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1

Orthopedic services  

MedlinePLUS

... professionals that may be a part of the orthopedics team include: Athletic trainers Counselors Nurse practitioners Physical therapists Physician assistants Psychologists Social workers Vocational ...

2

Medical Issues: Orthopedics  

MedlinePLUS

... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause several complications. ... difficulty sitting, standing, or performing normal daily activities. Orthopedic Considerations Doctors and therapists classify individuals with SMA ...

3

21 CFR 888.4540 - Orthopedic manual surgical instrument.  

...nonpowered hand-held device intended for medical purposes to manipulate tissue, or for use with other devices in orthopedic surgery. This generic type of device includes the cerclage applier, awl, bender, drill brace, broach,...

2014-04-01

4

21 CFR 888.4540 - Orthopedic manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nonpowered hand-held device intended for medical purposes to manipulate tissue, or for use with other devices in orthopedic surgery. This generic type of device includes the cerclage applier, awl, bender, drill brace, broach,...

2010-04-01

5

21 CFR 888.4540 - Orthopedic manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...nonpowered hand-held device intended for medical purposes to manipulate tissue, or for use with other devices in orthopedic surgery. This generic type of device includes the cerclage applier, awl, bender, drill brace, broach,...

2011-04-01

6

21 CFR 888.4540 - Orthopedic manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...nonpowered hand-held device intended for medical purposes to manipulate tissue, or for use with other devices in orthopedic surgery. This generic type of device includes the cerclage applier, awl, bender, drill brace, broach,...

2012-04-01

7

21 CFR 888.4540 - Orthopedic manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nonpowered hand-held device intended for medical purposes to manipulate tissue, or for use with other devices in orthopedic surgery. This generic type of device includes the cerclage applier, awl, bender, drill brace, broach,...

2013-04-01

8

Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery.  

E-print Network

1/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Simon;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation #12;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic and orthopedic surgery. Motivation Recent work (B-boys & Schweinsberg, Aidekon-Harris) considers branching

9

Lasers in orthopedics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthopedic Surgery is that surgical discipline which deals with the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedists therefore operate on joints, the spine and long bones and engage in such subsecialities as sports medicine, hand surgery, trauma surgery, and joint replacements. Since they must cut and shape bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament, orthopedists have developed a number of mechanical techniques to achieve these ends and surgical lasers have found few applications in orthopedics because until now they have not been useful for cutting bone. In the past several years, however, there has been considerable interest in several areas within the field of orthopedic surgery that do not entail actual bone surgery and it is expected that as newer and more powerful lasers become available laser osteotomy may become feasible and even routine.

Sherk, Henry H.; Rhodes, Anthony L.; Meller, Menachem M.

1990-06-01

10

Advances in regenerative orthopedics.  

PubMed

Orthopedic injuries are common and a source of much misery and economic stress. Several relevant tissues, such as cartilage, meniscus, and intra-articular ligaments, do not heal. And even bone, which normally regenerates spontaneously, can fail to mend. The regeneration of orthopedic tissues requires 4 key components: cells, morphogenetic signals, scaffolds, and an appropriate mechanical environment. Although differentiated cells from the tissue in question can be used, most cellular research focuses on the use of mesenchymal stem cells. These can be retrieved from many different tissues, and one unresolved question is the degree to which the origin of the cells matters. Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are also under investigation. Morphogenetic signals are most frequently supplied by individual recombinant growth factors or native mixtures provided by, for example, platelet-rich plasma; mesenchymal stem cells are also a rich source of trophic factors. Obstacles to the sustained delivery of individual growth factors can be addressed by gene transfer or smart scaffolds, but we still lack detailed, necessary information on which delivery profiles are needed. Scaffolds may be based on natural products, synthetic materials, or devitalized extracellular matrix. Strategies to combine these components to regenerate tissue can follow traditional tissue engineering practices, but these are costly, cumbersome, and not well suited to treating large numbers of individuals. More expeditious approaches make full use of intrinsic biological processes in vivo to avoid the need for ex vivo expansion of autologous cells and multiple procedures. Clinical translation remains a bottleneck. PMID:24182709

Evans, Christopher H

2013-11-01

11

Blood management in orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orthopedic surgeon has several options available for blood conservation. Preoperative autologous donation (PAD) of blood is a cost-effective measure when the cost of managing transfusion-transmitted infectious disease is considered; overuse and underuse are expensive problems, however. Hemodilution, while used successfully in prostate surgery, is logistically impractical in joint replacement centers. Intraoperative blood salvage, although costly, is useful in orthopedic

Thomas P. Sculco

1995-01-01

12

Virtual reality orthopedic surgery simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a highly interactive virtual reality orthopedic surgery simulator. The simulator allows surgeons to use various surgical instruments to operate on virtual rigid anatomic structures, such bones, prostheses and bone grafts, to simulate every procedure on the rigid structures for complex orthopedic surgeries, including arthroplasty, corrective or open osteotomy, open reduction of fractures and amputation. A comparative study

Ming-Dar Tsai; Ming-Shium Hsieh; Shyan-Bin Jou

2001-01-01

13

[Ambulatory operations in orthopedics].  

PubMed

Outpatient surgery in orthopedics, which ist becoming increasingly popular and is promoted by present-day health care legislation, is associated with a whole range of ifs and buts. Patient-related factors, including age, readiness and ability to cooperate, and home care, need just as much consideration as physician-related factors (experience of the surgeon, anesthesist und surgical team). Architectural and equipment-related facilities need to be investigated. Not every intervention that is theoretically possible on an outpatient basis can be recommended--for example if intensive aftercare, which is better performed on an inpatient basis, should be necessary. The usual postoperative risks (e.g. thrombosis) must be taken into account, and in such cases, proper care must be guaranteed. PMID:7557801

Roth, P

1995-07-20

14

Nanostructured apatites as orthopedic biomaterials  

E-print Network

Historically, using suitable mechanical replacements for bone has been a priority in designing permanent, load-bearing orthopedic implants. As a result, the biomaterials used in these implants have been largely limited to ...

Ahn, Edward Sun, 1972-

2001-01-01

15

[Steroid infiltrations in orthopedics].  

PubMed

For the past 60 years intraarticular infiltrations have been performed with variable results. However, they have improved with time as a result of the innovations seen in the techniques and the glucocorticoids used, according to reports by several authors. We report the experience and results obtained in 10 years in 793 patients applying 5 mg of betamethasone dipropionate and 2 mg of betamethasone sodium phosphate (Diprospan). This was a retrospective, therapeutic and cross-sectional study. Betamethasone was combined with 1 ml of 2% plain lidocaine and 1 ml of bupivacaine or ropivacaine. Infiltrations were used to treat intraarticular conditions, post-traumatic acute inflammatory conditions and degenerative intraarticular conditions of the knee and shoulder. In the soft tissues they were used to treat bursitis, entrapment syndromes, epicondylitis, plantar fasciitis and sprains. Ninety-two percent had an improved clinical picture; it was possible to avoid surgery for several conditions. The conclusion is that infiltrations with betamethasone, both intraarticular and in periarticular structures, are fully justified in orthopedics. If applied properly, they are safe and effective. PMID:21548252

Lara-de la Fuente, R

2011-01-01

16

Medical photography: principles for orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Background Medical photography is used clinically for patient evaluation, treatment decisions, and scientific documentation. Although standards for medical photography exist in many branches of medicine, we have not encountered such criteria in publications in the area of orthopedics. Purpose This study aims to (1) assess the quality of medical images used in an orthopedic publication and (2) to propose standards for medical photography in this area. Methods Clinical photographs were reviewed from all issues of a journal published between the years 2008 and 2012. A quality of clinical images was developed based on the criteria published for the specialties of dermatology and cosmetic surgery. All images were reviewed on the appropriateness of background, patient preparation, and technique. Results In this study, only 44.9% of clinical images in an orthopedic publication adhered to the proposed conventions. Conclusions Standards have not been established for medical photography in orthopedics as in other specialty areas. Our results suggest that photographic clinical information in orthopedic publications may be limited by inadequate presentation. We propose that formal conventions for clinical images should be established. PMID:24708703

2014-01-01

17

Radiographic correlation in orthopedic pathology.  

PubMed

Radiographic correlation is an essential adjunct for the accurate diagnosis of orthopedic lesions, yet it is a skill neglected by pathologists. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate why performing this correlation is an essential part of the diagnostic process and not merely an interesting adjunct to the surgical pathology of orthopedic lesions. The relationships between x-rays and tissues are explored with an emphasis on bone and soft tissue composition and structure. In addition, the rudiments of complementary imaging studies and how to incorporate their data into diagnoses are examined. PMID:16096379

Klein, Michael J

2005-07-01

18

Atlas of pediatric orthopedic radiology  

SciTech Connect

The book illustrates and discusses general principles including bone growth, dysplasia, trauma, infection, positional abnormalities, and metabolic disease, followed by detailed consideration of each region of the extremities and then the trunk. Those radiographic findings of orthopedic importance are emphasized, with images selected for their instructive value.

Oestreich, A.E.; Crawford, A.H.

1986-01-01

19

Porous metal for orthopedics implants  

PubMed Central

Summary Porous metal has been introduced to obtain biological fixation and improve longevity of orthopedic implants. The new generation of porous metal has intriguing characteristics that allows bone healing and high osteointegration of the metallic implants. This article gives an overview about biomaterials properties of the contemporary class of highly porous metals and about the clinical use in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24133527

Matassi, Fabrizio; Botti, Alessandra; Sirleo, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

2013-01-01

20

Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A locking mechanism for orthopedic braces is described which automatically prevents or permits the relative pivotable movement between a lower brace member and an upper brace member. The upper and lower brace members are provided with drilled bores within which a slidable pin is disposed, and depending upon the inclination of the brace members with respect to a vertical plane, the slidable pin will be interposed between both brace members. The secondary or auxiliary latching device includes a spring biased, manually operable lever bar arrangement which is manually unlatched and automatically latched under the influence of the spring.

I-Lechao, J.; Epps, C. H., Jr. (inventors)

1976-01-01

21

Imaging of orthopedic trauma and surgery  

SciTech Connect

This book bridges the communication gap, between the radiologist and the orthopedic surgeon in regard to trauma. It also combines ease of use with authoritative information, and includes in each discussion a review of the pertinent anatomy, mechanism of injury, and radiology and orthopedic classification.

Berquist, T.H.

1986-01-01

22

Development of a novel orthopedic microfastener  

E-print Network

Over the last decade, biodegradable screws and plates have received wide acceptance over metallic fasteners for orthopedic fracture fixation. A biodegradable fastener would gradually "disappear" during healing of a fractured bone or tissues...

Agnihotri, Mukul Mukund

2007-04-25

23

Sensitive Manipulation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an effective alternative to the traditionalapproach to robotic manipulation. In our approach, manipulation ismainly guided by tactile feedback as opposed to vision. Themotivation comes from the fact ...

Torres-Jara, Eduardo

2007-03-02

24

Sensitive manipulation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an effective alternative to the traditional approach to robotic manipulation. In our approach, manipulation is mainly guided by tactile feedback as opposed to vision. The motivation comes from the fact ...

Torres-Jara, Eduardo R. (Eduardo Rafael), 1972-

2007-01-01

25

78 FR 17940 - Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...computerized orthopedic surgical devices, software, implants, and components...

2013-03-25

26

[Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery].  

PubMed

The patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, which includes total hip replacement (THR), total knee replacement (TKR), and hip fracture surgery (HFS), represent a group that has a particularly high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and routine thromboprophylaxis has been standard of care for >20 years. The following article summarizes data derived from numerous randomized clinical trials of thromboprophylaxis following THR, TKR, and HFS; areas of orthopedic surgery for which there are much less data, including knee arthroscopy and isolated lower extremity injuries, are also reviewed. PMID:20228720

Giuseppini, M U; Guiducci, S; Bardelli, M

2010-02-01

27

Venous Thromboembolism Following Major Orthopedic Surgery  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery (total hip arthroplasty-THA, total knee arthroplasty-TKA, hip fracture surgery-FHS) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite this, not all patients receive an appropriate prophylaxis, often due to a disproportionate fear of bleeding complications. A challenge in the management of VTE prophylaxis is to balance the benefits of the treatment with the risk of bleeding. In this article, we review the latest guidelines recommendations regarding prevention of postoperative VTE in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. PMID:24371484

CIONAC FLORESCU, Simona; ANASTASE, Denisa-Madalina; MUNTEANU, Ana-Maria; STOICA, Ioan Cristian; ANTONESCU, Dinu

2013-01-01

28

Imaging of orthopedic trauma and surgery  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses imaging of orthopedia trauma and surgery. A review of the pertinent anatomy, mechanism of injury, and radiology and orthopedic classification is provided for each topic discussed. The book employs recent advances in technique and focuses on adult skeletal trauma, and joint replacement.

Berquist, T.H.

1986-01-01

29

Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer scientists, working closely with those in the device and medical fields, have made tremendous advances over the past 30 years in the use of synthetic materials in the body. In this article we will focus on properties of biodegradable polymers which make them ideally suited for orthopedic applications where a permanent implant is not desired. The materials with the

John C. Middleton; Arthur J. Tipton

2000-01-01

30

Computer-controlled synthesis of orthopedic implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocompatibility is a major issue in prosthetic repair and use. The development and manufacture of biocompatible materials and functional implants with high precision, speed, endurance, and adhesion is a major goal in orthopedics. In this communication, we show that the combination of SHS, a fast method for synthesis of materials, with Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) offers a new method for

I. V. Shishkovsky; M. V. Kuznetsov; Yu. G. Morozov

2009-01-01

31

Program Guidelines for Severely Orthopedically Impaired Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains California's guidelines for serving students with severe orthopedic impairments in the public schools. Elements characteristic of well-designed programs are described in the guide's three chapters, and each description is followed by a series of questions for program evaluation. The first chapter addresses approaches to…

Bachmann, Winnie

32

Crevice corrosion in orthopedic implant metals.  

PubMed

Studies of orthopedic implant alloys in crevice configuration suggest that cobalt-chromium alloys such as Haynes-Stellite 25 are the best choice for multicomponent implants. It is also shown that severe crevice attack may result from use of mixed metals. PMID:873945

Levine, D L; Staehle, R W

1977-07-01

33

Between psychology and pedagogy: "moral orthopedics" and case studies of children in fin-de-siècle French medicine.  

PubMed

In the latter decades of the 19th century, European physicians debated a controversial practice that mixed placebos with suggestion therapy to treat children diagnosed with neurotic disorders and behavioral problems. Designed to optimize suggestibility in juvenile patients, this "moral orthopedics" offered parents and therapists the message that children could be saved from becoming victims of their own personalities, of familial neuroses, or even of public health problems. Case studies, published in medical journals and books, circulated accounts of innovative strategies to treat childhood hysteria and to change habits that were considered destructive. Moral orthopedics actualized the insight that suggestibility could be therapeutically productive for juvenile subjects. However, because its adherents sought to manipulate patients' behavior and health by influencing unconscious thought, moral orthopedics provoked questions of expertise and disciplinary propriety among domains of medicine, law, and philosophy. This article reconstructs the controversy surrounding moral orthopedics by examining case studies. I argue that adherents of moral orthopedics did overcome philosophical objections raised against the method, and that they did so through what physician Edgar B6rillon referred to as "education of the will." PMID:21688751

Rose, Anna Christina

2011-02-01

34

Computer-assisted navigation in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Computer-assisted navigation has a role in some orthopedic procedures. It allows the surgeons to obtain real-time feedback and offers the potential to decrease intra-operative errors and optimize the surgical result. Computer-assisted navigation systems can be active or passive. Active navigation systems can either perform surgical tasks or prohibit the surgeon from moving past a predefined zone. Passive navigation systems provide intraoperative information, which is displayed on a monitor, but the surgeon is free to make any decisions he or she deems necessary. This article reviews the available types of computer-assisted navigation, summarizes the clinical applications and reviews the results of related series using navigation, and informs surgeons of the disadvantages and pitfalls of computer-assisted navigation in orthopedic surgery. PMID:23937743

Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Savvidou, Olga D; Mimidis, George; Papanastasiou, John; Koulalis, Dimitrios; Demertzis, Nikolaos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2013-08-01

35

[Robert Schumann. From music to orthopedics].  

PubMed

The psychiatric personality of Robert Schumann has notably concerned doctors. On the contrary his right hand orthopedic impairment seems to have been neglected. Relying on some well established facts and the fingering study of certain musical works, the authors put forward a plausible diagnosis and consider a treatment which would have allowed a functional rehabilitation of the great musician and nine-fingers-handed pianist. PMID:7995124

Trinquier-Lautard, J L; Verhaeghe, P; Vives, P; Marasse, E

36

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective “survival motor neuron” (SMN) protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. PMID:24399883

Haaker, Gerrit; Fujak, Albert

2013-01-01

37

Orthopedic grand rounds can change resident practice.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine whether a grand rounds presentation could change resident practice. A 6-month review of all hip fracture patients 65 years and older at a single academic medical center was performed. The rate of addressing advanced directives and code status as documented in the medical record was noted. A grand rounds presentation was then given to the orthopedic department, and the medical records of hip fracture patients for the 12 months following the grand rounds were reviewed. In the 6 months prior to the grand rounds, orthopedic residents did not document code status or advanced directives in any of their admission or consultation notes. Following the grand rounds, orthopedic residents addressed advanced directives, code status, and contact person in 76% of their admission notes. There was a marked difference in the rate of documentation among residents who attended the grand rounds (88%), compared with residents who did not attend grand rounds (20%). Based on the results of this study, specifically whether residents attended grand rounds, this form of teaching can lead to changes in resident behavior. PMID:23710477

Cantu, Robert V; Coe, Marcus P; Pober, David M; Byock, Ira R

2013-05-01

38

Underwater manipulator  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1992-12-31

39

Money Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This manipulative uses United States currency, both coins and bills. Images of bills include a circled number to identify their value: one, five, ten, twenty, or fifty dollars. The coins (pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, and half dollars) should be easily identifiable, but it may take a little practice." (from NLVM) Tip: There are more instructions on the right side of the Java applet.

University, Utah S.

2011-06-28

40

Postoperative pain characteristics in Turkish orthopedic patients.  

PubMed

Postoperative pain is a subjective concept that can only be defined by the individual experiencing it. This research was planned as a descriptive study to make postoperative pain assessments of patients who have undergone major orthopedic surgery. The study sample consisted of 150 patients who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire form that included sociodemographic, postoperative pain characteristics, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The data obtained were assessed using the SPSS 10.0 program. The mean age of the patients was 54.13 +/- 18.12 years, 67.3% were female, 72.7% of the patients had a history of previous surgery, 43.3% had had hip prosthesis surgery, and 70.7% when their analgesic medications were taken on PRN basis. They experienced "external" pain at the surgical site and in pressure areas according to type of surgery and verbalized their pain at the highest percentages as "throbbing," "tiring," "troublesome," and "nagging." In addition the majority of the patients (95.3%) stated that their pain was decreased with analgesic medication administration, and 78.7% stated that position change and physical therapy (69.3%) increased their pain. In the assessment of pain severity on the third postoperative day, the Present Pain Intensity was determined to be a mean of 1.75 +/- 1.02 (on a scale of 0 to 5), and 78.7% had "intermittent" pain. In addition, worst/severe pain severity was determined to be a mean of 4.55 +/- 0.70 on the third postoperative day. Statistically significant differences were found between patients' pain severity scores (p orthopedic patients. After an evaluation of the conclusions, nurses must learn the postoperative pain characteristics of orthopedic patients to implement safe and effective postoperative pain management. PMID:20510837

Büyükyilmaz, Funda Esen; A?ti, Türkinaz

2010-06-01

41

Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course: A Collaboration between Anatomists and Orthopedic Surgeons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A challenge for new residents and senior residents preparing for board examinations is refreshing their knowledge of basic science disciplines, such as human gross anatomy. The Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Utah School of Medicine has for many years held an annual Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course during the summer months…

DeFriez, Curtis B.; Morton, David A.; Horwitz, Daniel S.; Eckel, Christine M.; Foreman, K. Bo; Albertine, Kurt H.

2011-01-01

42

Imaging of orthopedic trauma and surgery  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on imaging techniques for diagnosis of trauma of bones. A comparative evaluation is presented for planning of proper diagnosis and treatment. Various techniques discussed are routine radiography; computerized tomography, NMR imaging, angiography, ultrasonography; and use of radioisotopes. The mechanism of injury of bone joints of upper and lower limbs and spine is discussed after discussing the anatomy of each in the beginning of each paper. Topics titled are healing of fractures; fractures of pelvis; knee; shoulder; foot and ankle; fractures of humerus; stress fractures; and orthopedic radiology. Prosthesis use and plastic surgery of joints is also discussed.

Berquist, T.H.

1985-01-01

43

Hunting stand-related injuries in orthopedics.  

PubMed

Hunting remains an extremely popular recreational activity, with nearly 15 million Americans receiving a hunting license annually. Precautions have helped decrease accidents, but hunting-related injuries remain relatively common. The majority of severe, hunting-related accidents involve either a fall from a hunting platform or an accidental shooting. Both of these mechanisms frequently result in orthopedic injuries, many of which require operative care. Although firearms-associated injury has seemingly decreased, hunting platform falls and their sequelae are increasing. Understanding the mechanisms of these injuries and increasing awareness of them may minimize their morbidity and mortality or help prevent them altogether. PMID:25188622

Lebus, George F; Krueger, Chad A; Stinner, Daniel J; Mir, Hassan R

2014-09-01

44

Computer assisted 3D pre-operative planning tool for femur fracture orthopedic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femur shaft fractures are caused by high impact injuries and can affect gait functionality if not treated correctly. Until recently, the pre-operative planning for femur fractures has relied on two-dimensional (2D) radiographs, light boxes, tracing paper, and transparent bone templates. The recent availability of digital radiographic equipment has to some extent improved the workflow for preoperative planning. Nevertheless, imaging is still in 2D X-rays and planning/simulation tools to support fragment manipulation and implant selection are still not available. Direct three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT) are also still restricted to a minority of complex orthopedic procedures. This paper proposes a software tool which allows orthopedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose, plan and simulate femur shaft fracture reduction procedures in 3D. The tool utilizes frontal and lateral 2D radiographs to model the fracture surface, separate a generic bone into the two fractured fragments, identify the pose of each fragment, and automatically customize the shape of the bone. The use of 3D imaging allows full spatial inspection of the fracture providing different views through the manipulation of the interactively reconstructed 3D model, and ultimately better pre-operative planning.

Gamage, Pavan; Xie, Sheng Quan; Delmas, Patrice; Xu, Wei Liang

2010-02-01

45

Piriformis Fossa - An Anatomical and Orthopedics Consideration  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Piriformis fossa is an important anatomical landmark having significant clinical value in orthopedic surgery; but its location and anatomical relationship with surrounding structures are not clearly defined. Hence it is necessary to clearly describe it in respect to anatomical and orthopedic aspect. Materials and Methods: Fifty Cadaveric dry femoral bones and Dissection of the four hip specimens were used to study the Piriformis fossa in respect to location and its relationship with surrounding structures. Clinical importance of piriformis fossa was determined in reference to antegrade femoral nail insertion. Observations: Piriformis muscle and so called piriformis fossa are unrelated entities. Piriformis fossa is anatomical site of insertion of obturator externus. In dry cadaveric femora; fossa was not always located in the direction of femoral shaft. It was located in the direction of femoral shaft in 24% cases only. In 68% cases femoral canal was aligned lateral and in 8% cases, it lies medial to the fossa. Conclusion: Piriformis fossa should be named as Trorchanteric fossa or Obturator fossa for better anatomical description. So called Piriformis fossa does not found to be universally corresponding to femoral shaft hence selection of entry site should be based on variable proximal femur and area on femur which corresponds to femoral shaft. PMID:24783092

Lakhwani, O.P.; Mittal, P.S.; Naik, D.C.

2014-01-01

46

Remote Manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SPAR Aerospace Limited's "Canadarm," Canada's contribution to the space shuttle. It is a crane which can operate as a 50 foot extension of an astronaut's arm. It can lift 65,000 pounds in space and retrieve satellites for repair, etc. Redesigned versions have energy and mining applications. Some of its hardware has been redeveloped for use as a Hydro manipulator in a nuclear reactor where it is expected to be extremely cost effective.

1986-01-01

47

CRIGOS: a compact robot for image-guided orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CRIGOS (compact robot for image-guided orthopedic surgery) project was set up for the development of a compact surgical robot system for image-guided orthopedic surgery based on user requirements. The modular system comprises a compact parallel robot and a software system for planning of surgical interventions and for supervision of the robotic device. Because it is not sufficient to consider

Guido Brandt; Andreas Zimolong; Lionel Carrat; Philippe Merloz; Hans-Walter Staudte; Stéphane Lavallée; Klaus Radermacher; Günther Rau

1999-01-01

48

Feeling manipulated: cytomegalovirus immune manipulation  

PubMed Central

No one likes to feel like they have been manipulated, but in the case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune manipulation, we do not really have much choice. Whether you call it CMV immune modulation, manipulation, or evasion, the bottom line is that CMV alters the immune response in such a way to allow the establishment of latency with lifelong shedding. With millions of years of coevolution within their hosts, CMVs, like other herpesviruses, encode numerous proteins that can broadly influence the magnitude and quality of both innate and adaptive immune responses. These viral proteins include both homologues of host proteins, such as MHC class I or chemokine homologues, and proteins with little similarity to any other known proteins, such as the chemokine binding protein. Although a strong immune response is launched against CMV, these virally encoded proteins can interfere with the host's ability to efficiently recognize and clear virus, while others induce or alter specific immune responses to benefit viral replication or spread within the host. Modulation of host immunity allows survival of both the virus and the host. One way of describing it would be a kind of "mutually assured survival" (as opposed to MAD, Mutually Assured Destruction). Evaluation of this relationship provides important insights into the life cycle of CMV as well as a greater understanding of the complexity of the immune response to pathogens in general. PMID:19134204

Miller-Kittrell, Mindy; Sparer, Tim E

2009-01-01

49

Application of Stem Cells in Orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Stem cell research plays an important role in orthopedic regenerative medicine today. Current literature provides us with promising results from animal research in the fields of bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. While early clinical results are already published for bone and cartilage repair, the data about tendon repair is limited to animal studies. The success of these techniques remains inconsistent in all three mentioned areas. This may be due to different application techniques varying from simple mesenchymal stem cell injection up to complex tissue engineering. However, the ideal carrier for the stem cells still remains controversial. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of current basic research and clinical data concerning stem cell research in bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. Furthermore, a focus is set on different stem cell application techniques in tendon reconstruction, cartilage repair, and filling of bone defects. PMID:22550505

Schmitt, Andreas; van Griensven, Martijn; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Buchmann, Stefan

2012-01-01

50

Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2003-06-30

51

Orthopedic surgical analyzer for percutaneous vertebroplasty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the spine is one of the most complex joint structures in the human body, its surgical treatment requires careful planning and high degree of precision to avoid any unwanted neurological compromises. In addition, comprehensive biomechanical analysis can be very helpful because the spine is subject to a variety of load. In case for the osteoporotic spine in which the structural integrity has been compromised, it brings out the double challenges for a surgeon both clinically and biomechanically. Thus, we have been developing an integrated medical image system that is capable of doing the both. This system is called orthopedic surgical analyzer and it combines the clinical results from image-guided examination and the biomechanical data from finite element analysis. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, this system was applied to percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a surgical procedure that has been recently introduced for the treatment of compression fracture of the osteoporotic vertebrae. It involves puncturing vertebrae and filling with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Recent studies have shown that the procedure could provide structural reinforcement for the osteoporotic vertebrae while being minimally invasive and safe with immediate pain relief. However, treatment failures due to excessive PMMA volume injection have been reported as one of complications. It is believed that control of PMMA volume is one of the most critical factors that can reduce the incidence of complications. Since the degree of the osteoporosis can influence the porosity of the cancellous bone in the vertebral body, the injection volume can be different from patient to patient. In this study, the optimal volume of PMMA injection for vertebroplasty was predicted based on the image analysis of a given patient. In addition, biomechanical effects due to the changes in PMMA volume and bone mineral density (BMD) level were investigated by constructing clinically relevant finite element models. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate the feasibility of our orthopedic surgical analyzer in a case for percutaneous vertebroplasty.

Tack, Gye Rae; Choi, Hyung Guen; Lim, Do H.; Lee, Sung J.

2001-05-01

52

45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability...includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns,...

2013-10-01

53

45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability...includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns,...

2011-10-01

54

45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability...includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns,...

2010-10-01

55

45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability...includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns,...

2012-10-01

56

Clinical and economic consequences of bleeding following major orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMajor orthopedic surgery patients who receive antithrombotics as prophylaxis against VTE may be at higher risk of bleeding. The clinical and economic consequences of this complication may be relevant to therapeutic decision-making.

Montserrat Vera-Llonch; May Hagiwara; Gerry Oster

2006-01-01

57

Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Orthopedic Surgery. Clinician Research Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systematic review of 179 articles published between January 1980 and May 2011 sought to determine the comparative effectiveness, benefits, and adverse effects of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis for patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. The re...

2012-01-01

58

The white blood cell scan in orthopedics  

SciTech Connect

A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

1982-08-01

59

Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods - We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results - Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation - CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris Jw; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

2014-12-01

60

Managing orthopedics and neurosciences costs through standard treatment protocols.  

