the objectives of this study were to analyze the choice of specialties newly appointed to the internal review and the guidance of medical students and to determine the factors influencing this choice. Data on specialty choice students were analyzed and a questionnaire was offered to students of Morocco at the beginning of academic year 2013-20014 The form consisted of questions on the year of study. sex, professional guidelines and reasons for choice. candidates were male, the average age of our residents was 28 years. We also noted the importance of the passage as well as external service trauma. Care provided to patients, lifestyle and income reported by 85% of respondents to be the most important factors to pursue orthopedics as a career. The TR-Orth is now a specialty that responds to a positive choice. The choice of TR-Orth by students at the end of medical school curriculum is reinforced by teaching and practicing the specialty during the internship. The overall training is unsatisfactory overall. Students would deepen in some areas. This study confirms that there is currently a shift in trauma surgery, mostly induced by an a priori negative for particular workloads. PMID:26185556

  2. Spin-wave manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-10-01

    The directional manipulation of spin waves, a long-awaited technique in spintronics, has now been realized by shaping a light pulse. Takuya Satoh from the University of Tokyo talked to Nature Photonics about the technique.

  3. Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

    2008-12-10

    This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

  4. Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) grafting and vitamin E blending for high wear resistance and oxidative stability of orthopedic bearings.

    PubMed

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Yamane, Shihori; Watanabe, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The ultimate goal in manipulating the surface and substrate of a cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner is to obtain not only high wear resistance but also high oxidative stability and high-mechanical properties for life-long orthopedic bearings. We have demonstrated the fabrication of highly hydrophilic and lubricious poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) grafting layer onto the antioxidant vitamin E-blended CLPE (HD-CLPE(VE)) surface. The PMPC grafting layer with a thickness of 100 nm was successfully fabricated on the vitamin E-blended CLPE surface by using photoinduced-radical graft polymerization. Since PMPC has a highly hydrophilic nature, the water wettability and lubricity of the PMPC-grafted CLPE and HD-CLPE(VE) surfaces were greater than that of the untreated CLPE surface. The PMPC grafting contributed significantly to wear reduction in a hip-joint simulator wear test. Despite high-dose gamma-ray irradiation for cross-linking and further UV irradiation for PMPC grafting, the substrate modified by vitamin E blending maintained high-oxidative stability because vitamin E is an extremely efficient radical scavenger. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the substrate remained almost unchanged even after PMPC grafting or vitamin E blending, or both PMPC grafting and vitamin E blending. In conclusion, the PMPC-grafted HD-CLPE(VE) provided simultaneously high-wear resistance, oxidative stability, and mechanical properties. PMID:24836953

  5. R + C Factors and Sacro Occipital Technique Orthopedic Blocking: a pilot study using pre and post VAS assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of a systematic or predictive relationship between distant vertebral levels distinct from accumulative functional compensatory mechanisms, such as in scoliosis, has been perpetuated within chiropractic technique systems based on clinical observation and experience. This study seeks to investigate this relationship between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. Methods: Patients (experimental group n=26 and control group n=12) were selected from the patient base of one office, and were limited to patients that had sensitivity at specific cervical reflex points. Using a pre and post outcome measurement and sacro occipital technique R + C protocols, the related lumbar vertebra was adjusted in the direction indicated by the cervical vertebral sensitivity. Results: Statistical analysis revealed there was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-VAS measurements and found that the notable difference in mean change in VAS scores were statistically significantly different between the experimental and control groups (p < .001). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that further research into cervical and lumbar vertebra interrelationships, and the efficacy of orthopedic block treatment, may be warranted. Further studies are needed to confirm whether a causal relationship exists between lumbar manipulation and decreased cervical spine sensitivity. PMID:26136605

  6. Orthopedic manifestations in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bianca; de Camargo Pinto, Louise Lapagesse; Giugliani, Roberto; Wraith, James Edmond; Guffon, Nathalie; Eich, Elke; Beck, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a rare, inherited disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. As a result of this deficiency, glycosaminoglycans accumulate in lysosomes in many tissues, leading to progressive multisystemic disease. The cardiopulmonary and neurological problems associated with MPS II have received considerable attention. Orthopedic manifestations are common but not as well characterized. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and severity of orthopedic manifestations of MPS II and to determine the relationship of these signs and symptoms with cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement. Orthopedic manifestations of MPS II were studied using cross-sectional data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS). The HOS is a global, physician-led, multicenter observational database that collects information on the natural history of MPS II and the long-term safety and effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy. As of January 2009, the HOS contained baseline data on joint range of motion in 124 males with MPS II. In total, 79% of patients had skeletal manifestations (median onset, 3.5 years) and 25% had abnormal gait (median onset, 5.4 years). Joint range of motion was restricted for all joints assessed (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle). Extension was the most severely affected movement: the exception to this was the shoulder. Surgery for orthopedic problems was rare. The presence of orthopedic manifestations was associated with the presence of central nervous system and pulmonary involvement, but not so clearly with cardiovascular involvement. Orthopedic interventions should be considered on an individual-patient basis. Although some orthopedic manifestations associated with MPS II may be managed routinely, a good knowledge of other concurrent organ system involvement is essential. A multidisciplinary approach is required. PMID:21808707

  7. Micro manipulator motion control to counteract macro manipulator structural vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Evans, M.S.; Bennett, D.W.

    1995-02-01

    Inertial force damping control by micro manipulator modulation is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a micro/macro manipulator system. The proposed controller, developed using classical control theory, is added to the existing control system. The proposed controller uses real-time measurements of macro manipulator flexibility to adjust the motion of the micro manipulator to counteract structural vibrations. Experimental studies using an existing micro/macro flexible link manipulator testbed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to suppression of vibrations in the macro/micro manipulator system using micro-manipulator-based inertial active damping control.

  8. Machining of a bioactive nanocomposite orthopedic fixation device.

    PubMed

    Sparnell, Amie; Aniket; El-Ghannam, Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    Bioactive ceramics bond to bone and enhance bone formation. However, they have poor mechanical properties which restrict their machinability as well as their application as load bearing implants. The goal of this study was to machine bioactive fixation screws using a silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC50). The effect of compact pressure, holding time, and thermal treatment on the microstructure, machinability, and mechanical properties of SCPC50 cylinders were investigated. Samples prepared by powder metallurgy technique at compact pressure range of 100-300 MPa and treated at 900°C/1 h scored a poor machinability rating of (1/5) due to the significant formation of amorphous silicate phase at the grain boundaries. On the other hand, lowering of compact pressure and sintering temperature to 30 MPa/3 h and 700°C/2 h, respectively, minimized the formation of the amorphous phase and raised the machinability rating to (5/5). The modulus of elasticity and ultimate strength of machinable SCPC50 were 10.8 ± 2.0 GPa and 72.8 ± 22.8 MPa, respectively, which are comparable to the corresponding values for adult human cortical bone. qRT-PCR analyses showed that bone cells attached to SCPC50 significantly upregulated osteocalcin mRNA expression as compared to the cells on Ti-6Al-4V. Moreover, cells attached to SCPC50 produced mineralized bone-like tissue within 8 days. On the other hand, cells attached to Ti-6Al-4V failed to produce bone mineral under the same experimental conditions. Results of the study suggest that machinable SCPC50 has the potential to serve as an attractive new material for orthopedic fixation devices. PMID:22692822

  9. Corrosion behavior of a welded stainless-steel orthopedic implant.

    PubMed

    Reclaru, L; Lerf, R; Eschler, P Y; Meyer, J M

    2001-02-01

    The corrosion behavior of combinations of materials used in an orthopedic implant: the spherical part (forged or forged and annealed) constituting the head, the weld (tungsten inert gas (TIG) or electron beam (EB) techniques), and the cylindrical part (annealed) constituting the shaft of a femoral prosthesis - has been investigated. Open-circuit potentials, potentiodynamic curves, Tafel slope, mixed potential theory and susceptibility to intergranular attack are electrochemical and chemical procedures selected for this work. Electrochemical measurements using a microelectrode have been made in the following zones: spherical part, cylindrical part, weld, and weld/sphere, and weld/shaft interfaces. To detect intergranular attack, the Strauss test has been used. At the interfaces, corrosion currents, measured (Icorr) and predicted (Icouple) are low, in the order of the pico- to nanoampere. The electrochemical behavior of the electron beam (EB) weld is better than that of the tungsten inert gas (TIG). Welds at interfaces can behave either anodically or cathodically. It is better if welds, which are sensitive parts of the femoral prosthesis, behave cathodically. In this way, the risk of starting localized corrosion (pitting, crevice or intergranular corrosion) from a galvanic couple, remains low. From this point of view, the sample with the EB weld offers the best behavior. All the other samples containing a TIG type of weld exhibit a less favorable behavior. The mechanical treatments (forged, and forged and annealed) of the steel sphere did not show any difference in the corrosion behavior. No intergranular corrosion has been observed at the weld/steel interface for unsensitized samples. With sensitized samples, however, a TIG sample has exhibited some localized intergranular corrosion at a distance of 500 microm along the weld/stainless steel (sphere) interface. PMID:11197502

  10. [Dental orthopedic service for retirees from MD RF in medical institutions of state and municipal system of healthcare].

    PubMed

    Malykh, A B; Grebnev, G A; Butsenko, S A; Pastukhov, A G

    2012-04-01

    Financial feasibility study of dental orthopedic service for retirees of Ministry of Defence is analyzed, suggestions about the organization of dental orthopedic service for contingent in medical institution of state and municipal system of healthcare. Information about the number of retirees, index of needs in dental orthopedic service which was 40,29%, information about 2806 prosthodontics oders for retirees in military medical institution, data about the average price of production of dental in different subjects of Russian Federation is the basis of the given research. Algorithm of dental orthopedic service for retirees by stomatologies is suggested. PMID:22712242

  11. ROBOTICS -INTRODUCTION t Manipulator Arms

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    ROBOTICS - INTRODUCTION t Manipulator Arms The common industrial manipulator is often referred to as a robot arm, with links and joints described in similar terms. Manipulators which emulate). A representative articulated manipulators is the ASEA robot. ASEA robot performing a mechanical assembly task

  12. Orthopedic Management of Patients with Pompe Disease: A Retrospective Case Series of 8 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Forst, Jürgen; Forst, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Pompe disease (PD), a lysosomal storage disease as well as a neuromuscular disorder, is a rare disease marked by progressive muscle weakness. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in recent years allowed longer survival but brought new problems to the treatment of PD with increasing affection of the musculoskeletal system, particularly with a significantly higher prevalence of scoliosis. The present paper deals with the orthopedic problems in patients with PD and is the first to describe surgical treatment of scoliosis in PD patients. Patients and Methods. The orthopedic problems and treatment of eight patients with PD from orthopedic consultation for neuromuscular disorders are retrospectively presented. We analyzed the problems of scoliosis, hip dysplasia, feet deformities, and contractures and presented the orthopedic treatment options. Results. Six of our eight PD patients had scoliosis and two young patients were treated by operative spine stabilization with benefits for posture and sitting ability. Hip joint surgery, operative contracture release, and feet deformity correction were performed with benefits for independent activity. Conclusion. Orthopedic management gains importance due to extended survival and musculoskeletal involvement under ERT. Surgical treatment is indicated in distinct cases. Further investigation is required to evidence the effect of surgical spine stabilization in PD. PMID:24523658

  13. Manipulator comparative testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maida, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program compared performance of selected manipulator systems under typical remote handling conditions. The site of testing was the Remote Operations and Maintenance Demonstration Facility operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Three experiment examined differences among manipulator systems from the US and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, Central Research Laboratories' (CRL's) Model M-2, and GCA PaR systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (a) the BILARM in master-slave mode without force reflection; (b) the BILARM in master-slave mode with force reflection; (c) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode without force reflection; (d) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode with force reflection; (e) the BILARM with switchbox controls; and (f) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments also examined differences between master-slave systems with and without force reflections, and differences between master-slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems.

  14. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions).

  15. Orthopedic injuries in U.S. casualties treated on a hospital ship during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Enad, Jerome G; Headrick, Jeff D

    2008-10-01

    From March to May 2003, the USNS Comfort was deployed to the Persian Gulf in support of combat operations for Operation Iraqi Freedom. The onboard orthopedic service treated 58 U.S. casualties during that period. Eighty-seven percent of the injuries were to the appendicular skeleton. Twenty-four percent were battle injuries, and 72% were nonbattle injuries. Patients with battle injuries tended to be younger and required more orthopedic operations than did patients with nonbattle injuries. Moreover, all patients with battle injuries were evacuated to higher echelons for further care, whereas 19% of patients with nonbattle injuries returned to duty in the short term. Complications were few, with no infections, amputations, or deaths. A descriptive review of the types of injuries, orthopedic care, and eventual disposition is presented. PMID:19160621

  16. [How many generalists and how many specialists does orthopedics and traumatology need?].

    PubMed

    Achatz, G; Perl, M; Stange, R; Mutschler, M; Jarvers, J S; Münzberg, M

    2013-01-01

    The training in orthopedic and trauma surgery has changed significantly with the introduction of the new residency program. The contents taught have already been reduced in breadth and the current developments in the outpatient and particularly in the clinical landscape also contribute to increasing specialization. This trend favors structures in which comprehensive medical care for the population in Germany in orthopedic and trauma surgery appears to be endangered and in which the future efforts for e.g. polytraumatised patients need to be questioned. The Young Forum of the German Society for Orthopedics and Traumatology actively accompanies a discussion about the necessity and value of generalists to ensure the level of care in Germany in addition to the specialists. PMID:23325158

  17. Alternative Procedures for Reducing Allogeneic Blood Transfusion in Elective Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kleinert, Kathrin; Theusinger, Oliver M.; Nuernberg, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Perioperative blood loss is a major problem in elective orthopedic surgery. Allogeneic transfusion is the standard treatment for perioperative blood loss resulting in low postoperative hemoglobin, but it has a number of well-recognized risks, complications, and costs. Alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusion include preoperative autologous donation and intraoperative salvage with postoperative autotransfusion. Orthopedic surgeons are often unaware of the different pre- and intraoperative possibilities of reducing blood loss and leave the management of coagulation and use of blood products completely to the anesthesiologists. The goal of this review is to compare alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusion from an orthopedic and anesthesia point of view focusing on estimated costs and acceptance by both parties. PMID:21886535

  18. Model based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

  19. The TROJAN Project: Creating a Customized International Orthopedic Training Program for Junior Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Kalraiya, Ashish; Buddhdev, Pranai

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems account for a vast proportion of presentations encountered by doctors globally, with figures ranging from 15-36%. However, the time medical schools allocate to learning orthopedics is by no means proportional to this. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing an international orthopedic teaching program tailored to the specific knowledge and skills required by junior doctors in different countries. This prospective study asked fifty junior doctors, who had recently completed an orthopedics job, what three orthopedic teaching topics taught retrospectively would have benefitted their clinical practice. The most requested topics were used to design educational workshops for junior doctors and these consequently comprised the TROJAN (Teaching Requested by Orthopaedic Juniors And Novices) training program. Data was collected from twenty-five junior doctors in KwaZulu-Natale State, South Africa, and twenty-five in London, UK. It is therefore in these two countries that the TROJAN program was subsequently made available. Participants who selected topics were within two years of graduating medical school and had worked an orthopedic or Accident and Emergency job within the last year. 49% of topics chosen by SA doctors were practical skills such as wrist and ankle fracture reduction techniques, and management of open fractures. The most requested topic by UK doctors (11 out of 25) was management of neck of femur fractures. This is rationalized by the fact South African doctors require more hands-on responsibility in their daily practice whereas in the UK greater emphasis is placed on optimizing patients for theatre and making sound management plans. TROJAN currently develops orthopedic skills and knowledge in junior doctors in South Africa and United Kingdom with teaching customized based upon location. Feedback has been exceptionally positive with every candidate thus far rating the usefulness of TROJAN as the highest option, very useful. PMID:25874064

  20. Thirty-Day Readmission Rates in Orthopedics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bernatz, James T.; Tueting, Jonathan L.; Anderson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospital readmission rates are being used to evaluate performance. A survey of the present rates is needed before policies can be developed to decrease incidence of readmission. We address three questions: What is the present rate of 30-day readmission in orthopedics? How do factors such as orthopedic specialty, data source, patient insurance, and time of data collection affect the 30-day readmission rate? What are the causes and risk factors for 30-day readmissions? Methods/Findings A review was first registered with Prospero (CRD42014010293, 6/17/2014) and a meta-analysis was performed to assess the current 30-day readmission rate in orthopedics. Studies published after 2006 were retrieved, and 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. The 30-day readmission rate was extrapolated from each study along with the orthopedic subspecialty, data source, patient insurance, time of collection, patient demographics, and cause of readmission. A sensitivity analysis was completed on the stratified groups. The overall 30-day readmission rate across all orthopedics was 5.4 percent (95% confidence interval: 4.8,6.0). There was no significant difference between subspecialties. Studies that retrieved data from a multicenter registry had a lower 30-day readmission rate than those reporting data from a single hospital or a large national database. Patient populations that only included Medicare patients had a higher 30-day readmission rate than populations of all insurance. The 30-day readmission rate has decreased in the past ten years. Age, length of stay, discharge to skilled nursing facility, increased BMI, ASA score greater than 3, and Medicare/Medicaid insurance showed statistically positive correlation with increased 30-day readmissions in greater than 75 percent of studies. Surgical site complications accounted for 46 percent of 30-day readmissions. Conclusions This meta-analysis shows the present rate of 30-day readmissions in orthopedics. Demonstrable heterogeneity between studies underlines the importance of uniform collection and reporting of readmission rates for hospital evaluation and reimbursement. PMID:25884444

  1. Development of an orthopedic load cell for stress analysis of a canine tibia 

    E-print Network

    Green, Bryan Wade

    1988-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN ORTHOPEDIC LOAD CELL FOR STRESS ANALYSIS OF A CANINE TIBIA A Thesis by BRYAN WADE GREEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Civil Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF AN ORTHOPEDIC LOAD CELL FOR STRESS ANALYSIS OF A CANINE TIBIA A Thesis by Bryan Wade Green Approved as to style and content by: Y:- Z James K. Nels'on, Jr. / (Chair committee...

  2. Kinematically redundant robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baillieul, J.; Hollerbach, J.; Brockett, R.; Martin, D.; Percy, R.; Thomas, R.

    1987-01-01

    Research on control, design and programming of kinematically redundant robot manipulators (KRRM) is discussed. These are devices in which there are more joint space degrees of freedom than are required to achieve every position and orientation of the end-effector necessary for a given task in a given workspace. The technological developments described here deal with: kinematic programming techniques for automatically generating joint-space trajectories to execute prescribed tasks; control of redundant manipulators to optimize dynamic criteria (e.g., applications of forces and moments at the end-effector that optimally distribute the loading of actuators); and design of KRRMs to optimize functionality in congested work environments or to achieve other goals unattainable with non-redundant manipulators. Kinematic programming techniques are discussed, which show that some pseudo-inverse techniques that have been proposed for redundant manipulator control fail to achieve the goals of avoiding kinematic singularities and also generating closed joint-space paths corresponding to close paths of the end effector in the workspace. The extended Jacobian is proposed as an alternative to pseudo-inverse techniques.

  3. Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon; Horst D

    2003-01-01

    ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a

  4. Clothing Manipulation Takeo Igarashi *

    E-print Network

    Igarashi, Takeo

    Clothing Manipulation Takeo Igarashi * The University of Tokyo John F. Hughes Brown University 1 Introduction Putting clothes on a 3D character is often a tedious, time- consuming task. A typical approach is to place parts of the clothes around the target body as rigid thin plates and use a simulation to enforce

  5. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  6. MANIPULATING MATRIX INEQUALITIES AUTOMATICALLY

    E-print Network

    Helton, J. William

    systems problems convert directly into matrix inequalities. Matrix inequalities take the form of a listMANIPULATING MATRIX INEQUALITIES AUTOMATICALLY J. WILLIAM HELTON #3; Abstract. Matrix inequalities problem presents and converting these to a nice form, or at least checking if they already have or do

  7. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  8. Preliminary Study of a Pendulum in Vivo Electromechanical Generator for Orthopedic Implants

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is to be autonomous. Over the past few years, autonomy o generator, orthopedics. I. INTRODUCTION Each year, 250 thousand peoples in the USA undergo total knee and traumatic than first-time knee replacement. Such surgery accounts for over 8% of all total knee replacement

  9. A Prototype Robotic Arm for Use by Severely Orthopedically Handicapped Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Richard

    This 18-month pilot project, which ran from October 1, 1987 to March 31, 1989, developed a prototype robotic arm for educational use by students with severe orthopedic disabilities in the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The developmental effort was intended first, to provide direct access to currently available instructional materials and, second,…

  10. Attribute Dimensions that Distinguish Master and Novice Physical Therapy Clinicians in Orthopedic Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gall M Jensen; Katherine F Shepard; Jan Gwyer; Laurlta M Hack

    1992-01-01

    The putpose of this qualitative case study was to further investigate the work of muster and nouice clinicians within the practice setting. The sample consisted of three master clinicians and three novice clinicians practicing in orthopedic outpa- tient physical therapy settings in three dz&-ent regions of the United States. Data collection by three researchers included observation of each clinician treating

  11. Podiatric surgery and orthopedic surgery: a customer satisfaction survey of general practitioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H Helm; K Ravi

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted a questionnaire survey of all general practitioners in the Doncaster area to ascertain their opinions about the relative merits of orthopedic and podiatric surgery in respect of quality of service and patient satisfaction. Eighty-three percent of 154 general practitioners replied. The great majority of general practitioners stated their preference was to refer patients with foot problems to

  12. Involvement of presurgical pain in preemptive analgesia for orthopedic surgery: a randomized double blind study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumihisa Aida; Hideyoshi Fujihara; Kiichiro Taga; Satoru Fukuda; Koki Shimoji

    2000-01-01

    Preemptive analgesia (PA) is effective in animal models but its clinical effectiveness remains controversial. We examined the effect of preexisting pain on PA. Subjects were recruited from patients needing orthopedic surgery. Some had presurgical pain (fracture surgery and arthritic surgery), while others had no presurgical pain (removal surgery for a tumor, nail or plate). Epidural morphine or a saline control

  13. Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichel, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

  14. Perioperative complications in corrective facial orthopedic surgery: A 5-year retrospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faustino Acebal-Bianco; Philippe L. P. J. Vuylsteke; Maurice Y. Mommaerts; Calix A. S. De Clercq

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Frequency and severity of complications have a profound impact on referral patterns for facial orthopedic surgery. Therefore, a retrospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence of such problems in a large series of patients, with the intent to use these data to make possible changes in the perioperative protocol used in our clinic. Patients and Methods: The files

  15. Robust registration for computer-integrated orthopedic surgery: Laboratory validation and clinical experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ma; R. E. Ellis

    2003-01-01

    In order to provide navigational guidance during computer-integrated orthopedic surgery, the anatomy of the patient must first be registered to a medical image or model. A common registration approach is to digitize points from the surface of a bone and then find the rigid transformation that best matches the points to the model by constrained optimization. Many optimization criteria, including

  16. Spotlights: A Robust Method for Surface-Based Registration in Orthopedic Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burton Ma; Randy E. Ellis; David J. Fleet

    1999-01-01

    Fast, simple and effective registration methods are needed in a wide variety of computer-assisted surgical procedures in which readily locatable anatomical landmarks are not available. Orthopedic procedures about the knee, in particular, are adversely aff ected if the registration accuracy exceeds about 1 mm in translation or about in rotation, and the proximal tibia and distal femur are typi -

  17. A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

    2009-01-01

    The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes. PMID:19662153

  18. Implantable 9Channel Telemetry System for In Vivo Load Measurements With Orthopedic Implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedmar Graichen; Rüdiger Arnold; Antonius Rohlmann; Georg Bergmann

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the loads to which orthopedic implants are subjected is a fundamental prerequisite for their optimal biomechanical design, long-term success, and improved rehabilitation outcomes. In vivo load measurements are more accurate than those obtained using mathematical musculoskeletal models. An inductively powered integrated circuit inside the implant measures six load components as well as the temperature and supplied voltage. This

  19. Late orthopedic effects in children with Wilms' tumor treated with abdominal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rate, W.R.; Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; D'Angio, G.J. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1984, 31 children with biopsy-proven Wilms' tumor received nephrectomy, chemotherapy, and abdominal irradiation and were followed beyond skeletal maturity. Three patients (10%) developed late orthopedic abnormalities requiring intervention. Ten children received orthovoltage irradiation, and all cases requiring orthopedic intervention or developing a scoliotic curve of greater than 20 degrees were confined to this group, for a complication frequency of 50%. Those children who developed a significant late orthopedic abnormality (SLOA) as defined were treated to a higher median dose (2,890 cGy) and a larger field size (150 cm2) than those who did not (2,580 cGy and 120 cm2). Age at irradiation, sex, and initial stage of disease did not appear to influence the risk of developing an SLOA. No child who received megavoltage irradiation developed an SLOA despite treatment up to 4,000 cGy or to field sizes of 400 cm2. We conclude that modern radiotherapy techniques rarely lead to significant late orthopedic abnormalities previously associated with abdominal irradiation in children with Wilms' tumor.

  20. Adaptive control of compound manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pittman; R. Colbaugh

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the motion control of a kinematically redundant manipulator. The controller is a direct adaptive control strategy that is stable and is applied through computer simulations with a nine degree-of-freedom compound manipulator consisting of a small, fast six DOF manipulator mounted on a large three DOF positioning device

  1. Cell Reactions to Dielectrophoretic Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Archer; Tong-Tong Li; A. Tudor Evans; Stephen T. Britland; Hywel Morgan

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of dielectrophoretic particle manipulation holds promise for many biotechnology applications, including cell sorting. In our system cell manipulation normally involves transient exposure (15 minutes) to radio-frequency AC electric fields generated using planar microelectrodes. The present study was designed to investigate the range of acute effects of dielectrophoretic manipulation on the normal physiology of isolated cells. Cells were suspended

  2. Cerebrovascular Complications of Neck Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Paciaroni; Julien Bogousslavsky

    2009-01-01

    The safety of spinal manipulation is an issue that demands regular and rigorous assessment, as manipulation of the upper spine has been associated with serious adverse events such as cerebrovascular accidents due to cervical artery dissection. A correlation between stroke and cervical manipulation has been reported with increasing frequency, and each new report seems to reignite debate between neurologists and

  3. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Russell M. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  4. Robotic Grasping and Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Bicchi; Vijay Kumar

    In this chapter, we consider problems that arise in designing, building, planning, and controlling operations of robotic hands\\u000a and end-effectors. The purpose of such devices is often manifold, and it typically includes grasping and fine manipulation\\u000a of objects in an accurate, delicate yet firm way. We survey the state-of-the-art reached by scientific research and literature\\u000a about the problems engendered by

  5. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  6. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (inventor); Gutow, David A. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  7. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  8. Dielectrophoretic manipulation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Hölzel, R; Bier, F F

    2003-11-01

    The characterisation and spatial manipulation of cells by AC electrokinetic methods such as dielectrophoresis and electrorotation is well established. However, applications to submicroscopical objects like viruses and molecules have been rare. Only recently has the number of such studies risen more quickly due to the availability of suitable electrodes and a growing need for single molecule techniques. Of special interest is the spatial control of single DNA molecules for genetic investigations as well as for the building of well defined structures with nanometre resolution. Here a review is given of dielectrophoretic studies dealing with single and double stranded DNA emphasising single molecule aspects. PMID:16468930

  9. Investigation of a HA/PDLGA/Carbon Foam Material System for Orthopedic Fixation Plates Based on Time-Dependent Properties

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Douglas E.

    2010-01-14

    While there is continuing interest in bioresorbable materials for orthopedic fixation devices, the major challenge in utilizing these materials in load-bearing applications is creating materials sufficiently stiff and strong to sustain loads...

  10. Host specificity of parasite manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recently we presented how Camponotus ants in Thailand infected with the fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis are behaviorally manipulated into dying where the conditions are optimal for fungal development. Death incurred in a very narrow zone of space and here we compare this highly specific manipulation with a related system in Brazil. We show that the behavioral manipulation is less fine-tuned and discuss the potential explanations for this by examining differences in ant host and environmental characteristics. PMID:22808322

  11. The role of intravenous acetaminophen in multimodal pain protocols for perioperative orthopedic patients.

    PubMed

    Lachiewicz, Paul F

    2013-02-01

    Multimodal pain management should be considered for all perioperative orthopedic patients. The goal of reducing the amount of perioperative opioid medication given may be achieved by using nonopioid medications, including intravenous acetaminophen. The site of action of acetaminophen is a variety of receptors in the central nervous system. When given intravenously, acetaminophen produces a much higher plasma concentration, which then leads to higher levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. The safety profile and relative lack of systemic adverse reactions make this an attractive analgesic for a wide variety of orthopedic surgical patients. Clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of intravenous acetaminophen in elective total hip and knee arthroplasty, knee arthroscopy, lumbar spine surgery, and for acute traumatic limb pain. PMID:23379571

  12. Efficacy of CT scanning in a group of 174 patients with orthopedic and musculoskeletal problems

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, H.J.; Hamlin, D.J.; Kiss, S.; Lovelock, J.

    1981-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-four patients with orthopedic and musculoskeletal problems received computed tomography (CT) scans between January 1979 and July 1980. There were 34 trauma patients, 35 patients with known or suspected primary tumors, 20 patients with metastases, 18 patients with suspected spinal stenosis, 25 patients with disc problems, five patients with infections, 13 children with congenital anomalies, and 24 patients with miscellaneous problems. The CT scans proved useful in all the pediatric cases, 97% of the trauma patients, and in the majority of patients with tumors. It appears that absolute indications for CT scanning in orthopedic patients include acute trauma to the spine, pelvis, hip, and shoulder girdles as well as in children with congenital spinal anomalies. Relative indications include determining the extent of the tumor and also aiding in the correct approach for biopsying a lesion.

  13. Remodeling and repair of orthopedic tissue: role of mechanical loading and biologics: part II: cartilage and bone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Soo; Szczesny, Spencer E; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2011-03-01

    Orthopedic tissues respond to mechanical loads to maintain normal homeostasis and in response to injury. As the body of work on this continues to grow, it is important to synthesize the recent studies across tissues and specialties with one another and with past studies. Hence, this review highlights the knowledge gained since 2000, with only few exceptions, concerning the effects of mechanical load and biologics on remodeling and repair of orthopedic tissue. PMID:21720600

  14. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rohn, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  15. Medical hypnosis and orthopedic hand surgery: Pain perception, post-operative recovery, and adherence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magaly Hettinga Mauer

    1994-01-01

    Orthopedic hand-surgery patients experience severe pain post-operatively, yet they must engage in painful exercises and wound-care shortly after surgery; poor involvement results in complications that may lead to loss of function and\\/or disfigurement. This study tested a cognitive-behavioral intervention including relaxation, imagery, and therapeutic suggestions (hypnosis) designed to reduce pain perception, enhance post-surgical recovery, and facilitate rehabilitation.Sixty hand-surgery patients at

  16. Intramuscular tramadol versus ketorolac in patients with orthopedic and traumatologic postoperative pain: a comparative multicenter trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albino Lanzetta; Mariella Vizzardi; Giuseppe Letizia; Umberto Martorana; Antonio Sanfilippo; Leonardo Osti; Carlo Cervelli; Renato Coluccia

    1998-01-01

    This 3-day, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial was undertaken to assess the postoperative analgesic effect and therapeutic safety of intramuscular tramadol compared with intramuscular ketorolac in 48 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery and having postoperative pain assessed as 75 mm or more on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Tramadol (100 mg\\/2 mL ampules) was administered as needed to a maximum of

  17. Orthopedic management of spina bifida. Part I: hip, knee, and rotational deformities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vineeta T. Swaroop; Luciano Dias

    2009-01-01

    Children with spina bifida develop a wide variety of congenital and acquired orthopedic deformities. Among these are hip deformities\\u000a such as contracture, subluxation, or dislocation. Patients may also have problems with the knee joint, such as knee flexion\\u000a or extension contracture, knee valgus deformity, or late knee instability and pain. In addition, rotational deformities of\\u000a the lower extremities, either internal

  18. Intra-operative 3D pose estimation of fractured bone segments for image guided orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gamage; S. Q. Xie; P. Delmas; P. Xu; S. Mukherjee

    2009-01-01

    The widespread adoption of minimally invasive surgical techniques have driven the need for 3D intra-operative image guidance. Hence the 3D pose estimation (position and orientation) performed through the registration of pre-operatively prepared 3D anatomical data to intra-operative 2D fluoroscopy images is one of the main research areas of image guided orthopedic surgery. The goal of this 2D-3D registration is to

  19. Brandon Research, Inc. Orthopedic Implant Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.R.

    1999-04-22

    The project was a joint research effort between the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP) and Brandon Research, Inc. to develop ways to improve implants used for orthopedic surgery for joint replacement. The primary product produced by this study is design information, which may be used to develop implants that will improve long-term fixation and durability in the host bone environment.