PubMed

High-cost, high-volume specialty programs such as orthopedics and neurosciences find themselves in a position of evaluating the costs and in some cases the appropriateness of medical practices in response to payer scrutiny and provider selection processes. Orthopedics and neurosciences programs are at a stage of development analogous to that of cardiovascular care several years ago. Many of the same trends have come into play, such as payer "carve-outs" for orthopedic services, payer selection of centers of excellence based on cost and quality, reduction of Medicare reimbursement, greater use of high-cost technology, the decline of profitability due to "older, sicker, and tougher" patients, and the recent emergence of national orthopedic specialty networks oriented to national contracts for care. In an era in which payers demand value on both sides of the cost-plus-quality equation, programs are challenged to maximize the return on a patient population rife with "no-win" situations. In the orthopedic service line these include a high proportion of Medicare patients and chronic conditions such as workers' compensation medical back cases or repetitive motion injuries, which can be elusive to diagnose and expensive to treat. Many hospitals continue to lose money on joint replacement surgeries, the largest-volume orthopedic inpatient service, primarily because of the high Medicare population and the cost of implants. Neuroservices, while still relatively well reimbursed, face a rising proportion of Medicare payments as patients live longer and develop chronic, degenerative conditions. Inpatient days are decreasing due to payer pressures to limit hospital stays and to shift inpatient care to outpatient services. Some hospitals "have lost interest in (the orthopedic) service line during the last five years because of recent trends in orthopedic-related inpatient volume and payment." But by managing costs strategically, both the neurosciences and orthopedics service lines can provide substantial revenue as well as the opportunity to achieve a "center of excellence" competitive position in a managed care environment. This Special Report outlines the process and advantages of managing costs and quality of care strategically, that is, in a manner which helps these programs meet internal cost and clinical goals while responding to market situations. The hospital, physicians, and patients all benefit as costs are reduced, quality is enhanced, and the service line's competitive position is strengthened. PMID:10171865

McGinnity, E S; Pluth, T E

1994-06-01

61

Does thromboprophylaxis prevent venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery?*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and factors influencing the development of VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery in a university hospital. METHODS: Patients who underwent major orthopedic surgery (hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, or femur fracture repair) between February of 2006 and June of 2012 were retrospectively included in the study. The incidences of PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were evaluated, as were the factors influencing their development, such as type of operation, age, and comorbidities. RESULTS: We reviewed the medical records of 1,306 patients. The proportions of knee arthroplasty, hip arthroplasty, and femur fracture repair were 63.4%, 29.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of PE and DVT in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery was 1.99% and 2.22%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with PE and DVT (61.5% and 72.4%, respectively) within the first 72 h after surgery. Patients undergoing femur fracture repair, those aged ? 65 years, and bedridden patients were at a higher risk for developing VTE. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that VTE was a significant complication of major orthopedic surgery, despite the use of thromboprophylaxis. Clinicians should be aware of VTE, especially during the perioperative period and in bedridden, elderly patients (? 65 years of age). PMID:23857692

Akpinar, Evrim Eylem; Hosgun, Derya; Akan, Burak; Ates, Can; Gulhan, Meral

2013-01-01

62

Online ratings of orthopedic surgeons: analysis of 2185 reviews.  

PubMed

Online ratings of orthopedic surgeons have not been studied. We conducted a study to evaluate the online ratings of orthopedic surgeons in a major metropolitan region, to identify trends in ratings of orthopedic surgeons, and to analyze ratings to identify variables of significance in determining overall rating. Website traffic was used to identify the 8 busiest physician rating websites: AngiesList.com, EverydayHealth.com, Thirdage.com, Yelp.com, HealthGrades.com, Vitals.com, UCompareHealthcare.com, and RateMDs.com. These websites were consulted for data regarding orthopedic surgeons in a major metropolitan region with a population of 1.3 million in September 2012. Surgeon ratings were scaled from 0 to 100 for homogeneity. Of the 8 websites considered, 4 were excluded because of inaccessible or unreliable data. The qualifying sites were HealthGrades.com, Vitals.com, UCompareHealthcare.com, and RateMDs.com, with 2185 reviews total. Across these websites, mean overall rating of orthopedic surgeons was 81.8 (between 100, definitely recommend, and 80, mostly recommend). Five variables were statistically significant (Ps < .01) for higher ratings: ease of scheduling, time spent with patient, wait time, surgeon proficiency/knowledge, and bedside manner. PMID:25136868

Bakhsh, Wajeeh; Mesfin, Addisu

2014-08-01

63

Shape-from-Shading under Near Point Lighting and Partial views for Orthopedic Endoscopy  

E-print Network

is important for computer aided minimally invasive orthopedic surgery. During surgery an endoscope consisting and experiments with artificial bones. 1. Introduction One of the main goals of orthopedic surgery is to enable

Treuille, Adrien

64

Orthopedic Health: Healthy Joints for a Lifetime / Keep Your Moving Parts Moving  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Healthy Joints for a Lifetime Past Issues / ... being made every day in the world of orthopedic health and disease treatment —our bones, muscles, tendons, ...

65

ArthroNav:Computer Assisted Navigation System for Orthopedic Surgery using Endoscopic Images  

E-print Network

ArthroNav:Computer Assisted Navigation System for Orthopedic Surgery using Endoscopic Images Jo is not limited to Computer Assisted Orthopedic Surgery. Many other medical fields can benefit from the research; Computer Vision; Orthopedic Surgery I. CONTEXT The 3D reconstruction of scenes using monocular video

Barreto, Joao

66

A Moving Least Squares method for implant model deformation in Computer Aided Orthopedic Surgery for  

E-print Network

A Moving Least Squares method for implant model deformation in Computer Aided Orthopedic Surgery. In past years, a vari- ety of software systems used on orthopedic surgeries have been developed, where CAOS (Computer Aided Orthopedic Surgery). In a CAOS system the surgeon can load X-Ray images

Coto, Ernesto

67

Ten strategies to reduce blood loss in orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any operative procedure, careful surgical dissection with precise hemostasis is one of the most effective ways to minimize surgical blood loss and reduce the need for allogeneic red blood cell transfusion. Several other techniques contribute to reduce blood loss in major orthopedic procedures. These techniques are reviewed and include rehearsal of the procedure and positioning the patient to reduce

Carl L. Nelson; H. Jerrel Fontenot

1995-01-01

68

Strategies for minimizing blood loss in orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major orthopedic surgical procedures including hip arthroplasty, femoral osteotomy, and spinal fusion may result in significant blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood transfusions. Due to the heightened awareness of the potential deleterious effects of allogeneic blood product administration, several techniques have been evaluated to determine their efficacy in limiting perioperative blood loss. The following article will discuss

Joseph D Tobias

2004-01-01

69

Bioabsorbable Implants: Review of Clinical Experience in Orthopedic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioabsorbable implants are widely used in orthopedic surgery today and the worldwide market is expanding rapidly. Despite the popularity of these implants, reports of complications continue to appear in the literature. Although the complications rarely have an adverse affect on long-term outcomes, the reports are too numerous to be mere isolated incidents related to one specific implant. Complications have been

Catherine G. Ambrose; Thomas Oscar Clanton

2004-01-01

70

Technical Approaches toComputer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical navigation systems and medical robotic devices are increasingly being used during trauma and orthopedic surgery. This article tries to present the underlying technology of these devices and to describe different approaches to the various aspects of the methods. To structure the variety of available products and presented research modules, a new categorization for these approaches is proposed. Examples of

Frank Langlotz; Lutz-Peter Nolte

2004-01-01

71

Experimental and clinical performance of porous tantalum in orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous tantalum, a new low modulus metal with a characteristic appearance similar to cancellous bone, is currently available for use in several orthopedic applications (hip and knee arthroplasty, spine surgery, and bone graft substitute). The open-cell structure of repeating dodecahedrons is produced via carbon vapor deposition\\/infiltration of commercially pure tantalum onto a vitreous carbon scaffolding. This transition metal maintains several

Brett Russell Levine; Scott Sporer; Robert A. Poggie; Craig J. Della Valle; Joshua J. Jacobs

2006-01-01

72

[Maxillary orthopedics and sleep-related respiratory disorders in children].  

PubMed

Early maxillary orthopedics can improve jaw relations and the jaw-skull base relationship. The objectives are clear: to correct the shape and improve function. A better proportioned skeletal framework is achieved, in which the underlying soft tissues become more resistant to collapse. PMID:21354497

Cobo Plana, Juan; de Carlos Villafranca, Félix

2010-12-01

73

Hospitalized Orthopedic Patients in Kuwait: Assessment of Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

All eligible patients hospitalized in the orthopedic hospital in Kuwait during July 1990 (n = 79) were interviewed about their pain and its management. The nurse responsible for the primary care of the patient was also interviewed. Patients and their nurses rated independently how much pain the patient was currently experiencing, and had experienced at specified times, using a 10-point

Ann Harrison

1993-01-01

74

Program Guidelines for Individuals Who Are Severely Orthopedically Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines are intended to provide a resource to use in assessing, planning, providing, evaluating, and improving the quality of programs for California pupils with severe orthopedic impairments. The first three chapters present characteristic elements of a well-designed program in the areas of: (1) identification and assessment, (2) the…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Special Education.

75

The Special Orthopedic Hospital--Past and Present  

PubMed Central

Pioneer orthopedic institutions established in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and in the U.S.A. in the second half of the 19th and the first decade of the 20th century, can trace their ancestry in ideas back to the practice and teachings of Hippocrates. Experience in treatment of great numbers of injured soldiers in the First World War opened a new era in reconstructive surgery of the locomotor system. After the Second World War, in advanced nations the pattern of crippling diseases showed a spectacular change. Problems that justify the existence of large special orthopedic hospitals are, in children, the more complex congenital deformities, cerebral palsies, and the increasing number of injuries due to hazards of modern life; in the adult, the reconstructive surgery of trauma and of arthritis. In modern orthopedic hospitals physicians have joined orthopedic surgeons in the study of the natural history of the various forms of arthritis. These centres provide facilities for biomechanical research and postgraduate training which acute general hospitals cannot offer. PMID:14228224

Platt, Harry

1964-01-01

76

PEEK biomaterials in trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, polyaryletherketones (PAEKs) have been increasingly employed as biomaterials for trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants. We have synthesized the extensive polymer science literature as it relates to structure, mechanical properties, and chemical resistance of PAEK biomaterials. With this foundation, one can more readily appreciate why this family of polymers will be inherently strong, inert, and biocompatible. Due to

Steven M. Kurtz; John N. Devine

2007-01-01

77

Manipulation with diverse actions  

E-print Network

We define the Diverse Action Manipulation (DAMA) problem in which we are given a mobile robot, a set of movable objects, and a set of diverse, possibly non-prehensile manipulation actions, and the objective is to find a ...

Barry, Jennifer L. (Jennifer Lynn)

2013-01-01

78

Revisiting Mathematics Manipulative Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is over 12 years since "APMC" published Bob Perry and Peter Howard's research on the use of mathematics manipulative materials in primary mathematics classrooms. Since then the availability of virtual manipulatives and associated access to computers and interactive whiteboards have caused educators to rethink the use of mathematics manipulative

Swan, Paul; Marshall, Linda

2010-01-01

79

Tactics of Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation is one means by which environments are altered to correspond to characteristics of individuals. We conducted two studies to identify the manipulation tactics that people use to elicit and terminate the actions of others. Factor analyses of four instruments revealed six types of tactics: charm, silent treatment, coercion, reason, regression, and debasement. Tactics of manipulation showed strong individual difference

David M. Buss; Mary Gomes; Dolly S. Higgins; Karen Lauterbach

1987-01-01

80

Health economics and health preference concepts to orthopedics practitioners.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe concepts of health economics in order to update and provide the orthopedic practitioner decision making parameters based on preferences. Four basic types of studies of economical evaluation were presented (cost minimization analysis, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility), as well as the origin, the concept, advantages and disadvantages of using QALY and utility. It was discussed the importance of costs and of SF-6D, an instrument able to get through the utility data from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Physicians, especially orthopedic practitioners, are increasingly using technologies which are progressively expensive, thus, they should be able to understand health economics concepts, the importance of utility in clinical decision making process and economic analysis in health.09+ PMID:24868190

Araújo, Carlos Delano Mundim; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Hochman, Bernardo; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

2014-01-01

81

Blood conservation strategies in orthopedic surgeries: A review  

PubMed Central

In orthopedics management of surgical blood loss is an important aspect which has evolved along with modern surgeries. Replacement of lost blood by transfusion alone is not the answer as was considered earlier. Complications like infection and immune reaction due to blood transfusion are a major concern. Today numerous techniques are available in place of allogenic blood transfusion which can be employed safely and effectively. In this article we have reviewed these techniques, their merits and demerits.

Sambandam, Balaji; Batra, Sahil; Gupta, Rajat; Agrawal, Nidhi

2013-01-01

82

Gallery of uncommon orthopedic implants: a guide for emergency radiologist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this gallery of orthopedic implants was to provide a reference for emergency radiologists to quickly identify\\u000a uncommon devices in the shoulders, hips, and extremities. The cases presented in this exhibit will include unusual arthroplasties\\u000a and prostheses as well as bone graft implants (including allograft and autograft). Bone grafts are frequently used for the\\u000a treatment of bone defects,

Eric White; Darren Lu; Ben Eyer; Chris Gottsegen; Elke Ahlmann; Chris Allison

2010-01-01

83

Dietary Fiber and Laxation in Postop Orthopedic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of wheat fiber to the diet of post-surgical orthopedic patients as a means of preventing constipation was studied using a quasi-experimental design. It was hypothesized that a 20 gm supplement of All Bran(r) and natural bran would promote spontaneous bowel movements, reduce the incidence of constipation, and thus decrease the need for elimination interventions. The results show that

Louiselle L. Ouellet; T. Rolf Turner; Sandra Pond; Heather McLaughlin; Shelly Knorr

1996-01-01

84

Intrathecal neostigmine for postoperative analgesia after orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To establish a dose-response curve for the analgesic effect of intrathecal neostigmine in patients undergoing below knee surgery with spinal anesthesia. To assess adverse effects, principally nausea and vomiting.Design: Randomized, double-blind, prospective study.Setting: Teaching hospital.Patients: 60 ASA physical status I and II premedicated patients undergoing orthopedic surgery (tibial or ankle reconstruction).Interventions: Spinal anesthesia was performed at the sitting

Gabriela R. Lauretti; Anita L. Mattos; Marlene P. Reis; Wiliam A. Prado

1997-01-01

85

Overview of ultrasound usage trends in orthopedic and sports physiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to examine current beliefs about the use, the clinical importance, the theoretical fundamentals and the utilization criteria of therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) among physical therapists on the clinical practice in orthopedic and sports physiotherapy in Brazil. Methods A brief survey was developed based on previous studies and was sent to 55 physical therapists with advanced competency in orthopedics and sports physiotherapy. The questions addressed general topics about the professional profile and ultrasound usage and dosage. Results Our data show the wide availability and frequent use of TUS in this sample of physical therapists. TUS is used in distinct musculoskeletal injuries and/or disorders in both acute and chronic conditions. Muscles, tendons and ligaments represented the major structures where TUS is used. Questions on the basic theory of TUS demonstrated a lack of knowledge of the ultrasound physiological effects as well as its interaction with biological tissues and TUS absolute contraindication. Conclusion A Brazilian profile about the US usage and dosage in orthopedic and sports physiotherapy is presented and highlights the need for a continuous upgrading process and further research into its effects. PMID:22871050

2012-01-01

86

Prevention of deep vein thrombosis in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

In the absence of thromboprophylaxis, venous thromboembolism (VTE) affects about 50 to 80% of the patients after total hip replacement (THR), total knee replacement (TKR), or hip fracture surgery. Since stratification of patients in those who will become symptomatic and those who will not, is not possible, primary high risk thromboprophylaxis should be provided to all patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery of the lower extremity. Various non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic thromboprophylactic measures have been evaluated. With regard to pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis unfractionated heparin has now almost completely been replaced by low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for VTE prophylaxis. The use of acetylsalicylic acid for thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities is not recommended. The optimal beginning of LMWH thromboprophylaxis is either 2 hours preoperatively or 6 to 8 hours postoperatively. Extended thromboprophylaxis (beyond 7 to 10 days after surgery) is recommended for high-risk patients. New antithrombotics, such as fondaparinux or (xi)melagatran, significantly reduce the risk of asymptomatic but not of symptomatic VTE compared to LMWH. In the light of other potential side effects (e.g., an increased bleeding risk) and high costs the role of these new drugs in the prophylaxis of VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities remains to be established. PMID:15096320

Eichinger, Sabine; Kyrle, P A

2004-03-30

87

Rethinking Concrete Manipulatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides information from research on the benefits and cautions associated with using manipulatives to teach children. The authors urge that much care be used in assessing whether the learner regards the activity with concrete objects in the same context as was intended by the instructor. The article looks at the comparative advantages of computer manipulatives and gives advice on the selection and use of both physical and computer manipulatives. An extensive reference list is included.

Clements, Douglas; Mcmillen, Sue

1996-01-01

88

Manipulability of Robotic Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the manipulating ability of robotic mechanisms in positioning and orienting end-effectors and proposes a measure of manipulability. Some properties of this measure are obtained, the best postures of various types of manipulators are given, and a four-degree-of-freedom finger is considered from the viewpoint of the measure. The pos tures somewhat resemble those of human arms and fingers.

Tsuneo Yoshikawa

1985-01-01

89

Manipulator mounted transfer platform  

DOEpatents

A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

Dobbins, James C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hoover, Mark A. (Idaho Falls, ID); May, Kay W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ross, Maurice J. (Pocatello, ID)

1990-01-01

90

Experiments with Nonholonomic Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes ongoing work with a mo- bile manipulator (Mobipulator). We describe the sys- tem architecture of the latest version of the robot, a hierarchy of robot motion commands (the Mobipula- tion library) that can be snapped together to generate complicated paths easily, a configuration space plan- ner that plans wheel motions to manipulate paper, and a visual servoing

Siddhartha S. Srinivasa; Christopher R. Baker; Elisha Sacks; Grigoriy B. Reshkol; Matthew T. Mason; Michael A. Erdmannl

2002-01-01

91

A Mobile Manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a robot that challenges the usual dis- tinction between locomotion and manipulation. This mo- bile manipulator, named the mobipulator, looks like a small car with four independently powered wheels, none of them steered. It is designed to move a piece of paper or some other laminar object about on the surface of a desk. The wheels are

Matthew T. Mason; Dinesh K. Pai; Daniela Rus; Lee R. Taylor; Michael A. Erdmann

1999-01-01

92

Characteristics of Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the problem of manipula- tor design for increased dynamic performance. Opti- mization techniques are used to determine the design parameters which improve manipulator performance. The dynamic ,performance of a manipulator is char- acterized by the inertial and acceleration properties of the end-effector. Our study of inertial and accelera- tion properties have provided separate descriptions of the characteristics

Oussama Khatib; Alan Bowling

93

Cell manipulation in microfluidics.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. PMID:23403762

Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

2013-06-01

94

Manipulator comparative testing program  

SciTech Connect

The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance.

Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

1986-01-01

95

Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla NDM-1 gene in orthopedic practice.  

PubMed

Emergence and spread of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae is a cause of concern worldwide, the latest threat being New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM-1). This report is of an orthopedic case with fracture femur managed with internal fixation and bone grafting, who subsequently developed secondary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring bla NDM-1 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was ?8 ?g/ml by E-test, suggestive of carbapenemase production. Phenotypic and further genotypic detection confirmed the presence of bla NDM-1 gene. The isolate remained susceptible only to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B. PMID:25298566

Gupta, Varsha; Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Ravi; Chander, Jagdish

2014-09-01

96

Management of open wounds: lessons from orthopedic oncology.  

PubMed

The management of complex wounds remains a challenge, and although there have been many promising advances, patients often undergo a morbid and lengthy process to obtain sufficient, satisfactory healing. Sarcoma patients are especially vulnerable to soft tissue wound-healing complications. These patients are often treated with neoadjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy and have compromised local vascularity to healing tissue. The advent and refinement of wound vacuum-assisted closure technology have been shown to have a tremendous impact. This article reviews the benefits of some novel technologies currently undergoing investigation in orthopedic oncology that will likely have applications in wound management from other causes. PMID:24267211

Siegel, Herrick J

2014-01-01

97

Update: Biochemistry of Genetic Manipulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various topics on the biochemistry of genetic manipulation are discussed. These include genetic transformation and DNA; genetic expression; DNA replication, repair, and mutation; technology of genetic manipulation; and applications of genetic manipulation. Other techniques employed are also considered. (JN)

Barker, G. R.

1983-01-01

98

Marionette: From Traditional Manipulation to Robotic Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marionettes are string-operated puppets. It is an ancient and universal form of performing art which still evolves slowly\\u000a today. From the engineering perspective, the marionette is a wire- (or string-) driven multi-limbed under-actuated mechanism\\u000a under gravity influence that exhibits rich kinematic and dynamic behaviours. This article introduces the evolution and the\\u000a engineering aspect of traditional marionette design and manipulation skills.

I-Ming Chen; Raymond Tay; Shusong Xing; Song Huat Yeo

99

MARIONETTE: FROM TRADITIONAL MANIPULATION TO ROBOTIC MANIPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marionettes are string-operated puppets. It is an ancient and universal form of performing art which still evolves slowly today. From the engineering perspective, the marionette is a wire- (or string-) driven multi-limbed under-actuated mechanism under gravity influence that exhibits rich kinematic and dynamic behaviours. This article introduces the evolution and the engineering aspect of traditional marionette design and manipulation skills.

Chen Raymond; Tay Shusong; Xing Song; Huat Yeo

100

Experimental and clinical performance of porous tantalum in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Porous tantalum, a new low modulus metal with a characteristic appearance similar to cancellous bone, is currently available for use in several orthopedic applications (hip and knee arthroplasty, spine surgery, and bone graft substitute). The open-cell structure of repeating dodecahedrons is produced via carbon vapor deposition/infiltration of commercially pure tantalum onto a vitreous carbon scaffolding. This transition metal maintains several interesting biomaterial properties, including: a high volumetric porosity (70-80%), low modulus of elasticity (3MPa), and high frictional characteristics. Tantalum has excellent biocompatibility and is safe to use in vivo as evidenced by its historical and current use in pacemaker electrodes, cranioplasty plates and as radiopaque markers. The bioactivity and biocompatibility of porous tantalum stems from its ability to form a self-passivating surface oxide layer. This surface layer leads to the formation of a bone-like apatite coating in vivo and affords excellent bone and fibrous in-growth properties allowing for rapid and substantial bone and soft tissue attachment. Tantalum-chondrocyte composites have yielded successful early results in vitro and may afford an option for joint resurfacing in the future. The development of porous tantalum is in its early stages of evolution and the following represents a review of its biomaterial properties and applications in orthopedic surgery. PMID:16737737

Levine, Brett Russell; Sporer, Scott; Poggie, Robert A; Della Valle, Craig J; Jacobs, Joshua J

2006-09-01

101

Angiogenesis and osteogenesis in an orthopedically expanded suture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the angiogenic and the subsequent osteogenic responses during a 96-hour time-course after sutural expansion. Fifty rats were divided into: (1) a control group that received only angiogenic induction through injection of 5 ng/gm recombinant human endothelial cell growth factor (rhECGF); (2) an experimental group that received orthopedic expansion and rhECGF; (3) a sham group that received expansion and sodium chloride (NaCl) injection; and (4) a baseline group that received no expansion or injection. All rats were injected with 3H-thymidine (1.0 microCi/gm) 1 hour before death to label the DNA of S-phase cells. Demineralized sections (4 microm thick) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Angiogenesis and cell migration were analyzed with a previously established cell kinetics model. Analysis of variance was used to test the hypothesis that enhancement of angiogenesis stimulates reestablishment of osteogenic capability. Blood vessel number, area, and endothelial cell-labeled index significantly increased in experimental groups, but no difference was found between control and baseline groups. Labeled-pericyte index and activated pericyte numbers in the experimental group were also higher than in the sham groups. These results show that supplemental rhECGF enhances angiogenesis in expanded sutures but not in nonexpanded sutures. Data also suggest that pericytes are the source of osteoblasts in an orthopedically expanded suture.

Chang, H. N.; Garetto, L. P.; Potter, R. H.; Katona, T. R.; Lee, C. H.; Roberts, W. E.

1997-01-01

102

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

Manipulatives, National L.

2008-12-10

103

Dielectrophoresis for Bioparticle Manipulation  

PubMed Central

As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presented, in which the applications are classified into five fields: capturing bioparticles to specific regions, focusing bioparticles in the sample, characterizing biomolecular interaction and detecting microorganism, pairing cells for electrofusion and separating different kinds of bioparticles; Thirdly, the effect of DEP on bioparticle viability is analyzed; Finally, the DEP techniques are summarized and future trends in bioparticle manipulation are suggested. PMID:25310652

Qian, Cheng; Huang, Haibo; Chen, Liguo; Li, Xiangpeng; Ge, Zunbiao; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Lining

2014-01-01

104

Considerations for the orthopedic nurse in diagnosis and treatment of adolescent sports injuries.  

PubMed

Injured adolescent athletes are challenging clients for the primary practitioner. Their unique physiological and psychological attributes dictate changes in traditional orthopedic practice and call for a holistic patient focus to address their varied needs. Understanding of common athletic injuries will effectively guide the practitioner's clinical evaluation and assist in recognizing those patients requiring more complex orthopedic diagnosis and care. PMID:9769354

Randolph, C L

1998-12-01

105

Dance for Students with Orthopedic Conditions--Popular, Square, Folk, Modern, [and] Ballet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparation for teaching dance to orthopedically handicapped students is discussed in addition to specific suggestions for teaching popular dance, square dance, folk dance, modern dance, and ballet. Dancing is seen as a way to give orthopedically handicapped students physical education success without competition. Recommended music for each type…

Harris, Cordelia Graves

1979-01-01

106

ROBOTICS -INTRODUCTION t Manipulator Arms  

E-print Network

ROBOTICS - INTRODUCTION t Manipulator Arms The common industrial manipulator is often referred to as a robot arm, with links and joints described in similar terms. Manipulators which emulate). A representative articulated manipulators is the ASEA robot. ASEA robot performing a mechanical assembly task

Petriu, Emil M.

107

Manipulator comparative testing program  

SciTech Connect

The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program compared performance of selected manipulator systems under typical remote handling conditions. The site of testing was the Remote Operations and Maintenance Demonstration Facility operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Three experiment examined differences among manipulator systems from the US and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, Central Research Laboratories' (CRL's) Model M-2, and GCA PaR systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (a) the BILARM in master-slave mode without force reflection; (b) the BILARM in master-slave mode with force reflection; (c) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode without force reflection; (d) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode with force reflection; (e) the BILARM with switchbox controls; and (f) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments also examined differences between master-slave systems with and without force reflections, and differences between master-slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems.

Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maida, M.

1986-01-01

108

Infection Mitigation Efficacy of Photoactive Titania on Orthopedic Implant Materials  

PubMed Central

In order to impede infection and achieve accelerated wound healing in the postorthopaedic surgery patients, a simple and benign procedure for creating nanotubular or nanofibrillar structure of photoactive TiO2 on the surface of Ti plates and wires is described. The nanoscale TiO2 films on titanium were grown by hydrothermal processing in one case and by anodization in the presence of dilute mineral acids under mild and benign conditions in the other. Confocal microscopy results demonstrated at least 50% reduction in the population of E. coli colonies (concentration 2.15 × 107?cells/mL) on TiO2-coated implants upon an IR exposure of up to 30?s; it required ?20?min of exposure to UV beam for the same effect. These findings suggest the probability of eliminating wound infection during and after orthopedic surgical procedures by brief illumination of photoactive titania films on the implants with an IR beam. PMID:21994891

Azad, Abdul-Majeed; Hershey, Ryan; Aboelzahab, Asem; Goel, Vijay

2011-01-01

109

Barriers to the clinical translation of orthopedic tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been the subject of increasingly intensive research for over 20 years, and there is concern in some quarters over the lack of clinically useful products despite the large sums of money invested. This review provides one perspective on orthopedic applications from a biologist working in academia. It is suggested that the delay in clinical application is not atypical of new, biologically based technologies. Some barriers to progress are acknowledged and discussed, but it is also noted that preclinical studies have identified several promising types of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenetic signals, which, although not optimal, are worth advancing toward human trials to establish a bridgehead in the clinic. Although this transitional technology will be replaced by more sophisticated, subsequent systems, it will perform valuable pioneering functions and facilitate the clinical development of the field. Some strategies for achieving this are suggested. PMID:21682607

Evans, Christopher H

2011-12-01

110

Using simulated annealing for 3D reconstruction of orthopedic fracture.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from two orthogonal images has been realized, and a Monte Carlo program MCNP4B has been applied to simulate the x-ray images. These two approaches can be applied to reconstruction of orthopedic fractures, using computed radiography images. The purpose of this paper is to utilize the information from pairs of orthogonal images at different stages of healing to generate a 3D reconstruction of the callus which builds up during the treatment, thus facilitating understanding and enabling assessment of the process of fracture healing. The reconstruction from Monte Carlo simulated images and x-ray images shows that this approach may be feasible in clinical practice. PMID:15377083

Ning, Jing; McClean, Sally; Cranley, Kieran

2004-08-01

111

Impact of erythropoietin on allogenic blood exposure in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Joint reconstruction surgery is associated with significant blood loss, and patients often require perioperative transfusions. Recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) can be used in anemic patients scheduled for elective, noncardiac, nonvascular surgery to reduce the need for transfusions. In the study reported here, patients with a preoperative hemoglobin level of 10 to 13 g/dL were treated with epoetin. Our analysis showed that transfusions were given to 3 (8%) of the 38 patients who received epoetin before surgery and 20 (57%) of the 35 historical controls (P<.001) and that length of hospital stay did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Our results provide further support for use of epoetin as an effective strategy for reducing exposure to allogenic blood in orthopedic surgery. PMID:18075608

Santoro, Jennifer E; Eastlack, Robert K; Mirocha, James M; Bugbee, William D

2007-11-01

112

Prevalence of Internet and Social Media Usage in Orthopedic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Prior studies in other specialties have shown that social networking and Internet usage has become an increasingly important means of patient communication and referral. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Internet or social media usage in new patients referred to a major academic orthopedics center and to identify new avenues to optimize patient recruitment and communication. New patients were surveyed (n=752) between December 2012 to January 2013 in a major academic orthopaedic center to complete a 15-item questionnaire including social media and Internet usage information. Data was collected for all orthopaedic sub-specialties and statistical analysis was performed. Fifty percent of patients use social networking sites, such as Facebook. Sports medicine patients tend to be higher social networking users (35.9%) relative to other services (9.8-17.9%) and was statistically higher when compared to the joints/tumor service (P<0.0001). Younger age was the biggest indicator predicting the use of social media. Patients that travelled between 120 to 180 miles from the hospital for their visits were significantly more likely to be social media users, as were patients that did research on their condition prior to their new patient appointment. We conclude that orthopedic patients who use social media/Internet are more likely to be younger, researched their condition prior to their appointment and undergo a longer average day’s travel (120-180 miles) to see a physician. In an increasingly competitive market, surgeons with younger patient populations will need to utilize social networking and the Internet to capture new patient referrals. PMID:25317312

Curry, Emily; Nguyen, Joseph; Matzkin, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

113

Hydroxyapatite-nanotube composites and coatings for orthopedic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) has received wide attention in orthopedics, due to its biocompatibility and osseointegration ability. Despite these advantages, the brittle nature and low fracture toughness of HA often results in rapid wear and premature fracture of implant. Hence, there is a need to improve the fracture toughness and wear resistance of HA without compromising its biocompatibility. The aim of the current research is to explore the potential of nanotubes as reinforcement to HA for orthopedic implants. HA- 4 wt.% carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and coatings are synthesized by spark plasma sintering and plasma spraying respectively, and investigated for their mechanical, tribological and biological behavior. CNT reinforcement improves the fracture toughness (>90%) and wear resistance (>66%) of HA for coating and free standing composites. CNTs have demonstrated a positive influence on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization activities of osteoblasts, during in-vitro biocompatibility studies. In-vivo exposure of HA-CNT coated titanium implant in animal model (rat) shows excellent histocompatibility and neobone integration on the implant surface. The improved osseointegration due to presence of CNTs in HA is quantified by the adhesion strength measurement of single osteoblast using nano-scratch technique. Considering the ongoing debate about cytotoxicity of CNTs in the literature, the present study also suggests boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) as an alternative reinforcement. BNNT with the similar elastic modulus and strength as CNT, were added to HA. The resulting composite having 4 wt.% BNNTs improved the fracture toughness (˜85%) and wear resistance (˜75%) of HA in the similar range as HA-CNT composites. BNNTs were found to be non-cytotoxic for osteoblasts and macrophages. In-vitro evaluation shows positive role of BNNT in osteoblast proliferation and viability. Apatite formability of BNNT surface in ˜4 days establishes its osseointegration ability.

Lahiri, Debrupa

114

Applications of finite element simulation in orthopedic and trauma surgery  

PubMed Central

Research in different areas of orthopedic and trauma surgery requires a methodology that allows both a more economic approach and the ability to reproduce different situations in an easy way. Simulation models have been introduced recently in bioengineering and could become an essential tool in the study of any physiological unity, regardless of its complexity. The main problem in modeling with finite elements simulation is to achieve an accurate reproduction of the anatomy and a perfect correlation of the different structures, in any region of the human body. Authors have developed a mixed technique, joining the use of a three-dimensional laser scanner Roland Picza captured together with computed tomography (CT) and 3D CT images, to achieve a perfect reproduction of the anatomy. Finite element (FE) simulation lets us know the biomechanical changes that take place after hip prostheses or osteosynthesis implantation and biological responses of bone to biomechanical changes. The simulation models are able to predict changes in bone stress distribution around the implant, so allowing preventing future pathologies. The development of a FE model of lumbar spine is another interesting application of the simulation. The model allows research on the lumbar spine, not only in physiological conditions but also simulating different load conditions, to assess the impact on biomechanics. Different degrees of disc degeneration can also be simulated to determine the impact on adjacent anatomical elements. Finally, FE models may be useful to test different fixation systems, i.e., pedicular screws, interbody devices or rigid fixations compared with the dynamic ones. We have also developed models of lumbar spine and hip joint to predict the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures, based on densitometric determinations and specific biomechanical models, including approaches from damage and fracture mechanics. FE simulations also allow us to predict the behavior of orthopedic splints applied to the correction of deformities, providing the recovering force-displacement and angle-moment curves that characterize the mechanical behavior of the splint in the overall range of movement. PMID:22550621

Herrera, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Cegonino, Jose; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Puertolas, Sergio; Lopez, Enrique; Mateo, Jesus; Gracia, Luis

2012-01-01

115

Prevalence of internet and social media usage in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Prior studies in other specialties have shown that social networking and Internet usage has become an increasingly important means of patient communication and referral. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Internet or social media usage in new patients referred to a major academic orthopedics center and to identify new avenues to optimize patient recruitment and communication. New patients were surveyed (n=752) between December 2012 to January 2013 in a major academic orthopaedic center to complete a 15-item questionnaire including social media and Internet usage information. Data was collected for all orthopaedic sub-specialties and statistical analysis was performed. Fifty percent of patients use social networking sites, such as Facebook. Sports medicine patients tend to be higher social networking users (35.9%) relative to other services (9.8-17.9%) and was statistically higher when compared to the joints/tumor service (P<0.0001). Younger age was the biggest indicator predicting the use of social media. Patients that travelled between 120 to 180 miles from the hospital for their visits were significantly more likely to be social media users, as were patients that did research on their condition prior to their new patient appointment. We conclude that orthopedic patients who use social media/Internet are more likely to be younger, researched their condition prior to their appointment and undergo a longer average day's travel (120-180 miles) to see a physician. In an increasingly competitive market, surgeons with younger patient populations will need to utilize social networking and the Internet to capture new patient referrals. PMID:25317312

Curry, Emily; Li, Xinning; Nguyen, Joseph; Matzkin, Elizabeth

2014-08-01

116

Simulation of robot manipulators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories` Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment.

Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

1995-03-01

117

Influence of podiatry on orthopedic surgery at a level I trauma center.  

PubMed

Level I trauma centers frequently see trauma at or below the ankle, which requires consultation with the orthopedic surgery department. However, as podiatry programs begin to firmly establish themselves in more Level I trauma centers, their consultations increase, ultimately taking those once seen by orthopedic surgery. A review of the literature demonstrates that this paradigm shift has yet to be discussed. The purpose of this study was to determine how many, if any, lower extremity fracture consultations a newly developed podiatry program would take from the orthopedic surgery department. A retrospective review was performed of emergency department records from January 2007 to December 2011. Seventeen different emergency department diagnoses were used to search the database. Ultimately, each patient's emergency department course was researched. Several trends were noted. First, if trauma surgery was involved, only the orthopedic surgery department was consulted for any injuries at or below the ankle. Second, the emergency department tended to consult the podiatry program only between the hours of 8 am and 6 pm. Third, as the podiatry program became more established, their number of consultations increased yearly, and, coincidentally, the orthopedic surgery department's consultations decreased. Finally, high-energy traumas involved only the orthopedic surgery department. Whether the orthopedic surgery department or podiatry program is consulted regarding trauma surgery is likely hospital dependent. PMID:24972439

Jakoi, Andre M; Old, Andrew B; O'Neill, Craig A; Stein, Benjamin E; Stander, Eric P; Rosenblatt, Joseph; Herman, Martin J

2014-06-01

118

Selection, Evocation, and Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes three key mechanisms by which personality and social processes are intrinsically linked. Selection deals with the manner in which individuals choose to enter or avoid existing environments. Evocation is defined by the ways in which individuals unintentionally elicit predictable reactions from others in their social environments. Manipulation deals with the tactics that individuals use intentionally to alter,

David M. Buss

1987-01-01

119

Kinematically redundant robot manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on control, design and programming of kinematically redundant robot manipulators (KRRM) is discussed. These are devices in which there are more joint space degrees of freedom than are required to achieve every position and orientation of the end-effector necessary for a given task in a given workspace. The technological developments described here deal with: kinematic programming techniques for automatically generating joint-space trajectories to execute prescribed tasks; control of redundant manipulators to optimize dynamic criteria (e.g., applications of forces and moments at the end-effector that optimally distribute the loading of actuators); and design of KRRMs to optimize functionality in congested work environments or to achieve other goals unattainable with non-redundant manipulators. Kinematic programming techniques are discussed, which show that some pseudo-inverse techniques that have been proposed for redundant manipulator control fail to achieve the goals of avoiding kinematic singularities and also generating closed joint-space paths corresponding to close paths of the end effector in the workspace. The extended Jacobian is proposed as an alternative to pseudo-inverse techniques.

Baillieul, J.; Hollerbach, J.; Brockett, R.; Martin, D.; Percy, R.; Thomas, R.

1987-01-01

120

Manipulating the Gradient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

Gaze, Eric C.

2005-01-01

121

Mathematics and symbol manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I would like to present some ideas on what I believe symbol manipulation programs should look like. My comments are based on my experience using MACSYMA [6] for the past seven years. I am also somewhat familiar with REDUCE [3] and the new program, SMP [1]. Some of my comments come from difficulties I have encountered in using MACSYMA and

Stanly Steinberg

1982-01-01

122

The goals of orthopedic tratment in cerebral palsy: improved function or quality of life?  

PubMed

The paper presents the orthopedic treatment phylosophy of spastic cerebral palsy children. The indications for surgery are established on the functional basis, dependent on the type paresis. PMID:17679890

Marciniak, Witold

2002-01-31

123

The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teachi

Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

2010-05-01

124

Full-time orthopedic traumatologists enhance rural trauma center pelvic fracture outcomes and financials.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that full-time orthopedic traumatologists would increase interfacility transfer patients with pelvic ring injuries at a trauma center seeking American College of Surgeons Level I verification. A trauma registry query identified 790 patients with pelvic ring injuries admitted to a trauma service over 10 years. The study groups included 173 patients 3 years before and 405 patients 3 years after recruitment of two full-time orthopedic traumatologists. Interfacility transfers of patients with pelvic ring injuries requiring operative procedures were increased over 230 per cent (P < 0.01) with full-time orthopedic traumatologists. Financial analysis showed enhanced hospital margin per patient and decreased direct costs (P < 0.01). Complications, mortality rates, and length of stay were decreased (P < 0.01). Full-time orthopedic traumatologists enhance pelvic ring injury patient interfacility transfers, operative procedures, outcomes, and financials at a Level I trauma center in a rural setting. PMID:21679639

Testerman, George M; Harris, Robert M; West, Michael; Easparam, Sarah

2011-06-01

125

Alternative Procedures for Reducing Allogeneic Blood Transfusion in Elective Orthopedic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perioperative blood loss is a major problem in elective orthopedic surgery. Allogeneic transfusion is the standard treatment\\u000a for perioperative blood loss resulting in low postoperative hemoglobin, but it has a number of well-recognized risks, complications,\\u000a and costs. Alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusion include preoperative autologous donation and intraoperative salvage\\u000a with postoperative autotransfusion. Orthopedic surgeons are often unaware of the different

Kathrin Kleinert; Oliver M. Theusinger; Johannes Nuernberg; Clément M. L. Werner

2010-01-01

126

Solution-focused therapy and psychosocial adjustment to orthopedic rehabilitation in a work hardening program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic rehabilitation programs utilizing a multidisciplinary approach invite a greater appreciation for the factors which\\u000a influence the recovery process. This study evaluated variables associated with the psychosocial adjustment of work hardening\\u000a program participants when exposed to Solution-Focused psychotherapy. Orthopedic patients receiving workers’ compensation were\\u000a engaged in a work hardening program in which they received either Solution-Focused therapy or the standard

Jack T. Cockburn; Frank N. Thomas; Orbie J. Cockburn

1997-01-01

127

DNA interactive manipulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers three interactive modules that treat teachers to a direct look at scientists who worked to unlock the mysteries of genes and the technological advancements that aided their discoveries. The modules are arranged by topics that focus on how to manipulate genes, how enzymes are used in manipulation, and the possibilities inherent in recombinant DNA technology. Each module is subdivided into additional parts. These parts include images of scientists who contributed to the history of gene discoveries. By clicking on the images, teachers are taken to a new window to watch short videos by or about the scientists. Teachers can also click on links to computer simulations, such as a tutorial to see how yeast is used to make human insulin. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Laboratory, Dolan D.

2005-01-01

128

Robotic Grasping and Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we consider problems that arise in designing, building, planning, and controlling operations of robotic hands\\u000a and end-effectors. The purpose of such devices is often manifold, and it typically includes grasping and fine manipulation\\u000a of objects in an accurate, delicate yet firm way. We survey the state-of-the-art reached by scientific research and literature\\u000a about the problems engendered by

Antonio Bicchi; Vijay Kumar

129

Manipulation of quantum evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

1994-01-01

130

Microradiographic microsphere manipulator  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

Singleton, Russell M. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

131

[Technical aspects in the provision of orthopedic shoes for athletes].  

PubMed

From the technical point of view different groups must be distinguished in the provision of orthopedic shoes for athletes. The one group encompasses athletes who are provided with insoles in the hope of improved comfort or better performance. The other group includes athletes with diseases or injuries of the lower limbs for whom the provision of appropriate shoes and insoles makes it possible for them to participate again actively in their chosen sport. In such cases one has to differentiate between the purely physical disorder of the foot and biomechanical disorders. For the first group the correct fitting of the shoe is the most important factor whereas in the second group attempts are made to correct and/or compensate for the deficit by means of insoles and wedges as well as supporting or bedding elements. The particular challenge for all such measures is to achieve an as small as possible impairment on the sport activity or, in the ideal cases, even to support it. PMID:23487344

Walther, M; Volkering, C; Röser, A

2013-03-01

132

Snow Catastrophe Conditions: What is its Impact on Orthopedic Injuries?  

PubMed Central

Background: Iran places sixth amongst high risk natural disaster countries and Guilan province of Iran shoulders a large amount of socio-economic burden due to snow catastrophes. The more knowledge of circumstances we have, the more efficient our future encounters will be. Methods: In this retrospective study, of all of the patients admitted to Poursina Hospital due to snow and ice related trauma in the first two weeks of February 2014, 306 cases were found eligible for entry into the present study. Results: Of the 306 eligible patients (383 injuries), there were 175 men (57.2%) and 131 women (42.8%). Most patients suffered from orthopedic injuries (81%) and the most common fractures were distal radius fractures in the upper extremities and hip fractures in the lower extremities. Slipping was the most common and motor vehicle accidents had the rarest injury mechanisms. It was shown that the frequency of injuries were higher on icy days (67.6%) than snowy days (32.4%). Conclusions: Snow crises may lead to increased risk of slipping and falling situations, especially on icy days. The peak of injury rates is a few days after snowfall with the most common injury being distal radius fracture. Providing essential instructions and supporting resource allocation to better handle such catastrophes may improve outcomes. PMID:25207329

Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Karimi-Mobarakeh, Mahmoud; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Saheb-Ekhtiari, Khashayar; Hashemi-Motlagh, Keyvan

2014-01-01

133

Manipulation of thermal phonons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing materials that can conduct electricity easily, but block the motion of phonons is necessary in the applications of thermoelectric devices, which can generate electricity from temperature differences. In converse, a key requirement as chips get faster is to obtain better ways to dissipate heat. Controlling heat transfer in these crystalline materials devices --- such as silicon --- is important. The heat is actually the motion or vibration of atoms known as phonons. Finding ways to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials --- phononic crystals --- might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many fields of physical sciences and engineering, acoustic wave propagation in solids attracts many researchers. Wave propagation phenomena can be analyzed by mathematically solving the acoustic wave equation. However, wave propagation in inhomogeneous media with various geometric structures is too complex to find an exact solution. Hence, the Finite Difference Time Domain method is developed to investigate these complicated problems. In this work, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain formula is derived from acoustic wave equations based on the Taylor's expansion. The numerical dispersion and stability problems are analyzed. In addition, the convergence conditions of numerical acoustic wave are stated. Based on the periodicity of phononic crystal, the Bloch's theorem is applied to fulfill the periodic boundary condition of the FDTD method. Then a wide-band input signal is used to excite various acoustic waves with different frequencies. In the beginning of the calculation process, the wave vector is chosen and fixed. By means of recording the displacement field and taking the Fourier transformation, we can obtain the eigenmodes from the resonance peaks of the spectrum and draw the dispersion relation curve of acoustic waves. With the large investment in silicon nanofabrication techniques, this makes tungsten/silicon phononic crystal a particularly attractive platform for manipulating thermal phonons. Phononic crystal makes use of the fundamental properties of waves to create band gap over which there can be no propagation of acoustic waves in the crystal. This crystal can be applied to deterministically manipulate the phonon dispersion curve affected by different crystal structures and to modify the phonon thermal conductivity accordingly. We can expect this unique metamaterial is a promising route to creating unprecedented thermal properties for highly-efficient energy harvesting and thermoelectric cooling.

Hsu, Chung-Hao

134

Corrosion behavior of a welded stainless-steel orthopedic implant.  

PubMed

The corrosion behavior of combinations of materials used in an orthopedic implant: the spherical part (forged or forged and annealed) constituting the head, the weld (tungsten inert gas (TIG) or electron beam (EB) techniques), and the cylindrical part (annealed) constituting the shaft of a femoral prosthesis - has been investigated. Open-circuit potentials, potentiodynamic curves, Tafel slope, mixed potential theory and susceptibility to intergranular attack are electrochemical and chemical procedures selected for this work. Electrochemical measurements using a microelectrode have been made in the following zones: spherical part, cylindrical part, weld, and weld/sphere, and weld/shaft interfaces. To detect intergranular attack, the Strauss test has been used. At the interfaces, corrosion currents, measured (Icorr) and predicted (Icouple) are low, in the order of the pico- to nanoampere. The electrochemical behavior of the electron beam (EB) weld is better than that of the tungsten inert gas (TIG). Welds at interfaces can behave either anodically or cathodically. It is better if welds, which are sensitive parts of the femoral prosthesis, behave cathodically. In this way, the risk of starting localized corrosion (pitting, crevice or intergranular corrosion) from a galvanic couple, remains low. From this point of view, the sample with the EB weld offers the best behavior. All the other samples containing a TIG type of weld exhibit a less favorable behavior. The mechanical treatments (forged, and forged and annealed) of the steel sphere did not show any difference in the corrosion behavior. No intergranular corrosion has been observed at the weld/steel interface for unsensitized samples. With sensitized samples, however, a TIG sample has exhibited some localized intergranular corrosion at a distance of 500 microm along the weld/stainless steel (sphere) interface. PMID:11197502

Reclaru, L; Lerf, R; Eschler, P Y; Meyer, J M

2001-02-01

135

Biocompatibility evaluation of porous ceria foams for orthopedic tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Ceria ceramics have the unique ability to protect cells from free radical-induced damage, making them materials of interest for biomedical applications. To expand upon the understanding of the potential of ceria as a biomaterial, porous ceria, fabricated via direct foaming, was investigated to assess its biocompatibility and its ability to scavenge free radicals. A mouse osteoblast (7F2) cell line was cultured with the ceria foams to determine the extent of the foams' toxicity. Toxicity assessments indicate that mouse osteoblasts cultured directly on the ceria scaffold for 72 h did not show a significant (p?>?0.05) increase in toxicity, but rather show comparable toxicity to cells cultured on porous 45S5 Bioglass®. The in vitro inflammatory response elicited from porous ceria foams was measured as a function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) secreted from a human monocytic leukemia cell line. Results indicate that the ceria foams do not cause a significant inflammatory response, eliciting a response of 27.1?±?7.1 pg mL(-1) of TNF-? compared to 36.3?±?5.8 pg mL(-1) from cells on Bioglass, and 20.1?±?2.9 pg mL(-1) from untreated cells. Finally, we report cellular toxicity in response to free radicals from tert-butyl hydroperoxide with and without foamed ceria. Our preliminary results show that the foamed ceria is able to decrease the toxic effect of induced oxidative stress. Collectively, this study demonstrates that foamed ceria scaffolds do not activate an inflammatory response, and show potential free radical scavenging ability, thus they have promise as an orthopedic biomaterial. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 8-15, 2015. PMID:24677427

Ball, Jordan P; Mound, Brittnee A; Monsalve, Adam G; Nino, Juan C; Allen, Josephine B

2015-01-01

136

Platelet aggregation and coagulation factors in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Hemostasis is a major concern during the perioperative period. Changes in platelet aggregation and coagulation factors may contribute to the delicate balance between thrombosis and bleeding. We sought to better understand perioperative hemostasis by investigating the changes in platelet aggregation and coagulation factors during the perioperative period. We performed a prospective cohort analysis of 70 subjects undergoing non-emergent orthopedic surgery of the knee (n = 28), hip (n = 35), or spine (n = 7) between August 2011 and November 2011. Plasma was collected preoperatively (T1), 1-h intraoperatively (T2), 1-h (T3), 24-h (T4) and 48-h (T5) postoperatively. Platelet function testing was performed using whole blood impedance aggregometry. Coagulation assays were performed for factor VII, factor VIII, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and fibrinogen. Of the 70 patients, mean age was 64.1 ± 9.8 years, 61 % were female, and 74 % were Caucasian. Platelet activity decreased until 1 h postoperatively and then significantly increased above baseline at 24- and 48-h postoperatively. Compared to baseline, coagulation factors decreased intraoperatively. Factor VII activity continued to decrease, while FVIII, vWF, and fibrinogen all increased above baseline postoperatively. The results of our study indicate significant changes in platelet activity and coagulation factors during the perioperative period. Both platelet activity and markers of coagulation decrease during the intraoperative period and then some increase postoperatively. These changes may contribute to the hypercoagulabity and/or bleeding risk that occurs in the perioperative period. Future prospective studies aimed at correlating hemostatic changes with perioperative outcomes are warranted. PMID:24874897

Oberweis, Brandon S; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Pardo, Luis; Nardi, Michael A; Guo, Yu; Dweck, Ezra; Marshall, Mitchell; Steiger, David; Stuchin, Steven; Berger, Jeffrey S

2014-11-01

137

Chitosan for gene delivery and orthopedic tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Gene therapy involves the introduction of foreign genetic material into cells in order exert a therapeutic effect. The application of gene therapy to the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is extremely promising as the controlled release of therapeutic proteins such as bone morphogenetic proteins have been shown to stimulate bone repair. However, there are a number of drawbacks associated with viral and synthetic non-viral gene delivery approaches. One natural polymer which has generated interest as a gene delivery vector is chitosan. Chitosan is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic. Much of the appeal of chitosan is due to the presence of primary amine groups in its repeating units which become protonated in acidic conditions. This property makes it a promising candidate for non-viral gene delivery. Chitosan-based vectors have been shown to transfect a number of cell types including human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Aside from its use in gene delivery, chitosan possesses a range of properties that show promise in tissue engineering applications; it is biodegradable, biocompatible, has anti-bacterial activity, and, its cationic nature allows for electrostatic interaction with glycosaminoglycans and other proteoglycans. It can be used to make nano- and microparticles, sponges, gels, membranes and porous scaffolds. Chitosan has also been shown to enhance mineral deposition during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the use of chitosan as a gene delivery vector with emphasis on its application in orthopedic tissue engineering. PMID:23676471

Raftery, Rosanne; O'Brien, Fergal J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

2013-01-01

138

Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

1997-03-01

139

Local infiltration of liposome bupivacaine in orthopedic trauma patients: case-based reviews.  

PubMed

Orthopedic trauma surgery is often associated with considerable postoperative pain, which can result in a cascade of direct and indirect clinical consequences. Patients undergoing orthopedic trauma surgery are at risk for the development of chronic postsurgical pain, which may persist for 2 years or longer. Effective approaches to reducing postoperative pain in orthopedic trauma surgery patients include the use of minimally invasive procedures and multimodal analgesia. Infiltration of the surgical site with EXPAREL® (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension), an extended-release local anesthetic, represents an advance in the multimodal management of postoperative pain. As part of a multimodal regimen, EXPAREL® has been shown to provide effective, safe, and efficient analgesia across a range of surgical procedures. Two cases that illustrate the use of EXPAREL® in orthopedic trauma are described. The first case involves repair of a subtrochanteric nonunion in a 63-year-old woman with a history of bisphosphonate use and prior treatment with a cephalomedullary nail. The second case involves a young woman undergoing outpatient surgery for repair of a fractured clavicle. Both patients experienced good control of postsurgical pain, supporting the clinical utility of EXPAREL® in orthopedic trauma surgery. PMID:25303455

Hutchinson, Hank L

2014-10-01

140

Orthopedic Management of Patients with Pompe Disease: A Retrospective Case Series of 8 Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Pompe disease (PD), a lysosomal storage disease as well as a neuromuscular disorder, is a rare disease marked by progressive muscle weakness. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in recent years allowed longer survival but brought new problems to the treatment of PD with increasing affection of the musculoskeletal system, particularly with a significantly higher prevalence of scoliosis. The present paper deals with the orthopedic problems in patients with PD and is the first to describe surgical treatment of scoliosis in PD patients. Patients and Methods. The orthopedic problems and treatment of eight patients with PD from orthopedic consultation for neuromuscular disorders are retrospectively presented. We analyzed the problems of scoliosis, hip dysplasia, feet deformities, and contractures and presented the orthopedic treatment options. Results. Six of our eight PD patients had scoliosis and two young patients were treated by operative spine stabilization with benefits for posture and sitting ability. Hip joint surgery, operative contracture release, and feet deformity correction were performed with benefits for independent activity. Conclusion. Orthopedic management gains importance due to extended survival and musculoskeletal involvement under ERT. Surgical treatment is indicated in distinct cases. Further investigation is required to evidence the effect of surgical spine stabilization in PD. PMID:24523658

Forst, Jürgen; Forst, Raimund

2014-01-01

141

A History of Manipulative Therapy  

PubMed Central

Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice. PMID:19066664

Pettman, Erland

2007-01-01

142

The Instantaneous Kinematics of Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dextrous manipulation planning is a problem ofparamount importance in the study of multifingeredrobotic hands. In this paper, we show in general,that all system variables (the finger joint, object,andcontact velocities) need to be included in the differentialkinematic equation used for manipulation planning,even if the manipulation task is only specifiedin terms of the goal configuration of the object or thecontacts only. The

Li Han; Jeffrey C. Trinkle

1998-01-01

143

Manipulation hardware for microgravity research  

SciTech Connect

The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rohn, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (USA))

1990-01-01

144

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

1993-01-01

145

Liquid Propellant Manipulated Acoustically  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluids are difficult to manage in the space environment. Without gravity, the liquid and gas do not always remain separated as they do in the 1g environment of Earth. Instead the liquid and gas volumes mix and migrate under the influence of surface tension, thermodynamic forces, and external disturbances. As a result, liquid propellants may not be in a useable location or may even form a chaotic mix of liquid and gas bubbles. In the past, mechanical pumps, baffles, and a variety of specialized passive devices have been used to control the liquid and gas volumes. These methods need to be carefully tuned to a specific configuration to be effective. With increasing emphasis on long-term human activity in space there is a trend toward liquid systems that are more flexible and provide greater control. We are exploring new methods of manipulating liquids by using the nonlinear acoustic effects achieved by using beams of highly directed high-intensity acoustic waves.

Oeftering, Richard C.; Chato, David J.; Mann, Adin, III

2003-01-01

146

The PLATO PPTK System: An Alternative Keyboard Using the PLATO Computer-Based Education System for the Orthopedically Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed in response to the complex problems involved in providing equal educational opportunities for the intellectually alert orthopedically handicapped, the PLATO Programmable Terminal Keyset (PPTK) system makes the resources of PLATO compatible to the functional problems of a wide range of orthopedic conditions. This report describes the…

Goodman, William J.

147

Robust control of manipulator arms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the sythesis and analysis of robust control designs for high performance manipulator arms is described. Input-output norms are used to analyze the robustness of flexible manipulator control designs in the presence of flexible mode spillover and parameter uncertainty. A multivariable Wiener-Hopf control design is used to provide high gains in the necessary frequency range and low gaines

Horst Salzwedel; Robert L. Kosut; Abbas Emami-Naeini

1981-01-01

148

Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins  

SciTech Connect

ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates the entire process, so that more and larger problems can be attempted. Currently, the program designers are working to make ProteinShop more applicable and adaptable to different protein folding methodologies. If users could manipulate structures from a biological point of view, and then put them back in the queue for more optimization, the process of experimentation and discovery in protein research could be greatly enhanced. The group is also investigating the use of stereoscopic rendering and three-dimensional input devices to remove the limitations of a two-dimensional interface. Clearly, protein-folding research will have far-reaching ramifications. It could lead to new insights about diseases ranging from Alzheimer's to Cystic fibrosis, which scientists believe are caused by protein folding gone wrong. A better understanding of protein structures could also lead to the engineering of altogether new proteins, and shed light on how drugs bind proteins to alter their structure and function. Above all, ProteinShop is an important tool that will help scientists unravel one of the most challenging problems that theoretical and computational chemistry has to offer.

Simon, Horst D.

2003-12-05

149

Smart Hand For Manipulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

Fiorini, Paolo

1987-10-01

150

Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators.  

PubMed

Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance. PMID:12492083

Gravagne, Ian A; Walker, Ian D

2002-06-01

151

Positive identification of a burned body using an implanted orthopedic plate.  