  20. Analyses and comparison of a novel, hybrid, multifunctional orthopedic composite and implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Dicicco

    2005-01-01

    In the orthopedic\\/medical device industry, 2, 2' -bis-(4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)- and diurethanedimethacrylate (DUDMA)-based polymeric biomaterials have become well-known substitutes for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)- and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based biomaterials, respectively. The development of these polymeric biomaterials cannot continue without direct comparison studies against currently marketed materials. The initiative for this research stems wholly from developing analytical methodologies that assist in qualifying

  1. Antifibrinolytic Therapy and Perioperative Blood Loss in Cancer Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Amar; Florence M. Grant; Hao Zhang; Patrick J. Boland; Denis H Y Leung; John A. Healey

    2003-01-01

    Background: Aprotinin has been reported to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients having major orthopedic operations. Data on whether ? amino-caproic acid (EACA) is effective in this population are sparse. Methods: Sixty-nine adults with malignancy scheduled for either pelvic, extremity or spine surgery during general anesthesia entered this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and received either intravenous aprotinin (n

  2. Self-calibrating 3D-ultrasound-based bone registration for minimally invasive orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean C. Barratt; Graeme P. Penney; Carolyn S. K. Chan; Mike Slomczykowski; Timothy J. Carter; Philip J. Edwards; David J. Hawkes

    2006-01-01

    Intraoperative freehand three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound (3D-US) has been proposed as a noninvasive method for registering bones to a preoperative computed tomography image or computer-generated bone model during computer-aided orthopedic surgery (CAOS). In this technique, an US probe is tracked by a 3-D position sensor and acts as a percutaneous device for localizing the bone surface. However, variations in the acoustic

  3. In-vivo orthopedic implant diagnostic device for sensing load, wear, and infection

    DOEpatents

    Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen; Thundat, Thomas G.; Komistek, Richard D.; Dennis, Douglas A.; Mahfouz, Mohamed

    2006-08-29

    A device for providing in vivo diagnostics of loads, wear, and infection in orthopedic implants having at least one load sensor associated with the implant, at least one temperature sensor associated with the implant, at least one vibration sensor associated with the implant, and at least one signal processing device operatively coupled with the sensors. The signal processing device is operable to receive the output signal from the sensors and transmit a signal corresponding with the output signal.

  4. Orthopedic surgery and bone fracture pain are both significantly attenuated by sustained blockade of nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Majuta, Lisa A.; Longo, Geraldine; Fealk, Michelle N.; McCaffrey, Gwen; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from postoperative pain due to orthopedic surgery and bone fracture is projected to dramatically increase because the human life span, weight, and involvement in high-activity sports continue to rise worldwide. Joint replacement or bone fracture frequently results in skeletal pain that needs to be adequately controlled for the patient to fully participate in needed physical rehabilitation. Currently, the 2 major therapies used to control skeletal pain are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, both of which have significant unwanted side effects. To assess the efficacy of novel therapies, mouse models of orthopedic and fracture pain were developed and evaluated here. These models, orthopedic surgery pain and bone fracture pain, resulted in skeletal pain–related behaviors that lasted 3 weeks and 8 to 10 weeks, respectively. These skeletal pain behaviors included spontaneous and palpation-induced nocifensive behaviors, dynamic weight bearing, limb use, and voluntary mechanical loading of the injured hind limb. Administration of anti–nerve growth factor before orthopedic surgery or after bone fracture attenuated skeletal pain behaviors by 40% to 70% depending on the end point being assessed. These data suggest that nerve growth factor is involved in driving pain due to orthopedic surgery or bone fracture. These animal models may be useful in developing an understanding of the mechanisms that drive postoperative orthopedic and bone fracture pain and the development of novel therapies to treat these skeletal pains. PMID:25599311

  5. The Use of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced (CFR) PEEK Material in Orthopedic Implants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan Silvia; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been successfully used in orthopedic implants. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the properties, technical data, and safety of CFR-PEEK biomaterial and to evaluate its potential for new innovation in the design of articulating medical devices. A comprehensive search in PubMed and EMBASE was conducted to identify articles relevant to the outcomes of CFR-PEEK orthopedic implants. The search was also expanded by reviewing the reference sections of selected papers and references and benchmark reports provided by content experts. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. There is limited literature available assessing the performance of CFR-PEEK, specifically as an implant material for arthroplasty systems. Nevertheless, available studies strongly support CFR-PEEK as a promising and suitable material for orthopedic implants because of its biocompatibility, material characteristics, and mechanical durability. Future studies should continue to investigate CFR-PEEK’s potential benefits. PMID:25780341

  6. Orthopedic Considerations in the Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Accident Polytrauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Samona, Jason; Colen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian versus motor vehicle accidents (PVMVAs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Past models of PVMVAs assume lower-extremity vehicle contact as the initiating event, with a subsequent predicted injury sequence consisting of a lower extremity injury followed by injury to the body, head, and upper extremities. The term “fatal triad” was first coined by Farley, which described concomitant injuries to the skull, pelvis, and extremity fractures. Over the years, this once well-accepted model of injury has been under scrutiny by numerous orthopedic researchers, and it has lost credibility. This case presentation glaring reveals that the patient incurred which is referred to as the “fatal triad”, in contrast to the commonly circulated thoughts of biodynamic mechanisms of PVMVA fractures. More research in this arena is warranted. This lack of information contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with such devastating injuries. The overlying theme displayed in the data analyzed in this paper demonstrates the vital importance of the orthopedic surgeon in the management of the PVMVA patient. No matter the particular mechanism of injury, occurrence, or agreed-upon treatment protocol, the role of the orthopedic physician is instrumental to the wellbeing of the PVMVA trauma patient. PMID:23259110

  7. Survey finds few orthopedic surgeons know the costs of the devices they implant.

    PubMed

    Okike, Kanu; O'Toole, Robert V; Pollak, Andrew N; Bishop, Julius A; McAndrew, Christopher M; Mehta, Samir; Cross, William W; Garrigues, Grant E; Harris, Mitchel B; Lebrun, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Orthopedic procedures represent a large expense to the Medicare program, and costs of implantable medical devices account for a large proportion of those procedures' costs. Physicians have been encouraged to consider cost in the selection of devices, but several factors make acquiring cost information difficult. To assess physicians' levels of knowledge about costs, we asked orthopedic attending physicians and residents at seven academic medical centers to estimate the costs of thirteen commonly used orthopedic devices between December 2012 and March 2013. The actual cost of each device was determined at each institution; estimates within 20 percent of the actual cost were considered correct. Among the 503 physicians who completed our survey, attending physicians correctly estimated the cost of the device 21 percent of the time, and residents did so 17 percent of the time. Thirty-six percent of physicians and 75 percent of residents rated their knowledge of device costs "below average" or "poor." However, more than 80 percent of all respondents indicated that cost should be "moderately," "very," or "extremely" important in the device selection process. Surgeons need increased access to information on the relative prices of devices and should be incentivized to participate in cost containment efforts. PMID:24395941

  8. The Use of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced (CFR) PEEK Material in Orthopedic Implants: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan Silvia; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been successfully used in orthopedic implants. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the properties, technical data, and safety of CFR-PEEK biomaterial and to evaluate its potential for new innovation in the design of articulating medical devices. A comprehensive search in PubMed and EMBASE was conducted to identify articles relevant to the outcomes of CFR-PEEK orthopedic implants. The search was also expanded by reviewing the reference sections of selected papers and references and benchmark reports provided by content experts. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. There is limited literature available assessing the performance of CFR-PEEK, specifically as an implant material for arthroplasty systems. Nevertheless, available studies strongly support CFR-PEEK as a promising and suitable material for orthopedic implants because of its biocompatibility, material characteristics, and mechanical durability. Future studies should continue to investigate CFR-PEEK's potential benefits. PMID:25780341

  9. Endovascular Treatment in Emergency Setting of Acute Arterial Injuries After Orthopedic Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Fontana, Federico, E-mail: fede.fontana@libero.it; Mangini, Monica, E-mail: monica.mangini@tin.it; Ierardi, Anna Maria, E-mail: amierardi@yahoo.it; Lagana, Domenico; Piacentino, Filippo, E-mail: f.piacentino@live.it; Vizzari, Francesco Alberto, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Spano, Emanuela, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Fugazzola, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.fugazzola@ospedale.varese.it [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency endovascular treatment of acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (mean age 68.3 years) with acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery were observed, in particular, 5 patients with pseudoaneurysm, 9 patients with active bleeding, and 1 patient with arterial dissection. Transarterial embolization (TAE) and positioning of covered and noncovered stents were the treatments performed. Follow-up after stent implantation (mean 36 months) was performed with color Doppler US (CDU) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Plain X-ray was performed to evidence dislodgment or fracture of the graft. A minimum of 12 months' follow-up is available after TAE. Results: Immediate technical success was obtained in all cases. No major complications occurred. Overall clinical success rate was 100%. During mean follow-up, stent-graft occlusions did not occurred. No recurrence and/or consequence of TAE was registered during a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Conclusions: Percutaneous treatment is a feasible and safe tool for treating arterial injuries because it can provide fast and definitive resolution of the damage. This low-invasiveness approach can be proposed as first-line treatment in patients with acute injuries after orthopedic surgery.

  10. The Factor Structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Orthopedic Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Tang, Philip; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background Many instruments exist to assess mental disorders and anxiety, such as the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Nothing has been evaluated on the HADS factor structure for use with orthopedic trauma patients. The aim of this study was to validate the underlying structure of the HADS. Specifically, we sought to understand which of the factor structures found in the literature is appropriate for the orthopedic trauma patient population. Methods This study included 348 patients with an average age of 49.8 years (SD: 18.4; range: 18 - 95). Confirmatory data analysis was performed to analyze the latent structure of the HADS. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare all the models, with the lowest AIC being the best fitting model. Results We found that both the anxiety and the depression factors were highly correlated (with Pearson correlations greater than 0.700). After removing one item from each subscale, we found that a two-factor model was the best fitting one (AIC: 8,298.901); all other models had an AIC over 10,000. Conclusion Our results support a satisfactory two-factor structure for the HADS in the orthopedic trauma patients. Further studies are needed to test for higher factor structures in larger samples and in a different population. PMID:25883709

  11. Prevention of Orthopedic Device-Associated Osteomyelitis Using Oxacillin-Containing Biomineral-Binding Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Ming; Zhang, Yijia; Chen, Fu; Khutsishvili, Irine; Fehringer, Edward V.; Marky, Luis A.; Bayles, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop novel biomineral-binding liposomes (BBL) for the prevention of orthopedic implant associated osteomyelitis. Methods A biomineral-binding lipid, alendronate-tri(ethylene-glycol)-cholesterol conjugate (ALN-TEG-Chol), was synthesized through Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (a versatile click reaction). Mixing with other excipients, the new lipid was used to develop BBL. Thermodynamic behavior was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro biomineral-binding potential and kinetics were evaluated on hydroxyapatite (HA, a widely used material for orthopedic implant devices) particles. Oxacillin was encapsulated into BBL and used for in vitro evaluation in preventing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. Results DSC analysis showed that ALN-TEG-Chol could inhibit the phase transition of liposomes by reducing its cooperativity, yielding liposomes with thermodynamic stability similar to liposomes containing regular cholesterol. BBL showed fast and strong binding ability to HA. Oxacillin-loading BBL demonstrated significantly better preventive efficacy against bacteria colonization when challenged with S. aureus isolate, implying its potential in preventing orthopedic implant associated osteomyelitis. Conclusions In this proof of concept study, novel BBL has been successfully developed and validated for reducing the frequency of implantable device-related infections. PMID:22733150

  12. Intravenous Paracetamol Reduces Postoperative Opioid Consumption after Orthopedic Surgery: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Puneet

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative pain management is one of the most challenging jobs in orthopedic surgical population as it comprises of patients from extremes of ages and with multiple comorbidities. Though effective, opioids may contribute to serious adverse effects particularly in old age patients. Intravenous paracetamol is widely used in the postoperative period with the hope that it may reduce opioid consumption and produce better pain relief. A brief review of human clinical trials where intravenous paracetamol was compared with placebo or no treatment in postoperative period in orthopedic surgical population has been done here. We found that four clinical trials reported that there is a significant reduction in postoperative opioid consumption. When patients received an IV injection of 2?g propacetamol, reduction of morphine consumption up to 46% has been reported. However, one study did not find any reduction of opioid requirement after spinal surgery in children and adolescent. Four clinical trials reported better pain scores when paracetamol has been used, but other three trials denied. We conclude that postoperative intravenous paracetamol is a safe and effective adjunct to opioid after orthopedic surgery, but at present there is no data to decide whether paracetamol reduces opioid related adverse effects or not. PMID:24307945

  13. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, William E. (Knoxville, TN); Kuban, Daniel P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Martin, H. Lee (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member.

  14. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  15. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, W.E.; Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1988-10-25

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member. 41 figs.

  16. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  17. Liquid Propellant Manipulated Acoustically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Chato, David J.; Mann, Adin, III

    2003-01-01

    Fluids are difficult to manage in the space environment. Without gravity, the liquid and gas do not always remain separated as they do in the 1g environment of Earth. Instead the liquid and gas volumes mix and migrate under the influence of surface tension, thermodynamic forces, and external disturbances. As a result, liquid propellants may not be in a useable location or may even form a chaotic mix of liquid and gas bubbles. In the past, mechanical pumps, baffles, and a variety of specialized passive devices have been used to control the liquid and gas volumes. These methods need to be carefully tuned to a specific configuration to be effective. With increasing emphasis on long-term human activity in space there is a trend toward liquid systems that are more flexible and provide greater control. We are exploring new methods of manipulating liquids by using the nonlinear acoustic effects achieved by using beams of highly directed high-intensity acoustic waves.

  18. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  19. Dexterous Manipulation: A Geometric Approach

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Bud

    , unisense. (For a discussion of screw theory, and in particular, wrenches and twists, see [4] and [13].) ffl the theory of dexterous manipulation. In particular, we discuss the models of robot hands and analysis: Terminology and Theory 1 1. Introduction The area of dexterous manipulation studies the problems of grasping

  20. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel G Pickar

    2002-01-01

    Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the apparent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery of

  1. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel G. Pickar

    2002-01-01

    Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the appar- ent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery

  2. Mobile manipulation: The robotic assistant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oussama Khatib

    1999-01-01

    Mobile manipulation capabilities are key to many new applications of robotics in space, underwater, construction, and service environments. This paper discusses the development of robotic “assistance” capabilities to aid workers in the accomplishment of a variety of physical operations and presents various control strategies developed for vehicle-arm coordination, compliant motion tasks, and cooperative manipulation between multiple platforms. These strategies have

  3. Algorithms for Discrete Function Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Srinivasan; Timothy Kam; Sharad Malik; Robert K. Brayton

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was made of the analogous graph structure for representing and manipulating discrete variable problems. The authors define the multi-valued decision diagram (MDD), analyze its properties (in particular prove a strong canonical form) and provide algorithms for combining and manipulating MDDs. They give a method for mapping an MDD into an equivalent BDD (binary decision diagram) which allows them

  4. Image manipulation detection Sevin Bayram

    E-print Network

    Image manipulation detection Sevinç Bayram Ismail Avcibas¸ Uludag University Department for validating the authen- ticity of digital images and testing for the presence of doctoring and manipulation and discuss the design of classifiers between doctored and original images. The per- formance of classifiers

  5. Image Manipulation: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Ronald E.

    The images of photography have been manipulated almost from the moment of their discovery. The blending together in the studio and darkroom of images not found in actual scenes from life has been a regular feature of modern photography in both art and advertising. Techniques of photograph manipulation include retouching; blocking out figures or…

  6. Preservation of manipulated yeast diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joong Kyun Kim; Hae-Yoon Chung

    2002-01-01

    Manipulated yeast diet can be usedfor seed production of aquacultural organisms.Various methods for preserving the yeast dietduring the periods of circulation in marketwere tested, and the preservation of the yeastdiet by freeze-drying was the best. With thispreservation method, the manipulated yeastswere maintained fairly well (up to 71%) whenstored for three weeks under refrigeratedcondition (4 °C), while more than 80% ofthe

  7. Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst D.

    2003-12-05

    ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates the entire process, so that more and larger problems can be attempted. Currently, the program designers are working to make ProteinShop more applicable and adaptable to different protein folding methodologies. If users could manipulate structures from a biological point of view, and then put them back in the queue for more optimization, the process of experimentation and discovery in protein research could be greatly enhanced. The group is also investigating the use of stereoscopic rendering and three-dimensional input devices to remove the limitations of a two-dimensional interface. Clearly, protein-folding research will have far-reaching ramifications. It could lead to new insights about diseases ranging from Alzheimer's to Cystic fibrosis, which scientists believe are caused by protein folding gone wrong. A better understanding of protein structures could also lead to the engineering of altogether new proteins, and shed light on how drugs bind proteins to alter their structure and function. Above all, ProteinShop is an important tool that will help scientists unravel one of the most challenging problems that theoretical and computational chemistry has to offer.

  8. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  9. RESEARCH PAPER Optothermal sample preconcentration and manipulation

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    RESEARCH PAPER Optothermal sample preconcentration and manipulation with temperature gradient provided by a digital projector as established for particle manipulation, to achieve analogous Preconcentration Á Analyte manipulation Á Microfluidics 1 Introduction Widespread application of point-of-care (POC

  10. 75 FR 67657 - Prohibition of Market Manipulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...follow inescapably from proof of the actions of the alleged manipulator. For example, in one of the landmark manipulation cases...prices foreseeably follow from the device employed by the manipulator, do not require detailed economic analysis of the...

  11. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  12. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  13. Impact manipulation by a hyper-flexible robotic manipulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Mochiyama; Hideo Fujimoto

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the impact manipulation of a string-like hyper-flexible robot where an impact force is applied to a given target point. The proposed impact manipulation law consists of three phases; the feedforward and feedback swing phases, and the positioning phase, based on the information on the estimated angular velocity at the connecting point between the hyper-flexible body

  14. Is routine thromboprophylaxis justified among Indian patients sustaining major orthopedic trauma? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Ramesh K; Tripathy, Sujit K; Singh, Amit K

    2011-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common preventable cause of morbidity and mortality after trauma. Though most of the western countries have their guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in these patients, India still does not have these. The increasing detection of VTE among Indian population, lack of awareness, underestimation of the risk, and fear of bleeding complications after chemical prophylaxis have made deep vein thrombosis (DVT) a serious problem, hence a standard guideline for thromboprophylaxis after trauma is essential. The present review article discusses the incidence of DVT and role of thromboprophylaxis in Indian patients who have sustained major orthopedic trauma. A thorough search of ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google Scholar’ revealed 10 studies regarding venous thromboembolism in Indian patients after major orthopedic trauma surgery (hip or proximal femur fracture and spine injury). Most of these studies have evaluated venous thromboembolism in patients of arthroplasty and trauma. The incidence, risk factors, diagnosis and management of VTE in the subgroup of trauma patients (1049 patients) were separately evaluated after segregating them from the arthroplasty patients. Except two studies, which were based on spinal injury, all other studies recommended screening/ thromboprophylaxis in posttraumatic conditions in the Indian population. Color Doppler was used as common diagnostic or screening tool in most of the studies (eight studies, 722 patients). The incidence of VTE among thromboprophylaxis-receiving group was found to be 8% (10/125), whereas it was much higher (14.49%, 40/276) in patients not receiving any form of prophylaxis. Indian patients have definite risk of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic trauma (except spinal injury), and thromboprophylaxis either by chemical or mechanical methods seems to be justified in them. PMID:21559098

  15. Locus of pain control associated with medication adherence behaviors among patients after an orthopedic procedure

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Thaisy Mendes; Machado, Daniele Caferatti; Martins, Rafael Olívio; Galato, Dayani; Piovezan, Anna Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background Locus of pain control (LPC) is characterized by the behavior of people coping with their health problems, as a result of their own actions (internal control) or external factors or other people (external control). This parameter can be associated with medication adherence, in addition to other psychosocial factors that may also influence this behavior. This study was performed to investigate the influence of the LPC on medication adherence in patients undergoing an orthopedic procedure. Subjects and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study on patients who attended an orthopedic clinic for arthroscopy treatment. The patients’ LPC and pain intensity data were obtained on the day of admission through the use of the LPC scale and the visual analog scale (VAS), respectively, both being validated tools. After arthroscopic surgery, the patients received drug prescriptions and were reassessed after 15 days regarding treatment adherence, using the Morisky test. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We assessed 79 individuals from both the internal LPC group (n=35) and external LPC group (n=44) and found that there were no group differences in sex, affected limb, cause of injury, repetitive strain injury, duration of pain, or pain intensity. However, there was a higher proportion of patients in the external LPC group that adhered to the prescribed medication compared with the internal LPC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The results showed that among patients who underwent an orthopedic procedure, there was a higher adherence rate to prescribed medication in the external LPC group compared with the internal LPC group. PMID:25075178

  16. Manipulator Grasping and Pushing Operations

    E-print Network

    Mason, Matthew Thomas

    1982-06-01

    The primary goal of this research is to develop theoretical tools for analysis, synthesis, application of primitive manipulator operations. The primary method is to extend and apply traditional tools of classical mechanics. ...

  17. Interactive Animation of Dynamic Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Abe, Yeuhi

    2006-02-28

    Lifelike animation of manipulation must account for the dynamicinteraction between animated characters, objects, and their environment. Failing to do so would ignore the often significant effects objectshave on the motion ...

  18. Dynamic Scaling of Manipulator Trajectories

    E-print Network

    Hollerbach, John M.

    1983-01-01

    A fundamental time-scaling property of manipulator dynamics has been identified that allows modification of movement speed without complete dynamics recalculation. By exploiting this property, it can be determined ...

  19. Building Fractal Models with Manipulatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coes, Loring

    1993-01-01

    Uses manipulative materials to build and examine geometric models that simulate the self-similarity properties of fractals. Examples are discussed in two dimensions, three dimensions, and the fractal dimension. Discusses how models can be misleading. (Contains 10 references.) (MDH)

  20. Robot Manipulation in Human Environments

    E-print Network

    Edsinger, Aaron

    2007-01-16

    Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

  1. Robot manipulation in human environments

    E-print Network

    Edsinger, Aaron Ladd, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

  2. Module-type space manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Nishida, Shinichiro; Takegai, Tomoki

    1999-08-01

    The Communications Research Laboratory has been studying the inspection technology needed for the first step of 'Orbital Maintenance System' (OMS) that maintains space system by inspecting of satellites, re-orbiting useless satellites, and simply repairing satellites in orbit. In this paper, we introduce a re-configurable modular-type manipulator for space utilization, and its control algorithm for the inspection of satellites in orbit. The manipulator system is interconnected by a joint mechanism which can be connected and disconnected by simple robotic motion and also resist inertia during space operation. The modules are also specially designed for thermal, vacuum, and radiation conditions. The control processors are qualified in a piggyback flight on 2000. We have adopted a decentralized control algorithm for the redundant manipulator, which automatically adapts to the manipulator reconfigurations.

  3. The Evidence-Based Principles of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Trauma & Orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    A, Novak; Khan, Wasim S; J, Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy is a popular treatment for the management of both acute and chronic wounds. Its use in trauma and orthopedics is diverse and includes the acute traumatic setting as well as chronic troublesome wounds associated with pressure sores and diabetic foot surgery. Efforts have been made to provide an evidence base to guide its use however this has been limited by a lack of good quality evidence. The following review article explores the available evidence and describes future developments for its use in trauma and orthopaedic practice. PMID:25067971

  4. Titration of isoflurane using BIS index improves early recovery of elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Wong; Dajun Song; Hannah Blanshard; Deidre Grady; Frances Chung

    2002-01-01

    Purpose  This study was designed to investigate the effect of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring on the recovery profiles, level of\\u000a postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and anesthetic drug requirements of elderly patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery\\u000a with general anesthesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixty-eight patients over the age of 60 were randomized into one of two groups. In the standard practice (SP) group, the anesthesiologists\\u000a were blinded

  5. Apixaban versus enoxaparin in elective major orthopedic surgery: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, Pietro; Caforio, Marco; Imberti, Davide; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Benedetti, Raffaella

    2015-03-01

    Despite current guidelines recommendations about anticoagulant prophylaxis, many studies have shown an high venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence in patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty. A number of anticoagulants are currently available, but they have some limitations that affect their applicability and consequently their effectiveness. Several new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been developed in an attempt to overcome these limitations. Apixaban is a NOAC that selectively inhibits the coagulation factor Xa; it is approved for the prevention of VTE after total hip replacement and total knee replacement surgery. This review examines the results of main trials designed to test efficacy and safety of apixaban in major elective orthopedic surgery. PMID:25125051

  6. iPhone and iPad Use in Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Scott F. M.; Hendawi, Tariq K.; Sperling, John; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Hartsock, Landon

    2015-01-01

    Background Thousands of healthcare mobile applications (apps) are available, and physicians are increasingly recognizing that mobile technology can improve their workflow and allow them to practice medicine in a better and/or more efficient manner. Methods This article highlights apps compatible with the iPhone and iPad and their utility to the busy orthopedic surgeon. Results Currently available apps address every aspect of healthcare: patient management, reference, education, and research. Conclusion Key aspects of helpful apps include low cost (preferably free), a user-friendly interface, and simplicity. PMID:25829881

  7. Internal forces during object manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fan; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    Internal force is a set of contact forces that does not disturb object equilibrium. The elements of the internal force vector cancel each other and, hence, do not contribute to the resultant (manipulation) force acting on the object. The mathematical independence of the internal and manipulation forces allows for their independent (decoupled) control realized in robotic manipulators. To examine whether in humans internal force is coupled with the manipulation force and what grasping strategy the performers utilize, the subjects (n=6) were instructed to make cyclic arm movements with a customized handle. Six combinations of handle orientation and movement direction were tested. These involved: parallel manipulations (1) VV task (vertical orientation and vertical movement) and (2) HH task (horizontal orientation and horizontal movement); orthogonal manipulations (3) VH task (vertical orientation and horizontal movement) and (4) HV task (horizontal orientation and vertical movement); and diagonal manipulations (5) DV task (diagonal orientation and vertical movement) and (6) DH task (diagonal orientation and horizontal movement). Handle weight (from 3.8 to 13.8 N), and movement frequency (from 1 to 3 Hz) were systematically changed. The analysis was performed at the thumb-virtual finger level (VF, an imaginary finger that produces a wrench equal to the sum of wrenches produced by all the fingers). At this level, the forces of interest could be reduced to the internal force and internal moment. During the parallel manipulations, the internal (grip) force was coupled with the manipulation force (producing object acceleration) and the thumb-VF forces increased or decreased in phase: the thumb and VF worked in synchrony to grasp the object more strongly or more weakly. During the orthogonal manipulations, the thumb-VF forces changed out of phase: the plots of the internal force vs. object acceleration resembled an inverted letter V. The HV task was the only task where the relative phase (coupling) between the normal forces of the thumb and VF depended on oscillation frequency. During the diagonal manipulations, the coupling was different in the DV and DH tasks. A novel observation of substantial internal moments is described: the moments produced by the normal finger forces were counterbalanced by the moments produced by the tangential forces such that the resultant moments were close to zero. Implications of the findings for the notion of grasping synergies are discussed. PMID:15912369

  8. Manipulatives in the Primary Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jenni Back

    2014-01-01

    In this article Jenni Back details the use of manipulatives in the mathematics classroom. She describes the results of research studies and her own observations. She draws the conclusion that students need to have various tools available to them and to use them to make sense of the mathematics, not just to follow a rote procedure. Suggestions for ways to implement manipulative use are included in the article.

  9. Dexterous grasp and manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sudipto

    This dissertation addresses some of the fundamental issues in multifingered cooperative manipulation. The problems investigated were stimulated by the need to devise a motion and force allocation planner for the four fingered DIGITS system. In motion planning, the emphasis has been on determining finger trajectories that generate smooth object motion in free space. A screw motion has been prescribed to be followed between two configurations of the object, in order to obtain simultaneous rotary and translatory motion. The effect of the joint motion limits on the path following capability of the fingers has been analyzed. It has been shown that knowledge of the direction of the surface normal at the contact point, coupled with the use of a spherical fingertip can be used to circumvent some contact uncertainty problems. The geometry of the force system in the multi-point contact situation has been investigated using crew theory. Conditions for which the system is underspecified have been identified. An efficient solution to the minimum norm solution, the equilibrating forces, has been presented. It has been shown that the pairs of equal and opposite forces acting along the lines joining points of contact can be used to span the space of the homogeneous solutions of the underconstrained problem. Techniques to selectively superpose the interaction forces to orient the net contact forces in desired directions have been developed. This leads to the development of a closed form solution to the optimum grasp problem in three dimensions. It has been shown that the local minimum of the maximum friction angle is characterized by a polynomial which can be symbolically enumerated. Solutions to the minimum friction angle problem can be obtained from the roots of the polynomial. The DIGITS system is instrumented to obtain six axis contact force data from the fingertip. Efficient, stable closed form algorithms have been developed to compute the location of the contact point based on the six axis force data for cylindrical and spherical fingertip geometry. It has been shown that for fingertip surfaces made of piecewise ellipsoids, as opposed to a single ellipsoid, the solution may be non-unique. The conditions for such non-uniqueness to occur have been identified.

  10. Influence of preoperative emotional state on postoperative pain following orthopedic and trauma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Robleda, Gemma; Sillero-Sillero, Amalia; Puig, Teresa; Gich, Ignasi; Baños, Josep-E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the relationship between preoperative emotional state and the prevalence and intensity of postoperative pain and to explore predictors of postoperative pain. METHOD: observational retrospective study undertaken among 127 adult patients of orthopedic and trauma surgery. Postoperative pain was assessed with the verbal numeric scale and with five variables of emotional state: anxiety, sweating, stress, fear, and crying. The Chi-squared test, Student's t test or ANOVA and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: the prevalence of immediate postoperative pain was 28%. Anxiety was the most common emotional factor (72%) and a predictive risk factor for moderate to severe postoperative pain (OR: 4.60, 95% CI 1.38 to 15.3, p<0.05, AUC: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.83). Age exerted a protective effect (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: preoperative anxiety and age are predictors of postoperative pain in patients undergoing orthopedic and trauma surgery. PMID:25493674

  11. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Orthopedic Biodegradable Implants

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Ami R.; Wallace, James S.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

    2012-01-01

    Presently, orthopedic and oral/maxillofacial implants represent a combined $2.8 billion market, a figure expected to experience significant and continued growth. Although traditional permanent implants have been proved clinically efficacious, they are also associated with several drawbacks, including secondary revision and removal surgeries. Non-permanent, biodegradable implants offer a promising alternative for patients, as they provide temporary support and degrade at a rate matching tissue formation, and thus, eliminate the need for secondary surgeries. These implants have been in clinical use for nearly 25 years, competing directly with, or maybe even exceeding, the performance of permanent implants. The initial implantation of biodegradable materials, as with permanent materials, mounts an acute host inflammatory response. Over time, the implant degradation profile and possible degradation product toxicity mediate long-term biodegradable implant-induced inflammation. However, unlike permanent implants, this inflammation is likely to cease once the material disappears. Implant-mediated inflammation is a critical determinant for implant success. Thus, for the development of a proactive biodegradable implant that has the ability to promote optimal bone regeneration and minimal detrimental inflammation, a thorough understanding of short- and long-term inflammatory events is required. Here, we discuss an array of biodegradable orthopedic implants, their associated short- and long- term inflammatory effects, and methods to mediate these inflammatory events. PMID:22043969

  12. Biomimetic helical rosette nanotubes and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium for improving orthopedic implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Chen, Yupeng; Rodriguez, Jose; Fenniri, Hicham; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Natural bone consists of hard nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) in a nanostructured protein-based soft hydrogel template (ie, mostly collagen). For this reason, nanostructured HA has been an intriguing coating material on traditionally used titanium for improving orthopedic applications. In addition, helical rosette nanotubes (HRNs), newly developed materials which form through the self-assembly process of DNA base pair building blocks in body solutions, are soft nanotubes with a helical architecture that mimics natural collagen. Thus, the objective of this in vitro study was for the first time to combine the promising attributes of HRNs and nanocrystalline HA on titanium and assess osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions. Different sizes of nanocrystalline HA were synthesized in this study through a wet chemical precipitation process following either hydrothermal treatment or sintering. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that HRNs aligned with nanocrystalline HA, which indicates a high affinity between both components. Some of the nanocrystalline HA formed dense coatings with HRNs on titanium. More importantly, results demonstrated enhanced osteoblast adhesion on the HRN/nanocrystalline HA-coated titanium compared with conventional uncoated titanium. Among all the HRN/nanocrystalline HA coatings tested, osteoblast adhesion was the greatest when HA nanometer particle size was the smallest. In this manner, this study demonstrated for the first time that biomimetic HRN/nanocrystalline HA coatings on titanium were cytocompatible for osteoblasts and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic implants. PMID:18990941

  13. Mobile camera-space manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seelinger, Michael J. (Inventor); Yoder, John-David S. (Inventor); Skaar, Steven B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a method of using computer vision to control systems consisting of a combination of holonomic and nonholonomic degrees of freedom such as a wheeled rover equipped with a robotic arm, a forklift, and earth-moving equipment such as a backhoe or a front-loader. Using vision sensors mounted on the mobile system and the manipulator, the system establishes a relationship between the internal joint configuration of the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator and the appearance of features on the manipulator in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Then, the system, perhaps with the assistance of an operator, identifies the locations of the target object in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Using this target information, along with the relationship described above, the system determines a suitable trajectory for the nonholonomic degrees of freedom of the base to follow towards the target object. The system also determines a suitable pose or series of poses for the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator. With additional visual samples, the system automatically updates the trajectory and final pose of the manipulator so as to allow for greater precision in the overall final position of the system.