PubMed

Human identification is usually obtained by comparing fingerprints, antemortem and postmortem radiographs, dental records and also by DNA profiling. Sometimes forensic investigators come across some medical appliances such as orthopedic devices. These medical devices may be useful to achieve positive human identification. This paper aims to present a positive identification of a burned human body by tracking batch numbers engraved in an implanted orthopedic device found in the decedent's left ulna bone. The examiners also collected and analyzed other valuable hints related to the case. Forensic examination can provide reliable positive human identification, even if few, but precise information can be obtained from antemortem and postmortem records. The present report illustrates a set of valuable techniques and how identifying numbers in orthopedic devices are helpful to determine positive human identification in cases of carbonization. As seen in this case, the forensic experts used low-cost identification procedures with accurate results, avoiding DNA profiling method that would be of higher cost and time consuming. Considering social and legal aspects, it is quite important that physicians and dentists understand that correct and accurate records of surgeries they perform, such as fixation of orthopedic devices and dental implants, are utterly relevant and helpful in cases of human identification. PMID:23642727

Matoso, Rodrigo Ivo; Benedicto, Eduardo de Novaes; de Lima, Silas Henrique Rabelo; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Daruge, Eduardo; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo

2013-06-10

152

Late orthopedic effects in children with Wilms' tumor treated with abdominal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Between 1970 and 1984, 31 children with biopsy-proven Wilms' tumor received nephrectomy, chemotherapy, and abdominal irradiation and were followed beyond skeletal maturity. Three patients (10%) developed late orthopedic abnormalities requiring intervention. Ten children received orthovoltage irradiation, and all cases requiring orthopedic intervention or developing a scoliotic curve of greater than 20 degrees were confined to this group, for a complication frequency of 50%. Those children who developed a significant late orthopedic abnormality (SLOA) as defined were treated to a higher median dose (2,890 cGy) and a larger field size (150 cm2) than those who did not (2,580 cGy and 120 cm2). Age at irradiation, sex, and initial stage of disease did not appear to influence the risk of developing an SLOA. No child who received megavoltage irradiation developed an SLOA despite treatment up to 4,000 cGy or to field sizes of 400 cm2. We conclude that modern radiotherapy techniques rarely lead to significant late orthopedic abnormalities previously associated with abdominal irradiation in children with Wilms' tumor.

Rate, W.R.; Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; D'Angio, G.J. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

1991-01-01

153

High energy devices versus low energy devices in orthopedics treatment modalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orthopedic consensus group defined in 1997 the 42 most likely relevant parameters of orthopedic shock wave devices. The idea of this approach was to correlate the different clinical outcomes with the physical properties of the different devices with respect to their acoustical waves. Several changes in the hypothesis of the dose effect relationship have been noticed since the first orthopedic treatments. The relation started with the maximum pressure p+, followed by the total energy, the energy density; and finally the single treatment approach using high, and then the multiple treatment method using low energy. Motivated by the reimbursement situation in Germany some manufacturers began to redefine high and low energy devices independent of the treatment modality. The OssaTron as a high energy, single treatment electro hydraulic device gained FDA approval as the first orthopedic ESWT device for plantar fasciitis and, more recently, for lateral epicondylitis. Two low energy devices have now also gained FDA approval based upon a single treatment. Comparing the acoustic data, differences between the OssaTron and the other devices are obvious and will be elaborated upon. Cluster analysis of the outcomes and the acoustical data are presented and new concepts will be suggested.

Schultheiss, Reiner

2003-10-01

154

Institution of the Steiros Algorithm® Outpatient Surgical Protocol Reduced Orthopedic Surgical Site Infections (SSI) Rates  

PubMed Central

Background Control of surgical site infections (SSI) is imperative for the safety of our patients. As orthopedic surgeons we strive to have the lowest infection rate possible for all our surgical procedures. this study evaluates the effects of a simple outpatient peri-operative patient cleaning protocol (The Steiros Algorithm® Outpatient Surgery Protocol) on SSI rates. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the hospital's infection rate database for all procedures from July 2005 until February 2011 performed by one general orthopedic surgeon (PAW) within one hospital system. The Steiros Algorithm® Outpatient Surgery Protocol was instituted on January 1st, 2009. We calculated and compared the deep and superficial SSI rate for orthopedic surgeries performed before and after the Outpatient Protocol was instituted. All patients had a minimum of one-year follow-up data. Lowest previously published estimated costs for SSI were used for a cost analysis ($17,708). Results The July 1st, 2005 through December 31st, 2008 SSI rate was 1.0% (13/1292). From January 1st, 2009 through February 28th, 2011 the SSI rate was zero (0/875). the SSI rates decreased 100%. Due to the reduction in SSI, the hospital saved a minimum of $154,059 over a two year period. Conclusions In this retrospective review, the Steiros Algorithm® Outpatient Surgery Protocol dramatically reduced the overall SSI rate to zero and saved money. We believe this is a simple, effective protocol that can be used for all orthopedic surgical procedures. PMID:23576931

Watson, Paul A.; Watson, Luke; Torress-Cook, Alfonso

2012-01-01

155

Free Fibula Long Bone Reconstruction in Orthopedic Oncology: A Surgical Algorithm for Reconstructive Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fibula free flap became popular in orthopedic oncology for limb-sparing long bone tumor resection. It is particularly suitable for intercalary or resection arthro- desis options. In the present series, a surgical reconstruc- tion algorithm was used, enabling each patient to receive a personalized technique. During the years 1998 to 2002, 30 patients underwent limb-sparing surgery for long bone sarcoma.

Arik Zaretski; Aharon Amir; Isaac Meller; David Leshem; Yehuda Kollender; Yoav Barnea; Jacob Bickels; Thomas Shpitzer; Dean Ad-El; Eyal Gur

156

Orthopedic trauma-induced pulmonary injury in the obese Zucker rats  

PubMed Central

Objective Obese subjects with orthopedic trauma exhibit increased inflammation and an increased risk of pulmonary edema. PGE2 production is elevated during inflammation and associated with increased vascular permeability. We hypothesize that pulmonary edema in obesity following orthopedic trauma is due to elevated PGE2 and resultant increases in pulmonary permeability. Methods Orthopedic trauma was induced in both hindlimbs in lean (LZ) and obese Zucker rats (OZ). On the following day, plasma IL-6 and PGE2 levels, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary gas exchange capability were compared between groups: LZ, OZ, LZ with trauma (LZT), and OZ with trauma (OZT). Vascular permeability in isolated lungs was measured in LZ and OZ before and after application of PGE2. Results As compared with the other groups, the OZT exhibited elevated plasma IL-6 and PGE2 levels, increased lung wet/dry weight ratio and bronchoalveolar protein concentration, and an impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Indomethacin treatment normalized plasma PGE2 levels and pulmonary edema. Basal pulmonary permeability in isolated lungs was higher in OZ than LZ, with a further increase in permeability following treatment with PGE2. Conclusions These results suggest that pulmonary edema in OZ following orthopedic trauma is due to an elevated PGE2 and resultant increases in pulmonary permeability. PMID:21044219

Xiang, Lusha; Hester, Robert L.; Fuller, William L; Sebai, Mohamad E; Mittwede, Peter N; Jones, Elizabeth K; Aneja, Arun; Russell, George V

2010-01-01

157

Robust registration for computer-integrated orthopedic surgery: Laboratory validation and clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide navigational guidance during computer-integrated orthopedic surgery, the anatomy of the patient must first be registered to a medical image or model. A common registration approach is to digitize points from the surface of a bone and then find the rigid transformation that best matches the points to the model by constrained optimization. Many optimization criteria, including

B. Ma; R. E. Ellis

2003-01-01

158

Involvement of presurgical pain in preemptive analgesia for orthopedic surgery: a randomized double blind study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preemptive analgesia (PA) is effective in animal models but its clinical effectiveness remains controversial. We examined the effect of preexisting pain on PA. Subjects were recruited from patients needing orthopedic surgery. Some had presurgical pain (fracture surgery and arthritic surgery), while others had no presurgical pain (removal surgery for a tumor, nail or plate). Epidural morphine or a saline control

Sumihisa Aida; Hideyoshi Fujihara; Kiichiro Taga; Satoru Fukuda; Koki Shimoji

2000-01-01

159

Perioperative complications in corrective facial orthopedic surgery: A 5-year retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Frequency and severity of complications have a profound impact on referral patterns for facial orthopedic surgery. Therefore, a retrospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence of such problems in a large series of patients, with the intent to use these data to make possible changes in the perioperative protocol used in our clinic. Patients and Methods: The files

Faustino Acebal-Bianco; Philippe L. P. J. Vuylsteke; Maurice Y. Mommaerts; Calix A. S. De Clercq

2000-01-01

160

Spotlights: A Robust Method for Surface-Based Registration in Orthopedic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast, simple and effective registration methods are needed in a wide variety of computer-assisted surgical procedures in which readily locatable anatomical landmarks are not available. Orthopedic procedures about the knee, in particular, are adversely aff ected if the registration accuracy exceeds about 1 mm in translation or about in rotation, and the proximal tibia and distal femur are typi -

Burton Ma; Randy E. Ellis; David J. Fleet

1999-01-01

161

Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

Weichel, Derek

2012-01-01

162

Increased osteoblast cell density on nanostructured PLGA-coated nanostructured titanium for orthopedic applications  

PubMed Central

There are more than 30,000 orthopedic implant revision surgeries necessary each year in part due to poor implant fixation with juxtaposed bone. A further emphasis on the current problems associated with insufficient bone implant performance is the fact that many patients are receiving hip implants earlier in life, remaining active older, and that the human lifespan is continuously increasing. Collectively, it is clear that there is a strong clinical need to improve implant performance through proper, prolonged fixation. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to improve the performance of titanium (Ti), one of the most popular orthopedic implant materials. Accordingly, the proliferative response of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on novel nanostructured Ti/PLGA (poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid) composites was examined. This study showed that nano-topography can be easily applied to Ti (through anodization) and porous PLGA (through NaOH chemical etching) to enhance osteoblast cell proliferation which may lead to better orthopedic implant performance. This straight forward application of nano-topography on current bone implant materials represents a new direction in the design of enhanced biomaterials for the orthopedic industry. PMID:18019847

Smith, Lester J; Swaim, John S; Yao, Chang; Haberstroh, Karen M; Nauman, Eric A; Webster, Thomas J

2007-01-01

163

Geometry of human ribs pertinent to orthopedic chest-wall reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic reconstruction of blunt chest trauma can aid restoration of pulmonary function to reduce the mortality associated with serial rib fractures and flail chest injuries. Contemporary chest wall reconstruction requires contouring of generic plates to the complex surface geometry of ribs. This study established a biometric foundation to generate specialized, anatomically contoured osteosynthesis hardware for rib fracture fixation. On human

Marcus Mohr; Eduard Abrams; Christine Engel; William B. Long; Michael Bottlang

2007-01-01

164

Implantable 9Channel Telemetry System for In Vivo Load Measurements With Orthopedic Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the loads to which orthopedic implants are subjected is a fundamental prerequisite for their optimal biomechanical design, long-term success, and improved rehabilitation outcomes. In vivo load measurements are more accurate than those obtained using mathematical musculoskeletal models. An inductively powered integrated circuit inside the implant measures six load components as well as the temperature and supplied voltage. This

Friedmar Graichen; Rüdiger Arnold; Antonius Rohlmann; Georg Bergmann

2007-01-01

165

A Prototype Robotic Arm for Use by Severely Orthopedically Handicapped Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 18-month pilot project, which ran from October 1, 1987 to March 31, 1989, developed a prototype robotic arm for educational use by students with severe orthopedic disabilities in the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The developmental effort was intended first, to provide direct access to currently available instructional materials and, second,…

Howell, Richard

166

The Physical Fitness of Sensory and Orthopedically Impaired Youth: Project UNIQUE. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report summarizes findings from an examination of the physical fitness of orthopedically and sensory impaired students (10-17 years old). Physical fitness was hypothesized to include six areas: body composition, muscular strength/endurance, speed, agility, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. A chapter on methods details subject…

Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.

167

The Economic Effect of Screening Orthopedic Surgery Patients Preoperatively for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Patients undergoing orthopedic surgery are susceptible to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, which can result in increased morbidity, hospital lengths of stay, and medical costs. We sought to estimate the economic value of routine preoperative MRSA screening and decolonization of orthopedic surgery patients. METHODS A stochastic decision-analytic computer simulation model was used to evaluate the economic value of implementing this strategy (compared with no preoperative screening or decolonization) among orthopedic surgery patients from both the third-party payer and hospital perspectives. Sensitivity analyses explored the effects of varying MRSA colonization prevalence, the cost of screening and decolonization, and the probability of decolonization success. RESULTS Preoperative MRSA screening and decolonization was strongly cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio less than $6,000 per quality-adjusted life year) from the third-party payer perspective even when MRSA prevalence was as low as 1%, decolonization success was as low as 25%, and decolonization costs were as high as $300 per patient. In most scenarios this strategy was economically dominant (ie, less costly and more effective than no screening). From the hospital perspective, preoperative MRSA screening and decolonization was the economically dominant strategy for all scenarios explored. CONCLUSIONS Routine preoperative screening and decolonization of orthopedic surgery patients may under many circumstances save hospitals and third-party payers money while providing health benefits. PMID:20923285

Lee, Bruce Y.; Wiringa, Ann E.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Goyal, Vishal; Tsui, Becky; Lewis, G. Jonathan; Muder, Robert R.; Harrison, Lee M.

2012-01-01

168

Assessment of Hand Grip Strength of Orthopedically Challenged Persons Affected with Upper Extremity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was aimed to assess the extent of variation in grip strength in relation to the sex and type of deformity among the orthopedically challenged persons affected with upper extremity and to compare the grip strength with that of control (normal) persons. For this purpose 213 subjects having the age range 20-60 years were selected at random. Among

Prakash Chandra Dhara; Sujaya De; Amitava Pal; Piyali Sengupta; Sudeshna Roy

2009-01-01

169

A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices  

PubMed Central

The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes. PMID:19662153

Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

2009-01-01

170

Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

Vuskovic, Marko I.

1989-01-01

171

Manipulator control by exact linearization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comments on the application to rigid link manipulators of geometric control theory, resolved acceleration control, operational space control, and nonlinear decoupling theory are given, and the essential unity of these techniques for externally linearizing and decoupling end effector dynamics is discussed. Exploiting the fact that the mass matrix of a rigid link manipulator is positive definite, a consequence of rigid link manipulators belonging to the class of natural physical systems, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a locally externally linearizing and output decoupling feedback law to exist is that the end effector Jacobian matrix be nonsingular. Furthermore, this linearizing feedback is easy to produce.

Kruetz, K.

1987-01-01

172

Use of Portable Ultrasound Machine for Outpatient Orthopedic Diagnosis: An Implementation Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to evaluate shoulder disorders. This implementation study investigated outpatient ultrasonography at an orthopedic practice in a managed care setting. Methods: A portable ultrasound machine was introduced at an orthopedic clinic in a group practice. An orthopedic surgeon who primarily treated shoulder disorders received 15 hours of training. The impact of physician-performed ultrasonography on subsequent MRI and other outcomes of patients with shoulder disorders from January 2011 through October 2011 was determined using automated administrative and clinical data. Comparisons were made to patients who did not undergo ultrasonography at the experimental practice and 2 orthopedic clinics in the same practice. Results: During the study, 146 ultrasound examinations were administered. Compared with patients who did not undergo ultrasonography, patients who received ultrasonography had significantly higher comorbidity. However, they were significantly less likely to have MRI (9.7% with ultrasonography vs 14.4% without; p = 0.03) although equally likely to undergo surgery (33.6% with ultrasonography vs 22.1% without, p = 0.77). Mean time to surgery was 89.3 ± 49.3 days for patients with ultrasonography vs 32.9 ± 43.3 days for patients without (p < 0.05). No ultrasonography-examined patients had an incorrect diagnosis at surgery. For patients receiving ultrasonography, an estimated 35 MRIs were avoided, saving a predicted $17,603, a 50% return in less than 1 year on a $34,897 investment for an ultrasound machine and supplies. Conclusion: Outpatient ultrasonography by an orthopedic surgeon can be useful for diagnosing shoulder disorders and might reduce MRI utilization. PMID:24355886

Adelman, Sean; Fishman, Paul

2013-01-01

173

Robot manipulation in human environments  

E-print Network

Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

Edsinger, Aaron Ladd, 1972-

2007-01-01

174

Robot Manipulation in Human Environments  

E-print Network

Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

Edsinger, Aaron

2007-01-16

175

Internal forces during object manipulation  

PubMed Central

Internal force is a set of contact forces that does not disturb object equilibrium. The elements of the internal force vector cancel each other and, hence, do not contribute to the resultant (manipulation) force acting on the object. The mathematical independence of the internal and manipulation forces allows for their independent (decoupled) control realized in robotic manipulators. To examine whether in humans internal force is coupled with the manipulation force and what grasping strategy the performers utilize, the subjects (n=6) were instructed to make cyclic arm movements with a customized handle. Six combinations of handle orientation and movement direction were tested. These involved: parallel manipulations (1) VV task (vertical orientation and vertical movement) and (2) HH task (horizontal orientation and horizontal movement); orthogonal manipulations (3) VH task (vertical orientation and horizontal movement) and (4) HV task (horizontal orientation and vertical movement); and diagonal manipulations (5) DV task (diagonal orientation and vertical movement) and (6) DH task (diagonal orientation and horizontal movement). Handle weight (from 3.8 to 13.8 N), and movement frequency (from 1 to 3 Hz) were systematically changed. The analysis was performed at the thumb-virtual finger level (VF, an imaginary finger that produces a wrench equal to the sum of wrenches produced by all the fingers). At this level, the forces of interest could be reduced to the internal force and internal moment. During the parallel manipulations, the internal (grip) force was coupled with the manipulation force (producing object acceleration) and the thumb-VF forces increased or decreased in phase: the thumb and VF worked in synchrony to grasp the object more strongly or more weakly. During the orthogonal manipulations, the thumb-VF forces changed out of phase: the plots of the internal force vs. object acceleration resembled an inverted letter V. The HV task was the only task where the relative phase (coupling) between the normal forces of the thumb and VF depended on oscillation frequency. During the diagonal manipulations, the coupling was different in the DV and DH tasks. A novel observation of substantial internal moments is described: the moments produced by the normal finger forces were counterbalanced by the moments produced by the tangential forces such that the resultant moments were close to zero. Implications of the findings for the notion of grasping synergies are discussed. PMID:15912369

Gao, Fan; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

2010-01-01

176

Adaptive Compliant Motion Control for Dexterous Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents two adaptive schemes for compliant mo tion control of dexterous manipulators. The first scheme is developed using an adaptive impedance control approach for torque-controlled manipulators, whereas the second strategy is an adaptive admittance controller for position-controlled manipulators. The proposed controllers are very general and computationally efficient, as they do not require knowledge of the manipulator dynamic model

Richard Colbaugh; Homayoun Seraji; Kristin Glass

1995-01-01

177

High precision redundant robotic manipulator  

DOEpatents

A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

Young, K.K.D.

1998-09-22

178

High precision redundant robotic manipulator  

DOEpatents

A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

Young, Kar-Keung David (Mountain View, CA)

1998-01-01

179

Investigation of a HA/PDLGA/Carbon Foam Material System for Orthopedic Fixation Plates Based on Time-Dependent Properties  

E-print Network

throughout healing while maintaining fracture stability. The primary aim of this study is to quantify the degradation rate of a bioresorbable material system, then use this degradation rate to determine the material response of an orthopedic device made...

Rodriguez, Douglas E.

2010-01-14

180

ICD 10: "what orthopedic surgeons should know, how it will affect them and the cost of implementation?".  

PubMed

Orthopedic surgeons will be required to use ICD-10-CM codes for reimbursement and to substantiate the medical necessity for their services beginning October 1, 2014. Implementation of ICD10 will require significant changes in the clinical and administrative processes of orthopedic offices and hospital practices. As in other countries, implementation added costs and resulted in disruptions in physician practices with concomitant decreases in productivity and practice revenue. Through education and planning, orthopedic surgeons can mitigate the anticipated changes and reduce the potential impact these changes will have on their practices. Changes anticipated in the diagnostic part of the ICD10 coding system are reviewed with examples pertinent to orthopedic surgeons. Many will need to improve the accuracy and specificity of their documentation by using anatomically precise nomenclature and obtaining a more detailed history and physical examination. This will require eliciting external causes of patients' problems, the precise activity of causation, and the place of occurrence. PMID:23924745

Henley, M Bradford

2013-09-01

181

Hope versus hype: what can additive manufacturing realistically offer trauma and orthopedic surgery?  

PubMed

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a broad term encompassing 3D printing and several other varieties of material processing, which involve computer-directed layer-by-layer synthesis of materials. As the popularity of AM increases, so to do expectations of the medical therapies this process may offer. Clinical requirements and limitations of current treatment strategies in bone grafting, spinal arthrodesis, osteochondral injury and treatment of periprosthetic joint infection are discussed. The various approaches to AM are described, and the current state of clinical translation of AM across these orthopedic clinical scenarios is assessed. Finally, we attempt to distinguish between what AM may offer orthopedic surgery from the hype of what has been promised by AM. PMID:25159068

Gibbs, David Mr; Vaezi, Mohammad; Yang, Shoufeng; Oreffo, Richard Oc

2014-07-01

182

The role of intravenous acetaminophen in multimodal pain protocols for perioperative orthopedic patients.  

PubMed

Multimodal pain management should be considered for all perioperative orthopedic patients. The goal of reducing the amount of perioperative opioid medication given may be achieved by using nonopioid medications, including intravenous acetaminophen. The site of action of acetaminophen is a variety of receptors in the central nervous system. When given intravenously, acetaminophen produces a much higher plasma concentration, which then leads to higher levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. The safety profile and relative lack of systemic adverse reactions make this an attractive analgesic for a wide variety of orthopedic surgical patients. Clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of intravenous acetaminophen in elective total hip and knee arthroplasty, knee arthroscopy, lumbar spine surgery, and for acute traumatic limb pain. PMID:23379571

Lachiewicz, Paul F

2013-02-01

183

Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for “engineering” space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to “engineer” light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing. PMID:24084836

Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

2013-01-01

184

Self-calibrating 3D-ultrasound-based bone registration for minimally invasive orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraoperative freehand three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound (3D-US) has been proposed as a noninvasive method for registering bones to a preoperative computed tomography image or computer-generated bone model during computer-aided orthopedic surgery (CAOS). In this technique, an US probe is tracked by a 3-D position sensor and acts as a percutaneous device for localizing the bone surface. However, variations in the acoustic

Dean C. Barratt; Graeme P. Penney; Carolyn S. K. Chan; Mike Slomczykowski; Timothy J. Carter; Philip J. Edwards; David J. Hawkes

2006-01-01

185

Antifibrinolytic Therapy and Perioperative Blood Loss in Cancer Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aprotinin has been reported to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients having major orthopedic operations. Data on whether ? amino-caproic acid (EACA) is effective in this population are sparse. Methods: Sixty-nine adults with malignancy scheduled for either pelvic, extremity or spine surgery during general anesthesia entered this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and received either intravenous aprotinin (n

David Amar; Florence M. Grant; Hao Zhang; Patrick J. Boland; Denis H Y Leung; John A. Healey

2003-01-01

186

A survey of recently published papers on orthopedics in the Brazilian scientific press  

PubMed Central

This paper is a review of articles published in Brazilian scientific periodicals in recent years. Its main purpose is to bring to the attention of the readership of Acta Ortopedica Brasileira original contributions to the field published in non-specialized journals. We hope that this will serve as a general scientific update for readers. The review includes works published in six ISI indexed non-orthopedic journals, following a literature search conducted in fourteen such journals. PMID:24453633

Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Gomes, Ariane Maris

2012-01-01

187

Using simulation modeling to improve patient flow at an outpatient orthopedic clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the use of discrete event simulation modeling to support process improvements at an orthopedic outpatient clinic.\\u000a The clinic was effective in treating patients, but waiting time and congestion in the clinic created patient dissatisfaction\\u000a and staff morale issues. The modeling helped to identify improvement alternatives including optimized staffing levels, better\\u000a patient scheduling, and an emphasis on staff

Thomas R. Rohleder; Peter Lewkonia; Diane P. Bischak; Paul Duffy; Rosa Hendijani

2011-01-01

188

Adaptation of NASA technology for the optimum design of orthopedic knee implants.  

PubMed

NASA technology originally developed for designing aircraft turbine-engine blades has been adapted and applied to orthopedic knee implants. This article describes a method for tailoring an implant for optimal interaction with the environment of the tibia. The implant components are designed to control stresses in the bone for minimizing bone degradation and preventing failures. Engineers expect the tailoring system to improve knee prosthesis design and allow customized implants for individual patients. PMID:10150099

Saravanos, D A; Mraz, P J; Davy, D T; Hopkins, D A

1991-03-01

189

The ''critical thrombosis period'' in major orthopedic surgery: when to start and when to stop prophylaxis.  

PubMed

Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery are at high venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk, with morbid and potentially fatal consequences. Anticoagulant VTE prophylaxis reduces rates of postoperative deep vein thrombosis by up to 60% to 70% in these patients. Therefore, pharmacological prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), vitamin K antagonists, or fondaparinux is recommended by current guidelines. However, there remains an ongoing debate regarding when to initiate and the optimal duration for prophylaxis. Here, we discuss the mechanisms underlying thrombus formation in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, and we review the current literature on the benefit-to-risk ratio associated with preoperative and postoperative initiation of thromboprophylaxis and also the benefit-to-risk ratio in cases of neuraxial anesthesia. We also discuss the duration of postoperative VTE risk following major orthopedic surgery and assess the ''critical thrombosis period'' when prophylaxis should be provided. Current literature reflects the need to balance the improved efficacy of initiating prophylaxis close to the surgery with increased risk of perioperative bleeding. Evidence from pathology, epidemiology, and clinical studies suggests the risk period for VTE begins at surgery and extends well beyond hospitalization-a crucial issue when considering how long to give prophylaxis-and, in the case of total hip arthroplasty, for at least 3 months after surgery. Literature supports the greater use of ''just-in-time'' thromboprophylaxis initiation and after-discharge continuation of optimal prophylaxis in orthopedic surgery patients. Providing optimal thromboprophylaxis throughout the critical thrombosis period where a patient is at VTE risk will ensure the best reductions in VTE-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:20019020

Warwick, David; Rosencher, Nadia

2010-08-01

190

Intramuscular tramadol versus ketorolac in patients with orthopedic and traumatologic postoperative pain: a comparative multicenter trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 3-day, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial was undertaken to assess the postoperative analgesic effect and therapeutic safety of intramuscular tramadol compared with intramuscular ketorolac in 48 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery and having postoperative pain assessed as 75 mm or more on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Tramadol (100 mg\\/2 mL ampules) was administered as needed to a maximum of

Albino Lanzetta; Mariella Vizzardi; Giuseppe Letizia; Umberto Martorana; Antonio Sanfilippo; Leonardo Osti; Carlo Cervelli; Renato Coluccia

1998-01-01

191

? From Manipulation of Measurements to Manipulation of Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computing, in its usual sense, is centered on manipulation of numbers and symbols. In contrast, computing with words, or CW for short, is a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language, e.g., small, large, far, heavy, not very likely, the price of gas is low and declining, Berkeley is near San

Lotfi A. Zadeh

192

Portfolio Performance Manipulation and Manipulation-proof Performance Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous measures have been proposed to gauge the performance of active management. Unfortunately, these measures can be gamed. Our article shows that gaming can have a substantial impact on popular measures even in the presence of high transactions costs. Our article shows there are conditions under which a manipulation-proof measure exists and fully characterizes it. This measure looks like the

Jonathan Ingersoll; Matthew Spiegel; William Goetzmann; Ivo Welch

2007-01-01

193

Impaired blood pressure recovery to hemorrhage in obese Zucker rats with orthopedic trauma  

PubMed Central

We have shown that obese Zucker rats with orthopedic trauma (OZT) exhibit a loss of arteriolar tone in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize that the loss of arteriolar tone in OZT blunts vasoconstrictor responses to hemorrhage, resulting in an impaired blood pressure recovery. Orthopedic trauma was induced with soft tissue injury and local injection of bone components in both hindlimbs in lean (LZT) and OZT (11–13 wk). One day after the orthopedic trauma, blood pressure responses following hemorrhage were measured in conscious control lean, control obese, LZT, and OZT. In another set of experiments, the spinotrapezius muscle of control and trauma animals was prepared for microcirculatory observation. Arteriolar responses to phenylephrine (PE) or hemorrhage were determined. Hemorrhage resulted in similar blood pressure responses in control animals and LZT, but the blood pressure recovery following hemorrhage was blunted in the OZT. In the spinotrapezius, OZT exhibited decreased arteriolar tone and blunted vasoconstrictor responses to PE and hemorrhage. Treatment with glibenclamide improved the blood pressure recovery in the conscious OZT and improved the arteriolar tone, and PE induced vasoconstriction in the spinotrapezius of the OZT. Thus, ATP-dependent K+ channel-mediated loss of arteriolar tone in OZT blunts the arteriolar constriction to hemorrhage, resulting in impaired blood pressure recovery. PMID:22003055

Lu, Silu; Fuller, William; Aneja, Arun; Russell, George V.; Jones, Louis B.; Hester, Robert

2012-01-01

194

Endovascular Treatment in Emergency Setting of Acute Arterial Injuries After Orthopedic Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency endovascular treatment of acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (mean age 68.3 years) with acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery were observed, in particular, 5 patients with pseudoaneurysm, 9 patients with active bleeding, and 1 patient with arterial dissection. Transarterial embolization (TAE) and positioning of covered and noncovered stents were the treatments performed. Follow-up after stent implantation (mean 36 months) was performed with color Doppler US (CDU) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Plain X-ray was performed to evidence dislodgment or fracture of the graft. A minimum of 12 months' follow-up is available after TAE. Results: Immediate technical success was obtained in all cases. No major complications occurred. Overall clinical success rate was 100%. During mean follow-up, stent-graft occlusions did not occurred. No recurrence and/or consequence of TAE was registered during a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Conclusions: Percutaneous treatment is a feasible and safe tool for treating arterial injuries because it can provide fast and definitive resolution of the damage. This low-invasiveness approach can be proposed as first-line treatment in patients with acute injuries after orthopedic surgery.

Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Fontana, Federico, E-mail: fede.fontana@libero.it; Mangini, Monica, E-mail: monica.mangini@tin.it; Ierardi, Anna Maria, E-mail: amierardi@yahoo.it; Lagana, Domenico; Piacentino, Filippo, E-mail: f.piacentino@live.it; Vizzari, Francesco Alberto, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Spano, Emanuela, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Fugazzola, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.fugazzola@ospedale.varese.it [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy)

2012-06-15

195

Orthopedic Considerations in the Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Accident Polytrauma Patient  

PubMed Central

Pedestrian versus motor vehicle accidents (PVMVAs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Past models of PVMVAs assume lower-extremity vehicle contact as the initiating event, with a subsequent predicted injury sequence consisting of a lower extremity injury followed by injury to the body, head, and upper extremities. The term “fatal triad” was first coined by Farley, which described concomitant injuries to the skull, pelvis, and extremity fractures. Over the years, this once well-accepted model of injury has been under scrutiny by numerous orthopedic researchers, and it has lost credibility. This case presentation glaring reveals that the patient incurred which is referred to as the “fatal triad”, in contrast to the commonly circulated thoughts of biodynamic mechanisms of PVMVA fractures. More research in this arena is warranted. This lack of information contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with such devastating injuries. The overlying theme displayed in the data analyzed in this paper demonstrates the vital importance of the orthopedic surgeon in the management of the PVMVA patient. No matter the particular mechanism of injury, occurrence, or agreed-upon treatment protocol, the role of the orthopedic physician is instrumental to the wellbeing of the PVMVA trauma patient. PMID:23259110

Samona, Jason; Colen, Robert

2012-01-01

196

Extended scope physiotherapy roles for orthopedic outpatients: an update systematic review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose This systematic review updates one conducted in 2008 into extended scope practice (ESP) in physiotherapy in orthopedics. Methods A comprehensive open-ended search was conducted using electronic library data-bases and Google Scholar to identify any primary study design reporting on physiotherapists working in ESP roles within orthopedic settings. Studies were allocated to the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, although only studies in levels I, II, or III_1 were critically appraised using a purpose-built critical appraisal tool. Information was extracted on the country of origin, ESP tasks, relevant training, patient types, health, process, and cost measures. Results 1071 studies were identified, and twelve were included in the review (including diagnostic and evaluative research). The hierarchy of evidence ranged from II to IV, from which only two diagnostic studies met the criteria for critical appraisal. ESP tasks included injection therapy, removing k-wires, and requesting investigations. The education of ESP physiotherapists varied widely, and included formal and informal training. The positive outcomes of ESP initiatives were reported, in diagnostic ability, reduced costs and waiting times, and improved health outcomes. Conclusion Despite the positive results, the generally low level of evidence and the range of outcome measures reported, constrained clear conclusions regarding the health, process, and cost implications of ESP physiotherapy roles in orthopedic settings. The need for formalized, widely recognized training was highlighted, to give ESP physiotherapy roles credibility. PMID:22359462

Stanhope, Jessica; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Milanese, Steve; Kumar, Saravana; Morris, Joanne

2012-01-01

197

Nitrogen Availability from Manipulated Manures  

E-print Network

-Extension Nutrient Management 2007 Area Soil, Water, and Nutrient Management Meetings #12;Current WI Manure NutrientNitrogen Availability from Manipulated Manures Chris Baxter UW-Platteville Soil and Crop Science UW Availability Guidelines "Book Values" vs. Lab-analyzed Book values: developed from lab data collected 1998

Balser, Teri C.

198

ISL - A String Manipulating Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Information Search Language (ISL), described in this report, is a problem-oriented language designed to facilitate the manipulation of real character strings with the Control Data 1604 computer. The report gives instructions for the language; these may be classified as Pseudo-ops, Word-Oriented instructions, Character-string instructions,…

Kelley, K.C.; And Others.

199

COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION  

PubMed Central

Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

2012-01-01

200

Dextrous manipulation with rolling contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dextrous manipulation is a problem of paramount importance in the study of multifingered robotic hands. Given a grasped object, the main objectives are: (a) generate trajectories for the finger joints so that through the effects of contact constraints, the object can be transferred to a goal grasp configuration; and (b) derive control algorithms to realize planned trajectories. In this paper,

L. Han; Y. S. Guan; Z. X. Li; Q. Shi; J. C. Trinkle

1997-01-01

201

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

202

A Language for Manipulating Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Array Manipulation Language (AML), an algebra for multidimen- sional array data. AML is generic, in the sense that it can be customized to support a wide variety of domain-specific operations on ar- rays. AML expressions can be treated declara- tively and subjected to rewrite optimizations. To illustrate this, several rewrite rules that exploit the structural properties

Arunprasad P. Marathe; Kenneth Salem

1997-01-01

203

Manipulability Optimization for Trajectory Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an algorithm for manip- ulability based trajectory generation for any serial manipulator that has an inverse kinematic model that can obtain all solutions. Our strategy is a search-based approach that analyzes candidate configurations at discrete points along the workspace trajectory. Given such a model we prove the configuration space trajectories generated by our method are

Luis Guilamo; James J. Kuffner Jr.; Koichi Nishiwaki; Satoshi Kagami

2006-01-01

204

Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

2014-01-01

205

Algorithms for manipulating compressed images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of algorithms that implement operations on compressed digital images is described. These algorithms allow many traditional image manipulation operations to be performed 50 to 100 times faster than their brute-force counterparts. It is shown how the algebraic operations of pixel-wise and scalar addition and multiplication, which are the basis for many image transformations, can be implemented on compressed

Brian C. Smith; Lawrence A. Rowe

1993-01-01

206

Polarization manipulation with subwavelength nanoapertures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manipulation of polarization states is an important feature of many applications including in telecommunication, remote sensing and photonic computing technologies. Here we present two plasmonic nanoaperture based devices for creating and filtering circularly polarized light. One acts as an ultra-compact quarter wave plate, the other, based upon a planar chiral design, leads to asymmetric transmission of left and right circularly polarized light.

Cadusch, Jasper J.; James, Timothy D.; Djalalian-Assl, Amir; Davis, Timothy J.; Roberts, Ann

2014-09-01

207

Shaping the future of manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical forces can be used to manipulate biological and colloidal material in a non-contact manner. This forms the foundation of a wealth of exciting science, particularly in the fields of physics, biology and soft condensed matter. Although the standard Gaussian single-beam trap remains a very powerful tool, shaping the phase and amplitude of a light field provides unusual light patterns

K. Dholakia; T. Cizmár

2011-01-01

208

Towards Manipulation-Driven Vision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the purposes of manipulation, the authors would like to know what parts of the environment are physically coherent ensembles, that is, which parts will move together, and which parts are more or less independent. It takes a great deal of experience be...

P. M. Fitzpatrick, G. Metta

2001-01-01

209

MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

2001-07-31

210

Staphylococcus epidermidis in Orthopedic Device Infections: The Role of Bacterial Internalization in Human Osteoblasts and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus epidermidis orthopedic device infections are caused by direct inoculation of commensal flora during surgery and remain rare, although S. epidermidis carriage is likely universal. We wondered whether S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection strains might constitute a sub-population of commensal isolates with specific virulence ability. Biofilm formation and invasion of osteoblasts by S. aureus contribute to bone and joint infection recurrence by protecting bacteria from the host-immune system and most antibiotics. We aimed to determine whether S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection isolates could be distinguished from commensal strains by their ability to invade osteoblasts and form biofilms. Materials and Methods Orthopedic device infection S. epidermidis strains (n?=?15) were compared to nasal carriage isolates (n?=?22). Osteoblast invasion was evaluated in an ex vivo infection model using MG63 osteoblastic cells co-cultured for 2 hours with bacteria. Adhesion of S. epidermidis to osteoblasts was explored by a flow cytometric approach, and internalized bacteria were quantified by plating cell lysates after selective killing of extra-cellular bacteria with gentamicin. Early and mature biofilm formations were evaluated by a crystal violet microtitration plate assay and the Biofilm Ring Test method. Results No difference was observed between commensal and infective strains in their ability to invade osteoblasts (internalization rate 308+/?631 and 347+/?431 CFU/well, respectively). This low internalization rate correlated with a low ability to adhere to osteoblasts. No difference was observed for biofilm formation between the two groups. Conclusion Osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation levels failed to distinguish S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection strains from commensal isolates. This study provides the first assessment of the interaction between S. epidermidis strains isolated from orthopedic device infections and osteoblasts, and suggests that bone cell invasion is not a major pathophysiological mechanism in S. epidermidis orthopedic device infections, contrary to what is observed for S. aureus. PMID:23840636

Valour, Florent; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lustig, Sebastien; Chanard, Emmanuel; Meugnier, Helene; Tigaud, Sylvestre; Vandenesch, Francois; Etienne, Jerome; Ferry, Tristan; Laurent, Frederic

2013-01-01

211

Mechanics and Planning of Manipulator Pushing Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pushing is an essential component of many manipulator operations. This paper presents a theoretical exploration of the mechanics of pushing and demonstrates application of the theory to analysis and synthesis of robotic manipulator oper ations.

Matthew T. Mason

1986-01-01

212

Manipulation in the enrollment of research participants.  

PubMed

Researchers can design recruitment and consent processes so that potential participants are more likely to decide to enroll. These strategies work by subtly manipulating the participants. But how much manipulation is acceptable? PMID:23390007

Mandava, Amulya; Millum, Joseph

2013-01-01

213

Database Manipulation on Quantum Computers  

E-print Network

Manipulating a database system on a quantum computer is an essential aim to benefit from the promising speed-up of quantum computers over classical computers in areas that take a vast amount of storage and processing time such as in databases. In this paper, the basic operations for manipulating the data in a quantum database will be defined, e.g. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, backing up and restoring a database file. This gives the ability to perform the data processing that usually takes a long processing time on a classical database system, in a simultaneous way on a quantum computer. Defining a quantum version of more advanced concepts used in database systems, e.g. the referential integrity and the relational algebra, is a normal extension to this work

Ahmed Younes

2007-05-29

214

Manipulating the edge of instability.  

PubMed

We investigate the integration of visual and tactile sensory input for dynamic manipulation. Our experimental data and computational modeling reveal that time-delays are as critical to task-optimal multisensory integration as sensorimotor noise. Our focus is a dynamic manipulation task "at the edge of instability." Mathematical bifurcation theory predicts that this system will exhibit well-classified low-dimensional dynamics in this regime. The task was using the thumbpad to compress a slender spring prone to buckling as far as possible, just shy of slipping. As expected from bifurcation theory, principal components analysis gives a projection of the data onto a low dimensional subspace that captures 91-97% of its variance. In this subspace, we formulate a low-order model for the brain+hand+spring dynamics based on known mechanical and neurophysiological properties of the system. By systematically occluding vision and anesthetically blocking thumbpad sensation in 12 consenting subjects, we found that vision contributed to dynamic manipulation only when thumbpad sensation was absent. The reduced ability of the model system to compress the spring with absent sensory channels closely resembled the experimental results. Moreover, we found that the model reproduced the contextual usefulness of vision only if we took account of time-delays. Our results shed light on critical features of dynamic manipulation distinct from those of static pinch, as well as the mechanism likely responsible for loss of manual dexterity and increased reliance on vision when age or neuromuscular disease increase noisiness and/or time-delays during sensorimotor integration. PMID:17400231

Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Guckenheimer, John; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

2007-01-01

215

Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology  

SciTech Connect

The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

1998-08-15

216

Distributed Manipulation of Multiple Objects using Ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system in which multiple robots cooperate to move multiple objects such as groups of boxes using a constrained prehensile manip- ulation mode, by wrapping ropes around them. The system consists of three manipulation skills: tieing ropes around objects, affecting rotations using a floss- ing manipulation gait, and affecting translations using a ratcheting manipulation gait. We present

Bruce Randall Donald; Larry Gariepy; Daniela Rust

2000-01-01

217

FROM THE GUEST EDITORS Mobile Manipulation  

E-print Network

. This mo- tivated us to start the RAM Technical Committee on Mobile Manipulation in 2010 and to putFROM THE GUEST EDITORS · Mobile Manipulation By Oliver Brock, Dov Katz, and Siddhartha S. Srinivasa on mobile manipulation. This issue is the culmination of a long chain of events: the renewed academic inter

218

Distributed Manipulation Using Discrete Actuator Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed manipulation systems induce motions on objects through the application of many external forces. An actuator array performs distributed manipulation using a planar array of many small station- ary elements (which are called cells) that cooperate to manipulate larger objects. Typically, highly dense actuator arrays are modeled as spatially continuous, programmable force fields, although in many implementations a relatively small

Jonathan E. Luntz; William C. Messner; Howie Choset

2001-01-01

219

Alternate formulations for the manipulator inertia matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four compact methods for computing the manipulator joint space inertia matrix are derived and compared. The derivation of the first, the Structurally Recursive Method, is based on the successive addition of single links to the free end of a serial manipulator. A general joint model allows multiple-degree-of-freedom joints to connect the links if desired, and the manipulator Jacobian matrix is

K. W. Lilly; D. E. Orin

1991-01-01

220

Low-power circuits for the bidirectional wireless monitoring system of the orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an architecture of the wireless monitoring system for the real-time monitoring of the orthopedic implants, which monitors the implant duty cycle, detects abnormal asymmetry, high amounts of force, and other conditions of the orthopedic implants. Data for diagnosis are communicated wirelessly by the radio-frequency (RF) signal between the embedded chip and the remote circuit. In different working modes, the system can be powered by the RF signal or stiff lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) ceramics which are able to convert mechanical energy inside the orthopedic implant into electrical energy. The power circuits with a variable ratio switched-capacitor (SC) dc-dc converter have been taped out with 0.35-mum complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The test results show that the SC converter can transfer the input voltage that ranges from 5 V to 14 V from the PZT ceramics into the voltage ranging from 2 V to 2.5 V which will be dealt with by a low drop-out circuit in the future work. The total efficiency of the SC converter is from 28% to 42% at full-time working mode. The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuits have been fabricated in a 0.18-mum 1P6M CMOS process. The test results show that the ADC chip consumes only 12.5 muW in working mode and 150 nW in the sleep mode. The circuits, including RF circuits, ADC, and the microcontrol unit, have been implemented in a 0.18-mu m CMOS process. Future work includes some clinical experiments test in the application where PZT elements are used for power generation in total knee-replacement implants. PMID:23853291

Hong Chen; Ming Liu; Wenhan Hao; Yi Chen; Chen Jia; Chun Zhang; Zihua Wang

2009-12-01

221

Is routine thromboprophylaxis justified among Indian patients sustaining major orthopedic trauma? A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common preventable cause of morbidity and mortality after trauma. Though most of the western countries have their guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in these patients, India still does not have these. The increasing detection of VTE among Indian population, lack of awareness, underestimation of the risk, and fear of bleeding complications after chemical prophylaxis have made deep vein thrombosis (DVT) a serious problem, hence a standard guideline for thromboprophylaxis after trauma is essential. The present review article discusses the incidence of DVT and role of thromboprophylaxis in Indian patients who have sustained major orthopedic trauma. A thorough search of ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google Scholar’ revealed 10 studies regarding venous thromboembolism in Indian patients after major orthopedic trauma surgery (hip or proximal femur fracture and spine injury). Most of these studies have evaluated venous thromboembolism in patients of arthroplasty and trauma. The incidence, risk factors, diagnosis and management of VTE in the subgroup of trauma patients (1049 patients) were separately evaluated after segregating them from the arthroplasty patients. Except two studies, which were based on spinal injury, all other studies recommended screening/ thromboprophylaxis in posttraumatic conditions in the Indian population. Color Doppler was used as common diagnostic or screening tool in most of the studies (eight studies, 722 patients). The incidence of VTE among thromboprophylaxis-receiving group was found to be 8% (10/125), whereas it was much higher (14.49%, 40/276) in patients not receiving any form of prophylaxis. Indian patients have definite risk of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic trauma (except spinal injury), and thromboprophylaxis either by chemical or mechanical methods seems to be justified in them. PMID:21559098

Sen, Ramesh K; Tripathy, Sujit K; Singh, Amit K

2011-01-01

222

Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaNDM-1 gene in orthopedic practice  

PubMed Central

Emergence and spread of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae is a cause of concern worldwide, the latest threat being New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM-1). This report is of an orthopedic case with fracture femur managed with internal fixation and bone grafting, who subsequently developed secondary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring blaNDM-1 gene. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was ?8 ?g/ml by E-test, suggestive of carbapenemase production. Phenotypic and further genotypic detection confirmed the presence of blaNDM-1 gene. The isolate remained susceptible only to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B.

Gupta, Varsha; Bansal, Neha; Gupta, Ravi; Chander, Jagdish

2014-01-01

223

Titration of isoflurane using BIS index improves early recovery of elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was designed to investigate the effect of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring on the recovery profiles, level of\\u000a postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and anesthetic drug requirements of elderly patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery\\u000a with general anesthesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixty-eight patients over the age of 60 were randomized into one of two groups. In the standard practice (SP) group, the anesthesiologists\\u000a were blinded

Jean Wong; Dajun Song; Hannah Blanshard; Deidre Grady; Frances Chung

2002-01-01

224

Adaptation of NASA technology for the optimization of orthopedic knee implants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA technology originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) is adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the tailoring of the implant for optimal interaction with the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized, such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation and prevent failures. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is elevated. The optimization system is expected to provide the means for improving knee prosthesis and individual implant tailoring for each patient.

Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Hopkins, D. A.

1991-01-01

225

Quantitative determination of proximal radial and ulnar growth rates in foals using orthopedic markers  

E-print Network

OF PROXIMAL RADIAL AND ULNAR GROWTH RATES IN FOALS USING ORTHOPEDIC MARKERS Literature Review 1-5 Ulnar fractures are common injuries in the horse. The incidence reported was 1 in 100 fractures, 5 out of 5 12, 536 horses, 3 in 99 fractures, 4 cases in 3... markers (nos. 3-4) were used to evaluate the effects of radiographic magnification. Longitudinal bone growth should not have occurred in the mid-diaphyseal area of the ulna, and the difference between the 2 markers here did not change significantly (p...

Smith, Barbara Lynn

2012-06-07

226

Geriatric intervention in elderly patients with hip fracture in an orthopedic ward  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: Hip fracture is a common cause of long hospital stay in the elderly. Approximately one third of these patients die within the first year. As a consequence geriatric and orthopedic collaboration (orthogeriatrics) has been organized in different ways. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a multidisciplinary geriatric in-hospital intervention on patient outcome. Methods: A total of 495 elderly hip fracture patients consecutively admitted to orthopedic surgery, were followed. Data were based on medical records. The intervention group (n=233) was compared to a historical cohort group (n=262) receiving traditional orthopedic treatment. Intervention program was based on initial physical and mental screening and evaluation, geriatric-focused care, and early discharge planning. The intervention was provided by a multidisciplinary geriatric team. After discharge, follow-up home-visits by a physiotherapist were performed, except for patients discharged to nursing homes, due to a 24-hour staff and easy access to the GP. Results: Median length of stay was reduced from 15 to 13 days. More patients began treatment with calcium/vitamin-D and bisphosphonate (p=sig). There was no difference in hemoglobin variation between the time of admission and three to six months post admission, and no difference in three-month readmissions (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09 [95%CI: 0.71;1.67]). Discharge destination was unchanged (OR=0.93 [95%CI: 0.52; 1.65]). In-hospital mortality was 8% in the intervention group vs. 6% (p=0.48), in the control group. Three-month mortality was 16% in the intervention group vs. 15% (p=0.39), in the control group. In the intervention group, residents from nursing homes had a higher three-month mortality (OR=2.37 [95% CI: 0.99; 5.67]), and the risk of new fractures within two years decreased from 9.5% to 7.7%, though not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study indicates that co-management of hip fracture patients by orthopedic surgeons and geriatricians may be associated with a reduction in length of hospital stay without negatively affecting major patient outcomes. The concept should be further developed particularly among the frail elderly. PMID:21502786

Gregersen, Merete; Metz Mørch, Marianne; Hougaard, Kjeld; Marie Damsgaard, Else

2012-01-01

227

The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, DongLiang

2010-01-01

228

The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, Dongliang

2009-12-01

229

Dedicated orthopedic trauma theatres: effect on morbidity and mortality in a single trauma centre  

PubMed Central

Background A general trend in orthopedic traumatology is the advent of daily, dedicated orthopedic trauma theatres. Availability of trauma theatres is believed to decrease morbidity and mortality, but this remains unproven. We performed a retrospective review comparing morbidity and mortality outcomes at a single institution before and after the establishment of a dedicated trauma room. The purpose was to determine whether a change in outcomes occurred for a single routine procedure with known outcome expectations (hemiarthroplasty of the hip after femoral neck fracture) with the implementation of a designated trauma theatre. Methods We examined a cohort of 457 elderly patients (245 before and 212 after trauma theatre implementation) who underwent hemiarthroplasty for displaced low-energy subcapital hip fractures. Results Patients in both groups were similar in terms of age, sex ratio and ASA classification. We found statistically significant differences favouring the dedicated trauma room system for postoperative morbidity. Despite this outcome, the average time to surgery for these patients significantly increased. We noted no difference in mortality between the 2 groups. Conclusion The hip fracture population can be treated safely in the context of dedicated trauma room time; however, there needs to be prioritization of hip fractures in a tertiary care centre or other trauma cases will tend to take precedence. PMID:19399201

Lemos, David; Nilssen, Eric; Khatiwada, Bikalpa; Elder, Graham M.; Reindl, Rudolph; Berry, Gregory K.; Harvey, Edward J.

2009-01-01

230

[Principles of the EOS™ X-ray machine and its use in daily orthopedic practice].  

PubMed

The EOS™ X-ray machine, based on a Nobel prize-winning invention in Physics in the field of particle detection, is capable of simultaneously capturing biplanar X-ray images by slot scanning of the whole body in an upright, physiological load-bearing position, using ultra low radiation doses. The simultaneous capture of spatially calibrated anterioposterior and lateral images allows the performance of a three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction of the skeletal system by a special software. Parts of the skeletal system in X-ray images and 3D-reconstructed models appear in true 1:1 scale for size and volume, thus spinal and vertebral parameters, lower limb axis lengths and angles, as well as any relevant clinical parameters in orthopedic practice could be very precisely measured and calculated. Visualization of 3D reconstructed models in various views by the sterEOS 3D software enables the presentation of top view images, through which one can analyze the rotational conditions of lower limbs, joints and spine deformities in horizontal plane and this provides revolutionary novel possibilities in orthopedic surgery, especially in spine surgery. PMID:22330840

Illés, Tamás; Somoskeöy, Szabolcs

2012-02-26

231

Case studies of orthopedic surgery in California: the virtues of care coordination versus specialization.  

PubMed

Two overarching frameworks compete to address the organizational ills of the health care system. One framework diagnoses lack of coordination and prescribes integration and global payment. The other diagnoses loss of focus and prescribes specialization and episode payment. This article, based on research and interviews, assesses how the two frameworks manifest themselves at two high-volume orthopedic hospitals in Irvine, California. The Kaiser Permanente Irvine Medical Center is part of a large and diversified health system. The Hoag Orthopedic Institute is a single-specialty facility jointly owned by the physicians and the hospital. Market outcomes, such as the merger of the Hoag specialty hospital into a larger diversified health system, suggest that Kaiser's focus on coordination of patient care from preadmission to postdischarge is a key factor in its success. But Hoag's specialization also leads to improved efficiencies. The integrated approach appears to be prevailing. At the same time, large diversified organizations might obtain further efficiencies by pursuing service-line strategies as described in this article--for instance, by providing incentives for efficiency and quality for each specialty and type of care. PMID:23650326

Robinson, James C

2013-05-01

232

Magnesium biomaterials for orthopedic application: a review from a biological perspective.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg) has a long history of investigation as a degradable biomaterial. Physicians first began using Mg for biomedical applications in the late 19th century. Experimentation continued with varying levels of success until the mid-20th century when interest in the metal waned. In recent years the field of Mg-based biomaterials has once again become popular, likely due to advancements in technology allowing improved control of corrosion. Although this has led to success in vascular applications, continued difficulties in predicting and controlling the corrosion rate of Mg in an intraosseous environment has impeded the development of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopedic applications. In this review, an initial summary of the basic properties and the physiological role of Mg are followed by a discussion of the physical characteristics of the metal which lend it to use as a degradable biomaterial. A description of the historical and modern applications for Mg in the medical field is followed by a discussion of the methods used to control and assess Mg corrosion, with an emphasis on alloying. The second part of this review concentrates on the methods used to assess the corrosion and biocompatibility of Mg-based orthopedic biomaterials. This review provides a summary of Mg as a biomaterial from a biological perspective. PMID:24458999

Walker, Jemimah; Shadanbaz, Shaylin; Woodfield, Timothy B F; Staiger, Mark P; Dias, George J

2014-08-01

233

Preoperative wait time for orthopedic surgeries at a military medical center.  

PubMed

We performed a retrospective review of elective orthopedic surgeries performed at our institution in 2008. Surgical wait time was defined as the interval between when surgery was offered and when it was performed. Data were available for 1,120 patients and included date and type of procedure, patient age, American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) category, and military rank. Mean wait time for all procedures was 69.1 days. Significant differences were found with regard to patient age, ASA class, rank, and type of procedure. Older patients with higher ASA had significantly longer wait times. Enlisted soldiers had the shortest wait times and retirees the longest. Total joint procedures had the longest wait time (mean 140 days) and the highest anesthesia class. Elective trauma procedures had the shortest wait time (mean 27.2 days). Sports procedures accounted for 46.3% of all cases reviewed. In our cohort, older patients with higher ASA class and those undergoing a total joint procedure can expect longer preoperative wait times. No preferential care given to officers, as enlisted soldiers had the shortest wait times. At our military medical center, which closely models a managed care system, patients can expect to wait more than 2 months for elective orthopedic surgeries. PMID:22730852

Wilson, David J; Crawford, David A; Arrington, Edward D

2012-06-01

234

Robust registration for computer-integrated orthopedic surgery: laboratory validation and clinical experience.  

PubMed

In order to provide navigational guidance during computer-integrated orthopedic surgery, the anatomy of the patient must first be registered to a medical image or model. A common registration approach is to digitize points from the surface of a bone and then find the rigid transformation that best matches the points to the model by constrained optimization. Many optimization criteria, including a least-squares objective function, perform poorly if the data include spurious data points (outliers). This paper describes a statistically robust, surface-based registration algorithm that we have developed for orthopedic surgery. To find an initial estimate, the user digitizes points from predefined regions of bone that are large enough to reliably locate even in the absence of anatomic landmarks. Outliers are automatically detected and managed by integrating a statistically robust M-estimator with the iterative-closest-point algorithm. Our in vitro validation method simulated the registration process by drawing registration data points from several sets of densely digitized surface points. The method has been used clinically in computer-integrated surgery for high tibial osteotomy, distal radius osteotomy, and excision of osteoid osteoma. PMID:12946466

Ma, B; Ellis, R E

2003-09-01

235

Biocompatible evaluation of barium titanate foamed ceramic structures for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

The potential of barium titanate (BT) to be electrically active makes it a material of interest in regenerative medicine. To enhance the understanding of this material for orthopedic applications, the in vitro biocompatibility of porous BT fabricated using a direct foaming technique was investigated. Characterization of the resultant foams yielded an overall porosity between 50 and 70% with average pore size in excess of 30 µm in diameter. A mouse osteoblast (7F2) cell line was cultured with the BT to determine the extent of the foams' toxicity using a LDH assay. After 72 h, BT foams showed a comparable cytotoxicity of 6.4?±?0.8% to the 8.4?±?1.5% of porous 45S5 Bioglass®. The in vitro inflammatory response elicited from porous BT was measured as a function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) secreted from a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Results indicate that the BT foams do not cause a significant inflammatory response, eliciting a 9.4?±?1.3 pg of TNF-? per mL of media compared with 20.2?±?2.3 pg/mL from untreated cells. These results indicate that porous BT does not exhibit short term cytotoxicity and has potential for orthopedic tissue engineering applications. PMID:23894063

Ball, Jordan P; Mound, Brittnee A; Nino, Juan C; Allen, Josephine B

2014-07-01

236

Occupational asthma related to low levels of airborne methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in orthopedic casting work.  

PubMed

Orthopedic plaster casts contain methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). A few case reports have suggested occupational asthma to MDI in casting work. However, the knowledge of the exposure levels related to the occupational asthma cases is lacking. We report on two occupational asthma cases due to MDI in nurses irregularly applying orthopedic plaster casts, verified with placebo controlled specific inhalation challenge. The levels of MDI in the air were measured in the exposure chamber during the specific inhalation challenges with a quantitative method including filter collection and subsequent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of the isocyanate groups. In order to estimate the level of airborne MDI in casting work, measurements were conducted also in two hospitals during the application and removal of synthetic plaster casts using the same method. The concentrations were well below the occupational exposure limit in both specific inhalation challenge and hospital measurements. Based on our findings, even minor exposure to airborne MDI in casting work can cause an asthmatic reaction in some patients. PMID:21987383

Suojalehto, Hille; Linström, Irmeli; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jungewelter, Soile; Suuronen, Katri

2011-12-01

237

Nursing time study for the administration of a PRN oral analgesic on an orthopedic postoperative unit.  

PubMed

As needed (PRN) oral opioid analgesics are an integral part of many orthopedic postoperative multimodal pain management regimens. However, the unpredictable nature of this dosing method can lead to disruptions in the process of administering the medication, as well as be an interruption to regular nursing activities. This IRB approved quantitative time study tested the hypothesis that a significant amount of nursing time is required in the administration of PRN oral opioid analgesics on a postoperative orthopedic nursing unit. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the time necessary to complete the required steps related to the administration of PRN oral analgesics. Nurses from 28 nursing shifts used a personal digital assistant (PDA) to record the time needed to complete these steps. We determined that 10.9 minutes is the mean time required to administer PRN oral analgesics on this unit. Other time studies have evaluated the medication administration process as a whole. No time studies related to PRN oral analgesic administration have been reported. In phase I of our project, the data were summarized and will be used as a baseline comparison for phase II, in which we will evaluate an oral PCA medication administration system. PMID:23746873

Pizzi, Lois J; Chelly, Jacques E; Marlin, Vanessa

2014-09-01

238

Spin-manipulating polarized deuterons  

SciTech Connect

Spin dynamics of polarized deuteron beams near depolarization resonances, including a new polarization preservation concept based on specially-designed multiple resonance crossings, has been tested in a series of experiments in the COSY synchrotron. Intricate spin dynamics with sophisticated pre-programmed patterns as well as effects of multiple crossings of a resonance were studied both theoretically and experimentally with excellent agreement. Possible applications of these results to preserve, manipulate and spin-flip polarized beams in synchrotrons and storage rings are discussed.

Morozov, V S; Krisch, A D; Leonova, M A; Raymond, R S; Sivers, D W; Wong, V K; Hinterberger, F; Kondratenko, A M

2011-03-01

239

Electron beam manipulation of nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We report on electron beam manipulation and simultaneous transmission electron microscopy imaging of gold nanoparticle movements in an environmental cell. Nanoparticles are trapped with the beam and move dynamically toward the location with higher electron density. Their global movements follow the beam positions. Analysis on the trajectories of nanoparticle movements inside the beam reveals a trapping force in the piconewton range at the electron density gradient of 10(3)-10(4) (e·nm(-2)·s(-1))·nm(-1). Multiple nanoparticles can also be trapped with the beam. By rapidly converging the beam, we further can "collect" nanoparticles on the membrane surface and assemble them into a cluster. PMID:23035740

Zheng, Haimei; Mirsaidov, Utkur M; Wang, Lin-Wang; Matsudaira, Paul

2012-11-14

240

Manipulator For A Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotary seal provides for external actuators. Positioner in vacuum employs four actuators; up/down, horizontal rotary, horizontal, and vertical rotary. External up/down and azimuthal actuators drives shaft entering vacuum chamber through sliding and rotating seal. Placement of actuator motors outside vacuum chamber reduces heat-removal load on system. Atop 2.5-cm-diameter shaft is stage supporting masses as great as 15 kg. Small motors on stage provide horizontal translation and rotation in vertical plane. Manipulator developed for calibrating plasma detectors by subjecting them to particle beams in vacuum. Standard, commercially available parts used.

Hunsaker, F.; Ogilvie, K.

1988-01-01

241

Does acupuncture improve the orthopedic management of chronic low back pain – a randomized, blinded, controlled trial with 3 months follow up  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective, randomised controlled trial, with three parallel groups, patient and observer blinded for verum and sham acupuncture and a follow up of 3 months raises the question: “Does a combination of acupuncture and conservative orthopedic treatment improve conservative orthopedic treatment in chronic low back pain (LBP). 186 in-patients of a LBP rehabilitation center with a history of LBP ?6

Albrecht F. Molsberger; Jochen Mau; Danuta B. Pawelec; János Winkler

2002-01-01

242

Manipulating expression of tonoplast transporters.  

PubMed

Plant vacuoles have multifaceted roles including turgor maintenance, cytosolic pH and ionic homeostasis, plant protection against environmental stress, detoxification, pigmentation, and cellular signaling. These roles are achieved through the coordinated activities of many proteins in the tonoplast (vacuolar membrane), of which the proton pumps and ion transporters have been modified for improved abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants. Here we describe a method to manipulate vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase in turfgrass and evaluate the impact of the modified tonoplast on the phenotype, biochemistry, and physiology of the transgenics. Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) plants overexpressing an Arabidopsis vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase AVP1 exhibited improved growth and enhanced salt tolerance, likely associated with increased photosynthesis, relative water content, proline production, and Na(+) uptake. These transgenic plants also had decreased solute leakage in the leaf tissues and increased concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), and total phosphorus in the root tissues. Similar strategies can be employed to manipulate other tonoplast transporters and in other plant species to produce transgenic plants with improved performance under various abiotic stresses. PMID:22895772

Li, Zhigang; Zhou, Man; Hu, Qian; Reighard, Shane; Yuan, Shuangrong; Yuan, Ning; San, Bekir; Li, Dayong; Jia, Haiyan; Luo, Hong

2012-01-01

243

Mobile remote manipulator vehicle system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mobile remote manipulator system is disclosed for assembly, repair and logistics transport on, around and about a space station square bay truss structure. The vehicle is supported by a square track arrangement supported by guide pins integral with the space station truss structure and located at each truss node. Propulsion is provided by a central push-pull drive mechanism that extends out from the vehicle one full structural bay over the truss and locks drive rods into the guide pins. The draw bar is now retracted and the mobile remote manipulator system is pulled onto the next adjacent structural bay. Thus, translation of the vehicle is inchworm style. The drive bar can be locked onto two guide pins while the extendable draw bar is within the vehicle and then push the vehicle away one bay providing bidirectional push-pull drive. The track switches allow the vehicle to travel in two orthogonal directions over the truss structure which coupled with the bidirectional drive, allow movement in four directions on one plane. The top layer of this trilayered vehicle is a logistics platform. This platform is capable of 369 degees of rotation and will have two astronaut foot restraint platforms and a space crane integral.

Bush, Harold G. (inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (inventor); Wallsom, Richard E. (inventor); Jensen, J. Kermit (inventor)

1987-01-01

244

Semantics of directly manipulating spatializations.  

PubMed

When high-dimensional data is visualized in a 2D plane by using parametric projection algorithms, users may wish to manipulate the layout of the data points to better reflect their domain knowledge or to explore alternative structures. However, few users are well-versed in the algorithms behind the visualizations, making parameter tweaking more of a guessing game than a series of decisive interactions. Translating user interactions into algorithmic input is a key component of Visual to Parametric Interaction (V2PI) [13]. Instead of adjusting parameters, users directly move data points on the screen, which then updates the underlying statistical model. However, we have found that some data points that are not moved by the user are just as important in the interactions as the data points that are moved. Users frequently move some data points with respect to some other 'unmoved' data points that they consider as spatially contextual. However, in current V2PI interactions, these points are not explicitly identified when directly manipulating the moved points. We design a richer set of interactions that makes this context more explicit, and a new algorithm and sophisticated weighting scheme that incorporates the importance of these unmoved data points into V2PI. PMID:24051771

Hu, Xinran; Bradel, Lauren; Maiti, Dipayan; House, Leanna; North, Chris; Leman, Scotland

2013-12-01

245

Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.  

PubMed Central

The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments. PMID:22837755

Kohler, Petra R. A.; Metcalf, William W.

2012-01-01

246

Actuators for a space manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The robotic manipulator can be decomposed into distinct subsytems. One particular area of interest of mechanical subsystems is electromechanical actuators (or drives). A drive is defined as a motor with an appropriate transmission. An overview is given of existing, as well as state-of-the-art drive systems. The scope is limited to space applications. A design philosophy and adequate requirements are the initial steps in designing a space-qualified actuator. The focus is on the d-c motor in conjunction with several types of transmissions (harmonic, tendon, traction, and gear systems). The various transmissions will be evaluated and key performance parameters will be addressed in detail. Included in the assessment is a shuttle RMS joint and a MSFC drive of the Prototype Manipulator Arm. Compound joints are also investigated. Space imposes a set of requirements for designing a high-performance drive assembly. Its inaccessibility and cryogenic conditions warrant special considerations. Some guidelines concerning these conditions are present. The goal is to gain a better understanding in designing a space actuator.

Chun, W.; Brunson, P.

1987-01-01

247

Precise control of flexible manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and experimental testing of end point position controllers for a very flexible one link lightweight manipulator are summarized. The latest upgraded version of the experimental set up, and the basic differences between conventional joint angle feedback and end point position feedback are described. A general procedure for application of modern control methods to the problem is outlined. The relationship between weighting parameters and the bandwidth and control stiffness of the resulting end point position closed loop system is shown. It is found that joint rate angle feedback in addition to the primary end point position sensor is essential for adequate disturbance rejection capability of the closed loop system. The use of a low order multivariable compensator design computer code; called Sandy is documented. A solution to the problem of control mode switching between position sensor sets is outlined. The proof of concept for endpoint position feedback for a one link flexible manipulator was demonstrated. The bandwidth obtained with the experimental end point position controller is about twice as fast as the beam's first natural cantilevered frequency, and comes within a factor of four of the absolute physical speed limit imposed by the wave propagation time of the beam.

Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Bindford, T. O.; Schmitz, E.

1984-01-01

248

Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.

Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.

1991-01-01

249

Laser manipulation of atomic and molecular flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing advance of laser technology enables a range of broadly applicable, laser-based flow manipulation techniques. The characteristics of these laser-based flow manipulations suggest that they may augment, or be superior to, such traditional electro-mechanical methods as ionic flow control, shock tubes, and small scale wind tunnels. In this study, methodology was developed for investigating laser flow manipulation techniques, and

Taylor C. Lilly

2010-01-01

250

Simplified Dynamic Control Of Redundant Manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simplified scheme proposed for dynamic control of robotic manipulator having redundant joints; that is, extra degrees of freedom beyond needed to perform task, to position and orient end effector at specified position and/or move it along specified trajectory. Extra degrees of freedom used to perform simultaneous subtask. Scheme adaptive and based on observed performance of manipulator. Involves neither complicated mathematical model of dynamics of manipulator nor time-consuming inverse kinematic transformation.

Seraji, Homayoun

1990-01-01

251

Analgesic effects of adding lidocaine to morphine pumps after orthopedic surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background: Opiate is used in patient-controlled intravenous analgesia pumps (PCIA) for controlling pain in post-surgical patients. Other drugs are remarkably added to opioid pumps to enhance quality, lengthen analgesia, and reduce side effects. Lidocaine, a local anesthetic which inhibits sodium channels, has anesthetic and analgesic effects when injected locally or intravenously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding lidocaine 1% to different doses of morphine via IV pump to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after orthopedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery of lower extremities were divided into three equal groups to control postoperative pain. Intravenous pump with 5 ml/h flow rate was used as the analgesic method. The solution consisted of lidocaine 1% plus 20 mg morphine for the first group, lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine for the second group, and only 20 mg morphine for the third group (control group). Patients were checked every 12 h, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS), extra opioid doses, nausea/vomiting, and sedation scale were examined. Results: Pain score was lower in the first group compared to the other two groups. Mean VAS was 2.15 ± 0.2, 2.75 ± 0.2, and 2 ± 0.25 on the first day and 1.88 ± 0.1, 2.74 ± 0.3, and 2.40 ± 0.3 on the second day, respectively, in the three groups and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively). Also, 10% of patients in the first group needed extra opioid doses, while this figure was 30% in the second group and 25% in the third group (P < 0.01). Nausea/vomiting and sedation scores were not statistically different among the three groups. Conclusion: Compared to lidocaine 1% plus 10 mg morphine or 20 mg morphine alone in PCIA, adding lidocaine 1% to 20 mg morphine decreases the pain score and opioid dose after orthopedic surgeries without having side effects. PMID:24778665

Alebouyeh, Mahmoud Reza; Imani, Farnad; Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Entezary, Saeed Reza; Faiz, Seyed Hamid Reza; Soraya, Parisa

2014-01-01

252

Seasonal variation in orthopedic health services utilization in Switzerland: The impact of winter sport tourism  

PubMed Central

Background Climate- or holiday-related seasonality in hospital admission rates is well known for many diseases. However, little research has addressed the impact of tourism on seasonality in admission rates. We therefore investigated the influence of tourism on emergency admission rates in Switzerland, where winter and summer leisure sport activities in large mountain regions can generate orthopedic injuries. Methods Using small area analysis, orthopedic hospital service areas (HSAo) were evaluated for seasonality in emergency admission rates. Winter sport areas were defined using guest bed accommodation rate patterns of guest houses and hotels located above 1000 meters altitude that show clear winter and summer peak seasons. Emergency admissions (years 2000–2002, n = 135'460) of local and nonlocal HSAo residents were evaluated. HSAo were grouped according to their area type (regular or winter sport area) and monthly analyses of admission rates were performed. Results Of HSAo within the defined winter sport areas 70.8% show a seasonal, summer-winter peak hospital admission rate pattern and only 1 HSAo outside the defined winter sport areas shows such a pattern. Seasonal hospital admission rates in HSAo in winter sport areas can be up to 4 times higher in winter than the intermediate seasons, and they are almost entirely due to admissions of nonlocal residents. These nonlocal residents are in general -and especially in winter- younger than local residents, and nonlocal residents have a shorter length of stay in winter sport than in regular areas. The overall geographic distribution of nonlocal residents admitted for emergencies shows highest rates during the winter as well as the summer in the winter sport areas. Conclusion Small area analysis using orthopedic hospital service areas is a reliable method for the evaluation of seasonality in hospital admission rates. In Switzerland, HSAo defined as winter sport areas show a clear seasonal fluctuation in admission rates of only nonlocal residents, whereas HSAo defined as regular, non-winter sport areas do not show such seasonality. We conclude that leisure sport, and especially ski/snowboard tourism demands great flexibility in hospital beds, staff and resource planning in these areas. PMID:16512923

Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Widmer, Marcel; Busato, Andre

2006-01-01

253

A cohort study on the incidence and outcome of pulmonary embolism in trauma and orthopedic patients  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to determine the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in trauma and orthopedic patients within a regional tertiary referral center and its association with the pattern of injury, type of treatment, co-morbidities, thromboprophylaxis and mortality. Methods All patients admitted to our institution between January 2010 and December 2011, for acute trauma or elective orthopedic procedures, were eligible to participate in this study. Our cohort was formed by identifying all patients with clinical features of PE who underwent Computed Tomography-Pulmonary Angiogram (CT-PA) to confirm or exclude the clinical suspicion of PE, within six months after the injury or the surgical procedure. Case notes and electronic databases were reviewed retrospectively to identify each patient’s venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors, type of treatment, thromboprophylaxis and mortality. Results Out of 18,151 patients admitted during the study period only 85 (0.47%) patients developed PE (positive CT-PA) (24 underwent elective surgery and 61 sustained acute trauma). Of these, only 76% of the patients received thromboprophylaxis. Hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease were the most commonly identifiable risk factors. In 39% of the cases, PE was diagnosed during the in-hospital stay. The median time of PE diagnosis, from the date of injury or the surgical intervention was 23 days (range 1 to 312). The overall mortality rate was 0.07% (13/18,151), but for those who developed PE it was 15.29% (13/85). Concomitant deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was identified in 33.3% of patients. The presence of two or more co-morbidities was significantly associated with the incidence of mortality (unadjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?3.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.34, 18.99), P?=?0.034). Although there was also a similar clinical effect size for polytrauma injury on mortality (unadjusted OR?=?1.90 (0.38, 9.54), P?=?0.218), evidence was not statistically significant for this factor. Conclusions The incidence of VTE was comparable to previously reported rates, whereas the mortality rate was lower. Our local protocols that comply with the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines in the UK appear to be effective in preventing VTE and reducing mortality in trauma and orthopedic patients. PMID:24589368

2014-01-01

254

Culture and manipulation of embryonic cells.  

PubMed

The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

Edgar, Lois G; Goldstein, Bob

2012-01-01

255

Potential of Stem Cell to Tailor the Bone-Ceramic Interface for Better Fixation of Orthopedic Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main cause of premature failure of an orthopedic implant in vivo is due to various biological reactions with the surrounding tissues\\/environment. Therefore, to combat this situation, continuous efforts have been concentrated to improve biocompatibility of the implant material by adopting different strategies. Extensive study is being made to modify the implants by plasma-spraying bioactive materials, introducing specific surface groups,

Jui Chakraborty; Debabrata Basu

256

ORTHODONTICS AND DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS Registration of Cone-Beam CT and 3dMD Maxillodental Data  

E-print Network

ORTHODONTICS AND DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS Registration of Cone-Beam CT and 3dMD Maxillodental Data that occur during orthodontic (craniofacial) treatment. Registered images obtained from Cone-Beam Computed as well as clinical evaluation of orthodontic treatments. Methods Six consecutive patients with adequate

Alberta, University of

257

The Living Stage Improvisational Theatre Demonstration Project for Orthopedically Handicapped Children, Ages 4-8. Overview, 1978-1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Living Stage Improvisational Theatre Demonstration Project (Washington, D.C.) conducts weekly workshops to enhance the creative expression and self esteem of orthopedically handicapped children, aged 4 to 8 years. The Living Stage program is designed to demonstrate that methods of improvisational theatre can have a positive impact on parental…

Alexander, Robert; Haynes, Wendy

258

OmniBrace: A Fast Acting Expanding Foam Splint for Orthopedic Injuries Anisha Bapna, Margaret Lees, William Littlefield, Harrison Rose  

E-print Network

utilizes expanding polyurethane foam technology to provide immediate temporary immobilization to orthopedic. These numbers alone suggest large market potential. Novelty of Concept � Uses quick-curing polyurethane foam The OmniBrace is comprised of the following components: � Spandex bag � Chemical pack � Polyurethane film

McGaughey, Alan

259

Genetic Manipulation of Acinetobacter baumannii.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen of clinical importance. A lack of genetic tools has hindered the research of this organism in the past; however, recently, various methods have been designed, modified, and optimized to facilitate the genetic manipulation of A. baumannii. This unit describes some of the recent genetic advances and new recombinant tools developed for this pathogen, including standard transformation and conjugation techniques specifically developed for the bacteria. As the need to understand the basic biology of A. baumannii increases with the prospect of developing new therapeutics, the use of the basic genetic methods herein can provide the critical first step to identify genes required for infection. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25367274

Jacobs, Anna C; Thompson, Mitchell G; Gebhardt, Michael; Corey, Brendan W; Yildirim, Suleyman; Shuman, Howard A; Zurawski, Daniel V

2014-01-01

260

Stanford University: Dextrous Manipulation Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dextrous Manipulation Laboratory is a project within the Design Division of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University. The website describes some of the lab's past and current projects on robotic hands and tactile sensors, as well as teleoperated hands using haptic information. The two current projects highlighted include work on "a new class of biologically inspired robots" and progress made in developing "a telemanipulation system that allows a person to control a dexterous robotic hand in an intuitive manner." Various conference papers and theses from the Lab are posted online. Project pages provide overviews of the lab's research and development in hardware and software as well as video footage displaying some of its accomplishments. Research methods and system designs are further detailed in the Research sections of the project websites. Links to related course pages, research labs, and images make this a dynamic resource for anyone interested in robotics research.

261

Manipulation of Expectancies about Counseling and Psychotherapy: Review and Analysis of Expectancy Manipulation Strategies and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews investigations attempting to manipulate clients' expectations for counseling or psychotherapy. Describes and evaluates six strategies used in attempting expectancy manipulation, none with significant success. Audiotaped and videotaped interventions proved most effective, verbal interactions ineffective, and printed documents of dubious…

Tinsley, Howard E. A.; And Others

1988-01-01

262

3D finite element modeling and analysis of dynamic force in bone drilling for orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional finite element modeling and analysis are made to simulate the dynamic process of bone drilling during the orthopedic surgery. This study is proposed to evaluate the performance of various surgical tools and the possible pre-operative biohazard. In the simulation, the strain-stress curve of the bone is divided into linear elastic region and nonlinear plastic region according to the strain range. Rigid-plasticity and elasto-plasticity are used as bone material. The performances of twist drill bit and hollow drill bit are evaluated. The results of finite element analysis give different patterns of stress distribution on the two types of bone models and drill bits. The FE simulations show dynamic drilling process that the drill bit penetrates through the bone model. In vitro drilling experiment on porcine femur is conducted to measure the drilling force for the validation of the FEM. PMID:24550166

Qi, Lin; Wang, Xiaona; Meng, Max Q

2014-09-01

263

Transforaminal sacral approach for spinal anesthesia in orthopedic surgery: A novel approach  

PubMed Central

Regional anesthesia is preferred world-wide for its distinct advantages. The benefits of regional anesthesia in patients with comorbid conditions are well-established. The administration of regional anesthesia can sometimes pose a challenge to the anesthesiologist due to the structural abnormalities of the spine. The most common difficulty encountered for spinal anesthesia in our hospital (Nalgonda District) is skeletal fluorosis. Apart from the midline approach, paramedian, and Taylor's approaches are advocated for difficult scenarios. This article reports two orthopedic cases, conducted under a novel spinal anesthesia technique, i.e., transforaminal sacral approach under C-arm guidance with a successful outcome. The sacral foraminal subarachnoid block is a method to access the subarachnoid space through the upper posterior sacral foramina.

Sujay, Mysore; Madhavi, Santpur; Aravind, G.; Hasan, Adil; Venugopalan, V. M.

2014-01-01

264

Fabrication aspects of PLA-CaP/PLGA-CaP composites for orthopedic applications: a review.  

PubMed

For several decades, composites made of polylactic acid-calcium phosphates (PLA-CaP) and polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid-calcium phosphates (PLGA-CaP) have seen widespread uses in orthopedic applications. This paper reviews the fabrication aspects of these composites, following the ubiquitous materials science approach by studying "processing-structure-property" correlations. Various fabrication processes such as microencapsulation, phase separation, electrospinning, supercritical gas foaming, etc., are reviewed, with specific examples of their applications in fabricating these composites. The effect of the incorporation of CaP materials on the mechanical and biological performance of PLA/PLGA is addressed. In addition, this paper describes the state of the art on challenges and innovations concerning CaP dispersion, incorporation of biomolecules/stem cells and long-term degradation of the composites. PMID:22342596

Zhou, Huan; Lawrence, Joseph G; Bhaduri, Sarit B

2012-07-01

265

Wear Properties of Porous NiTi Orthopedic Shape Memory Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds have great potential to be used as orthopedic implants because of their porous structure and superior physical properties. Its metallic nature provides it with better mechanical properties and Young's modulus close to that of natural bones. Besides allowing tissue ingrowth and transfer of nutrients, porous SMA possesses unique pseudoelastic properties compatible to natural hard tissues like bones and tendons, thus expediting in vivo osseointegration. However, the nickel release from debris and the metal surface may cause osteocytic osteolysis at the interface between the artificial implants and bone tissues. Subsequent mobilization may finally lead to implant failure. In this study, the wear properties of porous NiTi with different porosities processed at different treatment temperatures are determined. The results of the study show that the porosity, phase transformation temperature, and annealing temperature are major factors influencing the wear characteristics of porous NiTi SMA.

Wu, Shuilin; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, K. W. K.; Xu, Z. S.; Chung, C. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

2012-12-01

266

Prosthesis Infections after Orthopedic Joint Replacement: The Possible Role of Bacterial Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore, important to understand the comprehensive interaction between the microbiological situation and the host immune responses that lead to prosthesis infections. Evidence indicates that prosthesis infections are actually biofilm-correlated infections that are highly resistant to antibiotic treatment and the host immune responses. The authors reviewed the related literature in the context of their clinical experience, and discussed the possible etiology and mechanism leading to the infections, especially problems related to bacterial biofilm, and prophylaxis and treatment of infection, including both microbiological and surgical measures. Recent progress in research into bacterial biofilm and possible future treatment options of prosthesis-related infections are discussed. PMID:23888204

Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; H?iby, Niels; Wu, Hong; S?rensen, Torben Sandberg; Borgwardt, Arne

2013-01-01

267

A novel experimental model of orthopedic trauma with acute kidney injury in obese Zucker rats  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after blunt traumatic injury in humans. Because limitations exist in studying trauma in human patients, animal models are necessary to elucidate mechanisms of remote organ injury after trauma. We developed a model of severe orthopedic trauma in lean (LZ) and obese (OZ) Zucker rats, in which OZ develop greater kidney dysfunction after trauma than LZ. Orthopedic trauma was inflicted via bilateral hindlimb soft tissue injury, fibula fracture, and injection of homogenized bone components. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured for 6 h after trauma, and again at 24 h after trauma. Urine was collected for 24 h before and after trauma to measure urine albumin excretion. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and renal macrophage infiltration (ED-1 [CD68 Antibody] immunostaining) were measured in animals with and without trauma. MAP and HR were similar between LZ and OZ throughout the study, with the exception that OZ had a 18 mmHg lower pressure 24 h posttrauma. GFR and RPF were decreased significantly (?50%), while urine albumin excretion, plasma IL-6, and renal ED-1-positive cells were increased in OZ 24 h after trauma compared to both OZ without trauma and LZ after trauma. In conclusion, these data are consistent with studies in humans that show that AKI develops more frequently in obese than in lean individuals. This model will be an important experimental tool to better understand the underlying mechanisms of poor outcomes after trauma in obese patients. PMID:24303169

Mittwede, Peter N; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L

2013-01-01

268

Abrasive waterjet peening: a new method of surface preparation for metal orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

Abrasive waterjet (AWJ) peening is a new mechanical surface treatment process envisioned for use on metal orthopedic implants. The process utilizes an abrasive waterjet to simultaneously texture and work harden the surface of a metal substrate through controlled hydrodynamic erosion. In this study, a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) was subjected to AWJ peening over a range of parametric conditions. The textured surfaces were quantified in terms of the apparent interdigitation volume (V(i)), the effective stress concentration factor (K(t)) posed by the surface topography, and the magnitude of residual stress (sigma(r) ). Topographical features of the prepared surfaces were determined using contact profilometry, and X-ray diffraction was used in evaluating the in-plane residual stress. It was found that a large range in V(i) (9.4-43.8 microm(3)/microm(2)) and K(t) (1.3-2.7) are available through selection of the AWJ peening process parameters. Furthermore, a compressive residual stress (-409 +/- sigma(r) +/- -33) was found to result within the surface of the Ti6Al4V substrates regardless of treatment conditions. When compared to a titanium plasma spray coating used for cementless fixation, the AWJ peened Ti6Al4V exhibited a surface topography with significantly lower effective stress concentration and higher compressive residual stress. Based on results from this study, AWJ peening may serve as a new method of surface treatment for metal orthopedic implants, which supports the development of stable primary fixation and simultaneously enhances the component fatigue strength. PMID:10984702

Arola, D D; McCain, M L

2000-09-01

269

Embalmed and fresh frozen human bones in orthopedic cadaveric studies: which bone is authentic and feasible?  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The most frequently used bones for mechanical testing of orthopedic and trauma devices are fresh frozen cadaveric bones, embalmed cadaveric bones, and artificial composite bones. Even today, the comparability of these different bone types has not been established. Methods We tested fresh frozen and embalmed cadaveric femora that were similar concerning age, sex, bone mineral density, and stiffness. Artificial composite femora were used as a reference group. Testing parameters were pullout forces of cortex and cancellous screws, maximum load until failure, and type of fracture generated. Results Stiffness and type of fracture generated (Pauwels III) were similar for all 3 bone types (fresh frozen: 969 N/mm, 95% confidence interval (CI): 897–1,039; embalmed: 999 N/mm, CI: 875–1,121; composite: 946 N/mm, CI: 852–1,040). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between fresh frozen and embalmed femora concerning pullout forces of cancellous screws (fresh frozen: 654 N, CI: 471–836; embalmed: 595 N, CI: 365–823) and cortex screws (fresh frozen: 1,152 N, CI: 894–1,408; embalmed: 1,461 N, CI: 880–2,042), and axial load until failure (fresh frozen: 3,427 N, CI: 2,564–4290; embalmed: 3,603 N, CI: 2,898–4,306). The reference group showed statistically significantly different results for pullout forces of cancellous screws (2,344 N, CI: 2,068–2,620) and cortex screws (5,536 N, CI: 5,203–5,867) and for the axial load until failure (> 7,952 N). Interpretation Embalmed femur bones and fresh frozen bones had similar characteristics by mechanical testing. Thus, we suggest that embalmed human cadaveric bone is a good and safe option for mechanical testing of orthopedic and trauma devices. PMID:22978564

2012-01-01

270

High-strength poly(para-phenylene) as an orthopedic biomaterial.  