  14. A grid quality manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ning; Eiseman, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A grid quality manipulation system is described. The elements of the system are the measures by which quality is assessed, the computer graphic display of those measures, and the local grid manipulation to provide a response to the viewed quality indication. The display is an overlaid composite where the region is first covered with colors to reflect the values of the quality indicator, the grid is then placed on top of those colors, and finally a control net is placed on top of everything. The net represents the grid in terms of the control point form of algebraic grid generation. As a control point is moved, both the grid and the colored quality measures also move. This is a real time dynamic action so that the consequences of the manipulation are continuously seen.

  15. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  16. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information. PMID:24088151

  17. Seasonal variation in orthopedic health services utilization in Switzerland: The impact of winter sport tourism

    PubMed Central

    Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Widmer, Marcel; Busato, André

    2006-01-01

    Background Climate- or holiday-related seasonality in hospital admission rates is well known for many diseases. However, little research has addressed the impact of tourism on seasonality in admission rates. We therefore investigated the influence of tourism on emergency admission rates in Switzerland, where winter and summer leisure sport activities in large mountain regions can generate orthopedic injuries. Methods Using small area analysis, orthopedic hospital service areas (HSAo) were evaluated for seasonality in emergency admission rates. Winter sport areas were defined using guest bed accommodation rate patterns of guest houses and hotels located above 1000 meters altitude that show clear winter and summer peak seasons. Emergency admissions (years 2000–2002, n = 135'460) of local and nonlocal HSAo residents were evaluated. HSAo were grouped according to their area type (regular or winter sport area) and monthly analyses of admission rates were performed. Results Of HSAo within the defined winter sport areas 70.8% show a seasonal, summer-winter peak hospital admission rate pattern and only 1 HSAo outside the defined winter sport areas shows such a pattern. Seasonal hospital admission rates in HSAo in winter sport areas can be up to 4 times higher in winter than the intermediate seasons, and they are almost entirely due to admissions of nonlocal residents. These nonlocal residents are in general -and especially in winter- younger than local residents, and nonlocal residents have a shorter length of stay in winter sport than in regular areas. The overall geographic distribution of nonlocal residents admitted for emergencies shows highest rates during the winter as well as the summer in the winter sport areas. Conclusion Small area analysis using orthopedic hospital service areas is a reliable method for the evaluation of seasonality in hospital admission rates. In Switzerland, HSAo defined as winter sport areas show a clear seasonal fluctuation in admission rates of only nonlocal residents, whereas HSAo defined as regular, non-winter sport areas do not show such seasonality. We conclude that leisure sport, and especially ski/snowboard tourism demands great flexibility in hospital beds, staff and resource planning in these areas. PMID:16512923

  18. The Living Stage Improvisational Theatre Demonstration Project for Orthopedically Handicapped Children, Ages 4-8. Overview, 1978-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robert; Haynes, Wendy

    The Living Stage Improvisational Theatre Demonstration Project (Washington, D.C.) conducts weekly workshops to enhance the creative expression and self esteem of orthopedically handicapped children, aged 4 to 8 years. The Living Stage program is designed to demonstrate that methods of improvisational theatre can have a positive impact on parental…

  19. Effect of Antibiotic Treatment on Bacterial Attachment to a DePuy EnduronTM Orthopedic Implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ildikó Kustos; Tamás Kustos; Ferenc Kilár; Gábor Rappai; Béla Kocsis

    2005-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of bacterial infections in orthopedic surgery might be related to the increasing application of artificial devices. In most cases, bacteria multiply on the surface of implants in biofilms. Poor penetration of antibiotics, frequent necessity of prosthesis removal, chronic processes and financial costs emphasize the significance of preventive measures. Method: Adhesion of bacterial strains (two Staphylococcus aureus,

  20. Manipulation planning with Workspace Goal Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitry Berenson; Siddhartha S. Srinivasa; Dave Ferguson; Alvaro Collet; James J. Kuffner

    2009-01-01

    Abstract— We,present,an,approach,to path,planning,for manipulators,that uses,Workspace,Goal Regions (WGRs) to specify goal end-effector poses. Instead of specifying a discrete set of goals in the manipulator’s configuration space, we specify goals more,intuitively as volumes,in the manipulator’s workspace. We show,that WGRs provide,a common,framework,for describing goal regions that are useful for grasping,and,manipulation. We also describe,two,randomized,planning,algorithms,capable,of planning,with WGRs. The first is an extension,of RRT-JT that interleaves

  1. Micro/nanoscale mechanical and tribological characterization of SiC for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Xinnan; Bondokov, Robert; Morris, Julie; An, Yuehuei H; Sudarshan, Tangali S

    2005-02-15

    Micro/nanomechanical and tribological characterization of SiC has been carried out. For comparison, measurements on SiC, CoCrMo, Ti-6Al-4V, and stainless steel have also been made. Hardness and elastic modulus of these materials were measured by nanoindentation using a nanoindenter. The nanoindentation impressions were imaged using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Scratch, friction, and wear properties were measured using an accelerated microtribometer. Scratch and wear damages were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is found that SiC exhibits higher hardness, elastic modulus, scratch resistance as well as lower friction with fewer and smaller debris particles compared to other materials. These results show that SiC possesses superior mechanical and tribological properties that make it an ideal material for use in orthopedic and other biomedical applications. PMID:15538716

  2. Biocompatibility Study of Zirconium-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses for Orthopedic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Chuang, Andrew; Cao, Zheng; Liaw, Peter K.

    2010-07-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) represent an emerging class of materials that offer an attractive combination of properties, such as high strength, low modulus, good fatigue limit, and near-net-shape formability. The BMGs have been explored in mechanical, chemical, and magnetic applications. However, little research has been attracted in the biomedical field. In this work, we study the potential of BMGs for the orthopedic repair and replacement. We report the biocompatibility study of zirconium (Zr)-based solid BMGs using mouse osteoblast cells. Cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation are compared to Ti-6Al-4V, a well-studied alloy biomaterial. Our in-vitro study has demonstrated that cells cultured on the Zr-based BMG substrate showed higher attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone matrix deposition compared to those grown on the control Ti alloy substrate. Cytotoxicity staining also revealed the remarkable viability of cells growing on the BMG substrates.

  3. [Medical controlling as medical economical service center. Successful concept for orthopedics and trauma surgery centers?].

    PubMed

    Auhuber, T C; Hoffmann, R

    2015-01-01

    The management of patients from administrative admission through the orthopedic-surgical treatment to completion of the billing is complex. Additional challenges originate from the necessity to treat patients in both outpatient and inpatient departments and in more than one medical sector. A superior coordination is essential for a successful cooperation of the various procedures of controlling. The model of a medical controlling department as a service center with effective competence in the management of service and cost, functions as a successful solution to the problem. Central elements of a successful medical economical case management are a well-defined assignment of tasks and definitions of intersections, the integration of health professionals and administrative employees, the utilization of software for process control and the implementation of inlier controlling. PMID:25630885

  4. X-rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery, 1895-1900.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Andrew

    2005-03-01

    Historians have found it difficult to give a general account of the early medical use of X-rays in medicine. While the rays were hailed by some as a miracle technology, their early medical application was patchy, often remaining subsidiary to traditional methods of diagnosis and treatment, and was of disputed value. In this essay, I argue that the selective appropriation of the new technology needs to be understood within the wider medical practice of the period. The argument is developed around the case of orthopedic surgery in Germany, probably the first example in which doctors quickly made X-rays indispensable as a medical tool. I show that value of X-rays in this case was contingent upon an ongoing dispute, the theory and practice of surgical intervention, and the sociology of new surgical knowledge. PMID:16114797

  5. Wear Properties of Porous NiTi Orthopedic Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuilin; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, K. W. K.; Xu, Z. S.; Chung, C. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-12-01

    Porous NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds have great potential to be used as orthopedic implants because of their porous structure and superior physical properties. Its metallic nature provides it with better mechanical properties and Young's modulus close to that of natural bones. Besides allowing tissue ingrowth and transfer of nutrients, porous SMA possesses unique pseudoelastic properties compatible to natural hard tissues like bones and tendons, thus expediting in vivo osseointegration. However, the nickel release from debris and the metal surface may cause osteocytic osteolysis at the interface between the artificial implants and bone tissues. Subsequent mobilization may finally lead to implant failure. In this study, the wear properties of porous NiTi with different porosities processed at different treatment temperatures are determined. The results of the study show that the porosity, phase transformation temperature, and annealing temperature are major factors influencing the wear characteristics of porous NiTi SMA.

  6. [Characteristics of anesthesia in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures].

    PubMed

    Tripkovi?, Branko; Anti?evi?, Darko; Buljan, Melita; Jakovina-Blažekovi?, Sanja; Oreškovi?, Zrinka; Kubat, Ozren

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to show our experience in anesthesia of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) who have undergone orthopedic surgical procedures. This is a retrospective analysis of OI patients treated at our Department from 1980 to 2012. We analyzed demographics, comorbidities, preoperative characteristics, anesthesia types, anesthetics and intraoperative and postoperative complications. In the given period, 26 OI patients were treated, using 103 surgeries, and 103 anesthesia procedures. Most procedures, a total of 68, were used in children aged 0-10 years. According to the diagnosis, OI type III was mostly encountered. The rating of the American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status was II in most cases, a total of 99. General anesthesia was used in 89 cases, and regional anesthesia in 14. Fourteen intraoperative complications were seen, mostly difficult intubation, and six postoperative cardiovascular instability cases. With careful preparation, and knowledge of pitfalls, anesthesia in these patients should be a safe procedure. PMID:25632774

  7. ‘Old Drugs for New Applications’: Can Orthopedic Research Benefit from This Strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaohua; Cheng, Wenxiang; Wang, Jiali; Qin, Ling; Lai, Yuxiao; Tang, Jian; Shang, Peng; Ren, Peigen; Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    New drug exploration is difficult in a clinical setting and the development of new drugs may be costly and time consuming. With further research into the pathological mechanisms and etiology of diseases as well as the rapid development of biological techniques, many ‘old drugs’ that have been applied in clinics may have new therapeutic functions which may shed light on clinical management. Based on this, we have investigated the ‘old drugs for new applications’ strategy in pharmacology which may be less expensive and more efficient in the clinical setting. In this paper we have explored and illustrated the potential applications of ‘old drugs’ for the treatment of orthopedic diseases, especially in arthritis and osteoporosis therapy. PMID:22870479

  8. [Contribution of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method to dentofacial orthopedics: update].

    PubMed

    Elhaddaoui, R; Benyahia, H; Azaroual, F; Zaoui, F

    2014-11-01

    The successful orthopedic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusions is closely related to the reasoned determination of the optimal time to initiate the treatment. This is why various methods have been proposed to assess skeletal maturation, such as a hand-wrist radiograph or the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method. The hand-wrist radiograph was up to now the most frequently used method to assess skeletal maturation. However, the clinical and biological limitations of this technique, as well as the need to perform an additional radiograph, were reasons to develop another method to explore the maturation stages of visible cervical vertebrae on a simple lateral cephalometric radiograph. The authors compare the 2 methods and prove the greater contribution of the CVM method compared to the hand-wrist radiograph. PMID:25444244

  9. Written orthopedic patient education materials from the point of view of empowerment by education.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Kirsi; Salanterä, Sanna; Katajisto, Jouko; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2004-02-01

    Written patient education materials are one way of supporting patient empowerment. The aim of this study was to evaluate written orthopedic patient education materials (n = 25) drawn from a university hospital's electronic databank. In the absence of suitable tools for evaluation, an analytic framework was developed by a panel of nursing scientists and clinical experts. The materials were evaluated from the point of view of empowerment by their external appearance, content and instructiveness. In terms of their external appearance the materials were well prepared, but much was left to be desired with regard to contents and instructiveness. Development needs to focus on making better use of methods of visual representation, on increasing the coverage of content areas that so far have received less attention, like social, experiential, ethical and financial empowerment, and on providing a more focused perspective on the patient. PMID:15132523

  10. Cognition, action, and object manipulation.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, David A; Chapman, Kate M; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-09-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, little attention has been paid to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain in which links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including 1-hand grasps, 2-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in which the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. The tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' law, naturalistic observation, and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

  11. DATACUBE: A datacube manipulation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair; Currie, Malcolm J.

    2014-05-01

    DATACUBE is a command-line package for manipulating and visualizing data cubes. It was designed for integral field spectroscopy but has been extended to be a generic data cube tool, used in particular for sub-millimeter data cubes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. It is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

  12. Ants: the supreme soil manipulators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review focuses on the semiochemical interactions between ants and their soil environment. Ants occupy virtually every ecological niche and have evolved mechanisms to not just cope with, but also manipulate soil organisms. The metapleural gland, specific to ants was thought to be the major sourc...

  13. Rational Manipulation of Oxygen Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thane Blinman; Melinda Maggard

    2000-01-01

    Background. Optimization of oxygen delivery remains the best method to prevent and the only way to treat common intensive care unit syndromes such as sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction, and acute lung injury. This paper reviews the elements of oxygen delivery, describes how clinical interventions work through those elements to alter oxygen delivery, reviews theoretical and empirical data relating to manipulation

  14. Medication-assisted Spinal Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J Kohlbeck; Scott Haldeman

    2002-01-01

    Background context: The acceptance of spinal manipulation as a reasonable method of treating certain patients with spinal pain over the past decade has led to a renewed interest and increased use of these techniques performed in conjunction with commonly used medications and procedures. Manual therapy is increasingly being used in conjunction with anesthetics, sedatives or analgesics as well as local,

  15. Master/slave manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    System capabilities are equivalent to mobility, dexterity, and strength of human arm. Arrangement of torque motor, harmonic drive, and potentiometer combination allows all power and control leads to pass through center of slave with position-transducer arrangement of master, and "stovepipe joint" is incorporated for manipulator applications.

  16. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  17. Robot Manipulator Control under Unix

    E-print Network

    Hayward, Vincent

    , high-level computer languages. Research in task-level robot programming has demonstrated the need manipulator control has been associated with the development of dedicated robot programming languages (Paul programming systems are based on a robot controller designed around a special language (Shimano, Geshke

  18. Shaping the future of manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Dholakia; T. Cizmár

    2011-01-01

    Optical forces can be used to manipulate biological and colloidal material in a non-contact manner. This forms the foundation of a wealth of exciting science, particularly in the fields of physics, biology and soft condensed matter. Although the standard Gaussian single-beam trap remains a very powerful tool, shaping the phase and amplitude of a light field provides unusual light patterns

  19. ISL - A String Manipulating Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, K.C.; And Others.

    The Information Search Language (ISL), described in this report, is a problem-oriented language designed to facilitate the manipulation of real character strings with the Control Data 1604 computer. The report gives instructions for the language; these may be classified as Pseudo-ops, Word-Oriented instructions, Character-string instructions,…

  20. Employee Engagement: Manipulation or Voice?

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    Employee Engagement: Manipulation or Voice? David E Guest Department of Management King's College, London Sydney University Seminar: December 2013 #12;The Interest in Engagement · Focus of academic and implications for the workforce #12;Structure of Presentation · Explore the meanings of engagement · Evaluate

  1. High-strength, surface-porous polyether-ether-ketone for load-bearing orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nathan T; Torstrick, F Brennan; Lee, Christopher S D; Dupont, Kenneth M; Safranski, David L; Chang, W Allen; Macedo, Annie E; Lin, Angela S P; Boothby, Jennifer M; Whittingslow, Daniel C; Carson, Robert A; Guldberg, Robert E; Gall, Ken

    2015-02-01

    Despite its widespread clinical use in load-bearing orthopedic implants, polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is often associated with poor osseointegration. In this study, a surface-porous PEEK material (PEEK-SP) was created using a melt extrusion technique. The porous layer was 399.6±63.3 ?m thick and possessed a mean pore size of 279.9±31.6 ?m, strut spacing of 186.8±55.5 ?m, porosity of 67.3±3.1% and interconnectivity of 99.9±0.1%. Monotonic tensile tests showed that PEEK-SP preserved 73.9% of the strength (71.06±2.17 MPa) and 73.4% of the elastic modulus (2.45±0.31 GPa) of as-received, injection-molded PEEK. PEEK-SP further demonstrated a fatigue strength of 60.0 MPa at one million cycles, preserving 73.4% of the fatigue resistance of injection-molded PEEK. Interfacial shear testing showed the pore layer shear strength to be 23.96±2.26 MPa. An osseointegration model in the rat revealed substantial bone formation within the pore layer at 6 and 12 weeks via microcomputed tomography and histological evaluation. Ingrown bone was more closely apposed to the pore wall and fibrous tissue growth was reduced in PEEK-SP when compared to non-porous PEEK controls. These results indicate that PEEK-SP could provide improved osseointegration while maintaining the structural integrity necessary for load-bearing orthopedic applications. PMID:25463499

  2. Surface integrity of biodegradable Magnesium-Calcium orthopedic implant by burnishing.

    PubMed

    Salahshoor, M; Guo, Y B

    2011-11-01

    Magnesium-Calcium (MgCa) alloy as an emerging biodegradable implant material has received considerable attention in orthopedic fixation applications. The biodegradable MgCa alloys avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. They also provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers. However, the key issue facing a biodegradable MgCa implant is the fast corrosion in the human body environment. The ability to adjust the degradation rate of MgCa alloys is critical in the successful development of biodegradable orthopedic materials. Burnishing as a low plastic deformation process is a promising technique to tune surface integrity of MgCa implant surface for biodegradation control. However, the poor ductility of MgCa alloys imposes a great challenge for burnishing. This study focuses on the basic understanding of surface mechanical behavior of burnished biodegradable MgCa0.8 (wt%) alloy. The effects of burnishing parameters, i.e., pressure, feed, speed, number of path, and burnishing pattern on surface integrity factors such as surface topography, roughness, microhardness, microstructure, and residual stresses are investigated. The burnished surfaces are shinier and smoother than the as-machined ones. The MgCa alloy can be safely burnished at suitable burnishing conditions since no cracks are produced at the surface and in the subsurface. The microstructure including grain size does not show a noticeable change after burnishing. The machined surfaces are harder than the burnished ones down to the deep subsurface (?200 ?m) as opposed to the shallow hardened depth (?50 ?m) in cutting. Residual stresses are highly compressive especially at low burnishing pressure. PMID:22098888

  3. Impact of a weekly reading program on orthopedic surgery residents' in-training examination.

    PubMed

    Weglein, Daniel G; Gugala, Zbigniew; Simpson, Suzanne; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2015-05-01

    In response to a decline in individual residents' performance and overall program performance on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE), the authors' department initiated a daily literature reading program coupled with weekly tests on the assigned material. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the reading program on individual residents' scores and the training program's OITE scores. The reading program consisted of daily review articles from the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, followed by a weekly written examination consisting of multiple-choice or fill-in-the-blank questions. All articles were selected and all questions were written by the departmental chair. A questionnaire was given to assess residents' perceptions of the weekly tests. As a result of implementing the reading program for a 10-month period, residents' subsequent performance on the OITE significantly improved (mean score increase, 4, P<.0001; percentile score increase, 11, P=.0007). The difference in mean score was significant for residents in postgraduate years 3, 4, and 5. A statistically significant correlation was found between weekly test scores and performance on the OITE, with a significant correlation between weekly test scores and OITE percentile ranking. The study results also showed a positive correlation between reading test attendance and weekly test scores. Residents' anonymous questionnaire responses also demonstrated the reading program to be a valuable addition to the residency training curriculum. In conclusion, the study strongly supports the benefits of a weekly reading and examination program in enhancing the core knowledge of orthopedic surgery residents. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(5):e387-e393.]. PMID:25970365

  4. A novel experimental model of orthopedic trauma with acute kidney injury in obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Mittwede, Peter N; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after blunt traumatic injury in humans. Because limitations exist in studying trauma in human patients, animal models are necessary to elucidate mechanisms of remote organ injury after trauma. We developed a model of severe orthopedic trauma in lean (LZ) and obese (OZ) Zucker rats, in which OZ develop greater kidney dysfunction after trauma than LZ. Orthopedic trauma was inflicted via bilateral hindlimb soft tissue injury, fibula fracture, and injection of homogenized bone components. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured for 6 h after trauma, and again at 24 h after trauma. Urine was collected for 24 h before and after trauma to measure urine albumin excretion. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and renal macrophage infiltration (ED-1 [CD68 Antibody] immunostaining) were measured in animals with and without trauma. MAP and HR were similar between LZ and OZ throughout the study, with the exception that OZ had a 18 mmHg lower pressure 24 h posttrauma. GFR and RPF were decreased significantly (?50%), while urine albumin excretion, plasma IL-6, and renal ED-1-positive cells were increased in OZ 24 h after trauma compared to both OZ without trauma and LZ after trauma. In conclusion, these data are consistent with studies in humans that show that AKI develops more frequently in obese than in lean individuals. This model will be an important experimental tool to better understand the underlying mechanisms of poor outcomes after trauma in obese patients. PMID:24303169

  5. Determining the clinical importance of treatment benefits for interventions for painful orthopedic conditions.

    PubMed

    Katz, Nathaniel P; Paillard, Florence C; Ekman, Evan

    2015-01-01

    The overarching goals of treatments for orthopedic conditions are generally to improve or restore function and alleviate pain. Results of clinical trials are generally used to determine whether a treatment is efficacious; however, a statistically significant improvement may not actually be clinically important, i.e., meaningful to the patient. To determine whether an intervention has produced clinically important benefits requires a two-step process: first, determining the magnitude of change considered clinically important for a particular measure in the relevant population and, second, applying this yardstick to a patient's data to determine whether s/he has benefited from treatment. Several metrics have been devised to quantify clinically important differences, including the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) and clinically important difference (CID). Herein, we review the methods to generate the MCID and other metrics and their use and interpretation in clinical trials and practice. We particularly highlight the many pitfalls associated with the generation and utilization of these metrics that can impair their correct use. These pitfalls include the fact that different pain measures yield different MCIDs, that efficacy in clinical trials is impacted by various factors (population characteristics, trial design), that the MCID value is impacted by the method used to calculate it (anchor, distribution), by the type of anchor chosen and by the definition (threshold) of improvement. The MCID is also dependent on the population characteristics such as disease type and severity, sex, age, etc. For appropriate use, the MCID should be applied to changes in individual subjects, not to group changes. The MCID and CID are useful tools to define general guidelines to determine whether a treatment produces clinically meaningful effects. However, the many pitfalls associated with these metrics require a detailed understanding of the methods to calculate them and their context of use. Orthopedic surgeons that will use these metrics need to carefully understand them and be aware of their pitfalls. PMID:25645576

  6. Line Kinematics for Whole-Arm Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Eberman, Brian

    1991-01-01

    A Whole-Arm Manipulator uses every surface to both sense and interact with the environment. To facilitate the analysis and control of a Whole-Arm Manipulator, line geometry is used to describe the location and trajectory ...

  7. Manipulability and object recognition: is manipulability a semantic feature?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Campanella; Tim Shallice

    2011-01-01

    Several lines of evidence exist, coming from neuropsychology, neuroimaging and behavioural investigations on healthy subjects,\\u000a suggesting that an interaction might exist between the systems devoted to object identification and those devoted to online\\u000a object-directed actions and that the way an object is acted upon (manipulability) might indeed influence object recognition.\\u000a In this series of experiments on speeded word-to-picture-matching tasks, it

  8. Manipulating, Reacting, and Constructing Single Molecules

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Manipulating, Reacting, and Constructing Single Molecules with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope Tip. The fascinating advances in atom and molecule manipulation with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip allow in nanoscience and technology. The STM manipulation techniques use- ful in the molecular construction

  9. Iterative inverse kinematics with manipulator configuration control

    SciTech Connect

    Grudic, G.Z.; Lawrence, P.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1993-08-01

    A new method, termed the offset modification method (OM method), for solving the manipulator inverse kinematics problem is presented. The OM method works by modifying the link offset values of a manipulator until it is possible to derive closed-form inverse kinematics equations for the resulting manipulator (termed the model manipulator). This procedure allows one to derive a set of three nonlinear equations in three unknowns that, when numerically solved, give an inverse kinematics solution for the original manipulator. The OM method can be applied to manipulators with any number of degrees of freedom, as long as the manipulator satisfies a given set of conditions (Theorem 1). The OM method is tested on a 6-degree-of-freedom manipulator that has no known closed-form inverse kinematics equations. It is shown that the OM method is applicable to real-time manipulator control, can be used to guarantee convergence to a desired endpoint position and orientation (if it exists), and allows one to directly choose which inverse kinematics solution the algorithm will converge to (as specified in the model manipulator closed-form inverse kinematics equations). Applications of the method to other 6-DOF manipulator geometries and to redundant manipulators (i.e. greater than 6 DOF geometries) are discussed.

  10. Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chips for Dielectric Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Heller, Eric

    Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chips for Dielectric Manipulation A THESIS PRESENTED BY THOMAS Manipulation Thomas Peter Hunt Advisor: Robert M. Westervelt This thesis describes the development the surrounding medium can be manipulated with DEP. #12;iv We initially fabricated an array of microscale post

  11. Coherent manipulation of photons and electrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    In modern physics, coherent manipulation of photons and electrons has been intensively studied, and may have important applications in classical and quantum information processing. In this dissertation, we consider some interesting schemes to realize photonic and electronic coherent manipulation. In order to coherently manipulate photons, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) systems have been widely adopted because the optical response of EIT

  12. Manipulation of Ideals 1 Radical ideals

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Manipulation of Ideals 1 Radical ideals the radical ideal membership problem 2 Independence Computation (MCS 563) Manipulation of Ideals L-33 7 April 2014 1 / 30 #12;Manipulation of Ideals 1 Radical ideals the radical ideal membership problem 2 Independence Varieties a problem in algebraic statistics 3

  13. A Framework for Content-Adaptive Photo Manipulation Macros: Application to Face, Landscape, and Global Manipulations

    E-print Network

    Agrawala, Maneesh

    to blur the regions above and below the car. Target Images Macro Results ... Demonstration Manipulations: #12;Target Images Macro Results #12;Car Recoloring Manipulation We demonstrate recoloring of 5 red, and Global Manipulations Supplemental Materials page 2-3 Tilt Shift Manipulation Results page 4-5 Car

  14. Deflection prediction for serial manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fresonke, D. A.; Hernandez, E.; Tesar, D.

    1988-01-01

    A method of deflection analysis for a general serial manipulator which considers end-effector, gravity, and inertial loads is described. The conceptualized manipulator can have many degrees of freedom and be of the most general geometry. The analysis returns end-effector error based on a quasi-static approach. Thus, small oscillations (due to vibrations) are ignored and the inertial loads are considered applied loads. A kinematic analysis based on geometric influence coefficients is used to obtaining resultant joint loads. A flexibility analysis sufficient to describe general link deformation is performed to yield the local link deformations. These local values are transformed to end-effector deflections through the use of the kinematic influence coefficients as a first order approximation. End-effector deflection due to flexibilities in the joint actuators is addressed. A description of the generalized end-effector spring is presented.

  15. [Exploration on eye needling manipulation].

    PubMed

    Hai, Ying; Tian, Wei-Zhu

    2013-09-01

    The 40-year experiences in the clinical application of eye acupuncture in our hospital are summarized. The manipulation of needle insertion, withdrawal and puncture procedure is analyzed. The keys of the techniques of eye acupuncture are explained. The basic needling manipulations are determined. In the insertion of needle, professor Peng stressed on the stability, accuracy and fast, without lifting, thrusting, rotating, and opening/closing techniques involved. TIAN Wei-zhu emphasizes the gentle insertion, pain avoiding, apparent needling sensation and needling sensation transmission. In terms of acupuncture operation, skin stretching, patient's attention shifting, quick insertion of needle and slow-down moving of needle body are required. The outside orbit transverse needling method is recommended basically. PMID:24298770

  16. Database Manipulation on Quantum Computers

    E-print Network

    Ahmed Younes

    2007-05-29

    Manipulating a database system on a quantum computer is an essential aim to benefit from the promising speed-up of quantum computers over classical computers in areas that take a vast amount of storage and processing time such as in databases. In this paper, the basic operations for manipulating the data in a quantum database will be defined, e.g. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, backing up and restoring a database file. This gives the ability to perform the data processing that usually takes a long processing time on a classical database system, in a simultaneous way on a quantum computer. Defining a quantum version of more advanced concepts used in database systems, e.g. the referential integrity and the relational algebra, is a normal extension to this work

  17. Tactile Sensing for Robotic Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Melchiorri

    In several fields of robotics, tactile and force sensors represent a basic tool for achieving an enhanced interaction with\\u000a the environment. As a matter of fact, areas such as advanced manipulation, telemanipulation, haptic devices, legged robots\\u000a and so on are intrinsically based on an advanced sensorial equipment and on proper techniques for the exploitation of their\\u000a information. These types of

  18. Genetic Manipulation of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Bouillaut, Laurent; McBride, Shonna M.; Sorg, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore forming, anaerobic, intestinal bacterium and is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. For many years this organism was considered genetically intractable, but in the past 10 years, multiple methods have been developed or adapted for genetic manipulation of C. difficile. This unit describes the molecular techniques used for genetic modification of this organism, including methods for gene disruption, complementation, plasmid introduction and integration, and cross-species conjugations. PMID:21400677

  19. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  20. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brye, R. G.; Frederick, P. N.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The operator's ability to perform five manipulator tip movements while using monoptic and stereoptic video systems was assessed. Test data obtained were compared with previous results to determine the impact of camera placement and stereoptic viewing on manipulator system performance. The tests were performed using the NASA MSFC extendible stiff arm Manipulator and an analog joystick controller. Two basic manipulator tasks were utilized. The minimum position change test required the operator to move the manipulator arm to touch a target contract. The dexterity test required removal and replacement of pegs.

  1. Algorithm For Control Of Underactuated Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Algorithm for improved control of underactuated multiple-link robotic manipulators developed via spatial-algebra-operator approach. Aspects of this approach described in several previous articles in NASA Tech Briefs-most recently "Robot Control Based on Spatial-Operator Algebra" (NPO-17918). Underactuated manipulator has fewer actuators than it has degrees of freedom. Complexity of underactuated systems managed by unified analysis. It has implications for fault-tolerant control, and many practical manipulators underactuated. Examples include manipulators with flexible joints and/or flexible links; space/underwater robots; manipulators that operate with some actuators that turned off because of failure or because of need to conserve energy; manipulators that grasp objects loosely, and manipulators that grasp objects with internal degrees of freedom (e.g., plungers, rollers).

  2. Introducing a New Technique for Limb Prepping in Orthopedic Surgeries: Designing, Construction, and Evaluation of Limb-Lifting Assistive Device.