PubMed

Poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) exhibits exceptional mechanical strength, stiffness, toughness, and chemical inertness, although it is not currently used in any biomedical applications. The purpose of this study is to serve as a preliminary investigation into the potential of PPP as a biomaterial in orthopedic load-bearing applications. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis confirmed a polymer structure composed of an aromatic backbone and side groups. Tensile PPP specimens along with samples from several other polymers often used for orthopedic applications were elongated to failure after being soaked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 1 h, 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and more than 1 year. Results showed that PBS absorption of the PPP plateaued at 1 week at values of ?0.7 wt % and remained within one standard deviation when soaked for over 1 year. PBS absorption did not affect elastic modulus (5.0 GPa), yield strength (141 MPa), fracture strength (120 MPa) and strain-to-failure (17%) more than one standard deviation. Zero-to-tension fatigue testing established an endurance limit of approximately 35 MPa, which was relatively insensitive to frequency (1-10 Hz). Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) elution assay with fibroblasts confirmed that the PPP was noncytotoxic. Relative to other polymers used for load-bearing biomedical applications, PPP displays promising mechanical properties that remain stable in aqueous solution. Lastly, prototype PPP and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) bone plates were manufactured and tested, with the PPP plate showing a 38% higher maximum tensile load before failure. PMID:24123879

Frick, Carl P; DiRienzo, Amy L; Hoyt, Anthony J; Safranski, David L; Saed, Mohand; Losty, Eric J; Yakacki, Christopher M

2014-09-01

271

A novel experimental model of orthopedic trauma with acute kidney injury in obese Zucker rats.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after blunt traumatic injury in humans. Because limitations exist in studying trauma in human patients, animal models are necessary to elucidate mechanisms of remote organ injury after trauma. We developed a model of severe orthopedic trauma in lean (LZ) and obese (OZ) Zucker rats, in which OZ develop greater kidney dysfunction after trauma than LZ. Orthopedic trauma was inflicted via bilateral hindlimb soft tissue injury, fibula fracture, and injection of homogenized bone components. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured for 6 h after trauma, and again at 24 h after trauma. Urine was collected for 24 h before and after trauma to measure urine albumin excretion. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and renal macrophage infiltration (ED-1 [CD68 Antibody] immunostaining) were measured in animals with and without trauma. MAP and HR were similar between LZ and OZ throughout the study, with the exception that OZ had a 18 mmHg lower pressure 24 h posttrauma. GFR and RPF were decreased significantly (?50%), while urine albumin excretion, plasma IL-6, and renal ED-1-positive cells were increased in OZ 24 h after trauma compared to both OZ without trauma and LZ after trauma. In conclusion, these data are consistent with studies in humans that show that AKI develops more frequently in obese than in lean individuals. This model will be an important experimental tool to better understand the underlying mechanisms of poor outcomes after trauma in obese patients. PMID:24303169

Mittwede, Peter N; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L

2013-10-01

272

Use of commercial manipulator to handle a nuclear weapon component  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a manipulator workcell to load and unload nuclear weapon pit assemblies from a cart. To develop this workcell, PNL procured a commercially available manipulator, equipped it with force-sensing and vision equipment, and developed manipulator control software. Manipulator workcell development demonstrated that commercially available manipulator systems can successfully perform this task if the appropriate manipulator is selected and the manipulator workcell tooling and software are carefully designed.

Baker, C.P.

1994-08-01

273

Dynamic control of a manipulator with passive joints-position control experiments by a prototype manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a method of controlling the position of a manipulator with passive joints which have holding brakes instead of actuators. In this method, the coupling characteristics of manipulator dynamics are used, and no additional mechanisms are required. In the paper, the effectiveness of the method is verified by experiments using a prototype manipulator. The prototype is a two

Hirohiko Arai; Susumu Tachi

1990-01-01

274

Manipulation in Approval Voting Core Logic 2007 Manipulation in Approval Voting  

E-print Network

Manipulation in Approval Voting Core Logic 2007 Manipulation in Approval Voting Ulle Endriss in Approval Voting Core Logic 2007 Computational Social Choice · Research at the interface of ­ mathematical · Some examples: ­ voting: computational hardness as a barrier against manipulation ­ preference

Löwe, Benedikt

275

Perception for the manipulation of socks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the perceptual challenges inherent in the robotic manipulation of previously unseen socks, with the end goal of manipulation by a household robot for laundry. The task poses challenging problems in modeling the appearance, shape and configuration of these textile items that tend to exhibit high variability in texture, design, and style while being highly articulated objects. At the

Ping Chuan Wang; Stephen Miller; Mario Fritz; Trevor Darrell; Pieter Abbeel

2011-01-01

276

Stabilizing tethered satellite systems using space manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of space manipulators to stabilize a two-body tethered satellite system (TSS) during the stationkeeping and retrieval phases, is considered. The uncontrolled motion of the system in the stationkeeping phase is marginally stable, while during the retrieval phase it is unstable. The stabilization is carried out by means of a two-link space manipulator, similar to the CANADARM. The motion

M. J. Sadight; A. K. Misrax

1994-01-01

277

Maximum Allowable Load of Two Cooperative Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a computational technique for determining the maximum allowable load of two cooperative manipulators for a desired trajectory of the load is presented. There are number of factors that limit the maximum allowable load of two cooperative robotic arms. With attention to configuration of cooperative manipulators with redundant actuation as a closed form chain, the most important limitation

H. Ghariblu; A. Javanmard

2010-01-01

278

Digital manipulatives: new toys to think with  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many educational settings, manipulative materials (such as Cuisenaire Rods and Pattern Blocks) play an important role in children's learning, enabling children to explore mathematical and scientific concepts (such as number and shape) through direct manipulation of physical objects. Our group at de MJT Media Lab has developed a new generation of \\

Mitchel Resnick; Fred Martin; Robert Berg; Richard Borovoy; Vanessa Colella; Kwin Kramer; Brian Silverman

1998-01-01

279

Arthropod Grasping and Manipulation A Literature Review  

E-print Network

Arthropod Grasping and Manipulation A Literature Review Aaron M. Dollar Harvard Bio literature on the subject of arthropod grasping and manipulation. In order to gain a proper understanding backwards and become familiar with the basics of entomology and arthropod physiology. Once these principles

280

The manipulated object's translational vector is  

E-print Network

for prolonged use, weighing less than 350 g. A smartphone interface is currently in test). For the visualization. Moreover, we observed trials in which participants used 4 to 6 degrees of freedom meaning that they were objects manipulation. Most of the time, manipulation is done via a tactile surface that is simultaneously

Jirsa, Viktor

281

Towards small robot aided victim manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic manipulation of human victims is a problem that has been avoided by the robotics community. This paper presents the issues that would need to be addressed in order to have small man-portable robots aiding the transport of incapacitated victims. Focusing on the manipulation of victims in preparation for transport, the primary design specifications come from the required forces that

Mark Yim; Tim Cragg; Syed-Khizer Hayat

2009-01-01

282

Robot hands and the mechanics of manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abridged contents include: Kinematic and force analysis of articulated hands: contact - freedom and constraint; contacts in groups; force application and velocity analysis; force error analysis. Manipulator grasping and pushing operations: theory of pushing; application; conclusion. Index. This book, based on the doctoral dissertations of the two authors, examines several aspects of manipulating objects. At present, the authors believe

M. T. Mason; J. K. Jr. Salisbury

1985-01-01

283

On the Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new adaptive robot control algorithm is derived, which consists of a PD feedback part and a full dynamics feedfor ward compensation part, with the unknown manipulator and payload parameters being estimated online. The algorithm is computationally simple, because of an effective exploitation of the structure of manipulator dynamics. In particular, it requires neither feedback of joint accelerations nor inversion

Jean-Jacques E. Slotine; Weiping Li

1987-01-01

284

Damping control of a large flexible manipulator through inertial forces of a small manipulator  

SciTech Connect

Damping control is applied to a detailed computer model of a long- reach flexible manipulator test bed. The test bed consists of a long slender link with a dexterous manipulator mounted at its tip. The movement of the dexterous manipulator is controlled to create inertial damping forces on the long link. Parameter identification and sequential loop-closure are used to design a controller that feeds back relative tip position and velocity of the long link to control the azimuth angle of the dexterous manipulator. The controller is designed to be robust to varying manipulator loading conditions and reliable under sensor failures.

Trudnowski, D.J.; Baker, C.P.; Evans, M.S.

1993-06-01

285

Virtual Manipulative Materials in Secondary Mathematics: A Theoretical Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increased use of computer manipulatives in teaching there is need for theoretical discussions on the role of manipulatives. This paper reviews theoretical rationales for using manipulatives and illustrates how earlier distinctions of manipulative materials are broadened to include new forms of materials such as virtual manipulatives.…

Namukasa, Immacukate K.; Stanley, Darren; Tuchtie, Martin

2009-01-01

286

Dynamics and Manipulation of Nanomagnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents my work on the spin dynamics of nanomagnets and investigates the possibility of manipulating nanomagnets by various means. Most of the work has been published. Some has been submitted for publication. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In Chapter 1, I present the theory of manipulation of a nanomagnet by rotating ac fields whose frequency is time dependent. Theory has been developed that maps the problem onto Landau-Zener problem. For the linear frequency sweep the switching phase diagrams are obtained on the amplitude of the ac field and the frequency sweep rate. Switching conditions have been obtained numerically and analytically. For the nonlinear frequency sweep, the optimal time dependence of the frequency is obtained analytically with account of damping that gives the fastest controllable switching of the magnetization. In Chapter 2, interaction between a nanomagnet and a Josephson junction has been studied. The I-V curve of the Josephson junction in the proximity of a nanomagnet shows Shapiro-like steps due to the ac field generated by the precessing magnetic moment. Possibility of switching of the magnetic moment by a time-linear voltage in the Josephson junction is demonstrated. Realization of the optimal switching is suggested that employs two perpendicular Josephson junctions with time-dependent voltage signals. The result is shown to be robust against voltage noises. Quantum-mechanical coupling between the nanomagnet considered as a two-level system and a Josephson junction has been studied and quantum oscillations of the populations of the spin states have been computed. In Chapter 3, the switching dynamics of a nanomagnet embedded in a torsional oscillator that serves as a conducting wire for a spin current has been investigated. Generalized Slonczewski's equation is derived. The coupling of the nanomagnet, the torsional oscillator and the spin current generates a number of interesting phenomena. The mechanically-assisted magnetization switching is studied, in which the magnetization can be reversed by tilting the torsional oscillator. The effect of the torsional oscillator on the switching of the magnetization in the presence of spin-polarized current is computed. Combined effects of the spin current and a mechanical kick of the torsional oscillator have been studied. In Chapter 4, skyrmion dynamics and interaction of the skyrmion with an electron have been studied. Corrections to the spin texture of the skyrmion due to the crystal lattice have been computed. Due to the lattice effects the skyrmion collapses in clean ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic materials. The lifetime of the skyrmion has been computed numerically and compared with analytical theory. In doped anti-ferromagnetic materials the weak attraction between a skyrmion and an electron may generate a bound state. In Chapter 5, experimental results of the NIST group on magnetic multilayer microcantilevers have been analyzed. Theoretical framework has been suggested that explains the observed strong damping effect of the platinum layer on the mechanical oscillations of Py-Pt bilayer cantilevers. The strong spin-orbit coupling of platinum is shown to impede the motion of the domain wall in permalloy and to dramatically increase the damping of the cantilever motion.

Cai, Liufei

287

Imaging and Manipulation of Nanocars by STM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanocar molecule - four fullerene wheels connected by rotating alkyne axles to a central chassis - is the first molecule designed and fabricated specifically for nanoscale manipulation. We have investigated the imaging and manipulation of the nanocar molecule on Au(111) by variable-temperature STM. From the observed movement of the nanocars, we can show that their motion is due to rolling, not sliding, across the gold surface. Additionally, we have begun to explore the conditions for nanoscale rolling in a number of other molecules built from our set of ``molecular tinker toys'' with an eye towards remote manipulation and increased system complexity.

Osgood, A. J.; Shirai, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Tour, J. M.; Kelly, K. F.

2006-03-01

288

Drilling sounds are used by surgeons and intermediate residents, but not novice orthopedic trainees, to guide drilling motions  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of our study was to investigate the impact of distracting noise on the performance on a simulated orthopedic bone drilling skill when that noise blocks routine auditory feedback associated with the sounds of the drill. Methods Medical students (n = 11), intermediate residents (postgraduate years 3–5, n = 10) and surgeons (n = 8) each drilled 20 bicortical holes in a femur bone from a lamb: 10 holes without and 10 holes with the presence of distracting noise. We quantified surgical outcome in the form of plunge depth using computer-assisted objective methods. Results Novice participants plunged more than did the intermediate trainees and surgeons (p < 0.001). With the addition of distracting noise, the plunges of both intermediate residents and surgeons were affected. Conclusion Distracting noise impairs orthopedic bone drilling performance, and the ability to use drilling sounds to guide drilling motions is part of surgical expertise. PMID:19057732

Praamsma, Monate; Carnahan, Heather; Backstein, David; Veillette, Christian J.H.; Gonzalez, David; Dubrowski, Adam

2008-01-01

289

A comparison of coping responses among high school and college athletes with concussion, orthopedic injuries, and healthy controls.  

PubMed

This study compared the coping responses of concussed athletes with those with an orthopedic injury and healthy controls and explored sex differences in coping behaviors following sport injury. Sixty-eight athletes with a concussion (CONCUSS), 42 with an orthopedic injury (ORTHO), and 33 healthy controls (CONTROL) completed the Brief COPE approximately 1 week following sport injury. The CONCUSS group reported lower active, planning, acceptance, religion, self-distraction, venting, and self-blame coping than the ORTHO group. The ORTHO group reported lower acceptance, venting, and substance use coping than CONTROLS. Females reported higher levels of planning, humor, instrumental support, and venting than males. Females reported more venting than males in the ORTHO and CONTROL groups, but not in the CONCUSS group. In conclusion, concussed athletes may not engage in coping to the same extent as athletes with other injuries. PMID:24067122

Kontos, Anthony P; Elbin, R J; Newcomer Appaneal, Renee; Covassin, Tracey; Collins, Michael W

2013-01-01

290

Improvement of corrosion resistance and antibacterial effect of NiTi orthopedic materials by chitosan and gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocomposite consists of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a natural polymer as Chitosan (CS) was electrodeposited over NiTi alloy to improve biocompatibility, biostability, surface corrosion resistance and antibacterial effect for orthopedic implantation. The forming process and surface morphology of this biocomposite coats over NiTi alloy were studied. The results showed that the nm-scale gold particles were embedded in the composite forming compact, thick and smooth coat. Elemental analysis revealed significant less Ni ion release from the coated NiTi alloy compared with the uncoated one by 20 fold. Furthermore, the electrochemical corrosion measurements indicated that AuNPs/CS composite coat was effective for improving corrosion resistance in different immersion times and at all pH values, which suggests that the coated NiTi alloys have potential for orthopedic applications. Additionally, the efficiencies of the biocomposite coats for inhibiting bacterial growth indicate high antibacterial effect.

Ahmed, Rasha A.; Fadl-allah, Sahar A.; El-Bagoury, Nader; El-Rab, Sanaa M. F. Gad

2014-02-01

291

Topography and Morphology of the Mandibular Condyle during Fixed Functional Orthopedic Treatment – a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aim:  Fixed functional orthopedic appliances used in 6 to 9 month-long treatments to correct distoclusion keep the mandible permanently in the therapeutically-desired protruded position. The principal aim of this approach is to achieve an increase in length of the lower jaw by stimulating mandibular growth. Ideally, adaptive mechanisms in adolescents and young adults result in condylar remodeling. Alternatively, however,

Gero Kinzinger; Cornelia Kober; Peter Diedrich

2007-01-01

292

Novel sphene coatings on Ti–6Al–4V for orthopedic implants using sol–gel method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is commonly used to coat titanium alloys (Ti–6Al–4V) for orthopedic implants. However, their poor adhesion strength and insufficient long-term stability limit their application. Novel sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study is to use the novel sphene ceramics as coatings for Ti–6Al–4V. The sol–gel method was used to produce the coatings

Chengtie Wu; Yogambha Ramaswamy; David Gale; Wenrong Yang; Keqin Xiao; Liangchi Zhang; Yongbai Yin; Hala Zreiqat

2008-01-01

293

Comparison of the morphine-sparing effects of diclofenac sodium and ketorolac tromethamine after major orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of diclofenac sodium with ketorolac tromethamine in reducing postoperative morphine use after major orthopedic surgery.Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.Setting: Major teaching institution.Patients: 102 ASA physical status II patients undergoing hip and knee replacement with general anesthesia.Interventions: Before induction of anesthesia, patients were randomly allocated to receive intravenously either diclofenac sodium 75 mg (Group D),

Ratan Alexander; Habib E. El-Moalem; Tong J. Gan

2002-01-01

294

Efficient, transparent, and comprehensive runtime code manipulation  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the challenges of building a software system for general-purpose runtime code manipulation. Modern applications, with dynamically-loaded modules and dynamically-generated code, are assembled at runtime. ...

Bruening, Derek L. (Derek Lane), 1976-

2004-01-01

295

Hybrid adaptive control for robot manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid adaptive control scheme is proposed for robot manipulators. Unmodeled dynamics are considered in the robot model. The standard RLS algorithm has been modified to take into account these unmodeled dynamics. Global stability of the system is ensured

L. Mo; M. M. Bayoumi

1990-01-01

296

The Frankfurt School's Theory of Manipulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the critical sociology of communication of the Frankfurt School suggesting that theorists such as Lowenthal, Adorno, and Habermas have outlined both the political economics of manipulation and the social psychological interaction between the audience and the media. (MH)

Petryszak, Nicholas

1977-01-01

297

Control of flexible, kinematically redundant robot manipulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of kinematic redundancy in control algorithms to avoid singularities evade obstacles minimize joint torques manipulator kinetic energy end effector contact forces etc. . . has been among the most active research topics in the field of robotics in the past few years. However these approaches have been associated mainly with rigid manipulators where there is no unpredictable flexible motions. When dealing with flexible manipulators the flexibility of the system will cause undesired inaccuracy in end effector motion. If these manipulators are kinematically redundant their kinematic redundancy can be used to compensate for the end effector motion inaccuracy and in many cases help damp out the vibrations. This paper examines this issue and introduces new control algorithms designed to regulate the flexibility while maintaining precise tracking of the end effector trajectory. The dynamic model used is a special case of the general multi-body dynamics designed to maximize its computational efficiency.

Nguyen, Luong A.; Walker, Ian D.; de Figueiredo, Rui J. P.

1991-02-01

298

Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position and orient the end-effector at the target with respect to the same kinematic model from the calibration step. As the end-effector/target distance decreases, the computed coordinates of the end-effector and target become more nearly affected by the same errors, so that the differences between their coordinates become increasingly precise. When the end-effector reaches the target, the remaining effective position error is the distance that corresponds to more than about one pixel in the stereoscopic images of the target.

Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

2004-01-01

299

Progress and outlook of inorganic nanoparticles for delivery of nucleic acid sequences related to orthopedic pathologies: a review.  

PubMed

The anticipated growth in the aging population will drastically increase medical needs of society; of which, one of the largest components will undoubtedly be from orthopedic-related pathologies. There are several proposed solutions being investigated to cost-effectively prepare for the future--pharmaceuticals, implant devices, cell and gene therapies, or some combination thereof. Gene therapy is one of the more promising possibilities because it seeks to correct the root of the problem, thereby minimizing treatment duration and cost. Currently, viral vectors have shown the highest efficacies, but immunological concerns remain. Nonviral methods show reduced immune responses but are regarded as less efficient. The nonviral paradigms consist of mechanical and chemical approaches. While organic-based materials have been used more frequently in particle-based methods, inorganic materials capable of delivery have distinct advantages, especially advantageous in orthopedic applications. The inorganic gene therapy field is highly interdisciplinary in nature, and requires assimilation of knowledge across the broad fields of cell biology, biochemistry, molecular genetics, materials science, and clinical medicine. This review provides an overview of the role each area plays in orthopedic gene therapy as well as possible future directions for the field. PMID:21707439

Wagner, Darcy E; Bhaduri, Sarit B

2012-02-01

300

Efficient Computation Of Manipulator Inertia Matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved method for computation of manipulator inertia matrix developed, based on concept of spatial inertia of composite rigid body. Required for implementation of advanced dynamic-control schemes as well as dynamic simulation of manipulator motion. Motivated by increasing demand for fast algorithms to provide real-time control and simulation capability and, particularly, need for faster-than-real-time simulation capability, required in many anticipated space teleoperation applications.

Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

1991-01-01

301

Manipulation With No or Partial Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research investigated the role of vision in closed- and open-loop processing during manipulation. In Experiment 1, participants performed common manipulatory tasks with 100% accuracy in less than 1 s without vision. In Experiment 2, the effects of extensive practice of a peg-in-hole task were examined within 4 functionally significant stages of manipulation. Performance was consistently faster with than

Kimberly A. Purdy; Susan J. Lederman; Roberta L. Klatzky

1999-01-01

302

Audience manipulation in Carlyle's Sartor resartus  

E-print Network

AUDIENCE MANIPULATION IN CARLYLE'S SARTOR RESARTUS A Thesis by KATHLEEN ANN BLASDEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS August 1985 Major... his work, and to turn instead to a searching penetration into the needs of his audience. To attract an audience to Sartor, Carlyle used techniques of audience manipulation such as subconscious persuasion, identification with the Editor and...

Blasdel, Kathleen Ann

2012-06-07

303

Optical trapping, cell manipulation and robotics  

SciTech Connect

A new type of analytical and preparative cytometric instrument was developed. The instrument combines image analysis and machine vision with single cell and chromosome manipulation by means of optical trapping. A proof-of-principle instrument, OCAM, has the ability to locate and analyze biological particles inside an enclosed manipulation chamber, as well as the ability to move and position particles according to preprogrammed protocols. Preliminary results and potential biological applications of such a microrobot are discussed. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Buican, T.N.; Neagley, D.L.; Morrison, W.C.; Upham, B.D.

1989-01-01

304

On the manipulability of dual cooperative robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of manipulability ellipsoids for dual robot systems is given. A suitable kineto-static formulation for dual cooperative robots is adopted which allows for a global task space description of external and internal forces, and relative velocities. The well known concepts of force and velocity manipulability ellipsoids for a single robot are formally extended and the contributions of the two single robots to the cooperative system ellipsoids are illustrated. Duality properties are discussed. A practical case study is developed.

Chiacchio, P.; Chiaverini, S.; Sciavicco, L.; Siciliano, B.

1989-01-01

305

Calibration of a SCARA robot manipulator  

E-print Network

CALIBRATION OF A SCARA ROBOT MANIPULATOR A Thesis By TIMOTHY BOLAND BROCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of lvlASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering CALIBRATION OF A SCARA ROBOT MANIPULATOR A Thesis By TIMOTHY BOLAND BROCK Approved as to style and contem by: Make McDermon (Chair of Committee) Michael J. ins (Head of Department) uis J. Everett (Member) Karan...

Brock, Timothy Boland

2012-06-07

306

Biomaterial Co-Cr-Mo Alloys Nano Coating Calcium Phosphate Orthopedic Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modem study a thermal martensitic transformation of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys and ultimately offers large elongation to failure while maintaining high strength. In the future study, structural evolution and dislocation slip as an elementary process in the martensitic transformation in Co-Cr-Mo alloys were investigated to reveal the origin of their enhanced phase stability due to nitrogen addition and coating of calcium phosphate specimens with and without nitrogen addition were prepared. The N-doped alloys had a single-phase matrix, whereas the N-free alloys had a duplex microstructure. Irrespective of the nitrogen content, dislocations frequently dissociated into Shockley partial dislocations with stacking faults. The Nano range coating of calcium phosphate function as obstacles to the glide of partial dislocations and consequently significantly affect the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. As a result, the formation of marten site plays a crucial role in plastic deformation and wear behavior, the developed nanostructures modification associated with nitrogen addition must be a promising strategy for highly durable orthopedic implants.

Palaniappan, N.; Inwati, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Man

2014-08-01

307

A video guided solution for screw insertion in orthopedic plate fixation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In orthopedic and trauma surgery, metallic plates are used for reduction and fixation of bone fractures. In clinical practice, the intra-operative planning for screw fixation is usually based on fluoroscopic images. Screw fixation is then performed on a free-hand basis. As such, multiple attempts may be required in order to achieve an optimal positioning of the fixing screws. To help the physician insert the screws in accordance to the planned position, we propose a method for screw insertion guidance. Our approach uses a small video camera, rigidly placed on the drill, and a set of small markers that are rigidly fixed on a variable angle drill sleeve. In order to investigate the achievable accuracy of our setup, we simulate the estimation of the drill bit position under two different marker arrangements, planar and 3D, and different noise levels. Furthermore, we motivate our choices for marker design and position given the limited space available for marker positioning, the requirement for accurate position estimation of the drill bit and the illumination changes that could affect the surgical site. We also describe our proposed marker detection and tracking pipeline. Our simulation results let us conclude that we can achieve an accuracy of 1° and 1mm in the estimation of angular orientation and tip position of the drill bit respectively, provided that we have accurate marker detection.

Magaraggia, J.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Angelopoulou, E.; Hornegger, J.

2013-03-01

308

Awareness of diagnostic and clinical features of fibromyalgia among orthopedic surgeons.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. The current study was designed to evaluate the awareness and skills of orthopedic surgeons (OS) regarding FMS diagnosis and treatment. For the examination of awareness and familiarity of OS in Israel to Fibromyalgia, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted. Two hundred and nineteen OS, residents and specialists, were asked anonymously about awareness, knowledge, and treatment of FM. Multivariable statistical analysis was performed. 91 % (199) of responders reported that they recognized the disease. Notwithstanding, the mean knowledge score was 7.6 out of 17. In addition, OS who were trained in the south of Israel were found to have a better degree of knowledge about FM (9.7 vs. 7.4; p < 0.03). The awareness and knowledge among OS regarding FM needs to be improved. OS who were trained in the south of Israel were found to have better degree of knowledge regarding FM. PMID:22821335

Bloom, Shlomo; Ablin, Jacob N; Lebel, David; Rath, Ehud; Faran, Yifat; Daphna-Tekoah, Shir; Buskila, Dan

2013-04-01

309

Orthopedics nursing patients' profile of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. RESULTS: The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. CONCLUSION: The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453666

de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natalia Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonca; Jaques, Bruno Dorea

2013-01-01

310

Self-calibrating 3D-ultrasound-based bone registration for minimally invasive orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Intraoperative freehand three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound (3D-US) has been proposed as a noninvasive method for registering bones to a preoperative computed tomography image or computer-generated bone model during computer-aided orthopedic surgery (CAOS). In this technique, an US probe is tracked by a 3-D position sensor and acts as a percutaneous device for localizing the bone surface. However, variations in the acoustic properties of soft tissue, such as the average speed of sound, can introduce significant errors in the bone depth estimated from US images, which limits registration accuracy. We describe a new self-calibrating approach to US-based bone registration that addresses this problem, and demonstrate its application within a standard registration scheme. Using realistic US image data acquired from 6 femurs and 3 pelves of intact human cadavers, and accurate Gold Standard registration transformations calculated using bone-implanted fiducial markers, we show that self-calibrating registration is significantly more accurate than a standard method, yielding an average root mean squared target registration error of 1.6 mm. We conclude that self-calibrating registration results in significant improvements in registration accuracy for CAOS applications over conventional approaches where calibration parameters of the 3D-US system remain fixed to values determined using a preoperative phantom-based calibration. PMID:16524087

Barratt, Dean C; Penney, Graeme P; Chan, Carolyn S K; Slomczykowski, Mike; Carter, Timothy J; Edwards, Philip J; Hawkes, David J

2006-03-01

311

Collagen Self-Assembly on Orthopedic Magnesium Biomaterials Surface and Subsequent Bone Cell Attachment  

PubMed Central

Magnesium (Mg) biomaterials are a new generation of biodegradable materials and have promising potential for orthopedic applications. After implantation in bone tissues, these materials will directly interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules and bone cells. Type I collagen, the major component of bone ECM, forms the architecture scaffold that provides physical support for bone cell attachment. However, it is still unknown how Mg substrate affects collagen assembly on top of it as well as subsequent cell attachment and growth. Here, we studied the effects of collagen monomer concentration, pH, assembly time, and surface roughness of two Mg materials (pure Mg and AZ31) on collagen fibril formation. Results showed that formation of fibrils would not initiate until the monomer concentration reached a certain level depending on the type of Mg material. The thickness of collagen fibril increased with the increase of assembly time. The structures of collagen fibrils formed on semi-rough surfaces of Mg materials have a high similarity to that of native bone collagen. Next, cell attachment and growth after collagen assembly were examined. Materials with rough surface showed higher collagen adsorption but compromised bone cell attachment. Interestingly, surface roughness and collagen structure did not affect cell growth on AZ31 for up to a week. Findings from this work provide some insightful information on Mg-tissue interaction at the interface and guidance for future surface modifications of Mg biomaterials. PMID:25303459

Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

2014-01-01

312

[Application of the hydrogen washout technique to orthopedic research (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Since the first description by Aukland and co-authors in 1964, the hydrogen washout has been shown to be an accurate method in determining regional tissue blood flow. The presence of hydrogen molecules within the tissue is detected with a platinum electrode where a small amount of current is generated by oxidation of molecular hydrogen to hydrogen ions. Therefore, construction of the suitable electrode for the tissue to be measured is essential. The author applied the hydrogen washout technique to the blood flow measurement of bone, muscle, skin, digit and peripheral nerve, and found that the technique was valuable in basic and clinical studies in orthopedics. As a typical experimental study using the hydrogen washout technique, the study on the effect of adrenaline on bone blood flow was presented and the experimental method was explained in detail. Although the hydrogen washout technique has been developed to measure the blood flow, the technique has been found useful in detecting the pathways of microcirculation between different tissues. As an example, the study on nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disk was described. Since the hydrogen gas is harmless, it is possible to apply the technique to the clinical studies including the blood flow measurement of replanted digits, diagnosis of the compartment syndrome and the blood flow measurement of skin flaps. Furthermore, several problems in the hydrogen washout technique were discussed. PMID:7310209

Ogata, K

1981-08-01

313

The use of novel oral anticoagulants for thromboprophylaxis after elective major orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. Due to the high incidence of venous thromboembolism in this setting, perioperative anticoagulation is the recommended approach for thromboprophylaxis. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux and warfarin are the agents commonly used for thromboprophylaxis. The well-recognized limitations of warfarin and the inconvenience and discomfort associated with the subcutaneous administration of low molecular weight heparin and fondaparinux inspired intense investigation to develop novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with more predictable pharmacokinetics, fewer drug interactions and no need for regular laboratory monitoring. Three NOACs have been demonstrated to be effective for thromboprophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in large randomized controlled trials. Here we review the pharmacology of rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban, summarize the major clinical trials of these agents in thromboprophylaxis after THA and TKA, and discuss the clinical factors to be considered by providers when selecting a NOAC for their patients. PMID:24219550

Rachidi, Saleh; Aldin, Ehab Saad; Greenberg, Charles; Sachs, Barton; Streiff, Michael; Zeidan, Amer M

2013-12-01

314

Review of the regulations for the use of stainless steels for orthopedic implants in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the relatively high rate of failure of orthopedic implants in Argentina, the authors review the current normative regulating the use of stainless steels in the fabrication of these metallic parts in the country, and compare it with the regulations currently in use in other countries. The analysis shows that several standards in effect in the country do not comply with broadly recognized international standards. This situation is aggravated by a recent revision of the normative that failed to improve the quality standards to reach levels similar to those applied in developed countries or even in MERCOSUR associates. The national organization in charge of implant certification in Argentina, complying with the law, accepts the applicability of IRAM standards to certify stainless steels implants. In the opinion of the authors, the current practice used to certify implants does not guarantee the structural stability and biocompatibility of the devices, increasing the risk of failure in service, and escalating the cost of the public health care system.