    PubMed

    Taghi Mojeni, Mohammad; Najafi, Soroosh Aminolsharieh; Nomali, Mahin

    2015-05-01

    Lifting and holding patients' limbs while preparing the skin for orthopedic surgeries may be a lengthy process causing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) for preoperative team members. Studies reported weight limits for lifting and holding limbs; whenever this weight is greater than a specific amount, additional staff or assistive devices are needed because nurses and support staff working in orthopedic operating rooms (ORs) are at high risk of MSDs. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the design, construction, and effectiveness of a limb-lifting assistive device installed in the OR of 5 Azar Hospital affiliated with Golestan University of Medical Sciences and used during the surgical preparation process. PMID:26031695

  3. Evaluation of obstacle avoidance ability for redundant mobile manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Tanaka; Mamoru Minami; Yasushi Mae

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we presents a criteria of obstacle avoidance of mobile manipulator, which is composed of redundant manipulator and mobile robot. Concerning configuration control study of redundant manipulators, avoidance manipulability ellipsoid and avoidance manipulability shape index have been suggested so far as an index to symbolize avoidance ability of manipulator's shape when the hand is tracking to a desired

  4. Novel sphene coatings on Ti–6Al–4V for orthopedic implants using sol–gel method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengtie Wu; Yogambha Ramaswamy; David Gale; Wenrong Yang; Keqin Xiao; Liangchi Zhang; Yongbai Yin; Hala Zreiqat

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is commonly used to coat titanium alloys (Ti–6Al–4V) for orthopedic implants. However, their poor adhesion strength and insufficient long-term stability limit their application. Novel sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study is to use the novel sphene ceramics as coatings for Ti–6Al–4V. The sol–gel method was used to produce the coatings

  5. Comparison of the morphine-sparing effects of diclofenac sodium and ketorolac tromethamine after major orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ratan Alexander; Habib E. El-Moalem; Tong J. Gan

    2002-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of diclofenac sodium with ketorolac tromethamine in reducing postoperative morphine use after major orthopedic surgery.Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.Setting: Major teaching institution.Patients: 102 ASA physical status II patients undergoing hip and knee replacement with general anesthesia.Interventions: Before induction of anesthesia, patients were randomly allocated to receive intravenously either diclofenac sodium 75 mg (Group D),

  6. The value of suction drainage fluid culture during aseptic and septic orthopedic surgery: a prospective study of 901 patients.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Pron, B; Vuagnat, A; Gleizes, V; Signoret, F; Denormandie, P; Si-Ali, A; Perrone, C; Feron, J M; Gaillard, J L

    2002-01-01

    There are no guidelines on the value of suction drainage fluid culture (SDC), and it is difficult to determine whether the organisms cultured from suction drainage fluid samples are pathogenic or simply contaminants. We performed 2989 cultures of suction drainage fluid samples obtained, during a 1-year period, from 901 patients who underwent aseptic or septic orthopedic surgery (946 operations). The culture results were analyzed to evaluate their ability to detect postoperative infection after aseptic operations or to detect either a persistent or new episode of sepsis in patients known to have infection. For aseptic operations, the sensitivity of SDC was 25%, the specificity was 99%, the positive predictive value was 25%, and the negative predictive value was 99%. For septic operations, the sensitivity of SDC was 81%, the specificity was 96%, the positive predictive value was 87%, and the negative predictive value was 94%. We conclude that, for aseptic orthopedic surgery, SDC is not useful in detecting postoperative infection. However, for septic orthopedic surgery, it is of clinical importance. PMID:11731944

  7. Delivery of mesenchymal stem cells in chitosan/collagen microbeads for orthopedic tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Rao, Rameshwar R; Stegemann, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation and delivery of stem cells in biomaterials is a promising approach to repairing damaged tissue in a minimally invasive manner. An appropriate biomaterial niche can protect the embedded cells from the challenging environment in the host tissue, while also directing stem cell differentiation toward the desired lineage. In this study, adult human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were embedded in hydrogel microbeads consisting of chitosan and type I collagen using an emulsification process. Glyoxal and ?-glycerophosphate were used as chemical and physical crosslinkers to initiate copolymerization of the matrix materials. The average size and size distribution of the microbeads could be varied by controlling the emulsification conditions. Spheroidal microbeads ranging in diameter from 82 ± 19 to 290 ± 78 µm were produced. Viability staining showed that MSC survived the encapsulation process (>90% viability) and spread inside the matrix over a period of 9 days in culture. Induced osteogenic differentiation using medium supplements showed that MSC increased gene expression of osterix and osteocalcin over time in culture, and also deposited calcium mineral. Bone sialoprotein and type I collagen gene expression were not affected. Delivery of microbeads through standard needles at practically relevant flow rates did not adversely affect cell viability, and microbeads could also be easily molded into prescribed geometries for delivery. Such protein-based microbeads may have utility in orthopedic tissue regeneration by allowing minimally invasive delivery of progenitor cells in microenvironments that are both protective and instructive. PMID:23571151

  8. Laser deposition and deformation behavior of Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys for orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Nag, S; Banerjee, R

    2012-12-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser deposited complex quaternary Ti-34Nb-7Zr-7Ta (all wt%), an orthopedic load-bearing implant alloy, has been investigated in detail in both as-deposited as well as heat-treated (?-solutionized and quenched) conditions. The difference in stress-strain behavior of this alloy in the above conditions has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM™) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared to the sample in heat-treated condition, the as-deposited sample showed evidence of strong growth related texture. Again in the as-deposited post tensile-tested condition formation of a high density of shear bands, possibly arising from slip localization due to shearing of ? precipitates in the ? matrix is observed. TEM investigations also show the presence of lenticular shaped deformation induced ? phase within the shear bands. In contrast, in case of the ?-solutionized sample, twinning and the formation of stress-induced plates appears to be the primary mode of deformation. The change in deformation mechanism and thus the tensile property of this alloy could be attributed to the crystallographic texture along the growth direction as well as diffusion mediated isothermal ? precipitates, that cause an enrichment of Nb and Ta in the ? matrix, during the laser-deposition process. This is no longer present after the solutionizing treatment. PMID:23137619

  9. Biomaterial Co-Cr-Mo Alloys Nano Coating Calcium Phosphate Orthopedic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, N.; Inwati, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Man

    2014-08-01

    The modem study a thermal martensitic transformation of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys and ultimately offers large elongation to failure while maintaining high strength. In the future study, structural evolution and dislocation slip as an elementary process in the martensitic transformation in Co-Cr-Mo alloys were investigated to reveal the origin of their enhanced phase stability due to nitrogen addition and coating of calcium phosphate specimens with and without nitrogen addition were prepared. The N-doped alloys had a single-phase matrix, whereas the N-free alloys had a duplex microstructure. Irrespective of the nitrogen content, dislocations frequently dissociated into Shockley partial dislocations with stacking faults. The Nano range coating of calcium phosphate function as obstacles to the glide of partial dislocations and consequently significantly affect the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. As a result, the formation of marten site plays a crucial role in plastic deformation and wear behavior, the developed nanostructures modification associated with nitrogen addition must be a promising strategy for highly durable orthopedic implants.

  10. Effect of Porosity on the Properties of Open Cell Titanium Foams Intended for Orthopedic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, L. P.; Baril, E.

    2010-05-01

    Porous metals have been used in various orthopedic applications as coating to promote implant fixation or as scaffolds for bone reconstruction. Since these materials were up to recently only used as thin coating (i.e. sintered beads or mesh) and not available into shapes adequate for detailed characterization, the effect of the structure on the static and dynamic properties of these materials has not been widely reported in the literature. This paper presents the effect of the porosity (49.3-66.7%) on the static and dynamic properties of titanium foams produced with a powder metallurgy process. All materials exhibited compression curves with three stages, typical of ductile porous materials. When the porosity level increases, the materials become more brittle. The compression yield strength increases while the modulus is more or less unaffected when the porosity increases from 49.3 to 66.7% and does not follow the power law model accepted for porous medium. The shear strength/adhesion with dense substrates increases with density and is proportional to the compression yield strength. The fatigue limit is not directly link with the porosity. The discrepancies observed are attributed to differences in the structure as the porosity increases.

  11. Mathematical Outcomes and Working Memory in Children With TBI and Orthopedic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Prasad, Mary; Johnson, Chad P.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study compared mathematical outcomes in children with predominantly moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI; n =50) or orthopedic injury (OI; n=47) at 2 and 24 months post-injury. Working memory and its contribution to math outcomes at 24 months post-injury was also examined. Participants were administered an experimental cognitive addition task and standardized measures of calculation, math fluency, and applied problems; as well as experimental measures of verbal and visual-spatial working memory. Although children with TBI did not have deficits in foundational math fact retrieval, they performed more poorly than OIs on standardized measures of math. In the TBI group, performance on standardized measures was predicted by age at injury, socioeconomic status, and the duration of impaired consciousness. Children with TBI showed impairments on verbal, but not visual working memory relative to children with OI. Verbal working memory mediated group differences on math calculations and applied problems at 24 months post-injury. Children with TBI have difficulties in mathematics, but do not have deficits in math fact retrieval, a signature deficit of math disabilities. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical cognition and disability and the role of working memory in math learning and performance for children with TBI. PMID:23164058

  12. Effect of Intravenous Intraoperative Esmolol on Pain Management Following Lower Limb Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Farahmand, Maral; Kazemnezhad Leili, Ehsan; Shirvani, Masoumeh; Khajeh Jahromi, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background Lack of proper control of acute postoperative pain often leads to lingering or chronic pain. Several studies have emphasized the role of beta-blockers in reducing postoperative pain. Esmolol is a selective short-acting beta-blocker that produces few side effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of intravenous intraoperative esmolol on postoperative pain reduction following orthopedic leg fracture surgery. Methods In a clinical trial, 82 patients between 20-65 years of age with tibia fractures and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I & II who underwent surgery were divided into two groups. Group A received esmolol and group B received normal saline. Postoperative pain was measured at three time points: entering the recovery unit, and at 3 h and 6 h following surgery, using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Mean VAS scores at all three time points were significantly different between the two test groups (P = 0.02, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0001, respectively). The consumption of pethidine was lower in group A than in group B (P = 0.004) and the duration of its effect was significantly longer in time (P = 0.026). Conclusions Intravenous intraoperative esmolol is effective in the reduction of postoperative pain following leg fracture surgery. It reduced opioid consumption following surgery and delayed patient requests for analgesics.

  13. Review of the regulations for the use of stainless steels for orthopedic implants in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daga, Bernardo; Rivera, Graciela; Boeri, Roberto

    2007-11-01

    Motivated by the relatively high rate of failure of orthopedic implants in Argentina, the authors review the current normative regulating the use of stainless steels in the fabrication of these metallic parts in the country, and compare it with the regulations currently in use in other countries. The analysis shows that several standards in effect in the country do not comply with broadly recognized international standards. This situation is aggravated by a recent revision of the normative that failed to improve the quality standards to reach levels similar to those applied in developed countries or even in MERCOSUR associates. The national organization in charge of implant certification in Argentina, complying with the law, accepts the applicability of IRAM standards to certify stainless steels implants. In the opinion of the authors, the current practice used to certify implants does not guarantee the structural stability and biocompatibility of the devices, increasing the risk of failure in service, and escalating the cost of the public health care system.

  14. [Application of the hydrogen washout technique to orthopedic research (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ogata, K

    1981-08-01

    Since the first description by Aukland and co-authors in 1964, the hydrogen washout has been shown to be an accurate method in determining regional tissue blood flow. The presence of hydrogen molecules within the tissue is detected with a platinum electrode where a small amount of current is generated by oxidation of molecular hydrogen to hydrogen ions. Therefore, construction of the suitable electrode for the tissue to be measured is essential. The author applied the hydrogen washout technique to the blood flow measurement of bone, muscle, skin, digit and peripheral nerve, and found that the technique was valuable in basic and clinical studies in orthopedics. As a typical experimental study using the hydrogen washout technique, the study on the effect of adrenaline on bone blood flow was presented and the experimental method was explained in detail. Although the hydrogen washout technique has been developed to measure the blood flow, the technique has been found useful in detecting the pathways of microcirculation between different tissues. As an example, the study on nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disk was described. Since the hydrogen gas is harmless, it is possible to apply the technique to the clinical studies including the blood flow measurement of replanted digits, diagnosis of the compartment syndrome and the blood flow measurement of skin flaps. Furthermore, several problems in the hydrogen washout technique were discussed. PMID:7310209

  15. Cyclodextrin-erythromycin complexes as a drug delivery device for orthopedic application

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei; Yu, Xiaowei; Wang, Sunxi; Blasier, Ralph; Markel, David C; Mao, Guangzhao; Shi, Tong; Ren, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Background Erythromycin, a hydrophobic antibiotic used to treat infectious diseases, is now gaining attention because of its anti-inflammatory effects and ability to inhibit osteoclasts formation. The aim of this study was to explore a cyclodextrin-erythromycin (CD-EM) complex for sustained treatment of orthopedic inflammation. Methods and results Erythromycin was reacted with ?-cyclodextrin to form a nonhost-guest CD-EM complex using both kneading and stirring approaches. Physiochemical measurement data indicated that erythromycin and cyclodextrin formed a packing complex driven by intermolecular forces instead of a host-guest structure due to the limited space in the inner cavity of ?-cyclodextrin. The CD-EM complex improved the stability of erythromycin in aqueous solution and had a longer duration of bactericidal activity than free erythromycin. Cytotoxicity and cell differentiation were evaluated in both murine MC3T3 preosteoblast cells and RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The CD-EM complex was noncytotoxic and showed significant inhibition of osteoclast formation but had little effect on osteoblast viability and differentiation. Conclusion These attributes are especially important for the delivery of an adequate amount of erythromycin to the site of periprosthetic inflammation and reducing local inflammation in a sustained manner. PMID:22228990

  16. The CT number accuracy of a novel commercial metal artifact reduction algorithm for large orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Hilgers, Guido; Nuver, Tonnis; Minken, André

    2014-01-01

    Philips Healthcare released a novel metal artifact reduction algorithm for large orthopedic implants (O-MAR). Little information was available about its CT number accuracy. Since CT numbers are used for tissue heterogeneity corrections in external beam radiotherapy treatment planning, we performed a phantom study to assess the CT number accuracy of O-MAR. Two situations were simulated: a patient with a unilateral metallic hip prosthesis and a patient with bilateral metallic hip prostheses. We compared the CT numbers in the O-MAR reconstructions of the simulations to those in the nonO-MAR reconstruction and to those in a metal-free baseline reconstruction. In both simulations, the CT number accuracy of the O-MAR reconstruction was better than the CT number accuracy of the nonO- MAR reconstruction. In the O-MAR reconstruction of the unilateral simulation, all CT numbers were accurate within ± 5 HU (AAPM criterion). In the O-MAR reconstruction of the bilateral simulation, CT numbers were found that differed more than ± 5 HU from the metal-free baseline values. However, none of these differences were clinically relevant. PMID:24423859

  17. Incidence of glove failure during orthopedic operations and the protective effect of double gloves.

    PubMed Central

    Thanni, Lateef O. A.; Yinusa, W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of double gloves in protecting against the exposure of surgical team members' hands to blood. METHODOLOGY: Five-hundred-ninety-six gloves were studied during 71 orthopedic operations using the water-loading test (filling a glove with water and occluding its cuff tightly to identify leaking points). RESULTS: In all, 73 glove perforations occurred, but only nine resulted in exposure to blood (blood touching the skin). The incidence of glove perforation was 12% (73/596), and overall exposure (blood touching the skin) per operation was 13% (9/71). The latter would have been 87% (62/71) but for the use of double gloves. Sixteen percent of the perforations in double gloves were in the inner gloves, while 84% were in the outer gloves. Exposure of surgeons was reduced from 54% to 10%, first assistants from 27% to 3%, and second assistants from 7% to 0 (p < 0.02, df = 2) by double-gloving. Significantly more perforations occurred during operations on bone, compared with soft tissue operations, p < 0.0001, RR = 4 (95% CL 1.87-8.55). The most common sites of glove perforation were the index finger (47%), thumb, and the palm region: 14% each. More glove perforations occurred in nondominant hands. CONCLUSION: Double-gloving offers additional protection to surgeons and assistants by preventing hand exposure to blood intraoperatively. PMID:14717474

  18. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in orthopedics, basic research, and clinical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausdorf, Joerg; Jansson, Volkmar; Maier, Markus; Delius, Michael

    2005-04-01

    The molecular events following shock wave treatment of bone are widely unknown. Nevertheless patients with osteonecrosis and non unions are already treated partly successful with shock waves. Concerning the first indication, the question of the permeation of the shock wave into the bone was addressed. Therefore shockwaves were applied to porcine femoral heads and the intraosseous pressure was measured. A linear correlation of the pressure to the intraosseous distance was found. Approximately 50% of the pressure are still measurable 10 mm inside the femoral head. These findings should encourage continued shock wave research on this indication. Concerning the second indication (non union), osteoblasts were subjected to 250 or 500 shock waves at 25 kV. After 24, 48, and 72 h the levels of the bone and vascular growth factors bFGF, TGFbeta1, and VEGF were examined. After 24 h there was a significant increase in bFGF levels (p<0.05) with significant correlation (p<0.05) to the number of impulses. TGFbeta1, and VEGF showed no significant changes. This may be one piece in the cascade of new bone formation following shock wave treatment and may lead to a more specific application of shock waves in orthopedic surgery.

  19. Successful management of orthopedic operations requiring general anesthesia in a PNH patient after introduction of eculizumab.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Miyuki; Gotoh, Akihiko; Yasuda, Hajime; Ono, Eriko; Tanaka, Masaru; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder that presents with hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and bone marrow failure. Stressors such as infection and pregnancy have been known to exacerbate hemolysis in PNH patients. Surgery can also trigger prominent complement activation and is an important risk factor for hemolysis. Furthermore, the postoperative thrombosis risk is high. Eculizumab, which is a humanized monoclonal antibody against C5, suppresses hemolysis and prevents thrombosis, and thus improves quality of life for PNH patients. However, few reports have focused on eculizumab-treated PNH patients undergoing surgery. We report a 79-year-old PNH patient receiving eculizumab treatment who underwent three consecutive orthopedic surgeries requiring general anesthesia. Perioperative management was carried out routinely, as in non-PNH patients, and no postoperative complications developed. Surgery was formerly considered to be a high risk event for PNH patients, but this case raises the possibility that even elderly PNH patients may undergo surgery safely when maintained on eculizumab treatment. PMID:25971274

  20. An overview of recent advances in designing orthopedic and craniofacial implants.

    PubMed

    Mantripragada, Venkata P; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2013-11-01

    Great deal of research is still going on in the field of orthopedic and craniofacial implant development to resolve various issues being faced by the industry today. Despite several disadvantages of the metallic implants, they continue to be used, primarily because of their superior mechanical properties. In order to minimize the harmful effects of the metallic implants and its by-products, several modifications are being made to these materials, for instance nickel-free stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys are being introduced to eliminate the toxic effects of nickel being released from the alloys, introduce metallic implants with lower modulus, reduce the cost of these alloys by replacing rare elements with less expensive elements etc. New alloys like tantalum, niobium, zirconium, and magnesium are receiving attention given their satisfying mechanical and biological properties. Non-oxide ceramics like silicon nitride and silicon carbide are being currently developed as a promising implant material possessing a combination of properties such as good wear and corrosion resistance, increased ductility, good fracture and creep resistance, and relatively high hardness in comparison to alumina. Polymer/magnesium composites are being developed to improve mechanical properties as well as retain polymer's property of degradation. Recent advances in orthobiologics are proving interesting as well. This paper thus deals with the latest improvements being made to the existing implant materials and includes new materials being introduced in the field of biomaterials. PMID:23766134

  1. Adverse drug reactions of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in orthopedic patients

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Alpa Pragnesh; Saksena, Miti

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the ADRs due to NSAIDs and to know how to monitor the drug’s effect. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken in the Orthopedic Outpatients Department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Hundred patients were enrolled in this study to observe the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to NSAIDs. All the ADRs were further analyzed in relation to age and sex, type of drug and its pattern. Probability scale was used for the causality assessment of the ADRs. Results: 26% of the 100 patients developed ADR due to NSAIDs. There was not much of a difference in the number of the ADRs in relation to the gender. Diclofenac was the highest prescribed drug (65 patients), followed by paracetamol (12), nimesulide (10), ibuprofen (6), piroxicam (5) and Etoricoxib (2). Diclofenac accounted for the maximum number (73%) of ADRs, followed by nimesulide (16%), paracetamol (7%), and Etoricoxib (4%). Conclusion: Pharmacovigilance improves recognition of ADRs by the medical students. It allows the treating physician to identify the ADR associated with drugs, in particular, with the ones considered relatively safe and with those commonly prescribed by the medical and non-health professionals. PMID:21701643

  2. Nanoparticulate zinc oxide as a coating material for orthopedic and dental implants.

    PubMed

    Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Sharili, Amir S; Huang, Jie; Rawlinson, Simon C F; Allaker, Robert P

    2015-03-01

    Orthopedic and dental implants are prone to infection. In this study, we describe a novel system using zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) as a coating material to inhibit bacterial adhesion and promote osteoblast growth. Electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) was employed to deposit mixtures of nZnO and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) onto the surface of glass substrates. Nano-coated substrates were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus suspended in buffered saline or bovine serum to determine antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that 100% nZnO and 75% nZnO/25% nHA composite-coated substrates have significant antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, osteoblast function was explored by exposing cells to nZnO. UMR-106 cells exposed to nZnO supernatants showed minimal toxicity. Similarly, MG-63 cells cultured on nZnO substrates did not show release of TNF-? and IL-6 cytokines. These results were reinforced by both proliferation and differentiation studies which revealed that a substrate coated with exclusively nZnO is more efficient than composite surface coatings. Finally, electron and light microscopy, together with immunofluorescence staining, revealed that all cell types tested, including human mesenchymal cell (hMSC), were able to maintain normal cell morphology when adhered onto the surface of the nano-coated substrates. Collectively, these findings indicate that nZnO can, on its own, provide an optimal coating for future bone implants that are both antimicrobial and biocompatible. PMID:24862288

  3. Novel Approaches for Treating Musculoskeletal Diseases: Molecular Orthopedics and Systems Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mashayekhi, Kaveh; O’Brien, Margaret; Zugun-Eloae, Florin; Labusca, Luminita

    2013-01-01

    Molecular medicine uses knowledge about cell structure and function for disease, diagnostics, stage characterisation and treatment. The advent of genomic technologies is considerably leading to developments in the field of molecular medicine. The accumulation of detailed information about gene expression, epigenetic variability, protein transcription and functional modulation is contributing to a new era in medicine. Rapid and early diagnostic procedures, molecular characterisation of degenerative and proliferative diseases and personalized therapies are predicted to lead to advancements in health prevention and treatment of disease. Diagnostic tools and therapies based on local and /or general modulation of cellular processes for traumatic or degenerative musculoskeletal conditions are becoming available. A logical consequence of the information derived from extensive data gathering, systems biology and systemic medicine has lead to significant improvements in understanding biological structure and function in a simultaneous bottom top and integrative, holistic manner. The description of disease mechanism at an intimate, subcellular level has a dual benefit. A thorough understanding of the crosstalk involved in molecular pathways both in the normal and the diseased state are expanding scientific knowledge and simultaneously are enabling design cell-targeted and individualized therapies. This paper presents a brief overview of current molecular based treatments available to the orthopedic surgeon and introduces the concept of systemic medicine from the perspective of musculoskeletal pathology. PMID:23798982

  4. [Surgical treatment of orthopedic deformities due to spasticity in the lower limb].

    PubMed

    Denormandie, P; Kiefer, C; Mailhan, L; Even-Schneider, A; Sorriaux, G; Martin, J-N; Judet, T

    2003-05-01

    Orthopedic deformities in the lower limb concern all joints (hip, knee, ankle, foot) with a wide range of clinical forms. Spasticity, contracture, stiffness, laxity, neurological deficit are assessed to establish the surgical procedure. Surgical techniques are adapted to the goals that are detailed with the patient and his family: standing, transferring, walking, hygiene, devices (shoes, orthosis, canes, wheelchair). Surgical procedures can associate: lengthening of contractured muscles (tenotomy with or without sutures, fractional lengthening at the musculo-tendinous junction or desinsertion), strengthening of antagonists (passive or active tendon transfer) and correction of joint deformity (arthrolysis, arthrodesis, arthroplasty). In adults, the most common deformities are the equinus or equinovarus foot, toe curling, hip adductum, knee flessum. Talus or knee recurvatum are less frequently observed. The association of various deformities raises questions concerning the hierarchy of surgical procedure, from an anatomical point of view (do we start with proximal or distal joint first?) as from chronological concerns (shall we do one or more procedures?). Pluridisciplinary assessment using neurological anesthetic blocs and dynamic EMG or gait analysis is necessary to detail the aims of surgery and choose the surgical procedures. PMID:12746709

  5. Development of Portland cement for orthopedic applications, establishing injectability and decreasing setting times.

    PubMed

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2012-11-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with calcium chloride and calcium nitrate additives was investigated using a syringe with a 2 mm aperture for potential clinical applications such as vertebroplasty. Addition of either additive at 10 wt % increased the quantity of cement extruded through the syringe from approximately 25 wt % for the PC standard, to over 95 wt %. 10 wt % additions of either additive also decreased setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min. The compressive strength of the modified cements was all greater than the compressive strength of a human vertebral body. Decreasing either additive to 5 wt % generated compressive strengths after 24 h setting equal to polymethylmethacrylate, the cement used for the majority of vertebroplasty procedures. An initial early exotherm in the chloride cements was coupled with an X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak that indicated the early formation of the ettringite cement phase. In contrast, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and XRD data indicated that calcium nitrate may have stimulated early calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) production (the main strength producing phase of PC). Combining the two additives produced a synergistic effect with cements having increased injectabilities and compressive strengths compared with either addition used individually. This study has demonstrated that by modifying PC with nonproprietary chemicals it was possible to significantly increase cement injectability and reduce setting times whilst maintaining compressive strengths, making PC suitable for potential orthopedic applications. PMID:22887643

  6. Comparison of the effect of intravenous ketamine and intramuscular ketamine for orthopedic procedures in children's sedation

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Mehdi; Esfandbod, Mohsen; Saeedi, Morteza; Farnia, Mohamadreza; Basirani, Roya; Zebardast, Jeyran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ketamine is used as a general anesthetic for short-term surgical procedures. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of intravenous (IV) ketamine and intramuscular (IM) ketamine in children admitted to the emergency department (ED). Materials and Methods: This is a clinical trial on 60 patients who were randomly classified into two groups. The first group received IV ketamine (1 mg/kg) and the second received IM ketamine (4 mg/kg). Data were collected before, during, and after the procedure. Time to reach sedation, severity of the sedation, and complications of the drug until discharge were studied. Results: In this study, 60 patients were evaluated. The average length of the procedures was similar in both groups (P > 0.05). According to this study, sedation levels in the two groups in 5, 10, and 15 minutes did not show significant differences (P > 0.05), but there was a significant difference in sedation levels of patients in 30, 35, 40, and 45 minutes during sedation (P = 0.03, P = 0.04, P = 0.03 and P = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of complications between the two groups. Dicussion: There was no significant difference in complications and level of sedation in both groups, but sedation was longer in the IM group; so, IV ketamine is the desirable approach for orthopedic procedures in sedating children. PMID:25337479

  7. Gene manipulation watchdog: too smooth?

    PubMed

    1982-03-18

    The continued existence of Britain's Genetic Manipulation Advisory Group (GMAG) may be threatened by its low-key success in regulating that country's research in genetic engineering. Most responsibility for evaluating safety conditions in existing facilities now rests with in-house committees. GMAG mainly drafts guidance notes on containment and assesses the safety standards of laboratories just beginning to do genetic research, functions which some feel could be handled by other government bodies. Industry and academics disagree on whether its continued existence is warranted; Parliament is expected to make the decision by the end of the year. PMID:11643724

  8. Spin-manipulating polarized deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, V S; Krisch, A D; Leonova, M A; Raymond, R S; Sivers, D W; Wong, V K; Hinterberger, F; Kondratenko, A M

    2011-03-01

    Spin dynamics of polarized deuteron beams near depolarization resonances, including a new polarization preservation concept based on specially-designed multiple resonance crossings, has been tested in a series of experiments in the COSY synchrotron. Intricate spin dynamics with sophisticated pre-programmed patterns as well as effects of multiple crossings of a resonance were studied both theoretically and experimentally with excellent agreement. Possible applications of these results to preserve, manipulate and spin-flip polarized beams in synchrotrons and storage rings are discussed.

  9. Optical proximity sensors for manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. R.

    1973-01-01

    A breadboard optical proximity sensor intended for application to remotely operated manipulators has been constructed and evaluated in the laboratory. The sensing head was 20 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm in size, and could be made considerably smaller. Several such devices could be conveniently mounted on a manipulator hand, for example, to align the hand with an object. Type 1 and Type 2 optical configurations are discussed, Type 1 having a sharply defined sensitive volume, Type 2 an extended one. The sensitive volume can be placed at any distance between 1 cm and approximately 1 m by choice of a replaceable prism. The Type 1 lateral resolution was 0.5 mm on one axis and 5 mm perpendicular to it for a unit focused at 7.5 cm. The corresponding resolution in the axial direction was 2.4 cm, but improvement to 0.5 cm is possible. The effect of surface reflectivity is discussed and possible modes of application are suggested.

  10. Mobile remote manipulator vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold G. (inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (inventor); Wallsom, Richard E. (inventor); Jensen, J. Kermit (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A mobile remote manipulator system is disclosed for assembly, repair and logistics transport on, around and about a space station square bay truss structure. The vehicle is supported by a square track arrangement supported by guide pins integral with the space station truss structure and located at each truss node. Propulsion is provided by a central push-pull drive mechanism that extends out from the vehicle one full structural bay over the truss and locks drive rods into the guide pins. The draw bar is now retracted and the mobile remote manipulator system is pulled onto the next adjacent structural bay. Thus, translation of the vehicle is inchworm style. The drive bar can be locked onto two guide pins while the extendable draw bar is within the vehicle and then push the vehicle away one bay providing bidirectional push-pull drive. The track switches allow the vehicle to travel in two orthogonal directions over the truss structure which coupled with the bidirectional drive, allow movement in four directions on one plane. The top layer of this trilayered vehicle is a logistics platform. This platform is capable of 369 degees of rotation and will have two astronaut foot restraint platforms and a space crane integral.

  11. Precise control of flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Bindford, T. O.; Schmitz, E.

    1984-01-01

    The design and experimental testing of end point position controllers for a very flexible one link lightweight manipulator are summarized. The latest upgraded version of the experimental set up, and the basic differences between conventional joint angle feedback and end point position feedback are described. A general procedure for application of modern control methods to the problem is outlined. The relationship between weighting parameters and the bandwidth and control stiffness of the resulting end point position closed loop system is shown. It is found that joint rate angle feedback in addition to the primary end point position sensor is essential for adequate disturbance rejection capability of the closed loop system. The use of a low order multivariable compensator design computer code; called Sandy is documented. A solution to the problem of control mode switching between position sensor sets is outlined. The proof of concept for endpoint position feedback for a one link flexible manipulator was demonstrated. The bandwidth obtained with the experimental end point position controller is about twice as fast as the beam's first natural cantilevered frequency, and comes within a factor of four of the absolute physical speed limit imposed by the wave propagation time of the beam.

  12. Manipulating expression of tonoplast transporters.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Zhou, Man; Hu, Qian; Reighard, Shane; Yuan, Shuangrong; Yuan, Ning; San, Bekir; Li, Dayong; Jia, Haiyan; Luo, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Plant vacuoles have multifaceted roles including turgor maintenance, cytosolic pH and ionic homeostasis, plant protection against environmental stress, detoxification, pigmentation, and cellular signaling. These roles are achieved through the coordinated activities of many proteins in the tonoplast (vacuolar membrane), of which the proton pumps and ion transporters have been modified for improved abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants. Here we describe a method to manipulate vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase in turfgrass and evaluate the impact of the modified tonoplast on the phenotype, biochemistry, and physiology of the transgenics. Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) plants overexpressing an Arabidopsis vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase AVP1 exhibited improved growth and enhanced salt tolerance, likely associated with increased photosynthesis, relative water content, proline production, and Na(+) uptake. These transgenic plants also had decreased solute leakage in the leaf tissues and increased concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), and total phosphorus in the root tissues. Similar strategies can be employed to manipulate other tonoplast transporters and in other plant species to produce transgenic plants with improved performance under various abiotic stresses. PMID:22895772

  13. Self mobile space manipulator project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. Ben; Friedman, Mark; Xu, Yangsheng; Kanade, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    A relatively simple, modular, low mass, low cost robot is being developed for space EVA that is large enough to be independently mobile on a space station or platform exterior, yet versatile enough to accomplish many vital tasks. The robot comprises two long flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with 2-DOF 'wrist' joints and grippers at each end. It walks by gripping pre-positioned attachment points, such as trusswork nodes, and alternately shifting its base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. The robot can perform useful tasks such as visual inspection, material transport, and light assembly by manipulating objects with one gripper, while stabilizing itself with the other. At SOAR '90, we reported development of 1/3 scale robot hardware, modular trusswork to serve as a locomotion substrate, and a gravity compensation system to allow laboratory tests of locomotion strategies on the horizontal face of the trusswork. In this paper, we report on project progress including the development of: (1) adaptive control for automatic adjustment to loads; (2) enhanced manipulation capabilities; (3) machine vision, including the use of neural nets, to guide autonomous locomotion; (4) locomotion between orthogonal trusswork faces; and (5) improved facilities for gravity compensation and telerobotic control.

  14. Algorithmic formulation of control problems in manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    The basic characteristics of manipulator control algorithms are discussed. The state of the art in the development of manipulator control algorithms is briefly reviewed. Different end-point control techniques are described together with control algorithms which operate on external sensor (imaging, proximity, tactile, and torque/force) signals in realtime. Manipulator control development at JPL is briefly described and illustrated with several figures. The JPL work pays special attention to the front or operator input end of the control algorithms.

  15. Impedance Matching for a Serial Link Manipulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Kurazume; Tsutomu Hasegawa

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new index for dynamic performance analysis of serial link manipulators named Impedance Matching Ellipsoid, or IME. Several indexes have been proposed for indicating static and dynamic performance of robot manipu- lators. For example, Dynamic Manipulability Ellipsoid (DME) characterizes distributions of hand acceleration produced by normalized joint torque. Manipulating-Force Ellipsoid (MFE) denotes static torque-force transmission ef£ciency from actuators

  16. Seismic qualification of existing safety class manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    There are two bridge type electromechanical manipulators within a nuclear fuel handling facility which were constructed over twenty-five years ago. At that time, there were only minimal seismic considerations. These manipulators together with the facility are being reactivated. Detailed analyses have shown that the manipulators will satisfy the requirements of ANSI/AISC N690-1984 when they are subjected to loadings including the site specific design basis earthquake. 4 refs.

  17. Seismic qualification of existing safety class manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1992-05-01

    There are two bridge type electromechanical manipulators within a nuclear fuel handling facility which were constructed over twenty-five years ago. At that time, there were only minimal seismic considerations. These manipulators together with the facility are being reactivated. Detailed analyses have shown that the manipulators will satisfy the requirements of ANSI/AISC N690-1984 when they are subjected to loadings including the site specific design basis earthquake. 4 refs.

  18. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.

  19. Autonomous manipulation on a robot: Summary of manipulator software functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    A six degree-of-freedom computer-controlled manipulator is examined, and the relationships between the arm's joint variables and 3-space are derived. Arm trajectories using sequences of third-degree polynomials to describe the time history of each joint variable are presented and two approaches to the avoidance of obstacles are given. The equations of motion for the arm are derived and then decomposed into time-dependent factors and time-independent coefficients. Several new and simplifying relationships among the coefficients are proven. Two sample trajectories are analyzed in detail for purposes of determining the most important contributions to total force in order that relatively simple approximations to the equations of motion can be used.

  20. Research on reconfigurable and reliable manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, P. K.; Kanade, T.

    We have proposed the concept of reconfigurable manipulators as a solution to tasks that require varied configurations of manipulators. Using modules of varying sizes and performance specifications, it is possible to build manipulators to suit the task at hand. Our research is not only addressing the issue of creating such manipulators but also the interesting theoretical challenges posed in mapping tasks to manipulators. We have developed strategies that allow us to determine the kinematic and dynamic configuration of a non-redundant manipulator from task specifications such as reachability, obstacle avoidance, manipulability, joint, limits, and joint velocities and accelerations. We are presently extending this design methodology for design of redundant and fault tolerant manipulator systems. Further, we are also addressing issues in automatic generation of software for kinematics, dynamics, and controllers for the configured manipulators. During the next year, we will be demonstrating automatic generation of software on the prototype system that we are building. We expect to have 4 joint and link modules available for this demonstration. The joint and link modules will also incorporate concepts for making power and data connections when the mechanical connection is made. Further, they will also include electronics, housed within the module, for communication and real-time control.

  1. A Recursive Lagrangian Formulation of Manipulator Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Hollerbach, John M.

    1980-06-01

    An efficient Lagrangian formulation of manipulator dynamics has been developed. The efficiency derives from recurrence relations for the velocities, accelerations, and generalized forces. The number of additions and ...

  2. Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari

    2003-01-01

    A figure depicts a prototype of a robotic-manipulator gripping device that includes two passive compliant fingers, suitable for picking up and manipulating objects that have irregular shapes and/or that are, themselves, compliant. The main advantage offered by this device over other robotic-manipulator gripping devices is simplicity: Because of the compliance of the fingers, force-feedback control of the fingers is not necessary for gripping objects of a variety of sizes, shapes, textures, and degrees of compliance. Examples of objects that can be manipulated include small stones, articles of clothing, and parts of plants.

  3. Mathematical Modeling For Control Of A Flexible Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Anren

    1996-01-01

    Improved method of mathematical modeling of dynamics of flexible robotic manipulators developed for use in controlling motions of manipulators. Involves accounting for effect, upon modes of vibration of manipulator, of changes in configuration of manipulator and manipulated payload(s). Flexible manipulator has one or more long, slender articulated link(s), like those used in outer space, method also applicable to terrestrial industrial robotic manipulators with relatively short, stiff links, or to such terrestrial machines as construction cranes.

  4. Use of commercial manipulator to handle a nuclear weapon component

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.P.

    1994-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a manipulator workcell to load and unload nuclear weapon pit assemblies from a cart. To develop this workcell, PNL procured a commercially available manipulator, equipped it with force-sensing and vision equipment, and developed manipulator control software. Manipulator workcell development demonstrated that commercially available manipulator systems can successfully perform this task if the appropriate manipulator is selected and the manipulator workcell tooling and software are carefully designed.

  5. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P. [North Carolina A& T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-02-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator`s slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator`s stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator`s wrist.

  6. Individual differences in manipulation: further studies of an emotional manipulation scale. 

    E-print Network

    Selfridge, Amy Louise

    2008-06-27

    Emotional manipulation is a strategy used by individuals to force the environment into compliance with their goals (St Clair, 1966). This study assessed the factor structure, validity and test-retest reliability of an emotional manipulation measure...

  7. Relation of perioperative elevation of troponin to long-term mortality after orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Oberweis, Brandon S; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Nukala, Swetha; Rosenberg, Andrew; Xu, Jinfeng; Stuchin, Steven; Iorio, Richard; Errico, Thomas; Radford, Martha J; Berger, Jeffrey S

    2015-06-15

    Myocardial necrosis in the perioperative period of noncardiac surgery is associated with short-term mortality, but long-term outcomes have not been characterized. We investigated the association between perioperative troponin elevation and long-term mortality in a retrospective study of consecutive subjects who underwent hip, knee, and spine surgery. Perioperative myocardial necrosis and International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision-coded myocardial infarction (MI) were recorded. Long-term survival was assessed using the Social Security Death Index database. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors of long-term mortality. A total of 3,050 subjects underwent surgery. Mean age was 60.8 years, and 59% were women. Postoperative troponin was measured in 1,055 subjects (34.6%). Myocardial necrosis occurred in 179 cases (5.9%), and MI was coded in 20 (0.7%). Over 9,015 patient-years of follow-up, 111 deaths (3.6%) occurred. Long-term mortality was 16.8% in subjects with myocardial necrosis and 5.8% with a troponin in the normal range. Perioperative troponin elevation (hazard ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.33 to 4.10) and coded postoperative MI (adjusted hazard ratio 3.51, 95% confidence interval 1.44 to 8.53) were significantly associated with long-term mortality after multivariable adjustment. After excluding patients with coronary artery disease and renal dysfunction, myocardial necrosis remained associated with long-term mortality. In conclusion, postoperative myocardial necrosis is common after orthopedic surgery. Myocardial necrosis is independently associated with long-term mortality at 3 years and may be used to identify patients at higher risk for events who may benefit from aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25890628

  8. Methyl methacrylate levels in orthopedic surgery: comparison of two conventional vacuum mixing systems.

    PubMed

    Jelecevic, Jasmin; Maidanjuk, Stanislaw; Leithner, Andreas; Loewe, Kai; Kuehn, Klaus-Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Poly-methyl methacrylate bone cements contain methyl methacrylate (MMA), which is known for its sensitizing and toxic properties. Therefore, in most European countries and in the USA, guidelines or regulations exist for occupational exposures. The use of vacuum mixing systems can significantly reduce airborne MMA concentrations during bone setting. Our goal was to test two commonly used vacuum mixing systems (Palamix(®) and Optivac(®)) using Palacos(®) R bone cement for their effectiveness at preventing MMA vapor release in a series of standardized trials in a laboratory as well as in an operating theatre. MMA was quantified every second over a period of 3 min using a photoionization detector (MiniRAE(®) 3000) device positioned in the breathing area of the user. Significant differences in MMA mean vapor concentrations over 180 s were observed in the two experimental spaces, with the highest mean concentrations (7.61 and 7.98 ppm for Palamix(®) and Optivac(®), respectively) observed in a laboratory with nine air changes per hour and the lowest average concentrations (1.06 and 1.12 ppm for Palamix(®) and Optivac(®), respectively) in an operating theatre with laminar flow ventilation and 22 air changes per hour. No significant differences in overall MMA concentrations were found between the two vacuum mixing systems in either location. Though, differences were found between both systems during single mixing phases. Thus, typical handling of MMA in orthopedic procedures must be seen as not harmful as concentrations do not reach the short-term exposure limit of 100 ppm. Additionally, laminar airflow seems to have an influence on lowering MMA concentrations in operation theatres. PMID:24567286

  9. Hydrogen release from titanium hydride in foaming of orthopedic NiTi scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuilin; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, K W K; Hu, Tao; Xu, Zushun; Chung, Jonathan C Y; Chu, Paul K

    2011-03-01

    Titanium hydride powders are utilized to enhance the foaming process in the formation of orthopedic NiTi scaffolds during capsule-free hot isostatic pressing. In order to study the formation mechanism, the thermal behavior of titanium hydride and hydrogen release during the heating process are systematically investigated in air and argon and under vacuum by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, including thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our experiments reveal that hydrogen is continuously released from titanium hydride as the temperature is gradually increased from 300 to 700 °C. Hydrogen is released in two transitions: TiH1.924?TiH1.5/TiH1.7 between 300 °C and 400 °C and TiH1.5/TiH1.7??-Ti between 400 °C and 600 °C. In the lower temperature range between 300 °C and 550 °C the rate of hydrogen release is slow, but the decomposition rate increases sharply above 550 °C. The XRD patterns obtained in air and under vacuum indicate that the surface oxide layer can deter hydrogen release. The pressure change is monitored in real time and the amount of hydrogen released is affected by the processing temperature and holding time. Holding processes at 425 °C, 480 °C, 500 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C are found to significantly improve the porous structure in the NiTi scaffolds due to the stepwise release of hydrogen. NiTi scaffolds foamed by stepwise release of hydrogen are conducive to the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts and the resulting pore size also favor in-growth of cells. PMID:20965283

  10. Oxidative stress contributes to orthopedic trauma-induced acute kidney injury in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mittwede, Peter N; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L

    2015-01-15

    After trauma, obese patients have an increased risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). We have demonstrated that obese Zucker (OZ) rats, but not lean Zucker (LZ) rats, develop AKI 24 h after orthopedic trauma. ROS have been implicated in the pathophysiology of AKI in models of critical illness. However, the contribution of ROS to trauma-induced AKI in the setting of obesity has not been determined. We hypothesized that AKI in OZ rats after trauma is mediated by increased oxidative stress. Male LZ and OZ rats were divided into control and trauma groups, with a subset receiving treatment after trauma with the antioxidant apocynin (50 mg/kg ip, 2 mM in drinking water). The day after trauma, glomerular filtration rate, plasma creatinine, urine kidney injury molecule-1, and albumin excretion as well as renal oxidant and antioxidant activity were measured. After trauma, compared with LZ rats, OZ rats exhibited a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate along with significant increases in plasma creatinine and urine kidney injury molecule-1 and albumin excretion. Additionally, oxidative stress was significantly increased in OZ rats, as evidenced by increased renal NADPH oxidase activity and urine lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), and OZ rats also had suppressed renal superoxide dismutase activity. Apocynin treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress and AKI in OZ rats but had minimal effects in LZ rats. These results suggest that ROS play an important role in AKI in OZ rats after traumatic injury and that ROS may be a potential future therapeutic target in the obese after trauma. PMID:25428128

  11. Epidemiology of Hand Injuries in Children Presenting to an Orthopedic Trauma Center in Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaie, Maryam; Parsa, Ali; Salehi, Maryam; Dahmardehei, Mostafa; Moghadam, Mohammad Hallaj; Mirzaie, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hand injuries are among the most common childhood injuries. No study has been performed regarding the epidemiology of hand injuries in the pediatric population of Iran. This study aimed to examine the epidemiology of hand injuries among children in southeast of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed via census sampling on patients, aged 16 years or less, with a final diagnosis of hand injury. Patients presenting to the orthopedic department of Khatam-al-Anbia General Hospitalof Zahedan, Iran, were selected from March 2012 to December 2013. Data were analyzed retrospectively, using a chart review. Results: Two-hundred patients (136 males and 64 females with the mean age of 13±2.8 years) with 205 hand injuries were included in this study. As the results indicated, door-related injuries were the most common type (25%), accounting for 24% and 28% of injuries in male and female patients, respectively (P=0.016). Most injuries occurred at home (64%) and the lowest number was reported at school(22%) (P=0.012). Compared to boys, girls were more likely to be injured at home (78% vs. 57%) (P=0.13). In addition, the dominant hand was mostly injured by doors (28%). The most common type of injury was laceration(81%) and the least common type was finger amputation (7%); also, children with finger amputation were significantly younger than those with other types of hand injuries (P<0.001). Thumb alone (20%) and index and middle fingers together with anequal percentage (3.5%) were the most commonly injured digits. Also, the mean hospitalization cost was 297± 38 dollars. Conclusions: Most hand injuries occurred at home and were door-related; they were also more frequentamong younger children. Prospective studies in order to identify specific protective door devices could potentially decrease the frequency of these injures. PMID:25386587

  12. Toxicity measurement of orthopedic implant alloy degradation products using a bioluminescent bacterial assay.

    PubMed

    Shettlemore, M G; Bundy, K J

    1999-06-15

    The toxicity of aqueous metal solutions representative of ionic degradation products from orthopedic implant alloys was determined using a bacterial bioluminescence assay, Microtox. The toxicity of forms of the individual elements released from ASTM F75 Co-Cr-Mo (Co-Cr-Mo), F138 316L stainless steel (316L), and F136 Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-6Al-4V) was first determined, and a mathematical model was developed to predict the toxicity of mixtures of these ions. Aqueous metal solutions were then mixed according to the proportions of the ions found in these alloys, and their toxicity was measured with Microtox. Mixture behavior was classified as synergistic, antagonistic, or additive by comparing measured toxicity to predicted toxicity. Since relating these tests to actual implant corrosion processes can be confounded by selective leaching, the predicted and measured toxicity of aqueous metal solutions mixed according to proportions representative of selective leaching were next determined, and the mixture behaviors were classified as before. The most toxic individual alloying elements were found to be hexavalent Cr, Ni, and Co, in that order: a finding in accord with prior biocompatibility research. Co-Cr-Mo was found to be the most toxic alloy mixture of both those combined according to alloy composition and those combined to reflect selective leaching. The Ti-6Al-4V mixtures were found to behave synergistically, while the Co-Cr-Mo and 316L mixtures behaved antagonistically. By providing insight into degradation product toxicity and elemental interaction, these experiments demonstrate the utility of employing bioluminescent bacterial assays to investigate biocompatibility of implant materials. Further studies to more closely simulate in vivo conditions, though, are required to fully gauge their potential in this regard. PMID:10321713

  13. Biocompatibility Issues with Modern Implants in Bone - A Review for Clinical Orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Katja M.R; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal defects may result from traumatic, infectious, congenital or neoplastic processes and are considered to be a challenge for reconstructive surgery. Although the autologous bone graft is still the “gold standard”, there is continuing demand for bone substitutes because of associated disadvantages, such as limited supply and potential donor side morbidity [1]. This is not only true for indications in orthopedic and craniomaxillofacial surgeries, but also in repairing endodontic defects and in dental implantology. Before clinical use all new bone substitute materials have to be validated for their osseoconductive and - depending on the composition of the material also –inductive ability, as well as for their long-term biocompatibility in bone. Serving this purpose various bone healing models to test osteocompatibility and inflammatory potential of a novel material on one hand and, on the other hand, non-healing osseous defects to assess the healing potential of a bone substitute material have been developed. Sometimes the use of more than one implantation site can be helpful to provide a wide range of information about a new material [2]. Important markers for biocompatibility and inflammatory responses are the cell types appearing after the implantation of foreign material. There, especially the role of foreign body giant cells (FBGC) is discussed controversial in the pertinent literature, such that it is not clear whether their presence marks an incompatibility of the biomaterial, or whether it belongs to a normal degradation behavior of modern, resorbable biomaterials. This publication is highlighting the different views currently existing about the function of FBGC that appear in response to biomaterials at the implantation sites. A short overview of the general classes of biomaterials, where FBGC may appear as cellular response, is added for clarity, but may not be complete. PMID:19506701

  14. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to S. aureus orthopedic biofilm infection

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Cortney E.; Vidlak, Debbie; Scherr, Tyler D.; Kozel, Jessica A.; Holzapfel, Melissa; Muirhead, David E.; Kielian, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature monocytes and granulocytes that are potent inhibitors of T cell activation. A role for MDSCs in bacterial infections has only recently emerged and nothing is known about MDSC function in the context of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection. Since S. aureus biofilms are capable of subverting immune-mediated clearance, we examined whether MDSCs could play a role in this process. CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSCs represented the main cellular infiltrate during S. aureus orthopedic biofilm infection, accounting for over 75% of the CD45+ population. Biofilm-associated MDSCs inhibited T cell proliferation and cytokine production, which correlated with a paucity of T cell infiltrates at the infection site. Analysis of FACS-purified MDSCs recovered from S. aureus biofilms revealed increased Arg-1, iNOS, and IL-10 expression, key mediators of MDSC suppressive activity. Targeted depletion of MDSCs and neutrophils using the mAb 1A8 (anti-Ly6G) improved bacterial clearance by enhancing the intrinsic pro-inflammatory attributes of infiltrating monocytes and macrophages. Furthermore, the ability of monocytes/macrophages to promote biofilm clearance in the absence of MDSC action was revealed with RB6-C85 (anti-Gr-1 or anti-Ly6G/Ly6C) administration, which resulted in significantly increased S. aureus burdens both locally and in the periphery, since effector Ly-6C monocytes and by extension, mature macrophages, were also depleted. Collectively, these results are the first to demonstrate that MDSCs are key contributors to the chronicity of S. aureus biofilm infection, as their immunosuppressive function prevents monocyte/macrophage proinflammatory activity, which facilitates biofilm persistence. PMID:24646737

  15. Manipulation of Expectancies About Counseling and Psychotherapy: Review and Analysis of Expectancy Manipulation Strategies and Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard E. A. Tinsley; Sharon L. Bowman; Stephen B. Ray

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive review was undertaken of investigations in which an attempt was made to manipulate clients' expectations for counseling or psychotherapy. Six strategies that have been used in attempting expectancy manipulation were described, and their effectiveness evaluated. Three sets of conclusions seem to be supported by the present data. First, the use of a complicated experimental intervention to manipulate expectancies

  16. Incretin manipulation in diabetes management

    PubMed Central

    Pappachan, Joseph M; Raveendran, AV; Sriraman, Rajagopalan

    2015-01-01

    Incretin-based therapies have revolutionized the medical management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the 21st century. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) suppresses appetite and gastric motility, and has trophic effects on pancreas, cardio-protective and renal effects. GLP-1 analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors form the incretin-based therapies. Significant reduction of hemoglobin A1c when used as monotherapy and in combination regimens, favorable effects on body weight, and low risk of hypoglycemia are their unique therapeutic benefits. Their safety and tolerability are comparable to other anti-diabetic medications. Concern about elevated risk of pancreatitis has been discarded by two recent meta-analyses. This article discusses the therapeutic manipulation of incretin system for the management of T2DM.

  17. Genetic manipulation of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Myriam; Rodrigues, Paulo; Progulske-Fox, Ann

    2007-06-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral anaerobic bacterium, is an important etiological agent of periodontal disease and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, preterm birth, and diabetes as well. Therefore, genetic studies are of crucial importance in investigating molecular mechanisms of P. gingivalis virulence. Although molecular genetic tools have been available for many bacterial species for some time, genetic manipulations of Porphyromonas species were not developed until more recently and remain limited. In this unit, current molecular genetic approaches for mutant construction in P. gingivalis using the suicide vector pPR-UF1 and the transposon Tn4351 are described, as are protocols for performing electroporation and conjugation. Furthermore, a technique to restore the wild-type phenotype of the mutant by complementation using vector pT-COW is provided. Finally, a description of a noninvasive reporter system allowing the study of gene expression and regulation in P. gingivalis completes this unit. PMID:18770611

  18. Tactile sensing and control of robotic manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Howe

    1993-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reviews the current state of the art and outlook in robotic tactile sensing for real-time control of dextrous manipulation. We begin with an overview of human touch sensing capabilities and draw lessons for robotic manipulation. Next, tactile sensor devices are described, including tactile array sensors, force-torque sensors, and dynamic tactile sensors. The information provided by these devices

  19. The Stealth Curriculum: Manipulating America's History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is: (1) To point out the features of a number of manipulative supplemental resources for history and social studies teachers; and (2) to show how similarly manipulative professional development workshops propagate the distorted content and recommended teaching practices of such materials to teachers and their…

  20. Electrical Forces For Microscale Cell Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Voldman, Joel

    INTRODUCTION Manipulating cells is fundamental to much of biology and biotechnology. From cell- based screens to bioscience. Integral to these assays is the need to manipulate the physical location of cells, either and typically large numbers of cells, we need surrogate "hands" to provide effi- cient physical access to cells

  1. Performance Robustness of Manipulator Collision Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, D.; Lee, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we propose that the manipulator impact control problem be approached from a stochastic optimal control perspective. The reason is that not only is such approach be able to model uncertainties in contact environment, force sensing, as well as manipulator dynamics, the controllers obtained is optimally robust in terms of performance. This result is verified by analyses and simulations.

  2. On the Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Jacques E. Slotine; Weiping Li

    1987-01-01

    A new adaptive robot control algorithm is derived, which consists of a PD feedback part and a full dynamics feedfor ward compensation part, with the unknown manipulator and payload parameters being estimated online. The algorithm is computationally simple, because of an effective exploitation of the structure of manipulator dynamics. In particular, it requires neither feedback of joint accelerations nor inversion

  3. DC motor driven robotic manipulator control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Won; D. J. Lim; D. H. Chyung

    1985-01-01

    A controller design for a dc motor driven robotic manipulator is presented. The main difficulties are caused by the Coulomb frictions, disturbance due to the gravitational pull and the rather stiff spring effect of the link between the drive motor and the manipulator arm. The objective is to design a feedback controller which ensures zero steady state positioning error. It

  4. Count on It: Congruent Manipulative Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Joe; Samelson, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    Representations that create informative visual displays are powerful tools for communicating mathematical concepts. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics encourages the use of manipulatives (NCTM 2000). Manipulative materials are often used to present initial representations of basic numerical principles to young children, and it is…

  5. Topology represention and analysis of carton manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guowu Wei; Ruirui Zhang; Jian S. Dai

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents models for description and identification of various cartons in their discrete states, and proposes a new approach to describe the transformation of configuration states during carton manipulation in a packaging process. The method makes use of matrix operations which can be used to identify and model the steps and changes in carton manipulation at different stages of

  6. Inverse Kinematic Solution Based on Decomposed Manipulability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihong Lee; K. T. Won

    1999-01-01

    For redundant robot manipulators, linear motion and angular motion are handled separately in solving inverse kinematics and trajectory planning. We apply the concept of decomposed specified manipulability to solve the inverse kinematic equation. With given joint velocity limits and given task velocity, we solve the inverse kinematic equation so that the linear velocity of the solution has maximum magnitude while

  7. The ecological significance of manipulative parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Lefevre; Camille Lebarbenchon; Michel Gauthier-Clerc; Dorothee Misse ´; Robert Poulin; Frederic Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of ways in which host manipulation by parasites interferes with ecological and evolutionary processes governing biotic interactions has been recently documented, and indicates that manipulative parasites are full participants in the functioning of eco- systems. Phenotypic alterations in parasitised hosts modify host population ecology, apparent competition processes, food web structure and energy and nutrient flow between habitats, as

  8. JACK: a toolkit for manipulating articulated figures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cary B. Phillips; Norman I. Badler

    1988-01-01

    The problem of positioning and manipulating three dimensional articulated figures is often handled by ad hoc techniques which are cumbersome to use. In this paper, we describe a system which provides a consistent and flexible user interface to a complex representation for articulated figures in a 3D environment. Jack is a toolkit of routines for displaying and manipulating complex geometric

  9. Towards small robot aided victim manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Yim; Tim Cragg; Syed-Khizer Hayat

    2009-01-01

    Robotic manipulation of human victims is a problem that has been avoided by the robotics community. This paper presents the issues that would need to be addressed in order to have small man-portable robots aiding the transport of incapacitated victims. Focusing on the manipulation of victims in preparation for transport, the primary design specifications come from the required forces that

  10. DIRECTIONAL MANIPULABILITY FOR MOTION COORDINATION OF AN ASSISTIVE MOBILE ARM

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DIRECTIONAL MANIPULABILITY FOR MOTION COORDINATION OF AN ASSISTIVE MOBILE ARM K. Nait-Chabane, P of a manipulator arm embarked on a mobile platform. The mobile manipulator is used in providing assistance manipulability measure that incorporates both arm manipulation capacities and the end-effector imposed task

  11. Interaction control of a redundant mobile manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.H.; Velinsky, S.A.; Hess, R.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses the modeling and control of a spatial mobile manipulator that consists of a robotic manipulator mounted on a wheeled mobile platform. The Lagrange-d`Alembert formulation is used to obtain a concise description of the dynamics of the system, which is subject to nonholonomic constraints. The complexity of the model is increased by introducing kinematic redundancy, which is created when a multilinked manipulator is used. The kinematic redundancy is resolved by decomposing the mobile manipulator into two subsystems: the mobile platform and the manipulator. The redundancy resolution scheme employs a nonlinear interaction-control algorithm, which is developed and applied to coordinate the two subsystems` controllers. The subsystem controllers are independently designed, based on each subsystem`s dynamic characteristics. Simulation results show the promise of the developed algorithm.

  12. Damping control of a large flexible manipulator through inertial forces of a small manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Baker, C.P.; Evans, M.S.

    1993-06-01

    Damping control is applied to a detailed computer model of a long- reach flexible manipulator test bed. The test bed consists of a long slender link with a dexterous manipulator mounted at its tip. The movement of the dexterous manipulator is controlled to create inertial damping forces on the long link. Parameter identification and sequential loop-closure are used to design a controller that feeds back relative tip position and velocity of the long link to control the azimuth angle of the dexterous manipulator. The controller is designed to be robust to varying manipulator loading conditions and reliable under sensor failures.

  13. Hemodynamic and oxidative mechanisms of tourniquet-induced muscle injury: near-infrared spectroscopy for the orthopedics setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Reid, W. Darlene; Harris, R. Luke; Jafari, Siavash; Powers, Scott K.; O'Brien, Peter J.

    2012-08-01

    During orthopedic procedures, the tourniquets used to maintain bloodless surgical fields cause ischemia and then reperfusion (I/R), leading to oxidative muscle injury. Established methods exist neither for monitoring orthopedic I/R nor for predicting the extent of tourniquet-associated oxidative injury. To develop a predictive model for tourniquet-associated oxidative muscle injury, this study combined real-time near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring of I/R with Western blotting (WB) for oxidized proteins. We hypothesized strong correlations between NIRS-derived I/R indices and muscle protein oxidation. In 17 patients undergoing ankle fracture repair, a thigh tourniquet was inflated on the injured limb (300 mmHg). Using a continuous-wave (CW) NIRS setup, oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb), and total (tHb) hemoglobin were monitored bilaterally (tourniquet versus control) in leg muscles. Leg muscle biopsies were collected unilaterally (tourniquet side) immediately after tourniquet inflation (pre) and before deflation (post). Average ischemia duration was 43.2±14.6 min. In post-compared to pre-biopsies, muscle protein oxidation (quantified using WB) increased 172.3%±145.7% (P<0.0005). Changes in O2Hb and tHb were negatively correlated with protein oxidation (respectively: P=0.040, R2=0.25 and P=0.003, R2=0.58). Reoxygenation rate was positively correlated with protein oxidation (P=0.041, R2=0.25). These data indicate that using CW NIRS, it is possible to predict orthopedic tourniquet-associated muscle oxidative injury noninvasively.

  14. "WhatsApp"ening in orthopedic care: a concise report from a 300-bedded tertiary care teaching center.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil N; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-07-01

    Smartphones have emerged as essential tools providing assistance in patient care, monitoring, rehabilitation, communication, diagnosis, teaching, research and reference. Among innumerable communication apps, WhatsApp has been widely popular and cost effective. The aim of our study was to report the impact of introduction of a smartphone app "WhatsApp" as an intradepartmental communication tool on (1) awareness of patient-related information, (2) efficiency of the handover process and (3) duration of traditional morning handovers among orthopedic residents in a 300-bedded tertiary care teaching center. Written handovers and paging used for communication at our center led to occasional inefficiencies among residents. Widespread use, low cost, availability and double password protection (phone lock and WhatsApp lock) made WhatsApp's group conversation feature an ideal tool for intradepartmental patient-related communication. Twenty-five consecutive admissions before and after WhatsApp (BW, AW) were included in the study. Eight orthopedic residents attempted fifty randomly arranged questions based on the twenty-five patients in each study period. A null hypothesis that introduction of WhatsApp group would neither increase the awareness of patient-related information nor improve the efficiency of the handovers among residents was assumed. A significant improvement observed in scores obtained by residents in the AW group led to rejection of the null hypothesis. The residents also reported swifter and efficient handovers after the introduction of WhatsApp. Our results indicate that the introduction of a smartphone app "WhatsApp" as an intradepartmental communication tool can bring about an improvement in patient-related awareness, communication and handovers among orthopedic residents. PMID:25633127

  15. MP35N: a corrosion resistant, high strength alloy for orthopedic surgical impants: bio-assay results.

    PubMed

    Escalas, F; Galante, J; Rostoker, W; Coogan, P H

    1975-05-01

    A cobalt based alloy, MP35N, with excellent mechanical properties has been recently introduced as a material for surgical orthopedic implants. A study was made of local and systemic host response to this material in two different mammal species. The implantation time ranged from one to 12 months. The result of this study indicated: MP35N produces a degree of local tissue response comparable to that of 316L stainless steel. No systemic side effects were observed during the implantation times included in this study. PMID:1176488

  16. [The young resident between work and family. Status quo and approaches to a solution in orthopedics and traumatology].

    PubMed

    Depeweg, D; Achatz, G; Liebig, K; Lorenz, O

    2013-01-01

    The compatibility between the family and the medical profession requires a new challenge of leadership in hospitals, politics and medical societies. The generation change in the medical profession needs the implementation of modern framework conditions in the departments of orthopedics and traumatology. Topics such as work organisation, family support and programs to assist the return to work need to be discussed and should be used as a competitive advantage. Employees of generation y need a gender-independent role model in the field of modern management methods in employee leadership. PMID:23325155

  17. Use of high and low velocity cervical manipulative therapy procedures by Australian manipulative physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Jull, Gwendolen

    2002-01-01

    The use of cervical manipulation presents concerns because of a risk of devastating side effects of trauma to the vertebral artery. Little is known about the frequency of use of cervical manipulation versus passive mobilisation by physiotherapists. A recent national, multi-centre randomised clinical trial of the physiotherapy management of cervicogenic headache provided an opportunity to gain an insight into practices of a sample of manipulative physiotherapists across Australia. The treatment records for the 100 subjects who received only manipulative therapy, or manipulative therapy with exercise as per the trial protocol, were audited. The results revealed that cervical manipulation was used in 20.2% of the 1090 treatments provided to these subjects but cervical joint mobilisation only was used in the vast majority of treatments (77.6%). Nevertheless, 42% of subjects were treated with cervical manipulation at some time. In most instances, manipulation was accompanied by passive mobilisation in the same treatment session. Patients were manipulated on one to six occasions and this occurred predominantly in the latter half of the 12-treatment program. Cervical manipulation was used less frequently in the group who also received exercise. The data suggest that the physiotherapists participating in this study used cervical manipulation selectively and relatively conservatively considering the high use of cervical mobilisation techniques. This may reflect their due regard to safety in the treatment of the cervical region. PMID:12217068

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Parallel Manipulators using an Interval Linearization Method

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sensitivity Analysis of Parallel Manipulators using an Interval Linearization Method Mikhael linearization method for the sensitivity analysis of manipulators to variations in their geometric param- eters linearization method automatically detects such situations. Keywords: parallel manipulators, sensitivity

  19. UNIX/LINUX REFERENCE CARD Basic File and Directory Manipulation

    E-print Network

    UNIX/LINUX REFERENCE CARD Basic File and Directory Manipulation ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prints file in octal and other formats File Text Manipulation grep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Estimate disk usage file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manipulate file attributes touch

  20. Title of Document: NANOSCALE MANIPULATION, PROBING, AND ASSEMBLY USING MICROFLUIDIC

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Document: NANOSCALE MANIPULATION, PROBING, AND ASSEMBLY USING MICROFLUIDIC FLOW tools for probing nanoscale physics. Current manipulation approaches are inadequate for positioning for applications in nanophotonics and quantum optics. In this thesis, I present a technique for manipulation

  1. Preparation and characterization of wear debris of orthopedic materials for biocompatibility studies.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C N; Shabaik, A H

    1976-09-01

    In order to test the biocompatibility of wear debris of orthopedic materials, a method has been developed to produce artificial debris of stainless steel, cobalt-chromium alloy, and high-density polyethylene. In this process, called the accelerated rubbing process, two cylindrical blocks of the same alloy were held under normal pressure in triply distilled water. One block remained stationary while the other rotated at approximately 4000 rpm. The water with the metal debris was recirculated between the rubbing surfaces. To prepare debris from polyethylene, a stainless steel block was rubbed over a polyethylene block submersed in liquid nitrogen. The shape of the metal debris was granular, whereas the polyethylene debris had a shred-like shape. The size distributions were determined from scanning electron micrographs, and it was found that the particles of the metal debris (stainless steel or cobalt-chrome alloy) ranged in sizes from 0.1-10 mu with 75% of all particles less than 2 mu in diameter. The size of polyethylene debris, expressed as the volume of an ellipsoid, ranged from 10-20,000 mu3 with 45% of all particles in the range of 400-2500 mu3. The x-ray diffraction pattern revealed that the debris of stainless steel consisted primarily of the face-centered cubic (fcc) alloy with small amounts of body-centered cubic (bcc) alloy and Fe3O4, whereas the cobalt-chrome debris consisted of the fcc alloy with a small amount of Cr2O3. The structure of the polyethylene debris was quite similar to that of the solid sample used in its preparation. The percent crystallinity Pc and the size of the crystalline regions D were slightly smaller in the debris than in the solid sample, i.e., Pc = 52 and 55%, D = 90 and 130 A, in the debris and the solid, respectively. To test the suitability of the artificial debris for biocompatibility studies, stainless steel debris was implanted into knees of adult female New Zealand rabbits. Bacterial challenge studies indicated prolongation, but not increased susceptibility to infection. PMID:977601

  2. Interactive digital image manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, J.; Dezur, R.

    1975-01-01

    The system is designed for manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and processing of a wide variety of image data. LANDSAT (ERTS) and other data in digital form can be input directly into the system. Photographic prints and transparencies are first converted to digital form with an on-line high-resolution microdensitometer. The system is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer with 128 K bytes of core memory and a 47.5 megabyte disk. It includes a true color display monitor, with processing memories, graphics overlays, and a movable cursor. Image data formats are flexible so that there is no restriction to a given set of remote sensors. Conversion between data types is available to provide a basis for comparison of the various data. Multispectral data is fully supported, and there is no restriction on the number of dimensions. In this way multispectral data collected at more than one point in time may simply be treated as a data collected with twice (three times, etc.) the number of sensors. There are various libraries of functions available to the user: processing functions, display functions, system functions, and earth resources applications functions.

  3. Manipulating duckweed through genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Vunsh, R; Heinig, U; Malitsky, S; Aharoni, A; Avidov, A; Lerner, A; Edelman, M

    2015-01-01

    Significant inter- and intraspecific genetic variation exists in duckweed, thus the potential for genome plasticity and manipulation is high. Polyploidy is recognised as a major mechanism of adaptation and speciation in plants. We produced several genome-duplicated lines of Landoltia punctata (Spirodela oligorrhiza) from both whole plants and regenerating explants using a colchicine-based cocktail. These lines stably maintained an enlarged frond and root morphology. DNA ploidy levels determined by florescence-activated cell sorting indicated genome duplication. Line A4 was analysed after 75 biomass doublings. Frond area, fresh and dry weights, rhizoid number and length were significantly increased versus wild type, while the growth rate was unchanged. This resulted in accumulation of biomass 17-20% faster in the A4 plants. We sought to determine if specific differences in gene products are found in the genome duplicated lines. Non-targeted ultra performance LC-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to compare some of the lines and the wild type to seek identification of up-regulated metabolites. We putatively identified differential metabolites in Line A65 as caffeoyl hexoses. The combination of directed genome duplication and metabolic profiling might offer a path for producing stable gene expression, leading to altered production of secondary metabolites. PMID:25040392

  4. Manipulating resource allocation in plants.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Emma; Roberts, Jeremy A; Wagstaff, Carol

    2012-05-01

    The distribution of nutrients and assimilates in different organs and tissues is in a constant state of flux throughout the growth and development of a plant. At key stages during the life cycle profound changes occur, and perhaps one of the most critical of these is during seed filling. By restricting the competition for reserves in Arabidopsis plants, the ability to manipulate seed size, seed weight, or seed content has been explored. Removal of secondary inflorescences and lateral branches resulted in a stimulation of elongation of the primary inflorescence and an increase in the distance between siliques. The pruning treatment also led to the development of longer and larger siliques that contained fewer, bigger seeds. This seems to be a consequence of a reduction in the number of ovules that develop and an increase in the fatty acid content of the seeds that mature. The data show that shoot architecture could have a substantial impact on the partitioning of reserves between vegetative and reproductive tissues and could be an important trait for selection in rapid phenotyping screens to optimize crop performance. PMID:22291133

  5. National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learning about various branches of mathematics can be tough at any age, and this fine set of resources created by staff members who are primarily based at the Utah State University is designed to make this process just a bit easier. With substantial funding from the National Science Foundation, they have successfully developed a large set of interactive online learning units that deal with topics such as geometry, arithmetic, and trigonometry. First-time visitors may want to begin by looking over the "About" section, which includes a tutorial designed for educators who wish to use the materials as well as another tutorial that will teach educators how to create lessons and activities. Delving into the learning materials at the site, visitors can browse through the learning modules by subject or grade level. Visitors can also browse teacher published lessons, all of which have been vetted by staff members at the National Library. Finally, visitors will want to definitely look over the virtual manipulatives library, which includes instructional materials that students will find quite engaging.

  6. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with phrases such as “may ultimately infl uence community structure” (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1999), yet few demonstrate ecological effects. Here, we consider the conditions under which manipulative parasites might have a substantial ecological effect in nature and highlight those for which evidence exists (see also Chapter 10).

  7. Low Overhead Manipulation of Bound Book Pages The Robotics Institute

    E-print Network

    Nourbakhsh, Illah

    -sided, nonprehensile paper manipulation problem in which we use the polymer Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to create, Polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS I. INTRODUCTION Manipulation of flexible materials constitutes a challenging area

  8. W-026, acceptance test report manipulator system

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-04-15

    The purpose of the WRAP Manipulator System Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) is to verify that the 4 glovebox sets of WRAP manipulator components, including rail/carriage, slave arm, master controller and auxiliary equipment, meets the requirements of the functional segments of 14590 specification. The demonstration of performance elements of the ATP are performed as a part of the Assembly specifications. Manipulator integration is integrated in the performance testing of the gloveboxes. Each requirement of the Assembly specification will be carried out in conjunction with glovebox performance tests.

  9. Mobile manipulation: a challenge in integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Cressel; Axelrod, Ben; Case, J. Philip; Choi, Jaeil; Engel, Martin; Gupta, Gaurav; Hecht, Florian; Hutchinson, John; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Lee, Jinhan; Nguyen, Hai Dai; Roberts, Richard; Rogers, John G.; Trevor, Alexander J. B.; Christensen, Henrik I.; Kemp, Charles

    2008-04-01

    Mobile manipulation in many respects represents the next generation of robot applications. An important part of design of such systems is the integration of techniques for navigation, recognition, control, and planning to achieve a robust solution. To study this problem three different approaches to mobile manipulation have been designed and implemented. A prototypical application that requires navigation and manipulation has been chosen as a target for the systems. In this paper we present the basic design of the three systems and draw some general lessons on design and implementation.

  10. Bilateral simultaneous anterior cruciate ligament injury: a case report and national survey of orthopedic surgeon management preference.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Ehsan; Curry, Emily J; Li, Xinning; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2014-10-27

    Unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common injury seen by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. However, a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury is extremely rare and has been reported only three times in the literature. We present a young female skier with simultaneous bilateral ACL tears that were managed with staged ACL reconstruction. We then conducted a nationwide survey (United States) to determine the prevalence of simultaneous bilateral ACL tear and preferred management strategies by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. Sports medicine fellowship directors were contacted and asked to send an 8-item survey to colleagues (sports medicine fellowship trained surgeons) asking about overall number of ACL reconstructions performed, number of bilateral simultaneous ACL injuries seen and optimal management strategies of such an injury. Out of 43 responses, only 22 (51.2%) surgeons had seen a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury. Of these, 16 (76.2%) preferred staged reconstruction. Graft choice was mixed between autograft and allograft, but a large majority preferred either patellar tendon autograft (58%) or hamstring autograft (41%) were the most common choice. Staged reconstruction is the treatment of choice by surgeons surveyed in our study. PMID:25568728

  11. Impact of biologics on the prevalence of orthopedic surgery in the National Database of Rheumatic Diseases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Tetsuro; Nishino, Jinju; Kadono, Yuho; Matsui, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Tohma, Shigeto

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the treatment strategy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevalence of RA-related surgeries after approval of biologics in Japan and to analyze the impact of biologics on the incidence of orthopedic surgeries using a nationwide observational cohort database of rheumatic diseases [National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa)]. The proportion of patients using biologics linearly increased from 2004 (1.8%) to 2007 (10.0%), but neither the number nor type of RA-related surgery significantly changed during this period. Patients treated with biologics exhibited relatively more severe disease activity and lower physical function. Among patients using biologics, those who underwent RA-related surgeries exhibited background characteristics of longer disease duration and worse physical function, while disease activity was not different from patients without surgery. These results suggest that the potential value of biologics in avoiding surgical procedure is limited in patients with severe functional disorders caused by long disease duration. Further investigation with a longer observation period is required to obtain more definite conclusions as to the impact of biologics usage on orthopedic surgeries. PMID:20058046

  12. Differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacterial pathogens to 405-nm light highlighting potential for decontamination applications in orthopedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Praveen; Maclean, Michelle; MacGregor, Scott J.; Anderson, John G.; Grant, M. Helen

    2014-10-01

    Healthcare associated infections pose a major threat to patients admitted to hospitals and infection rates following orthopedic arthroplasty surgery are as high as 4%. A 405-nm high-intensity narrow spectrum light has been proven to reduce environmental contamination in hospital isolation rooms, and there is potential to develop this technology for application in arthroplasty surgery. Cultured rat osteoblasts were exposed to varying light intensities and it was found that exposures of up to a dose of 36 J/cm2 had no significant effect on cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay], function (alkaline phosphatase activity), and proliferation rate (BrdU cell proliferation assay). High irradiance exposures (54 J/cm2) significantly affected the cell viability indicating that the effects of 405-nm light on osteoblasts are dose dependent. Additionally, exposure of a variety of clinically related bacteria to a dose of 36 J/cm2 resulted in up to 100% kill. These results demonstrating the differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacteria to 405-nm light are an essential step toward developing the technique for decontamination in orthopedic surgery.

  13. Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Alrabai, Hamza M; Alrehaili, Osama A; Aljurayyan, Abdulaziz N; Alsaif, Ranyah M; Algarni, Nizar; Al-Khawashki, Hazem M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002). The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001). Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001). Conclusion Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents’ progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. PMID:25278788

  14. Simulator for training remote-manipulator operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, D. H.; Ward, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom simulator uses economical components. Reduction in complexity makes this or similar system cost-effective for training manipulator operators, such as those in industries handling nuclear wastes and hazardous chemicals.

  15. Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 .mu.m or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or groups of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  16. Optimal Feedback Control for Anthropomorphic Manipulators 

    E-print Network

    Mitrovic, Djordje; Nagashima, Sho; Klanke, Stefan; Matsubara, Takamitsu; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2010-01-01

    We study target reaching tasks of redundant anthropomorphic manipulators under the premise of minimal energy consumption and compliance during motion. We formulate this motor control problem in the framework of ...

  17. The modelling of industrial robot manipulator vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Marcham, L.J.; Rao, B.K.N.; Noroozi, S.; Penson, R.P. [Southampton Inst. (United Kingdom). Systems Engineering Research Centre

    1996-11-01

    The work reported in this paper addresses the modelling of robot manipulator vibration, with the specific aim of producing a model suitable to be employed within an active compensation controller. An overview of existing work on the modelling of robot dynamics, both mathematically and empirically, is reported. A model of the dynamics of an industrial manipulator, inclusive of vibration, derived using Lagrangian mechanics is presented and further developed through the application of experimental modal analysis, by which the position dependent modal parameters of an industrial robot manipulator are determined. The model results are compared with experimental vibration data taken from the end-effector of a PUMA562C industrial manipulator using laser interferometry. Control of an end-effector located, active compensator for vibration suppression, based upon the derived model is discussed and recommendations which form the basis of further investigations, currently being undertaken, are presented.

  18. String Manipulation in the New Language

    E-print Network

    Bobrow, Daniel G.

    1964-07-01

    String manipulation can be made convenient within the *** language by implementing two functions: 1) match [workspace; pattern] and 2) construct {format;pmatch]. In this memo I describe how I think these two functions can ...

  19. Control and Estimation for Cooperative Manipulator Tasks

    E-print Network

    Blackmore, Lars

    2006-02-28

    The objective of this project is to achieve reliable transfer of an object from one robotic manipulator to another. This capability is useful for a number of applications, for instance robotic assembly, or robots with ...

  20. Efficient, transparent, and comprehensive runtime code manipulation

    E-print Network

    Bruening, Derek L. (Derek Lane), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addresses the challenges of building a software system for general-purpose runtime code manipulation. Modern applications, with dynamically-loaded modules and dynamically-generated code, are assembled at runtime. ...

  1. A symbolic manipulation language for hypertext systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Stognii; T. A. Grinchenko; M. V. Olenin

    1990-01-01

    A text manipulating subset of the language ANALITIK is discussed in the framework of the hypertext technology. Extension tools are proposed that enable the language to process both texts and hypertexts.

  2. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  3. Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position and orient the end-effector at the target with respect to the same kinematic model from the calibration step. As the end-effector/target distance decreases, the computed coordinates of the end-effector and target become more nearly affected by the same errors, so that the differences between their coordinates become increasingly precise. When the end-effector reaches the target, the remaining effective position error is the distance that corresponds to more than about one pixel in the stereoscopic images of the target.

  4. Billing and coding for osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    PubMed

    Snider, Karen T; Jorgensen, Douglas J

    2009-08-01

    Some osteopathic physicians are not properly reimbursed by insurance companies after providing osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to their patients. Common problems associated with lack of reimbursements include insurers bundling OMT with the standard evaluation and management service and confusing OMT with chiropractic manipulative treatment or physical therapy services. The authors suggest methods of appeal for denied reimbursement claims that will also prevent future payment denials. PMID:19706830

  5. Interactive recognition of simultaneous manipulative hand movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam Zacksenhouse; Paul Marcovici

    2001-01-01

    Automatic recognition of manipulative hand movements is a critical step in developing programming by human demonstration technology and intuitive human interfaces to virtual reality. Interactive recognition of manipulative hand movements relies on extracting a meaningful vector of features on-line and on classifying it interactively. Our working model is that hand movements involve joint coordination, with close to in-phase (zero relative-phase)

  6. Self-motions of 3-RPS manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schadlbauer, Josef; Husty, Manfred L.; Caro, Stéphane; Wengery, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    Recently a complete kinematic description of the 3-RPS parallel manipulator was obtained using algebraic constraint equations. It turned out that the workspace splits into two components describing two kinematically different operation modes. In this paper the algebraic description is used to give a complete analysis of all possible self-motions of this manipulator in both operation modes. Furthermore it is shown that a transition from one operation mode into the other in a self-motion is possible.

  7. A geometric control algebra for cooperative manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Cox

    2004-01-01

    A geometric control algebra, represented using hybrid twist and wrench screw theory, is provided and described for cooperating manipulators to model dual-arm robotic operations. In addition to the system model of the manipulators, cooperative dual-arm robotic operations are incorporated using hybrid twist and wrench screw theory into the geometric control algebra. Single-object and two-object operations are based on hybrid twist

  8. On the manipulability of dual cooperative robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiacchio, P.; Chiaverini, S.; Sciavicco, L.; Siciliano, B.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of manipulability ellipsoids for dual robot systems is given. A suitable kineto-static formulation for dual cooperative robots is adopted which allows for a global task space description of external and internal forces, and relative velocities. The well known concepts of force and velocity manipulability ellipsoids for a single robot are formally extended and the contributions of the two single robots to the cooperative system ellipsoids are illustrated. Duality properties are discussed. A practical case study is developed.

  9. Calibration of a SCARA robot manipulator 

    E-print Network

    Brock, Timothy Boland

    1989-01-01

    CALIBRATION OF A SCARA ROBOT MANIPULATOR A Thesis By TIMOTHY BOLAND BROCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of lvlASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering CALIBRATION OF A SCARA ROBOT MANIPULATOR A Thesis By TIMOTHY BOLAND BROCK Approved as to style and contem by: Make McDermon (Chair of Committee) Michael J. ins (Head of Department) uis J. Everett (Member) Karan...

  10. Cartesian base predictive control of robotic manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ozsoy; R. Kazan

    1993-01-01

    A multi-input multi-output (MIMO) controlled auto regressive integrated moving average (CARIMA) model which has the input vector consisting of the joint torques and the output vector consisting of the velocities of the gripper expressed in the world coordinate system, is proposed for the motion of the end-effector of a robotic manipulator system. Since the manipulator is a time-varying system, because

  11. Signal probability calculations using partial functional manipulation 

    E-print Network

    Kodavarti, Ravishankar

    1992-01-01

    SIGNAL PROBABILITY CALCULATIONS USING PARTIAL FUNCTIONAL MANIPULATION A Thesis by RAVISHANKAR KODAVARTI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering SIGNAL PROBABILITY CALCULATIONS USING PARTIAL FUNCTIONAL MANIPULATION A Thesis by RAVISHANKAR KODAVARTI Approved as to style and content by: Don E. Ross (Chair of Committee) Hosame Abu...

  12. Quantum manipulation of valleys in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. Y.; Lue, N.-Y.; Chen, Y.-C.

    2013-09-01

    The valley pseudospin is an inherent electron degree of freedom in graphene. This work establishes a theory for manipulation of valley pseudospins at the quantum level, in bilayer graphene. Two key mechanisms of valley manipulation are proposed and valley-based quantum devices—qubits and field-effect transistors—are implemented based on the mechanisms. This work provides a crucial step in paving the way for the experimental realization (expansion) of valley-based quantum (classical) information processing.

  13. Mobile display-based manipulation: an intuitive and interactive technique for manipulating simple robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Hosoi; Vinh Ninh Dao; Akihiro Mori; Masanori Sugimoto

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the Mobile Display-based Manipulation (MDM) technique for manipulating simple robots such as automated cleaning robots. By capturing images of robots with a camera-attached mobile display and moving it in a three-dimensional space, a user can easily and intuitively manipulate the robots. To verify the validity and effects of the MDM technique, we developed two prototype

  14. Parallel microassembly with a robotic manipulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Henry K.; Mills, James K.; Cleghorn, William L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to assemble multiple micro-components simultaneously with a robotic manipulator using a parallel assembly method. Through manipulating and assembling the micro-components, intricate, out-of-plane, three-dimensional micro-devices can now be fabricated. Use of a parallel microassembly process rather that a serial approach can significantly increase the productivity and reduce the cost of assembling micro-devices. The parallel microassembly operation proposed in this work was developed and implemented on a 6-DOF robot manipulator to attain considerable manufacturing flexibility. In this study, three passive microgrippers were bonded in parallel to the end-effector of the manipulator. Three microparts were then grasped by the grippers from the worktable of the manipulator, rotated 90°, and assembled onto the base substrate simultaneously. During the parallel microassembly operation, the visual image may not be able to monitor all three gripper-part pairs simultaneously due to the limited field of view of the microscope. Through the use of an alignment-calibration algorithm with only one gripper-part set, the remaining two sets were successfully manipulated and inserted onto the desired assembly location.

  15. Clinical evaluation of a commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction tool for CT simulations in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hua; Noel, Camille; Chen, Haijian; Harold Li, H.; Low, Daniel; Moore, Kevin; Klahr, Paul; Michalski, Jeff; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Philips Healthcare System, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Severe artifacts in kilovoltage-CT simulation images caused by large metallic implants can significantly degrade the conspicuity and apparent CT Hounsfield number of targets and anatomic structures, jeopardize the confidence of anatomical segmentation, and introduce inaccuracies into the radiation therapy treatment planning process. This study evaluated the performance of the first commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction function (O-MAR) for radiation therapy, and investigated its clinical applications in treatment planning. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for the evaluation. The CIRS electron density phantom with known physical (and electron) density plugs and removable titanium implants was scanned on a Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16-slice CT simulator. The CT Hounsfield numbers of density plugs on both uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images were compared. Treatment planning accuracy was evaluated by comparing simulated dose distributions computed using the true density images, uncorrected images, and O-MAR corrected images. Ten CT image sets of patients with large hip implants were processed with the O-MAR function and evaluated by two radiation oncologists using a five-point score for overall image quality, anatomical conspicuity, and CT Hounsfield number accuracy. By utilizing the same structure contours delineated from the O-MAR corrected images, clinical IMRT treatment plans for five patients were computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images, respectively, and compared. Results: Results of the phantom study indicated that CT Hounsfield number accuracy and noise were improved on the O-MAR corrected images, especially for images with bilateral metal implants. The {gamma} pass rates of the simulated dose distributions computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images referenced to those of the true densities were higher than 99.9% (even when using 1% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criterion), suggesting that dose distributions were clinically identical. In all patient cases, radiation oncologists rated O-MAR corrected images as higher quality. Formerly obscured critical structures were able to be visualized. The overall image quality and the conspicuity in critical organs were significantly improved compared with the uncorrected images: overall quality score (1.35 vs 3.25, P= 0.0022); bladder (2.15 vs 3.7, P= 0.0023); prostate and seminal vesicles/vagina (1.3 vs 3.275, P= 0.0020); rectum (2.8 vs 3.9, P= 0.0021). The noise levels of the selected ROIs were reduced from 93.7 to 38.2 HU. On most cases (8/10), the average CT Hounsfield numbers of the prostate/vagina on the O-MAR corrected images were closer to the referenced value (41.2 HU, an average measured from patients without metal implants) than those on the uncorrected images. High {gamma} pass rates of the five IMRT dose distribution pairs indicated that the dose distributions were not significantly affected by the CT image improvements. Conclusions: Overall, this study indicated that the O-MAR function can remarkably reduce metal artifacts and improve both CT Hounsfield number accuracy and target and critical structure visualization. Although there was no significant impact of the O-MAR algorithm on the calculated dose distributions, we suggest that O-MAR corrected images are more suitable for the entire treatment planning process by offering better anatomical structure visualization, improving radiation oncologists' confidence in target delineation, and by avoiding subjective density overrides of artifact regions on uncorrected images.

  16. Controversies in timing of the first dose of anticoagulant prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Raskob, Gary E; Hirsh, Jack

    2003-12-01

    Adjusted doses of oral warfarin sodium or fixed doses of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) are the standard approaches for preventing venous thromboembolism following major orthopedic surgery of the legs. In recent years, new anticoagulants have been compared with either LMWH or warfarin. The optimal timing for the first dose of LMWH prophylaxis and of the new anticoagulants is controversial. Recent clinical trials of LMWH and of newer anticoagulants have provided new information on the relationship between the timing of the first anticoagulant dose and the efficacy and safety of thromboprophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery. These data on the optimal timing of initiating prophylaxis come from limited direct randomized comparisons of different timing with the same anticoagulant, subgroup analysis of large studies with a single anticoagulant, indirect comparisons across studies in systematic reviews, and single randomized trials comparing different anticoagulants. In the direct comparison of the same anticoagulant, preoperative initiation of the same regimen of LMWH (dalteparin) increased major bleeding, without improved antithrombotic efficacy compared to the early postoperative regimen. Fondaparinux, 2.5 mg, begun 6 h postoperatively is more effective and as safe as the currently approved regimens of enoxaparin begun either 12 h preoperatively, or 12 to 24 h postoperatively, in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. In a subgroup analysis of several large randomized trials, fondaparinux, 2.5 mg, begun < 6 h postoperatively was associated with increased major bleeding, without improved efficacy. The results of indirect comparisons also favor the use of a 6-h postoperative starting time for the first dose, while the single randomized trials comparing different anticoagulants performed to date are not helpful in establishing an optimal time for the first dose. The aggregate clinical research evidence supports the following general conclusions about the relationship between the timing of the first anticoagulant dose and the efficacy and safety of prophylaxis: (1) preoperative initiation is not required for good efficacy and, when begun within 2 h of surgery, increases major bleeding; (2) initiation at 6 h postoperatively is effective and not associated with increased major bleeding; (3) initiation < 6 h postoperatively increases major bleeding, without improved efficacy; thus, 6 h appears to be the threshold for early postoperative administration; and (4) initiation 12 to 24 h postoperatively may be less effective than initiation at 6 h, but further randomized trials comparing the same anticoagulant initiated at different times postoperatively (eg, 6 h vs 12 h) are required to establish definitively the optimal timing of the first anticoagulant dose. PMID:14668421

  17. Benchmarking the perioperative process: III. Effects of regional anesthesia clinical pathway techniques on process efficiency and recovery profiles in ambulatory orthopedic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A Williams; Barbara M DeRiso; Chiara M Figallo; Joel W Anders; Lori B Engel; Kari A Sproul; Hakan Ilkin; Christopher D Harner; Freddie H Fu; Nandu J Nagarajan; John H Evans; W. David Watkins

    1998-01-01

    Study Objectives: (1) To incorporate regional anesthesia options for common outpatient orthopedic surgery into clinical pathways; (2) to use the clinical pathway format and the Procedural Times Glossary published by the Association of Anesthesia Clinical Directors (AACD) as management tools to measure postoperative same-day surgery processes and discharge outcomes; and (3) to determine the effects of general, regional, and combined

  18. The Application of Telemedicine in Orthopedic Surgery in Singapore: A Pilot Study on a Secure, Mobile Telehealth Application and Messaging Platform

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Keng Lin; Thambiah, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background The application of telemedicine has been described for its use in medical training and education, management of stroke patients, urologic surgeries, pediatric laparoscopic surgeries, clinical outreach, and the field of orthopedics. However, the usefulness of a secure, mobile telehealth application, and messaging platform has not been well described. Objective A pilot study was conducted to implement a health insurance portability and accountability act (HIPAA) compliant form of communication between doctors in an orthopedic clinical setting and determine their reactions to MyDoc, a secure, mobile telehealth application, and messaging platform. Methods By replacing current methods of communication through various mobile applications and text messaging services with MyDoc over a six week period, we gained feedback and determined user satisfaction with this innovative system from questionnaires handed to the program director, program coordinator, one trauma consultant, all orthopedic residents, and six non-orthopedic residents at the National University Hospital in Singapore. Results Almost everyone who completed the questionnaire strongly agreed that MyDoc should replace current systems of peer to peer communication in the hospital. The majority also felt that the quality of images, videos, and sound were excellent. Almost everyone agreed that they could communicate easily with each other and would feel comfortable doing so routinely. The majority felt that virtual consults through MyDoc should be made available to inpatients as well as outpatients to potentially lessen clinic loads and provide a secure manner in which patients can communicate with their primary teams any time convenient to both. It was also agreed by most that the potential of telerounding had advantages, especially on weekends as a supplement to normal rounds. Conclusions Potential uses of MyDoc in an orthopedic clinical setting include HIPAA-compliant peer to peer communication, clinical outreach in the setting of trauma, supervision in the operating room or watching procedures being performed remotely, providing both patient and parent reassurance in pediatric orthopedic patients, and finally in the setting of outpatient clinics. With our pilot study having excellent results in terms of acceptance and satisfaction, the integration of a secure, mobile telehealth application, and messaging platform, not only in the orthopedic department but also the hospital in general, has an exciting and limitless potential. More so in this era where downsizing hospital costs is beneficial, doing so may also be mandatory in order to comply with the soon to be introduced personal data protection act. PMID:25100283

  19. Direct manipulation of virtual objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Long K.

    Interacting with a Virtual Environment (VE) generally requires the user to correctly perceive the relative position and orientation of virtual objects. For applications requiring interaction in personal space, the user may also need to accurately judge the position of the virtual object relative to that of a real object, for example, a virtual button and the user's real hand. This is difficult since VEs generally only provide a subset of the cues experienced in the real world. Complicating matters further, VEs presented by currently available visual displays may be inaccurate or distorted due to technological limitations. Fundamental physiological and psychological aspects of vision as they pertain to the task of object manipulation were thoroughly reviewed. Other sensory modalities -- proprioception, haptics, and audition -- and their cross-interactions with each other and with vision are briefly discussed. Visual display technologies, the primary component of any VE, were canvassed and compared. Current applications and research were gathered and categorized by different VE types and object interaction techniques. While object interaction research abounds in the literature, pockets of research gaps remain. Direct, dexterous, manual interaction with virtual objects in Mixed Reality (MR), where the real, seen hand accurately and effectively interacts with virtual objects, has not yet been fully quantified. An experimental test bed was designed to provide the highest accuracy attainable for salient visual cues in personal space. Optical alignment and user calibration were carefully performed. The test bed accommodated the full continuum of VE types and sensory modalities for comprehensive comparison studies. Experimental designs included two sets, each measuring depth perception and object interaction. The first set addressed the extreme end points of the Reality-Virtuality (R-V) continuum -- Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and Reality Environment (RE). This validated, linked, and extended several previous research findings, using one common test bed and participant pool. The results provided a proven method and solid reference points for further research. The second set of experiments leveraged the first to explore the full R-V spectrum and included additional, relevant sensory modalities. It consisted of two full-factorial experiments providing for rich data and key insights into the effect of each type of environment and each modality on accuracy and timeliness of virtual object interaction. The empirical results clearly showed that mean depth perception error in personal space was less than four millimeters whether the stimuli presented were real, virtual, or mixed. Likewise, mean error for the simple task of pushing a button was less than four millimeters whether the button was real or virtual. Mean task completion time was less than one second. Key to the high accuracy and quick task performance time observed was the correct presentation of the visual cues, including occlusion, stereoscopy, accommodation, and convergence. With performance results already near optimal level with accurate visual cues presented, adding proprioception, audio, and haptic cues did not significantly improve performance. Recommendations for future research include enhancement of the visual display and further experiments with more complex tasks and additional control variables.

  20. Economic Impact of Orthopedic Adult Reconstruction Office Practice: The Implications of Hospital Employment Models on Local Economies.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Richard; Fehring, Thomas; York, Sally; Froimson, Mark; Halsey, David; Odum, Susan; Davis, Charles M; Santore, Richard; McIntyre, Louis F

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic attributes of private practice adult reconstruction (AR) offices. 458 AAHKS surgeons responded; 65% were in private practice (fee-for-service, non-salaried, non-employed AR surgeons). 54% had considered hospital employment in the past two years. The average group employs 13.4 orthopedic surgeons (3.4 AR), and 105 other employees. The average total budget is $12.5 million per year with $4 million in salaries, and $238,000 in tax revenue generated. Co-management joint ventures are a better model than hospital employment for aligning AR surgeons and hospitals and realizing the cost effectiveness and quality improvement goals of PPACA and AARA while preserving the economic impact of AR private practice. PMID:25707995

  1. Concentration In Orthopedic Markets Was Associated With A 7 Percent Increase In Physician Fees For Total Knee Replacements.

    PubMed

    Sun, Eric; Baker, Laurence C

    2015-06-01

    Physician groups are growing larger in size and fewer in number. Although this consolidation could result in improved patient care, the resulting increase in market concentration also could allow larger groups to negotiate higher physician fees from private insurers. We examined the association between market concentration and physician fees in the case of total knee arthroplasty by calculating market concentration for orthopedic groups practicing in a given market and by analyzing administrative claims data from Marketscan. In the period 2001-10 the average professional fee for total knee arthroplasty was $2,537. During this time, in markets that moved from the bottom quartile of concentration to the top quartile, physician fees paid by private payers increased by $168 per procedure. The increase nearly offset the $261 decline in fees that we observed, absent changes in market concentration. These findings suggest that caution should be used in implementing policies designed to encourage further group concentration, which could produce similar effects. PMID:26056195

  2. Office-based rapid prototyping in orthopedic surgery: a novel planning technique and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Adam; Money, Kyle; Spangehl, Mark; Hattrup, Steven; Claridge, Richard J; Beauchamp, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) prototyping, based on high-quality axial images, may allow for more accurate and extensive preoperative planning and may even allow surgeons to perform procedures as part of preoperative preparation. In this article, we describe 7 cases of complex orthopedic disorders that were surgically treated after preoperative planning that was based on both industry-provided models and use of our in-house 3-D printer. Commercially available 3-D printers allow for rapid in-office production of a high-quality realistic prototype at relatively low per-case cost. Using this technique, surgeons can assess the accuracy of their original surgical plans and, if necessary, correct them preoperatively. The ability to "perform surgery preoperatively" adds another element to surgeons' perceptions of the potential issues that may arise. PMID:25566552

  3. Manipulation of a Mobile Modular Manipulator Interacting with the Environment with the Assistance of

    E-print Network

    Li, Yangmin

    sensation plays an important role in robotic ma- nipulation with high dexterity such as automatic grasping, edge tracking, rolling ma- nipulation and so on [3]- [8]. For some complicated robotic manipulation at a specific contact location, which is necessary for manipulating objects and to control slippage [3

  4. Chapter 45. Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom Interaction Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom Interaction

    E-print Network

    Chapter 45. Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom Interaction 45-1 Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom atomic clock operating below the standard quantum limit Sponsors DARPA National Science Foundation to a single measurement using N/Tc atoms. For a given total measurement time the stability improves

  5. ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees

    E-print Network

    Eddy, Sean

    ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees 8/10/01 1 ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees Christian M. Zmasek and Sean R. Eddy Howard Hughes Medical: {zmasek,eddy}@genetics.wustl.edu Key words: tree display, tree viewer, phylogenetic tree, java

  6. An Integrated 2-D Active Optical Fiber Manipulator With Microfluidic Channel for Optical Trapping and Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Wei Lai; Suz-Kai Hsiung; Yin-Quan Chen; Arthur Chiou; Gwo-Bin Lee

    2008-01-01

    We report a new two-axis active optical fiber manipulator for on-chip optical manipulation and detection in microfluidic environment. The system comprising of air chambers, fiber channels, controllable moving walls, and membrane structures were fabricated by using microelectromechanical systems technology. By adjusting air pressures to control the deflection of the pneumatic chambers placed orthogonal to and underneath the fiber channels, accurate

  7. Precision manipulation with a dextrous robot hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelman, Paul

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss a framework for describing and synthesizing precision manipulation tasks with a robot hand. Precision manipulations are those in which the motions of grasped objects are caused by finger motions alone (as distinct from arm or wrist motion). Experiments demonstrating the capabilities of the Utah-MIT hand are presented. This work begins by examining current research on biological motor control to raise a number of questions. For example, is the control centralized and organized by a central processor? Or is the control distributed throughout the nervous system? Motor control research on manipulation has focused on developing classifications of hand motions, concentrating solely on finger motions, while neglecting grasp stability and interaction forces that occur in manipulation. In addition, these taxonomies have not been explicitly functional. This thesis defines and analyzes a basic set of manipulation strategies that includes both position and force trajectories. The fundamental purposes of the manipulations are: (1) rectilinear and rotational motion of grasped objects of different geometries; and (2) the application of forces and moments against the environment by the grasped objects. First, task partitioning is described to allocate the fingers their roles in the task. Second, for each strategy, the mechanics and workspace of the tasks are analyzed geometrically to determine the gross finger trajectories required to achieve the tasks. Techniques illustrating the combination of simple manipulations into complex, multiple degree-of-freedom tasks are presented. There is a discussion of several tasks that use multiple elementary strategies. The tasks described are removing the top of a childproof medicine bottle, putting the top back on, rotating and regrasping a block and a cylinder within the grasp. Finally, experimental results are presented. The experimental setup at Columbia University's Center for Research in Intelligent Systems and experiments with a Utah-MIT hand is discussed. First, the overall system design is described. Two hybrid position/force controllers were designed and built. After a discussion of the entire system, experimental results are presented describing each of the basic manipulation and complex manipulation strategies.

  8. Novel sphene coatings on Ti-6Al-4V for orthopedic implants using sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Ramaswamy, Yogambha; Gale, David; Yang, Wenrong; Xiao, Keqin; Zhang, Liangchi; Yin, Yongbai; Zreiqat, Hala

    2008-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is commonly used to coat titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) for orthopedic implants. However, their poor adhesion strength and insufficient long-term stability limit their application. Novel sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study is to use the novel sphene ceramics as coatings for Ti-6Al-4V. The sol-gel method was used to produce the coatings and the thermal properties, phase composition, microstructure, thickness, surface roughness and adhesion strength of sphene coatings were analyzed by differential thermal analysis-thermal gravity (DTA-TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atom force microscopy (AFM) and scratch test, respectively. DTA analysis confirmed that the temperature of the sphene phase formation is 875 degrees C and XRD analysis indicated pure sphene coatings were obtained. A uniform structure of the sphene coating was found across the Ti-6Al-4V surface, with a thickness and surface roughness of the coating of about 0.5-1 microm and 0.38 microm, respectively. Sphene-coated Ti-6Al-4V possessed a significantly improved adhesion strength compared to that for HAp coating and their chemical stability was evaluated by testing the profile element distribution and the dissolution kinetics of calcium (Ca) ions after soaking the sphene-coated Ti-6Al-4V in Tris-HCl solution. Sphene coatings had a significantly improved chemical stability compared to the HAp coatings. A layer of apatite formed on the sphene-coated Ti-6Al-4V after they were soaked in simulated body fluids (SBF). Our results indicate that sol-gel coating of novel sphene onto Ti-6Al-4V possessed improved adhesion strength and chemical stability, compared to HAp-coated Ti-6Al-4V prepared under the same conditions, suggesting their potential application as coatings for orthopedic implants. PMID:18182336

  9. Effect of early orthopedic intervention on hemifacial microsomia patients: an approach to a cooperative evaluation of treatment results.

    PubMed

    Kahl-Nieke, B; Fischbach, R

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of early orthopedic intervention in patients with hemifacial microsomia, clinically as well as radiologically, by computed tomographic examination to assess soft and hard tissue temporomandibular joint changes. Five patients, one with mandibular dysostosis, one with otomandibular dysostosis, two with Goldenhar syndrome, and one with a surgically revised fibroma of the right mandible that was reconstructed by a costochondral graft, were treated by means of an activator functional appliance. During functional appliance treatment, all patients showed improvement of function and occlusion, and facial asymmetry was reduced. Spiral computed tomographic examination before and during treatment provided data on the bony and muscular deficiencies. The volume and density of the lateral pterygoid muscle was measured with the standard computed tomography software. Evaluation of soft and hard tissue conditions before treatment has shown that the most important factor "lack of soft tissues" can be compensated by excellent cooperation during functional therapy. Pretreatment volume of the affected lateral pterygoid muscle in all patients was significantly smaller than on the unaffected side. In three patients, volume measurements between 4 and 8 years demonstrated that the lateral pterygoid muscle on the affected side had a third, less than a third, and a fifth of the volume of the unaffected side. Although increase, stability, and decrease of the ratio of left and right condylar dimension, muscular volume, and density were found, long-term prognosis cannot be given in the cases with extreme muscular deficiencies after cessation of growth. Prepubertal orthopedic treatment success is a desirable and feasible presurgical or nonsurgical treatment goal for the interdisciplinary team approach. From a study of the pathologic, we learn much about the normal. PMID:9810050

  10. Better with Byzantine: Manipulation-Optimal Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Abraham; Sandholm, Tuomas

    A mechanism is manipulable if it is in some agents’ best interest to misrepresent their private information. The revelation principle establishes that, roughly, anything that can be accomplished by a manipulable mechanism can also be accomplished with a truthful mechanism. Yet agents often fail to play their optimal manipulations due to computational limitations or various flavors of incompetence and cognitive biases. Thus, manipulable mechanisms in particular should anticipate byzantine play. We study manipulation-optimal mechanisms: mechanisms that are undominated by truthful mechanisms when agents act fully rationally, and do better than any truthful mechanism if any agent fails to act rationally in any way. This enables the mechanism designer to do better than the revelation principle would suggest, and obviates the need to predict byzantine agents’ irrational behavior. We prove a host of possibility and impossibility results for the concept which have the impression of broadly limiting possibility. These results are largely in line with the revelation principle, although the considerations are more subtle and the impossibility not universal.

  11. Distinguishing manipulated stocks via trading network analysis

    E-print Network

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Wang, Zhao-Yang; 10.1016/j.physa.2011.04.006

    2011-01-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. For the study of manipulation, it is critical to analyze investor behavior in the stock market. In this paper, an analysis of the full transaction records of over a hundred stocks in a one-year period is conducted. For each stock, a trading network is constructed to characterize the relations among its investors. In trading networks, nodes represent investors and a directed link connects a stock seller to a buyer with the total trade size as the weight of the link, and the node strength is the sum of all edge weights of a node. For all these trading networks, we find that the node degree and node strength both have tails following a power-law distribution. Compared with non-manipulated stocks, manipulated stocks have a high lower bound of the power-law tail, a high average degree of the trading network and a low correlation between the price return and the seller-buyer ratio. These findings may help us to detect manipulated stoc...

  12. Blade manipulators in turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, B.; Prabhu, A.; Narasimha, R.

    1992-01-01

    We report here the results of a series of careful experiments in turbulent channel flow, using various configurations of blade manipulators suggested as optimal in earlier boundary layer studies. The mass flow in the channel could be held constant to better than 0.1%, and the uncertainties in pressure loss measurements were less than 0.1 mm of water; it was therefore possible to make accurate estimates of the global effects of blade manipulation of a kind that are difficult in boundary layer flows. The flow was fully developed at the station where the blades were mounted, and always relaxed to the same state sufficiently far downstream. It is found that, for a given mass flow, the pressure drop to any station downstream is always higher in the manipulated than in the unmanipulated flow, demonstrating that none of the blade manipulators tried reduces net duct losses. However the net increase in duct losses is less than the drag of the blade even in laminar flow, showing that there is a net reduction in the total skin friction drag experienced by the duct, but this relief is only about 20% of the manipulator drag at most.

  13. Identification and analysis of robot manipulator singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Tourassis, V.D. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)); Ang, M.H. Jr. (National Univ. of Singapore, (Singapore))

    1992-06-01

    The existence of singular positions inside the robot workspace is an inherent problem for task planning and robot control. At manipulator configurations near singular positions, very large joint motions are required to produce relatively small end-effector displacements. In the limit, when a singularity is encountered, the required joint motions become unbounded and the manipulator loses at least one degree of freedom. Identifying the singularities in the robot workspace is not always an analytically tractable problem, except for manipulators with opportune placement of the joint axes. Typically, it is easier and more informative to evaluate the robot arm and wrist singularities, which reflect the limitation of the lower-order robot subsystems responsible for positioning and orienting, respectively, the end effector in space. The objective of this article is to define analytically the interplay between the individual arm and wrist singularities. Specifically, a general formula that defines manipulator singularities in terms of the subsystem singularities is developed. The analysis leads to a novel, efficient method for identifying the singularities of six-axis manipulator. This is then illustrated through an example.

  14. Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  15. Sensing Temperatures Via Prostheses And Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerkus, Mike

    1991-01-01

    Proposed temperature-sensing system applies heat to (or removes heat from) human user's skin according to temperature of remote object. Used in artificial limbs and in telerobotic manipulators. In prosthetic arm and hand, sensors on tips of artificial fingers send signals to electronic control network that drives small, lightweight thermoelectric heat pump worn on back of user's shoulder. Heat pump heats or cools skin according to signals from sensors. Heat pump and control network worn like article of clothing. In manual control of remote robot, sensors placed in fingers of remote manipulator. Sensors drive, via similar electronic control network, thermoelectric heat pumps in fingers of glove worn by operator, who then has benefit of information about temperatures on manipulated object.

  16. Coordinated Control Of Mobile Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1995-01-01

    Computationally efficient scheme developed for on-line coordinated control of both manipulation and mobility of robots that include manipulator arms mounted on mobile bases. Applicable to variety of mobile robotic manipulators, including robots that move along tracks (typically, painting and welding robots), robots mounted on gantries and capable of moving in all three dimensions, wheeled robots, and compound robots (consisting of robots mounted on other robots). Theoretical basis discussed in several prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, including "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801), "Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles" (NPO-17852), "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556), "More Uses for Configuration Control of Robots" (NPO-18607/NPO-18608).

  17. Dynamic Analysis of a Two Member Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinley, W. Mark; Shen, Ji Y.

    1997-01-01

    Attenuating start-up and stopping vibrations when maneuvering large payloads attached to flexible manipulator systems is a great concern for many space missions. To address this concern, it was proposed that the use of smart materials, and their applications in smart structures, may provide an effective method of control for aerospace structures. In this paper, a modified finite element model has been developed to simulate the performance of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, and was applied to a flexible two-arm manipulator system. Connected to a control voltage, the piezoelectric actuators produce control moments based on the optimal control theory. The computer simulation modeled the end-effector vibration suppression of the NASA manipulator testbed for berthing operations of the Space Shuttle to the Space Station. The results of the simulation show that the bonded piezoelectric actuators can effectively suppress follow-up vibrations of the end-effector, stimulated by some external disturbance.

  18. Dynamics and control of coordinated multiple manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is presented for controlling multiple manipulators which are holding a single object and therefore form a closed kinematic chain. The object, which may or may not be in contact with a rigid environment, is assumed to be held rigidly by robot end-effectors. The derivation is based on setting up constraint equations which reduce the 6 x n degrees of freedom of a manipulators each having six joints. Additional constraint equations are considered when one or more of the degrees of freedom of the object is reduced due to external constraints. Utilizing the operational space dynamics equations, a decoupling controller is designed to control both the position and the interaction forces of the object with the environment. Finally, simulation results for the control of a pair of two-link manipulators are presented.

  19. Optical trapping and manipulation of nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Maragò, Onofrio M; Jones, Philip H; Gucciardi, Pietro G; Volpe, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea C

    2013-11-01

    Optical trapping and manipulation of micrometre-sized particles was first reported in 1970. Since then, it has been successfully implemented in two size ranges: the subnanometre scale, where light-matter mechanical coupling enables cooling of atoms, ions and molecules, and the micrometre scale, where the momentum transfer resulting from light scattering allows manipulation of microscopic objects such as cells. But it has been difficult to apply these techniques to the intermediate - nanoscale - range that includes structures such as quantum dots, nanowires, nanotubes, graphene and two-dimensional crystals, all of crucial importance for nanomaterials-based applications. Recently, however, several new approaches have been developed and demonstrated for trapping plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanostructures. Here we review the state-of-the-art in optical trapping at the nanoscale, with an emphasis on some of the most promising advances, such as controlled manipulation and assembly of individual and multiple nanostructures, force measurement with femtonewton resolution, and biosensors. PMID:24202536

  20. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menying; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia

    2009-09-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer-controlled reaction processes for chemistry and biology. Electrorheological fluid, especially giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which is considered as a kind of smart material, has been applied to the microfluidic systems to achieve active and precise control of fluid by electrical signal. In this review article, we will introduce recent results of microfluidic droplet manipulation, GERF and some pertinent achievements by introducing GERF into microfluidic system: digital generation, manipulation of "smart droplets" and droplet manipulation by GERF. Once it is combined with real-time detection, integrated chip with multiple functions can be realized. PMID:19722203

  1. Optical trapping and manipulation of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragò, Onofrio M.; Jones, Philip H.; Gucciardi, Pietro G.; Volpe, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea C.

    2013-11-01

    Optical trapping and manipulation of micrometre-sized particles was first reported in 1970. Since then, it has been successfully implemented in two size ranges: the subnanometre scale, where light-matter mechanical coupling enables cooling of atoms, ions and molecules, and the micrometre scale, where the momentum transfer resulting from light scattering allows manipulation of microscopic objects such as cells. But it has been difficult to apply these techniques to the intermediate -- nanoscale -- range that includes structures such as quantum dots, nanowires, nanotubes, graphene and two-dimensional crystals, all of crucial importance for nanomaterials-based applications. Recently, however, several new approaches have been developed and demonstrated for trapping plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanostructures. Here we review the state-of-the-art in optical trapping at the nanoscale, with an emphasis on some of the most promising advances, such as controlled manipulation and assembly of individual and multiple nanostructures, force measurement with femtonewton resolution, and biosensors.

  2. Manipulating thermal conductivity through substrate coupling

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zhixin; Gong, Xin-Gao

    2010-01-01

    We report a new approach to the thermal conductivity manipulation -- substrate coupling. Generally, the phonon scattering with substrates can decrease the thermal conductivity, as observed in recent experiments. However, we find that at certain regions, the coupling to substrates can increase the thermal conductivity due to a reduction of anharmonic phonon scattering induced by shift of the phonon band to the low wave vector. In this way, the thermal conductivity can be efficiently manipulated via coupling to different substrates, without changing or destroying the material structures. This idea is demonstrated by calculating the thermal conductivity of modified double-walled carbon nanotubes and also by the ice nanotubes coupled within carbon nanotubes.

  3. Manipulating thermal conductivity through substrate coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Dier; Gong, Xin-Gao

    2011-08-01

    We report an approach to the thermal conductivity manipulation-substrate coupling. Generally, the phonon scattering with substrates can decrease the thermal conductivity, as observed in recent experiments. However, we find that at certain regions the coupling to substrates can increase the thermal conductivity due to a reduction of anharmonic phonon scattering induced by shift of the phonon band to the low wave vector. In this way, the thermal conductivity can be efficiently manipulated via coupling to different substrates, without changing or destroying the material structures. This idea is demonstrated by calculating the thermal conductivity of modified double-walled carbon nanotubes and also by the ice nanotubes coupled within carbon nanotubes.

  4. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOEpatents

    Weinstein, Berthold W. [Livermore, CA; Willenborg, David L. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern.

  5. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOEpatents

    Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator is disclosed which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern. 8 figs.

  6. Self-Motion Manifolds Of Redundant Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, Joel W.; Seraji, Homayoun

    1991-01-01

    New perspective on redundancy yields alternative control strategies. Self-motion manifolds introduced to characterization of self-motions of robotic manipulator having redundant degrees of freedom. Kinematics of robot reformulated via manifold mapping stressing global, rather than local, kinematic analysis. Approach useful in study of redundant manipulator kinematics. In addition, problem of resolution of redundancy posed equivalently as problem of control of self-motions, and self-motion manifolds useful in investigating, interpreting, and formulating both local and global techniques for resolution of redundancy.

  7. Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Carberry, David M.; Whyte, Graeme; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Jackson, Joseph C.; Robert, Daniel; Miles, Mervyn; Padgett, Miles

    2008-04-01

    We report a holographic assembler workstation for optical trapping and micro-manipulation. The workstation is based on a titanium sapphire laser, making it particularly suited for biomaterials and incorporates a choice of user interfaces for different applications. The system is designed around a commercial inverted microscope and is configured such that it can be easily used by the non-specialist. We demonstrate the bio-capabilities of our system by manipulating a group of yeast cells, a single red blood cell and a single cell of the green algae colony Volvox.

  8. Exploration of unknown mechanical assemblies through manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vijay R.; Yun, Xiaoping; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    1990-01-01

    If robots must function in unstructured environments, they must also possess the ability to acquire information and construct appropriate models of the unknown environment. This paper addresses the automatic generation of kinematic models of unknown objects with movable parts in the environment. If the relative motion between moving parts must be observed and characterized, vision alone cannot suffice. An approach in which manipulation is used with vision for sensing is better suited to the task of determining kinematic properties. In this paper, algorithms for constructing models of unknown mechanical assemblies and characterizing the relative motion are developed. Results of a simulation are described to demonstrate the role of manipulation in such an endeavor.

  9. TV requirements for manipulation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, L. A.; Crooks, W. H.; Coan, P. P.

    1977-01-01

    Four tasks (docking, coupling, manipulation, and transportation), stressing work volume and element relationships, are outlined to test a video system for remote manipulation in space. A 4 degree of freedom motion frame was used to evaluate operating parameters, which grouped the visual dimensions into major areas of influence, e.g., depth precision, object differentiation, reference, dynamics, and resolution. Four video systems were included in the simulation testing: a black and white and a color monoscopic system, a stereoscopic system, and a black and white two-view system. The two-view system was found best suited for the operations described.

  10. A Metaheuristic Supervisory Scheme for Cooperative Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzamtzi, Maria P.; Koumboulis, Fotis N.

    2008-09-01

    A supervisory scheme for cooperative manipulators is proposed, which is used to determine external commands implemented to the cooperative manipulators system through an appropriate control scheme. The supervisor is used to determine external commands representing the desired trajectories of independently controlled state variables that are not related to the desired positioning of the load, thus they may be arbitrary determined so as to contribute towards the achievement of the performance requirements while satisfying configuration, performance and actuator constraints. The external commands are determined as a metaheuristic solution of a multi-inequalities constraints problem.

  11. Atomic Manipulation on an Insulator Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirth, Sabine; Ostendorf, Frank; Reichling, Michael

    The manipulation of atomic and molecular species on metal surfaces with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operated at low temperature is a well established method for bottom-up nanofabrication [G. Meyer et al., Single Mol. 1, 79 (2000); N. Lorente, R. Rurali, H. Tang, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, S1049 (2005)], but is limited in its understanding and applications by restrictions inherent to the STM technique. These limitations can be overcome by using a dynamic scanning force microscope (SFM) for atomic manipulation that offers three major advantages compared to STM. First, the force microscope allows a quantification of the forces applied during the manipulation process (see Chap. 9), second, it facilitates manipulation at room temperature (see Chaps. 8 and 11) and, third, the technique allows manipulation on electrically insulating surfaces. However, examples for force controlled manipulation of atomic size species on an insulator surface are still scarce regarding experimental evidence [S. Hirth, F. Ostendorf, M. Reichling, Nanotechnology 17, S148 (2006); R. Nishi et al., Nanotechnology 17, S142 (2006)] as well as theoretical explanation [T. Trevethan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028101 (2007); T. Trevethan et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 085414 (2007)]. Here we demonstrate the force controlled manipulation of water related defects on a CaF2 (111) surface by a raster scanning motion of the tip over a specific surface region. Manipulation is facilitated by repulsive forces exerted by approaching the tip very closely to the detects. We focus mainly on the presentation of manipulation results and discuss the circumstances that allow a control of the manipulation process. The CaF2 (111) surface is specifically well suited for such studies as this surface has been very well characterized by NC-AFM in previous studies [M. Reichling, C. Barth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 768 (1999); C. Barth, M. Reichling, Surf. Sci. 470, L99 (2000); F.J. Giessibl, M. Reichling, Nanotechnology 16, S118 (2005); R. Hoffmann et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17863 (2005)] and contrast formation is understood on a quantitative level [A.S. Foster et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2373 (2001); C. Barth et al., J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 2061 (2001); A.S. Foster et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 235417 (2002)]. Furthermore, the geometric and electronic structures of this surface is well understood from a variety of theoretical simulations [A.V. Puchina et al., Solid State Commun. 106, 285 (1998); V.E. Puchin et al., J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 2081 (2001); Y. Ma, M. Rohlfing, Phys. Rev. B 75, 205114 (2007); Y. Ma, M. Rohlfing, Phys. Rev. B 77, 115118 (2008)]. Therefore, it can be expected that the experimental evidence of force controlled manipulation presented here will finally be fully explained by further theoretical modeling.

  12. Intelligent Control for Robot Manipulators by Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHAE-WOOK CHUNG; TAE-YONG KUC

    An intelligent control method is proposed for control of rigid robot manipulators which achieves expo- nential tracking of repetitive robot trajectory under uncertain operating conditions such as parameter uncertainty and unknown deterministic disturbance. In the learning controller, exponentially stable learning algorithms are combined with stabilizing computed error feedforward and feedback inputs. It is shown that all the error signals in

  13. Sensing Local Geometry for Dexterous Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    ://www-cdr.stanford.edu/telemanip Abstract: We describe a new tactile sensor for use in dexterous manipulation and telemanipulation difficult, especially when the digits are human-sized or smaller. Nonetheless, many kinds of tactile sensors see (Dario 1991) and (Lee 2000). In most implementations, the tactile sensors consist of an array

  14. Displays for supervisory control of manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Bejczy; G. Paine

    1977-01-01

    The problem of displaying information generated by sensors attached to the terminal device of a remotely controlled manipulator is considered. The sensors under consideration are proximity, force-torque, tactile and slip-page sensors. The paper describes and evaluates several examples that have been implemented in the JPL teleoperator project using audio and graphic displays of information generated by four proximity sensors attached

  15. Manipulating thermal conductivity through substrate coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Xin Guo; Dier Zhang; Xin-Gao Gong

    2011-01-01

    We report an approach to the thermal conductivity manipulation-substrate coupling. Generally, the phonon scattering with substrates can decrease the thermal conductivity, as observed in recent experiments. However, we find that at certain regions the coupling to substrates can increase the thermal conductivity due to a reduction of anharmonic phonon scattering induced by shift of the phonon band to the low

  16. Entanglement manipulation by a local magnetic pulse

    E-print Network

    Shi-Jian Gu; Hai-Qing Lin

    2005-03-15

    A scheme for controlling the entanglement of a two-qubit system by a local magnetic pulse is proposed. We show that the entanglement of the two-qubit system can be increased by sacrificing the coherence in ancillary degree of freedom, which is induced by a local manipulation.

  17. Querying and Manipulating Multimedia Presentation Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lee; L. Sheng; T. Bozkaya; G. Ozsoyoglu; Z. M. Ozsoyoglu

    1996-01-01

    Multimedia presentation graphs are acyclic graphs with directed edges (DAG) used for visual specification ofmultimedia presentations. In this paper, we introduce two approaches in querying and manipulating multimediapresentation graphs. As our first approach, we present a modal calculus, called GCalculus (Graph Calculus), whichhas a second order syntax and first order semantics. The first order semantics in GCalculus provides a formalfoundation

  18. Manipulating Kondo Temperature via Single Molecule Switching

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Manipulating Kondo Temperature via Single Molecule Switching Violeta Iancu, Aparna Deshpande the Cu(111) substrate can cause a Kondo resonance. Tunneling spectroscopy data reveal that switching from Kondo temperature from 130 to 170 K. This result demonstrates that the Kondo temperature can

  19. Flexible manipulator control experiments and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, S.; Ozguner, U.; Tzes, A.; Kotnik, P. T.

    1987-01-01

    Modeling and control design for flexible manipulators, both from an experimental and analytical viewpoint, are described. From the application perspective, an ongoing effort within the laboratory environment at the Ohio State University, where experimentation on a single link flexible arm is underway is described. Several unique features of this study are described here. First, the manipulator arm is slewed by a direct drive dc motor and has a rigid counterbalance appendage. Current experimentation is from two viewpoints: (1) rigid body slewing and vibration control via actuation with the hub motor, and (2) vibration suppression through the use of structure-mounted proof-mass actuation at the tip. Such an application to manipulator control is of interest particularly in design of space-based telerobotic control systems, but has received little attention to date. From an analytical viewpoint, parameter estimation techniques within the closed-loop for self-tuning adaptive control approaches are discussed. Also introduced is a control approach based on output feedback and frequency weighting to counteract effects of spillover in reduced-order model design. A model of the flexible manipulator based on experimental measurements is evaluated for such estimation and control approaches.

  20. Direct manipulation of free-form deformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Hsu; John F. Hughes; Henry Kaufman

    1992-01-01

    Free-form deformation (FFD) is a powerful modeling tool, but controlling the shape of an object under complex deformations is often difficult. The interface to FFD in most conventional systems simply represents the underlying mathematics directly; us ers de- scribe deformations by manipulating control points. The difficulty in controlling shape precisely is largely due to the control points being extraneous to

  1. Recursive Lagrangian Dynamics of Flexible Manipulator Arms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear equations of motion are developed for flexible manipulator arms consisting of rotary joints that connect pairs of flexible links. Kinematics of both the rotary-joint mo tion and the link deformation are described by 4 X 4 trans formation matrices. The link deflection is assumed small so that the link transformation can be composed of summations of assumed link shapes.

  2. The Robust Control of Robot Manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Jacques E. Slotine

    1985-01-01

    A new scheme is presented for the accurate tracking control of robot manipulators. Based on the more general suction control methodology, the scheme addresses the following problem: Given the extent of parametric uncertainty (such as imprecisions or inertias, geometry, loads) and the frequency range of unmodeled dynamics (such as unmodeled structural modes, neglected time delays), design a nonlinear feedback controller

  3. Redundancy resolution of manipulators through torque optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Hollerbach; Ki C. Suh

    1985-01-01

    Methods for resolving kinematic redundancies of manipulators by the effect on joint torque are examined. When the generalized inverse is formulated in terms of accelerations and incorporated into the dynamics, the effect of redundancy resolution on joint torque can be directly reflected. One method chooses the joint acceleration null-space vector to minimize joint torque in a least squares sense; when

  4. Control Algorithms For Kinematically Redundant Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents improved algorithms for controlling kinematically redundant robotic manipulators, producing unique configuration for each end-effector location. Furthermore, they generally produce configurations in which no interference between robot boom and payload or base structures. Report presents comparison between various other robot-kinematic algorithms.

  5. Kinematic programming alternatives for redundant manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Baillieul

    1985-01-01

    In the growing literature on redundant manipulator control, a number of techniques have been proposed for solving the inverse kinemetics problem. Some of these techniques are surveyed with a discussion of strengths and weaknesses of each. A new approach, called the extended Jacobian technique, is also presented. It is argued that because this technique may be expected to lift closed

  6. Motion and force control of robot manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oussama Khatib; Joel Burdick

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we present a unified approach for the control of manipulator motions and active forces based on the operational space formulation. The end-effector dynamic model is used in the development of a control system in which the generalized operational space end-effector forces are selected as the command vector. This formulation provides a framework for natural and efficient integration

  7. Dynamic analysis of geometrically nonlinear robot manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Bakp

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a method for the dynamic analysis of geometrically nonlinear elastic robot manipulators is presented. Robot arm elasticity is introduced using a finite element method which allows for the gross arm rotations. A shape function which accounts for the combined effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation is employed to describe the arm deformation relative to a selected

  8. Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The industrial and environmental applications for robots with a relatively large workspace has increased significantly in the last few years. To accommodate the demands, the manipulator is usually designed with long, lightweight links that are inherently flexible. Ongoing research at Georgia Tech into the behavior and design of these flexible links is discussed.

  9. Spider management in agroecosystems: Habitat manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Fadel; Richman, David B.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the literature and on work conducted in Israel, the management of spider populations through habitat manipulation was found to be very helpful in controlling pest insects in various crops. Spiders were found to be reduced or eliminated by non-selective insecticides, although some resistance has been noted

  10. System development of a Robotic Pole Manipulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Paul Turner; Derek C. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    A design concept for a Robotic Pole Manipulator equipped with an advanced, intelligent controller is presented. The concept was developed for wooden poles up to 55 ft length, but is scalable for use with poles of larger dimensions and different materials. The concept is based on a truck-mounted articulating crane with hydraulic gripper. The crane and gripper are equipped with

  11. Subpicosecond Coherent Manipulation of X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2004-05-12

    The Takagi-Taupin theory is synthesized with the eikonal theory in a unified space-time approach, based upon microscopic electromagnetism. It is designed specifically to address x-ray diffraction in crystal structures being modified within down to a few femtosconds. Possible applications in the subpicosecond coherent manipulation of x-rays are given.

  12. A concept for manipulator trajectory planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pfeiffer; R. Johanni

    1987-01-01

    A way to find the optimal trajectory of an arbitrary manipulator following a prescribed path is described. The method takes advantage of the fact that in this case overall motion takes place with one degree of freedom (DOF) only. Transforming the equations of motion to this one DOF results in a set of equations which defines the phase space of

  13. Frequency of bleb manipulations after trabeculectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    King, A J; Rotchford, A P; Alwitry, A; Moodie, J

    2007-01-01

    Aim To quantify the type and frequency of postoperative bleb manipulations undertaken after modern glaucoma surgery. Methods Bleb manipulations were recorded after trabeculectomy surgery on 119 consecutive patients with at least 1?year of follow?up. The type of intervention and time after surgery were recorded. Statistical analysis identified success rates at various intraocular pressure (IOP) cut?off definitions and identified factors that increased the risk for bleb manipulation. Results In all, 78.2% of trabeculectomies were followed by some form of bleb manipulation. Almost 49% of blebs underwent massage and a similar number required at least one suture removal, 31.1% required at least one 5?fluorouracil (5?FU) injection and 25.2% required at least one needling and 5?FU injection. The median time to the first intervention for massage, suture removal, 5?FU injection, and needling and 5?FU injection were 1, 14, 14 and 43?days, respectively. IOP measurements were higher at all follow?up time points in the intervention group. Failure to achieve specific IOP target pressures was also generally poorer in the 5?FU, and needling and 5?FU intervention groups. Conclusions Postoperative intervention is a frequent occurrence after modern glaucoma surgery. This requires intensive postoperative follow?up and is a labour?intensive undertaking. Despite interventions in our group of patients, IOP in the intervention group was always higher than in the group that required no intervention. PMID:17272388

  14. Interactive manipulation of quadric surfaces in stereo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Taylor; David F. McAllister

    1993-01-01

    A stereoscopic drawing program is described which permits the user to display and manipulate quadric surfaces. The quadric surfaces are the 3-dimensional relatives of the ellipse, parabola and hyperbola and include ellipsoids, hyperboloids of one sheet, hyperboloids of two sheets, elliptic cones, elliptic paraboloids, and hyperbolic paraboloids. These surfaces have both implicit and parametric representations. A 3-button mouse is used

  15. An anthropomorphic master-slave manipulator system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the results of a teleoperator systems technology program devoted to the development of an anthropomorphic unilateral master-slave manipulator system. Following a discussion of the mechanical design details and servo design considerations, the developed system's test results are presented.

  16. Improved electromechanical master-slave manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, G.; Goertz, R.; Grimson, J.; Mingesz, D.; Potts, C.

    1968-01-01

    Electric master-slave manipulator uses force multiplication and allows the operator to remotely control the slave arm. Both the master and slave arms execute seven distinct motions by a specially designed force-reflecting servo having a one to one correspondence between the motion at the master and slave.

  17. Reconfigurable Planar Three-Legged Parallel Manipulators

    E-print Network

    Hayes, John

    Reconfigurable Planar Three-Legged Parallel Manipulators M. John D. Hayes Department of Mechanical of reconfigurable planar three legged plat- forms is introduced. Kinematic mapping techniques are applied to solve Introduction There has been great interest in reconfigurable mechanisms in recent years (see Yim et al., March

  18. Manipulating the Near Field With Metamaterials

    E-print Network

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Manipulating the Near Field With Metamaterials John Pendry #12;September 2004 Optics & Photonics built. At optical frequencies, metamaterial designs that exploit the plasma resonances of a free metal surface are waiting to be exploited. (Facing page) A sphere constructed of metamaterial by David R. Smith

  19. Carton manipulation analysis using configuration transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Liu; J S Dai

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the folding process of packaging cartons and characterizes the manipulation of automatic carton folding by converting the problem into that of a motion sequence of an equivalent, metamorphic mechanism. The mechanism makes an analogy with a carton by taking carton creases as joints and carton panels as links. Hence the mechanism analysis can be applied to carton

  20. Acoustic Levitation and Manipulation for Space Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taylor G. Wang

    1979-01-01

    A wide spectrm of experiments to be performed in space in a microgravity environment require levitation and manipulation of liquid or molten samples. A novel acoustic method has been developed at JPL for controlling liquid samples without physical contacts. This method utilizes the static pressure generated by three orthogonal acoustic standing waves excited within an enclosure. Furthermore, this method will

  1. Entropy Manipulation of Arbitrary Nonlinear Mappings

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Entropy Manipulation of Arbitrary Nonlinear Mappings John W. Fisher III José C. Principe be nonlinearly transformed onto a maximum entropy feature space resulting in statistically independent features theory, namely mutual information and maximum cross- entropy. The adaptation is unsupervised in the sense

  2. Fault Tree Analysis Using Bit Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean B. Wheeler; Jason S. Hsuan; Ralph R. Duersch; Glenn M. Roe

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient technique for computerized fault-tree analysis. The technique is based upon binary coding of events and bit manipulation for tree reduction, reducing both computation time and computer storage requirements. The operations include generation of minimal cut sets for trees containing arbitrary AND and OR logic, and determination of top event existence probability for s-independent minimal cut

  3. The kinetostatic capability analysis of robotic manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han S. Kim; Yong J. Choi

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical methods to evaluate the forward\\/inverse kinetostatic capabilities of robotic manipulators. The eigenvalue problems corresponding to the forward and inverse kinetostatic capability analyses have been formulated. The forward kinetostatic capability analysis is to determine the magnitude bounds of the force and moment (linear and angular velocity) vectors generated at the end-effector for the given magnitude of

  4. OUTPUT SYNCHRONIZATION FOR TELEOPERATION OF ROBOT MANIPULATORS

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    of the control algorithm to compensate for delay induced instability while providing a transparent feel of a wheeled mobile manipulator using the stylus endpoint Phantom Omni haptic device will serve to form our will rendered the dynamics passive to a secondary coupling input. A passive mapping is used to couple the output

  5. Disrupting Reconsolidation: Pharmacological and Behavioral Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited modifications. At the same time, the fear-erasing effects…

  6. Manipulating surface states in topological insulator nanoribbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faxian Xiu; Liang He; Yong Wang; Lina Cheng; Li-Te Chang; Murong Lang; Guan Huang; Xufeng Kou; Yi Zhou; Xiaowei Jiang; Zhigang Chen; Jin Zou; Alexandros Shailos; Kang L. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Topological insulators display unique properties, such as the quantum spin Hall effect, because time-reversal symmetry allows charges and spins to propagate along the edge or surface of the topological insulator without scattering. However, the direct manipulation of these edge\\/surface states is difficult because they are significantly outnumbered by bulk carriers. Here, we report experimental evidence for the modulation of these

  7. 1 | P a g e MANIPULATING NANOMATERIALS

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    1 | P a g e MANIPULATING NANOMATERIALS TO MANUFACTURE LARGE-SCALE COMPONENTS By Patrick McDonagh Mc is reprinted from the fall 2009 issue of the Faculty of Engineering Dean's Report. Nanomaterials are, by definition, tiny, but Professor Mathieu Brochu has taken on the challenge of using nanomaterials to fabricate

  8. Stiffness Analysis of Overconstrained Parallel Manipulators

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    equations for the unloaded manipulator configuration, which allows computing the stiffness matrix mechanisms, Stiffness modeling, Parallelogram-based linkage, Orthoglide robot 1. Introduction Parallel-effector. Numerically, this property is defined through the "stiffness matrix" K, which gives the relation between

  9. Market Manipulation with Outside Incentives Yiling Chen

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    Market Manipulation with Outside Incentives Yiling Chen Harvard SEAS yiling@eecs.harvard.edu Xi. Kash Harvard CRCS kash@seas.harvard.edu Abstract Much evidence has shown that prediction markets, when and produce remarkably accu- rate forecasts. However, if the market prediction will be used for decision

  10. MANIPULATION OF PAGERANK COLLECTIVE HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Daniel R.

    for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Daniel Sheldon Februrary 2010 #12;c 2010 Daniel Sheldon ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;MANIPULATION OF PAGERANK AND COLLECTIVE HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS Daniel Sheldon, Ph.D. Cornell database of ob- servations. #12;BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Daniel Sheldon received a B.A. in Mathematics from

  11. Tool-based direct manipulation environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Horton

    In this article we develop a model for interacting with some types of direct manipulation systems, based on a close analogy to the use of simple hand tools. We describe the prop- erties of physical tools and tool use and explain their implications for interactive software. To illustrate how the properties governing physical tool-based interaction can be applied to software

  12. Quantum manipulation on the Barium quadrupolar transition

    E-print Network

    Blatt, Rainer

    and stabilization of a new fiber laser system to ma- nipulate the Barium quadrupolar transition, with the aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 6 Spectroscopy and sideband cooling on a single 138 Ba+ 58 6.1 Quantum jumps using the fiber laser . . . . . . . . . . . . .Quantum manipulation on the Barium quadrupolar transition A diploma thesis in physics submitted

  13. Manipulator Performance Evaluation Using Fitts' Taping Task

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Jared, B.C.; Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    Metaphorically, a teleoperator with master controllers projects the user's arms and hands into a re- mote area, Therefore, human users interact with teleoperators at a more fundamental level than they do with most human-machine systems. Instead of inputting decisions about how the system should func- tion, teleoperator users input the movements they might make if they were truly in the remote area and the remote machine must recreate their trajectories and impedance. This intense human-machine inter- action requires displays and controls more carefully attuned to human motor capabilities than is neces- sary with most systems. It is important for teleoperated manipulators to be able to recreate human trajectories and impedance in real time. One method for assessing manipulator performance is to observe how well a system be- haves while a human user completes human dexterity tasks with it. Fitts' tapping task has been, used many times in the past for this purpose. This report describes such a performance assessment. The International Submarine Engineering (ISE) Autonomous/Teleoperated Operations Manipulator (ATOM) servomanipulator system was evalu- ated using a generic positioning accuracy task. The task is a simple one but has the merits of (1) pro- ducing a performance function estimate rather than a point estimate and (2) being widely used in the past for human and servomanipulator dexterity tests. Results of testing using this task may, therefore, allow comparison with other manipulators, and is generically representative of a broad class of tasks. Results of the testing indicate that the ATOM manipulator is capable of performing the task. Force reflection had a negative impact on task efficiency in these data. This was most likely caused by the high resistance to movement the master controller exhibited with the force reflection engaged. Measurements of exerted forces were not made, so it is not possible to say whether the force reflection helped partici- pants control force during testing.

  14. Medicolegal corner: Quadriplegia following chiropractic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Nancy E; Forte Esq, Carol L

    2013-01-01

    A 45 year old male with multiple comorbidities presented to his internist with a 2 week history of right sided neck pain and tenderness, accompanied by tingling in the hand. The internists' neurological examination was normal, except for decreased range of motion of the right arm. He referred the patient to a chiropractor; he performed plain X rays which revealed mild spasm, but never ordered a magnetic resonance imaging study. The chiropractor manipulated the patient's neck on two successive days. By the morning of the third visit, the patient reported extreme pain and difficulty walking. Without performing a new neurological examination or obtaining an MR scan, the chiropractor again manipulated the patient's neck. He immediately became quadriplegic. Despite undergoing an emergency C5 C6 anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion to address a massive disc found on the MR scan (CT was negative), the patient remained quadriplegic (e.g., C4 sensory, C6 motor levels). A major point of negligence in this case was the failure of both the referring internist and chiropractor to order an MR of the cervical spine prior to the chiropractic manipulation. The internist claimed that there was no known report of permanent quadriplegia resulting from neck manipulation in any medical journal, article or book, or in any literature of any kind or on the internet and that the risk of this injury must be vanishingly small given the large numbers of manipulations performed annually. The total amount of the verdict was $14,596,000.00 the internist's liability was 5% ($759,181.65). PMID:23878767

  15. Medicolegal corner: Quadriplegia following chiropractic manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Forte Esq, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    A 45 year old male with multiple comorbidities presented to his internist with a 2 week history of right sided neck pain and tenderness, accompanied by tingling in the hand. The internists’ neurological examination was normal, except for decreased range of motion of the right arm. He referred the patient to a chiropractor; he performed plain X rays which revealed mild spasm, but never ordered a magnetic resonance imaging study. The chiropractor manipulated the patient's neck on two successive days. By the morning of the third visit, the patient reported extreme pain and difficulty walking. Without performing a new neurological examination or obtaining an MR scan, the chiropractor again manipulated the patient's neck. He immediately became quadriplegic. Despite undergoing an emergency C5 C6 anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion to address a massive disc found on the MR scan (CT was negative), the patient remained quadriplegic (e.g., C4 sensory, C6 motor levels). A major point of negligence in this case was the failure of both the referring internist and chiropractor to order an MR of the cervical spine prior to the chiropractic manipulation. The internist claimed that there was no known report of permanent quadriplegia resulting from neck manipulation in any medical journal, article or book, or in any literature of any kind or on the internet and that the risk of this injury must be vanishingly small given the large numbers of manipulations performed annually. The total amount of the verdict was $14,596,000.00 the internist's liability was 5% ($759,181.65). PMID:23878767

  16. Manipulator Comparative Testing Program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1987-02-01

    The manipulator systems tested included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Central Research Laboratories Model M-2, and the GCA PaR Systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (1) the BILARM in master/slave mode without force reflection, (2) the BILARM in master/slave mode with force reflection, (3) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode without force reflection, (4) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode with force reflection, (5) the BILARM with switchbox controls, and (6) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments examined differences between master/slave systems with and without force reflection and differences between master/slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems. A fourth experiment examined the relative contributions of the remote viewing system and the manipulator system to the performance of remote handling tasks. Results of the experiments showed that operators using the Model M-2 in master/slave mode had significantly faster times to completion than operators using the BILARM in master/slave mode, with about the same error rate per trial. Operators were slower using the BILARM with force reflection than without it, and they committed more errors. There was no statistically significant difference between force-reflection and nonforce-reflection conditions for the M-2 manipulator for any of the performance criteria. Tasks and procedures used in this testing were not sensitive to differences within any single system. No inferences about the effect of force reflection on remote task performance should be made from these data. The two manipulator systems in switchbox mode had significantly slower times to completion than any system in master/slave mode, with approximately the same error rate per trial. There were no significant differences between the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR arm.

  17. The UMass Mobile Manipulator UMan: An Experimental Platform for Autonomous Mobile Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dov Katz; Emily Horrell; Yuandong Yang; Brendan Burns; Thomas Buckley; Anna Grishkan; Volodymyr Zhylkovskyy; Oliver Brock; Erik Learned-Miller

    Abstract, Research in Autonomous Mobile Manipulation crit-ically depends on the availability of adequate experimental platforms. In this paper, we describe an ongoing effort at the University of Massachusetts Amherst to construct a hardware platform with redundant kinematic degrees of freedom, a com-prehensive sensor suite, and significant end-effector capabilities for manipulation. In our research, we pursue an end-effector centric view of

  18. Chronic Non-Orthopedic Conditions More Common in Patients with Less Severe Degenerative Changes That Have Elected to Undergo Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Cale A; Christensen, Christian P; Karthikeyan, Tharun

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of chronic non-orthopedic conditions that may play a role in an abnormal pain response differs between patients based on the severity of degenerative changes at the time of surgery. Of 1020 OA knees that had undergone primary TKA with a minimum 2year follow-up, we identified 117 (11.5%) that had less severe degenerative changes. The prevalence of dissatisfaction was significantly greater in less severe group compared to those with moderate or severe changes (18.8% vs. 9.3%, P=.003). Chronic non-orthopedic conditions were significantly more prevalent in the less severe group with 41.9% reporting depression/anxiety, 30.8% with fibromyalgia or low back pathology, and 12.8% with a prior traumatic brain injury or stroke. PMID:25702593

  19. Extending tangible interfaces for education: digital montessori-inspired manipulatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oren Zuckerman; Saeed Arida; Mitchel Resnick

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new framework for thinking about tangible interfaces in education, with specific focus on abstract problem domains.Manipulatives are physical objects specifically designed to foster learning. We offer a new classification of Manipulatives: \\

  20. Compliance and Force Control for Computer Controlled Manipulators

    E-print Network

    Mason, Matthew Thomas

    1979-04-01

    Compliant motion occurs when the manipulator position is constrained by the task geometry. Compliant motion may be produced either by a passive mechanical compliance built in to the manipulator, or by an active ...

  1. A hierarchical approach to manipulation with diverse actions

    E-print Network

    Barry, Jennifer

    We define the Diverse Action Manipulation (DAMA) problem in which we are given a mobile robot, a set of movable objects, and a set of diverse, possibly non-prehensile manipulation actions, and the goal is to find a sequence ...

  2. A Simple Motion Planning Algorithm for General Robot Manipulators

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Perez, Tomas

    1986-06-01

    This paper presents a simple and efficient algorithm, using configuration space, to plan collision-free motions for general manipulators. We describe an implementation of the algorithm for manipulators made up of ...

  3. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  4. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  5. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  6. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  7. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  8. Design Optimization of Robot Manipulators over Global Stiffness Performance Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design Optimization of Robot Manipulators over Global Stiffness Performance Evaluation Eric for the design optimization of robot manipulators with respect to multiple global stiffness objectives of our work resides : · in a systematic analytical calculation of the equivalent stiffness matrix

  9. A virtual manipulator model for space robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, S.; Vafa, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Future robotic manipulators carried by a spacecraft will be required to perform complex tasks in space, like repairing satellites. Such applications of robotic manipulators will encounter a number of kinematic, dynamic and control problems due to the dynamic coupling between the manipulators and the spacecraft. A new analytical modeling method for studying the kinematics and dynamics of manipulators in space is presented. The problem is treated by introducing the concept of a Virtual Manipulator (VM). The kinematic and dynamic motions of the manipulator, vehicle and payload, can be described relatively easily in terms of the Virtual Manipulator movements, which have a fixed base in inertial space at a point called a Virtual Ground. It is anticipated that the approach described here will aid in the design and development of future space manipulator systems.

  10. The Impact of Surgical?Site Infections Following Orthopedic Surgery at a Community Hospital and a University Hospital: Adverse Quality of Life, Excess Length of Stay, and Extra Cost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Whitehouse; N. Deborah Friedman; Kathryn B. Kirkland; William J. Richardson; Daniel J. Sexton

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of orthopedic surgi- cal-site infections (SSIs) on quality of life, length of hospitalization, and cost. DESIGN: A pairwise-matched (1:1) case-control study within a cohort. SETTING: A tertiary-care university medical center and a community hospital. PATIENTS: Cases of orthopedic SSIs were prospectively identified by infection control professionals. Matched controls were selected from the entire cohort of

  11. Real-time adaptive motion planning for a continuum manipulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Xiao; Rayomand Vatcha

    2010-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, featuring “continuous backbone structures”, are promising for deft manipulation of a wide range of objects under uncertain conditions in less-structured and cluttered environments. A multi-section trunk\\/tentacle robot is such a continuum manipulator. With a continuum robot, manipulation means a continuous whole-arm motion, often without a clear distinction between transport and grasping. In this paper, we address the novel

  12. Atom manipulation on an insulating surface at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S.; Canova, Filippo Federici; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Meyer, Ernst

    2014-07-01

    Atomic manipulation enables us to fabricate a unique structure at the atomic scale. So far, many atomic manipulations have been reported on conductive surfaces, mainly at low temperature with scanning tunnelling microscopy, but atomic manipulation on an insulator at room temperature is still a long-standing challenge. Here we present a systematic atomic manipulation on an insulating surface by advanced atomic force microscopy, enabling construction of complex patterns such as a ‘Swiss cross’ of substitutional bromine ions in the sodium chloride surface.

  13. Programmable Cell Manipulation Using Lab-on-a-Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Park, Je-Kyun

    Programmable manipulation of particles or cells plays an important role in many biological and medical applications. Here a new programmable micro manipulator, named lab-on-a-display, in which particles are manipulated by optically induced electrokinetic forces generated from an optoelectronic tweezers on a liquid crystal display, is introduced. This optoelectrofluidic platform has been utilized to manipulate various kinds of cells such as blood cells, oocytes, and motile bacteria for several biotechnological applications.

  14. Arm-manipulator coordination for load sharing using compliant control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar M. Al-Jarrah; Yuan F. Zheng

    1996-01-01

    Arm-manipulator coordination is a new coordination problem in robotics. Human arm-manipulator coordination is superior to both arm-arm coordination and manipulator-manipulator coordination. Likewise, it is expected to have powerful impacts on many applications in the manufacturing, service, and construction industries. This paper introduces this problem and investigates the coordination using a compliant control method. There are several problems in this scheme.

  15. Intramuscular Administration of Drotaverine Hydrochloride Decreases Both Incidence of Urinary Retention and Time to Micturition in Orthopedic Patients under Spinal Anesthesia: A Single Blinded Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Ba?kota, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) increases the duration of hospitalization and frequency and risk of urinary bladder catheterization. The objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of intramuscularly administered drotaverine hydrochloride in the prevention of POUR in orthopedic patients. Methods. Two hundred and thirty patients 17–40 years of age undergoing lower limb orthopedic procedures under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in the study. The study group received 40?mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intramuscularly; the second group was the control. The main outcome measure was (1) the time to micturition and (2) the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization and time to catheterization. Results. Two hundred and one patients of 230 enrolled participants completed the study. Compared to the control group, the male patients in study group exhibited a shorter time to spontaneous micturition (441 versus 563 minutes, 95% CI of the difference of means between 39 and 205 minutes) and a lower incidence of urinary bladder catheterization (4/75 versus 10/54) (RR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.1–0.87; P = 0.0175). Conclusions. Intramuscular administration of drotaverine hydrochloride decreased the time to spontaneous micturition and decreased the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization in male patients who underwent orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. This trial is registered with NCT02026427. PMID:26185766

  16. A Novel Manipulator for Percutaneous Needle Insertion: Design and Experimentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harmanpreet S. Bassan; Rajni V. Patel; Mehrdad Moallem

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a novel 5-DOF manipulator for percutaneous needle insertion. The requirements of the manipulator have been instigated by a relatively common medical procedure: low-dose rate brachytherapy of the prostate. The manipulator can perform orientation, insertion, and rotation of the needle and linear motion of the stylet to drop radioactive seeds contained in a

  17. Dynamic whole-arm dexterous manipulation in the plane 

    E-print Network

    Yeap, Soon Lin

    1994-01-01

    dexterous manipulation test-bed and its characterization. The main contribution of this thesis is to show that a dynamic model of a dexterous manipulation system can be used for predicting the feasibility of a quasistatic manipulation plan in a. dynamic...

  18. Manipulation of Nanoscale Components with the AFM: Principles and Applications

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Manipulation of Nanoscale Components with the AFM: Principles and Applications A. A. G. Requicha, S Tunneling Microscope (STM) can be used to manipulate atoms [17]; a well-known example of their work is the IBM logo written with xenon atoms. Other pioneering research on atomic manipulation was done

  19. Manipulating Quantum Dots to Nanometer Precision by Control of Flow

    E-print Network

    Waks, Edo

    Manipulating Quantum Dots to Nanometer Precision by Control of Flow Chad Ropp, Roland Probst of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 ABSTRACT We present a method for manipulating on the dynamically manipulated QD. KEYWORDS Quantum dots, control, electroosmotic flow, subpixel averaging, photon

  20. REVIEW ARTICLE Scanning tunneling microscopy single atom/molecule manipulation

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    REVIEW ARTICLE Scanning tunneling microscopy single atom/molecule manipulation and its application 2005 Single atom/molecule manipulation with a scanning-tunneling-microscope STM tip is an innovative and molecules can be studied at an atomic level. The STM manipulations can be performed by precisely controlling

  1. Force, current and field effects in single atom manipulation

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Force, current and field effects in single atom manipulation K.-F. Braun , S.-W. Hla , N. Pertaya present a detailed investigation of the manipulation of Ag and Au atoms with a STM tip on the Ag(111 of the atom during manipulation. The threshold tunnelling resistance and tip-height to move a Au/Ag atom have

  2. Addressing the issue of system identification for space manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy H. Kelly; R. L. Glade; Thomas M. Depkovich

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of system identification of manipulator dynamics (especially manipulator and payload mass properties) for improvement of manipulator performance. The results presented are based on realistic error bounds on the sensor data. While there are many differences between terrestrial and space robots, one aspect in particular is most important from the standpoint of the development of effective

  3. An algorithm for generation of efficient manipulator dynamic equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Burdick

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the generation of efficient manipulator dynamic equations in symbolic form. The efficiency is obtained by the use of simplification rules during the process of equation generation. These simplifications are based on the structure of manipulator dynamics, on simplifications that arise from common manipulator geometries, and from other heuristic simplification rules. This algorithm has been

  4. End-to-End Dexterous Manipulation with Deliberate Interactive Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Henry Hudson; Thomas Howard; Jeremy Ma; Abhinandan Jain; Max Bajracharya; Steven Myint; Larry Matthies; Paul Backes; Paul Hebert; Joel Burdick

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model based approach to autonomous dexterous manipulation, developed as part of the DARPA Autonomous Robotic Manipulation (ARM) program. The developed autonomy system uses robot, object, and environment models to identify and localize objects, and well as plan and execute required manipulation tasks. Deliberate interaction with objects and the environment increases system knowledge about the combined robot

  5. Direct manipulation for comprehensible, predictable and controllable user interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Shneiderman

    1997-01-01

    Direct manipulation user interfaces have proven their worth over two decades, but they are still in their youth. Dramatic opportunities exist to develop direct manipulation pro- gramming to create end-user programming tools, dynamic queries to perform information search in large databases, and information visualization to support network database browsing. Direct manipulation depends on visual repre- sentation of the objects and

  6. Automatic workspace analysis and vehicle adaptation for hydraulic underwater manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Albiez; Marc Hildebrandt; Jochen Kerdels; Frank Kirchner

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a methodology to represent the workingspace properties of an underwater manipulator with respect to tele-operation tasks. This representation takes the typical operation procedure for intervention tasks into account. The information gained from the representation can be used to automatically analyse the actual state of a manipulator with respect to the remaining dexterity of the manipulator.

  7. Manipulation and Compositing of MC-DCT Compressed Video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-fu Chang; David G. Messersc

    1994-01-01

    Many advanced video applications require manipulations of compressed video signals. Popular video manipulation functions include overlap (opaque or semi-transparent), translation, scaling, linear filtering, rotation, and pixel multiplication. In this paper, we propose algorithms to manipulate compressed video in the compressed domain. Specifically, we focus on compression algorithms using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) with or without Motion Compensation (MC). Compression

  8. Vehicle\\/arm coordination and multiple mobile manipulator decentralized cooperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Khatib; K. Yokoi; K. Chang; D. Ruspini; R. Holmberg; A. Casal

    1996-01-01

    Mobile manipulation capabilities are key to many new applications of robotics in space, underwater construction, and service environments. This article discusses the ongoing effort at Stanford University for the development of multiple mobile manipulation systems and presents the basic models and methodologies for their analysis and control. This work builds on four methodologies we have previously developed for fixed-base manipulation:

  9. Using speech to guide a mobile robot manipulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bort; A. P. del Pobil

    2000-01-01

    Mobile manipulators are mobile robot bases with at least one mounted robot arm which function in an integrated manner. A single arm mobile manipulator guided by speech commands is presented. The purpose of the mobile manipulator is to reach concrete locations in its environment and to pick up objects. The user can interact verbally with the system to help it

  10. Tactile sensing in intelligent robotic manipulation – a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Tegin; Jan Wikander

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – When designing hardware and algorithms for robotic manipulation and grasping, sensory information is typically needed to control the grasping process. This paper presents an overview of the major grasping and manipulation approaches and the more common hardware used to obtain the necessary sensory information. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper presents an overview of tactile sensing in intelligent robotic manipulation.

  11. Coordinated Control and Range Imaging for Mobile Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Alonzo

    manipulators currently deployed for explosive ordinance disposal are typically controlled via crude formsCoordinated Control and Range Imaging for Mobile Manipulation Dean Anderson, Thomas M. Howard-and-grab" inter- face for coordinated motion and manipulation. This includes coordinated joint movement for end

  12. Virtex II FPGA Bitstream Manipulation: Application to Reconfiguration Control Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yana Esteves Krasteva; Eduardo De La Torre; Teresa Riesgo; Didier Joly

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for Virtex II (Pro) FPGA partial bitstream manipulation suited for reconfigurable control systems with limited computing resources. The basics for partial bitstream manipulation in Virtex II (Pro) FPGAs are shown, including bit allocation equations that could be used to create such tools. After that, a tool for partial bitstream manipulation, called pBITPOS, and a use

  13. Enhanced Stiffness Modeling, Identification and Characterization for Robot Manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gürsel Alici; Bijan Shirinzadeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the enhanced stiffness modeling and analysis of robot manipulators, and a methodology for their stiffness identification and characterization. Assuming that the manipulator links are infinitely stiff, the enhanced stiffness model contains: 1) the passive and active stiffness of the joints and 2) the active stiffness created by the change in the manipulator configuration, and by external force

  14. Visual Servoing of Robot Manipulators Part I: Projective Kinematics

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    requires intelligent robots that are able to manipulate, grasp, inspect, weld, and machine objectsVisual Servoing of Robot Manipulators Part I: Projective Kinematics Andreas Ruf Radu Horaud'Europe 38330 Montbonnot St.Martin, France December 5, 2000 Abstract Visual servoing of robot manipulators

  15. Internet-based teleoperation of a robot manipulator for education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoli Yang; Qing Chen; D. C. Petriu; E. M. Petriu

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of the robot manipulator control for the users who cannot access the real robot manipulator, we are developing an Internet-based teleoperation system for a robot manipulator-Thermo CRS A465 which is located in the lab at Lakehead University. In this paper, the system architecture and software design will be introduced.

  16. Virtual Manipulatives on the Interactive Whiteboard: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildenhall, Paula; Swan, Paul; Northcote, Maria; Marshall, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As part of the project titled "Hands-On Heads-On: The Effective Use of Manipulatives Both Virtual and Physical" being undertaken at Edith Cowan University, there was an investigation into the use of virtual manipulatives and the interactive whiteboard (IWB). Virtual manipulatives may be defined as a virtual representation of a physical…

  17. Joint Torque Reduction of a Three Dimensional Redundant Planar Manipulator

    PubMed Central

    Yahya, Samer; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Almurib, Haider Abbas F.

    2012-01-01

    Research on joint torque reduction in robot manipulators has received considerable attention in recent years. Minimizing the computational complexity of torque optimization and the ability to calculate the magnitude of the joint torque accurately will result in a safe operation without overloading the joint actuators. This paper presents a mechanical design for a three dimensional planar redundant manipulator with the advantage of the reduction in the number of motors needed to control the joint angle, leading to a decrease in the weight of the manipulator. Many efforts have been focused on decreasing the weight of manipulators, such as using lightweight joints design or setting the actuators at the base of the manipulator and using tendons for the transmission of power to these joints. By using the design of this paper, only three motors are needed to control any n degrees of freedom in a three dimensional planar redundant manipulator instead of n motors. Therefore this design is very effective to decrease the weight of the manipulator as well as the number of motors needed to control the manipulator. In this paper, the torque of all the joints are calculated for the proposed manipulator (with three motors) and the conventional three dimensional planar manipulator (with one motor for each degree of freedom) to show the effectiveness of the proposed manipulator for decreasing the weight of the manipulator and minimizing driving joint torques. PMID:22969326

  18. Emotional intelligence and manipulation: Are those scoring higher on EI measures more likely to negatively manipulate others' for personal gains? 

    E-print Network

    Carter, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The association between emotional intelligence (EI) and manipulation was examined in this study. The possibility that individuals who score higher on EI would be more likely to negatively manipulate others for personal gain was the main hypothesis...

  19. Tribo-mechanical properties of thin boron coatings deposited on polished cobalt alloy surfaces for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Williams, J M; Truhan, J J; Qu, J; Riester, L; Hazelton, R C; Moschella, J J; Blau, P J; Anderson, J P; Popoola, O O; Keitz, M D

    2008-03-31

    This paper presents experimental evidence that thin (< approximately 200 nm) boron coatings, deposited with a (vacuum) cathodic arc technique on pre-polished Co-Cr-Mo surfaces, could potentially extend the life of metal-on-polymer orthopedic devices using cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy for the metal component. The primary tribological test used a linear, reciprocating pin-on-disc arrangement, with pins made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. The disks were cast Co-Cr-Mo samples that were metallographically polished and then coated with boron at a substrate bias of 500 V and at about 100 degrees C. The wear tests were carried out in a saline solution to simulate the biological environment. The improvements were manifested by the absence of a detectable wear track scar on the coated metal component, while significant polymer transfer film was detected on the uncoated (control) samples tested under the same conditions. The polymer transfer track was characterized with both profilometry and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. Mechanical characterization of the thin films included nano-indentation, as well as additional pin-on-disk tests with a steel ball to demonstrate adhesion, using ultra-high frequency acoustic microscopy to probe for any void occurrence at the coating-substrate interface. PMID:19340285

  20. Comparison of vancomycin and teicoplanin trough serum levels in patients with infected orthopedic devices: new data for old therapies.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Xavier; Loiez, Caroline; Valette, Michel; Migaud, Henri; Dubreuil, Luc; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Senneville, Eric

    2011-06-01

    We compared retrospectively vancomycin and teicoplanin trough serum levels after loading doses and, subsequently, after high daily doses, in 52 patients (26 in each group) who had developed infections after implantation of an orthopedic device. The target trough serum level was > 25 mg/l. Trough levels were significantly higher at 2 days (±1) and 5 days (±1) in patients who received teicoplanin compared with patients who received a continuous perfusion of vancomycin (26.1 vs. 16 mg/l at day 2 ± 1, P = 0.01; 27.8 vs. 19.9 mg/l at day 5 ± 1, P = 0.01). One of the 26 patients taking vancomycin reached the target trough serum level by day 2 (±1), whereas 10 of the 26 patients taking teicoplanin reached the target by that time (P = 0.002). At day 5 (±1), 6/26 patients taking vancomycin reached the target, versus 13/26 patients taking teicoplanin (P = 0.04). However, physicians should remain cautious when administering teicoplanin empirically because of the higher MIC?? values observed for coagulase-negative staphylococci compared with vancomycin. PMID:21053041