Daga, Bernardo; Rivera, Graciela; Boeri, Roberto

2007-11-01

315

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in orthopedics, basic research, and clinical implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular events following shock wave treatment of bone are widely unknown. Nevertheless patients with osteonecrosis and non unions are already treated partly successful with shock waves. Concerning the first indication, the question of the permeation of the shock wave into the bone was addressed. Therefore shockwaves were applied to porcine femoral heads and the intraosseous pressure was measured. A linear correlation of the pressure to the intraosseous distance was found. Approximately 50% of the pressure are still measurable 10 mm inside the femoral head. These findings should encourage continued shock wave research on this indication. Concerning the second indication (non union), osteoblasts were subjected to 250 or 500 shock waves at 25 kV. After 24, 48, and 72 h the levels of the bone and vascular growth factors bFGF, TGFbeta1, and VEGF were examined. After 24 h there was a significant increase in bFGF levels (p<0.05) with significant correlation (p<0.05) to the number of impulses. TGFbeta1, and VEGF showed no significant changes. This may be one piece in the cascade of new bone formation following shock wave treatment and may lead to a more specific application of shock waves in orthopedic surgery.

Hausdorf, Joerg; Jansson, Volkmar; Maier, Markus; Delius, Michael

2005-04-01

316

In vitro degradation behavior and bioactivity of magnesium-Bioglass(®) composites for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

To improve the bioactivity and degradation behavior of biodegradable magnesium, biodegradable metal matrix composites with the ZK30 magnesium alloy as the matrix and bioactive glass (BG, 45S5) as the reinforcement were prepared. The microstructures of the ZK30-BG composites showed homogeneous dispersion of BG particles throughout the matrix. XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of the morphological characteristics and composition of BG particles in the composites. Immersion tests in the minimum essential medium with Earle's balanced salts at 37°C showed that the composites with 5 and 10% BG had lower rates of degradation and hydrogen evolution than the matrix alloy. In addition, the tests confirmed that the composites possessed an enhanced ability to induce calcium and phosphate ion deposition on sample surfaces during degradation, suggesting accelerated surface mineralization that would lead to improved bioactivity when compared with the matrix alloy. In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed that the ionic products of the composites formed during degradation possessed a superior ability to support the survival, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells to those of the ZK30 alloy. The ZK30-BG composites with enhanced bioactivity and reduced degradation rate could be promising biodegradable materials for orthopedic implants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 100B: 437-446, 2012. PMID:22121143

Huan, Zhiguang; Leeflang, Sander; Zhou, Jie; Zhai, Wanyin; Chang, Jiang; Duszczyk, Jurek

2012-02-01

317

[Orthopedic aspects of Crohn disease. Examples of extra-intestinal organ manifestations].  

PubMed

Articular changes in Chron's disease represent extraintestinal organic manifestations which generally take the form of so-called enteropathic synovitis. Articular alterations - diagnosed as non-specific arthritis in the great majority of cases--may precede the intestinal disease. In very rare cases it can be shown that the joints display histological changes typical of Morbus Crohn. The etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of the articular changes are not clear. Probable factors are: autoimmune disease, stimulation of the immunological system by exogenous antigens, induction of a self-sustaining inflammatory process, and demonstrable circulation of antigen-antibody complexes. Genetic factors seem to play a role (familial disposition). A pure "colonic Crohn" (= colitis granulomatosa) leads to a higher degree of articular alteration than a pure "small-intestine Crohn" (= ileitis terminalis). The joints preferentially affected are in the region of the lower extremities (knee and ankle joints). Concomitant Bekhterev's disease (spondylitiis ankylopoietica) is found in 7-10% of cases. Osteomyelitis represents a rare and serious complication: it can appear in the course of chronic Chron's disease (mainly with intestinal fistulas), especially in the region of the pelvic bones. Further aspects of interest from an orthopedic viewpoint are hypertrophic osteoarthropathy with periossal neoformation, granulomatous changes in the bone itself, and aseptic osteonecrosis. PMID:2094208

Sons, H U; Dannberg, A; Jerosch, J; Dellmann, A

1990-10-01

318

Surface oxidation of UHMWPE for orthopedic use increases apoptosis and necrosis in human granulocytes.  

PubMed

Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in orthopedic prosthesis is often sterilized with gamma-rays and the subsequent oxidation was suggested to favor the in vivo wear. UHMWPE debries produced by wearing trigger an inflammatory response that can led to the implant failure. To explore direct effects of UHMWPE oxidation on immunocompetent cells and their possible role in the prosthesis failure, peripheral blood cells (PBCs) have been grown for 24 and 48 h onto plastic (Ct), UHMWPE (PE) and heat oxidized UHMWPE (PEOx) discs. PBCs necrosis and apoptosis were assessed in flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. After 24 h, no statistically significant differences were observed in the amount of apoptotic and necrotic cells between Ct, PE and PEOx samples while, after 48 h, both necrotic and apoptotic cells were strongly increased in PEOx samples where also the granulocytes population appeared strongly reduced (6.3+/-1.1%) compared to PE (10.5+/-1.5%) and Ct (15.1+/-0.9%) samples. We conclude that surface oxidation may interfere with prosthetic failure and/or integration via granulocytes modulation. PMID:15348470

Renò, F; Sabbatini, M; Cannas, M

2003-03-01

319

An overview of recent advances in designing orthopedic and craniofacial implants.  

PubMed

Great deal of research is still going on in the field of orthopedic and craniofacial implant development to resolve various issues being faced by the industry today. Despite several disadvantages of the metallic implants, they continue to be used, primarily because of their superior mechanical properties. In order to minimize the harmful effects of the metallic implants and its by-products, several modifications are being made to these materials, for instance nickel-free stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys are being introduced to eliminate the toxic effects of nickel being released from the alloys, introduce metallic implants with lower modulus, reduce the cost of these alloys by replacing rare elements with less expensive elements etc. New alloys like tantalum, niobium, zirconium, and magnesium are receiving attention given their satisfying mechanical and biological properties. Non-oxide ceramics like silicon nitride and silicon carbide are being currently developed as a promising implant material possessing a combination of properties such as good wear and corrosion resistance, increased ductility, good fracture and creep resistance, and relatively high hardness in comparison to alumina. Polymer/magnesium composites are being developed to improve mechanical properties as well as retain polymer's property of degradation. Recent advances in orthobiologics are proving interesting as well. This paper thus deals with the latest improvements being made to the existing implant materials and includes new materials being introduced in the field of biomaterials. PMID:23766134

Mantripragada, Venkata P; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

2013-11-01

320

Development of nanofluorapatite polymer-based composite for bioactive orthopedic implants and prostheses.  

PubMed

Fluorapatite with low solubility is a promising biomaterial due to its structure, which is similar to hydroxyapatite. In this study a bioactive composite of nanofluorapatite (n-FA) and polyamide 12 (PA12) was fabricated. The results revealed that the mechanical properties (such as compressive strength and elastic modulus), hydrophilicity, and antibacterial properties of n-FA/PA12 composite were obviously improved by adding n-FA into PA12 as compared with PA12. In addition, cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on n-FA/PA12 composite was significantly higher than with PA12, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on the n-FA/PA12 composite was expressed at obviously higher levels as compared with PA12. The results suggest that n-FA/PA12 composite could support cell proliferation and differentiation, showing good cytocompatibility. Histological evaluation indicates that n-FA/PA12 composite enhances the efficiency of new bone formation with the introduction of n-FA into PA12, and the quantity of the newly formed bone for n-FA/PA12 composite is significantly higher than with PA12. In conclusion, n-FA/PA12 composite exhibits good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, which might be used for various orthopedic prostheses and dental implants. PMID:25143735

Hu, Gangfeng; Wang, Hui; Yao, Xiaocong; Bi, Dawei; Zhu, Gang; Tang, Songchao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Lili; Tong, Peijian; Xiao, Luwei

2014-01-01

321

Collagen self-assembly on orthopedic magnesium biomaterials surface and subsequent bone cell attachment.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg) biomaterials are a new generation of biodegradable materials and have promising potential for orthopedic applications. After implantation in bone tissues, these materials will directly interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules and bone cells. Type I collagen, the major component of bone ECM, forms the architecture scaffold that provides physical support for bone cell attachment. However, it is still unknown how Mg substrate affects collagen assembly on top of it as well as subsequent cell attachment and growth. Here, we studied the effects of collagen monomer concentration, pH, assembly time, and surface roughness of two Mg materials (pure Mg and AZ31) on collagen fibril formation. Results showed that formation of fibrils would not initiate until the monomer concentration reached a certain level depending on the type of Mg material. The thickness of collagen fibril increased with the increase of assembly time. The structures of collagen fibrils formed on semi-rough surfaces of Mg materials have a high similarity to that of native bone collagen. Next, cell attachment and growth after collagen assembly were examined. Materials with rough surface showed higher collagen adsorption but compromised bone cell attachment. Interestingly, surface roughness and collagen structure did not affect cell growth on AZ31 for up to a week. Findings from this work provide some insightful information on Mg-tissue interaction at the interface and guidance for future surface modifications of Mg biomaterials. PMID:25303459

Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

2014-01-01

322

Comparison of functional network integrity in TBI and orthopedic controlpatientsusing graph-theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

The integrity of functional brain networks inpatients (n=12) diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was compared to age-matched subjects (n=12) with orthopedic injury (OI) during a working memory task. A graph-theoretical analysis algorithm was developed and integrated into the AFNI software. Functional networks with correlations between time courses as edge-weights were automatically created and their integrity was quantified by determining the statistical significance of the following network parameters: diameter, density, clustering coefficient, average path length, two largest eigenvalues, spectral density, and minimum eccentricity. Network graphs using a spring-embedded layout (Cytoscape) and a 3D layout integrated into the anatomical space (Paraview) were created. Functional images were composed by color-coding the degree of each voxel (network node) and transformed into Talairach space. Using the AFNI Talairach atlas, degrees of distinct brain regions were quantified. Reduced averaged BOLD responses were found for the TBI group with a higher network integrity potentially as a compensatory mechanism. Regions of high functional connectivity varied in between groups with largest differences in the cerebellum, the temporal lobes and deep brain structures including the lentiform nucleus, caudate and thalamus. PMID:24109950

Karmonik, Christof; Clark, Jessica; Fung, Steve H; Grossman, Robert G; High, Walter; Jiang, Yang

2013-01-01

323

Mathematical Outcomes and Working Memory in Children With TBI and Orthopedic Injury  

PubMed Central

This study compared mathematical outcomes in children with predominantly moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI; n =50) or orthopedic injury (OI; n=47) at 2 and 24 months post-injury. Working memory and its contribution to math outcomes at 24 months post-injury was also examined. Participants were administered an experimental cognitive addition task and standardized measures of calculation, math fluency, and applied problems; as well as experimental measures of verbal and visual-spatial working memory. Although children with TBI did not have deficits in foundational math fact retrieval, they performed more poorly than OIs on standardized measures of math. In the TBI group, performance on standardized measures was predicted by age at injury, socioeconomic status, and the duration of impaired consciousness. Children with TBI showed impairments on verbal, but not visual working memory relative to children with OI. Verbal working memory mediated group differences on math calculations and applied problems at 24 months post-injury. Children with TBI have difficulties in mathematics, but do not have deficits in math fact retrieval, a signature deficit of math disabilities. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical cognition and disability and the role of working memory in math learning and performance for children with TBI. PMID:23164058

Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Prasad, Mary; Johnson, Chad P.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda

2013-01-01

324

Isocyanate exposure assessment combining industrial hygiene methods with biomonitoring for end users of orthopedic casting products.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a 'dry' and 'wet' application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat. PMID:23680587

Pearson, Ronald L; Logan, Perry W; Kore, Anita M; Strom, Constance M; Brosseau, Lisa M; Kingston, Richard L

2013-07-01

325

Isocyanate Exposure Assessment Combining Industrial Hygiene Methods with Biomonitoring for End Users of Orthopedic Casting Products  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat. PMID:23680587

Pearson, Ronald L.

2013-01-01

326

Anatomy and physical examination of the knee menisci: a narrative review of the orthopedic literature  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to review the physical examination tests available to a practitioner in order to arrive at a clinical diagnosis or suspicion of a meniscal lesion. Background: The menisci transmit weight bearing forces and increase stability of the knee. The menisci also facilitate nutrition, provide lubrication and shock absorption for the articular cartilage and promote knee proprioception. The combinations of torsional and axial loading appear to be the cause of most meniscal injuries. Diagnosis of acute knee injuries has long been a topic for discussion throughout the orthopedic literature. Many clinical tests and diagnostic studies have been developed to increase the clinician’s ability to accurately diagnose these types of disorders of the knee. Conclusion: The accuracy of all diagnostic tests is thought to be dependant upon the skill of the examiner, and the severity and location of the injury. The multitude of tests described to assess meniscal lesions suggests that none are consistently reliable. However, recent research has focused on a composite score to accurately predict meniscus lesions. The combination of a comprehensive history, multiple physical tests and diagnostic imaging for confirmation is typical for a clinical meniscal lesion diagnosis while the gold standard remains the arthroscopic procedure itself. PMID:20037697

Chivers, Michael D.; Howitt, Scott D.

2009-01-01

327

Orthopedic surgeons' and neurologists' attitudes towards second opinions in the Israeli healthcare system: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Second opinion is a treatment ratification tool that may critically influence diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Second opinions constitute one of the largest expenditures of the supplementary health insurance programs provided by the Israeli health funds. The scarcity of data on physicians’ attitudes toward second opinion motivated this study to explore those attitudes within the Israeli healthcare system. Methods We interviewed 35 orthopedic surgeons and neurologists in Israel and qualitatively analyzed the data using the Grounded Theory approach. Results As a common tool, second opinion reflects the broader context of the Israeli healthcare system, specifically tensions associated with health inequalities. We identified four issues: (1) inequalities between central and peripheral regions of Israel; (2) inequalities between private and public settings; (3) implementation gap between the right to a second opinion and whether it is covered by the National Health Insurance Law; and (4) tension between the authorities of physicians and religious leaders. The physicians mentioned that better mechanisms should be implemented for guiding patients to an appropriate consultant for a second opinion and for making an informed choice between the two opinions. Conclusions While all the physicians agreed on the importance of the second opinion as a tool, they raised concerns about the way it is provided and utilized. To be optimally implemented, second opinion should be institutionalized and regulated. The National Health Insurance Law should strive to provide the mechanisms to access second opinion as stipulated in the Patient’s Rights Law. Further studies are needed to assess the patients' perspectives. PMID:22913507

2012-01-01

328

Direct manipulation of virtual objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interacting with a Virtual Environment (VE) generally requires the user to correctly perceive the relative position and orientation of virtual objects. For applications requiring interaction in personal space, the user may also need to accurately judge the position of the virtual object relative to that of a real object, for example, a virtual button and the user's real hand. This is difficult since VEs generally only provide a subset of the cues experienced in the real world. Complicating matters further, VEs presented by currently available visual displays may be inaccurate or distorted due to technological limitations. Fundamental physiological and psychological aspects of vision as they pertain to the task of object manipulation were thoroughly reviewed. Other sensory modalities -- proprioception, haptics, and audition -- and their cross-interactions with each other and with vision are briefly discussed. Visual display technologies, the primary component of any VE, were canvassed and compared. Current applications and research were gathered and categorized by different VE types and object interaction techniques. While object interaction research abounds in the literature, pockets of research gaps remain. Direct, dexterous, manual interaction with virtual objects in Mixed Reality (MR), where the real, seen hand accurately and effectively interacts with virtual objects, has not yet been fully quantified. An experimental test bed was designed to provide the highest accuracy attainable for salient visual cues in personal space. Optical alignment and user calibration were carefully performed. The test bed accommodated the full continuum of VE types and sensory modalities for comprehensive comparison studies. Experimental designs included two sets, each measuring depth perception and object interaction. The first set addressed the extreme end points of the Reality-Virtuality (R-V) continuum -- Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and Reality Environment (RE). This validated, linked, and extended several previous research findings, using one common test bed and participant pool. The results provided a proven method and solid reference points for further research. The second set of experiments leveraged the first to explore the full R-V spectrum and included additional, relevant sensory modalities. It consisted of two full-factorial experiments providing for rich data and key insights into the effect of each type of environment and each modality on accuracy and timeliness of virtual object interaction. The empirical results clearly showed that mean depth perception error in personal space was less than four millimeters whether the stimuli presented were real, virtual, or mixed. Likewise, mean error for the simple task of pushing a button was less than four millimeters whether the button was real or virtual. Mean task completion time was less than one second. Key to the high accuracy and quick task performance time observed was the correct presentation of the visual cues, including occlusion, stereoscopy, accommodation, and convergence. With performance results already near optimal level with accurate visual cues presented, adding proprioception, audio, and haptic cues did not significantly improve performance. Recommendations for future research include enhancement of the visual display and further experiments with more complex tasks and additional control variables.

Nguyen, Long K.

329

An optimal control approach to robust control of robot manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new optimal control approach to robust control of robot manipulators in the framework of Lin (1997). Due to the unknown load placed on a manipulator and the other uncertainties in the manipulator dynamics, it is important to design a robust control law that will guarantee the performance of the manipulator under these uncertainties. To solve this robust

Feng Lin; Robert D. Brandt

1998-01-01

330

An optimal control approach to robust control of robot manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new optimal control approach to the robust control of robot manipulators in the framework of Lin et al. Because of the unknown load placed on a manipulator and the other uncertainties in the manipulator dynamics, it is important to design a robust control law that will guarantee the performance of the manipulator under these uncertainties. To solve

Feng Lin; Robert D. Brandt

1996-01-01

331

Control of Mobile Manipulator using a Virtual Impedance Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for controlling mobile manipulators for assist systems. The mobile manipulator should provide good manipulability and stability at any time. Most of mobile assist systems have a heavy mobile base for stability. We propose an approach for motion control of a mobile manipulator to remove unnecessary movement of the mobile base. In our proposed scheme, the mobile

Tomohito Takubol; Hirohiko Arai; Kazuo Tanie

2002-01-01

332

The experimental performance of a mobile manipulator control algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of an experimental study of a motion control algorithm for mobile manipulators are presented. The dynamic interactions between a mobile manipulator and its vehicle are shown to lead to poor performance when a conventional fixed-base controller, which neglects these interactions, is used. The mobile manipulator control algorithm, which accounts for dynamic vehicle motions caused by manipulator motions, is shown

Norbert A. M. Hootsmans; Steven Dubowsky; Patrick Z. Mo

1992-01-01

333

Task space analysis of multiple mobile manipulator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an unified approach on the task space analysis of multiple wheeled mobile manipulators coordinating with each other. The mobile manipulators are assumed to transport a large object. We derive manipulability ellipsoid, both kinematic and dynamic, for the whole system where all the locomotion and the manipulation as well as the object itself are taken into account. The

Yoshio Yamamoto; Xiaoping Yun

1999-01-01

334

Space truss assembly using teleoperated manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Teleoperator experiments were conducted which have demonstrated that a realistic, complex task, typical of those accomplished on-orbit by EVA astronauts, can be done in a smooth, timely manner with manipulators remotely controlled by humans. The real concerns were: (1) do manipulators have sufficient dexterity for these tasks, (2) can sufficient information from the remote site be provided to permit adequate teleoperator control, (3) can reasonable times relative to EVA times be achieved, (4) can the task be completed without frequent and/or damaging impacts among the task components and the manipulators? Positive answers were found to all of these concerns. Tasks times, operator fatigue, and smoothness of operation could be improved by designing the task components and the manipulators for greater compatibility. The data recorded supplements a data base of performance metrics for the same task done in the water immersion training facility as well as space flight and provides management with an objective basis for deciding how and where to apply manipulators in space.

Hankins, Walter W., III; Mixon, Randolph W.; Jones, Howard C.; Burgess, Thomas W.

1987-01-01

335

Better with Byzantine: Manipulation-Optimal Mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanism is manipulable if it is in some agents’ best interest to misrepresent their private information. The revelation principle establishes that, roughly, anything that can be accomplished by a manipulable mechanism can also be accomplished with a truthful mechanism. Yet agents often fail to play their optimal manipulations due to computational limitations or various flavors of incompetence and cognitive biases. Thus, manipulable mechanisms in particular should anticipate byzantine play. We study manipulation-optimal mechanisms: mechanisms that are undominated by truthful mechanisms when agents act fully rationally, and do better than any truthful mechanism if any agent fails to act rationally in any way. This enables the mechanism designer to do better than the revelation principle would suggest, and obviates the need to predict byzantine agents’ irrational behavior. We prove a host of possibility and impossibility results for the concept which have the impression of broadly limiting possibility. These results are largely in line with the revelation principle, although the considerations are more subtle and the impossibility not universal.

Othman, Abraham; Sandholm, Tuomas

336

Chapter 45. Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom Interaction Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom Interaction  

E-print Network

Chapter 45. Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom Interaction 45-1 Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom atomic clock operating below the standard quantum limit Sponsors DARPA National Science Foundation to a single measurement using N/Tc atoms. For a given total measurement time the stability improves

337

Design, simulations and optimization of a tracked mobile robot manipulator with hybrid locomotion and manipulation capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new mobile robot design based on hybridization of the mobile platform and manipulator arm as one entity for robot locomotion as well as manipulation. The novel mechanical design is described in detail. To analyse the design, a virtual prototype tool was developed with ADAMS software for multi-body dynamic motion simulations of the complete robotic system. The

Pinhas Ben-tzvi; Andrew A. Goldenberg; Jean W. Zu

2008-01-01

338

ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees  

E-print Network

ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees 8/10/01 1 ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees Christian M. Zmasek and Sean R. Eddy Howard Hughes Medical Institute Department of Genetics Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO 63110 USA Email

Eddy, Sean

339

Characterizing optimally fault-tolerant manipulators based on relative manipulability indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors examine the problem of designing nominal manipulator Jacobians that are optimally fault tolerant to one or more joint failures. In this work, optimality is defined in terms of the worst case relative manipulability index. While this approach is applicable to both serial and parallel mechanisms, it is especially applicable to parallel mechanisms with a limited

Rodney G. Roberts; Hyun Geun Yu; Anthony A. Maciejewski

2007-01-01

340

Manipulating achievement motivation in physical education by manipulating the motivational climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of manipulating the motivational climate on achievement goal orientations, satisfaction\\/boredom, and perceived competence in physical education (PE). Participants were 40 English students (M age = 15.9, SD = 0.51) participating either in an experimental group that included a series of highly task involving lessons, based on the manipulation of Epstein's (18, 19) TARGET structures, or

Daniel Weigand; Shane Burton

2002-01-01

341

A Molecular Analysis of Training Multiple versus Single Manipulations to Establish a Generalized Manipulative Imitation Repertoire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the necessity of training multiple versus single manipulative-imitations per object in order to establish generalized manipulative-imitation. Training took place in Croyden Avenue School's Early Childhood Developmental Delay preschool classroom in Kalamazoo, MI. Two groups of 3 children each were trained to imitate in order to…

Hartley, Breanne K.

2009-01-01

342

Designing a strategy to implement optimal conservative treatments in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis in orthopedic practice: a study protocol of the BART-OP study  

PubMed Central

Background National and international evidence-based guidelines for hip and knee osteoarthritis recommend to start with (a combination of) conservative treatments, followed by surgical intervention if a patient does not respond sufficiently to conservative treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that conservative treatments are not optimally used in orthopedic practice. Our study aims to quantify the use of conservative treatments in Dutch orthopedic practice and to explore the barriers and facilitators for the use of conservative treatments that should be taken into account in a strategy to improve the embedding of conservative treatments in hip and knee osteoarthritis in orthopedic practice. Methods This study consists of three phases. First, current use of conservative treatments in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis will be explored using an internet-based survey among at least 100 patients to identify the underused conservative treatments. Second, barriers and facilitators for the use of conservative treatments in orthopedic practice will be identified using semi-structured interviews among 10 orthopedic surgeons and 5 patients. The interviews will be followed by an internet-based survey among approximately 450 orthopedic surgeons and at least 100 patients in which the identified barriers and facilitators will be ranked by importance. Finally, an implementation strategy will be developed based on the results of the previous phases using intervention mapping. Discussion The developed strategy is likely to result in an optimal and standardized use of conservative treatment options in hip and knee osteoarthritis in orthopedic practice, because it is focused on identified barriers and facilitators. In addition, the results of this study can be used as an example for optimizing the use of conservative care in other patient groups. In a subsequent study, the developed implementation strategy will be assessed on its effectiveness, feasibility and costs. PMID:24548844

2014-01-01

343

Epidemiology of Hand Injuries in Children Presenting to an Orthopedic Trauma Center in Southeast of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Hand injuries are among the most common childhood injuries. No study has been performed regarding the epidemiology of hand injuries in the pediatric population of Iran. This study aimed to examine the epidemiology of hand injuries among children in southeast of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed via census sampling on patients, aged 16 years or less, with a final diagnosis of hand injury. Patients presenting to the orthopedic department of Khatam-al-Anbia General Hospitalof Zahedan, Iran, were selected from March 2012 to December 2013. Data were analyzed retrospectively, using a chart review. Results: Two-hundred patients (136 males and 64 females with the mean age of 13±2.8 years) with 205 hand injuries were included in this study. As the results indicated, door-related injuries were the most common type (25%), accounting for 24% and 28% of injuries in male and female patients, respectively (P=0.016). Most injuries occurred at home (64%) and the lowest number was reported at school(22%) (P=0.012). Compared to boys, girls were more likely to be injured at home (78% vs. 57%) (P=0.13). In addition, the dominant hand was mostly injured by doors (28%). The most common type of injury was laceration(81%) and the least common type was finger amputation (7%); also, children with finger amputation were significantly younger than those with other types of hand injuries (P<0.001). Thumb alone (20%) and index and middle fingers together with anequal percentage (3.5%) were the most commonly injured digits. Also, the mean hospitalization cost was 297± 38 dollars. Conclusions: Most hand injuries occurred at home and were door-related; they were also more frequentamong younger children. Prospective studies in order to identify specific protective door devices could potentially decrease the frequency of these injures. PMID:25386587

Mirzaie, Maryam; Parsa, Ali; Salehi, Maryam; Dahmardehei, Mostafa; Moghadam, Mohammad Hallaj; Mirzaie, Neda

2014-01-01

344

Postmarketing safety experience with edoxaban in Japan for thromboprophylaxis following major orthopedic surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Edoxaban is an oral, once-daily, selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor approved in Japan for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following major orthopedic surgery. Currently, edoxaban is in Phase III clinical development for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation, and for the treatment and prevention of recurrences of venous thromboembolism. This report describes the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported during early postmarketing phase vigilance from the time of its commercial launch in Japan. Materials and methods All spontaneously reported ADRs following edoxaban use received by Daiichi Sankyo during early postmarketing phase vigilance from July 19, 2011, to January 18, 2012, were entered into the safety database and included in this review. Approximately 20,000 patients were estimated to have been treated with edoxaban. Results The mean age of patients was 74.2 years, their mean weight was 59.4 kg, and approximately 70% were female. A total of 67 ADRs were reported in 56 patients, of which the majority included bleeding events (51 ADRs in 42 patients). Of these, 15 ADRs (in 14 patients) were serious, including cerebral hemorrhage (n = 1), gastric hemorrhage (n = 2; gastric hemorrhage [n = 1] and gastric ulcer hemorrhage [n = 1]), and surgical-site hemorrhage (n = 12; hemorrhage [n = 6], subcutaneous hemorrhage [n = 3], wound hemorrhage [n = 2], and wound hematoma [n = 1]). Most ADRs occurred within the first week of treatment and there were no fatalities. Nonserious ADRs associated with bleeding that occurred in >1 patient included subcutaneous hemorrhage (n = 9), wound hemorrhage (n = 5), postprocedural hematoma (n = 4), anemia (n = 4), and hemarthrosis (n = 3). Other nonserious ADRs not associated with bleeding and occurring in >1 patient included abnormal hepatic function (n = 4) and diarrhea (n = 2). Conclusion Safety data from the first 6 months of postmarketing experience with edoxaban did not identify any unforeseen safety signals, consistent with the known safety profile of edoxaban. PMID:24124376

Kuroda, Yasufumi; Hirayama, Chie; Hotoda, Hitoshi; Nishikawa, Yasuhiro; Nishiwaki, Akinori

2013-01-01

345

Biocompatibility Issues with Modern Implants in Bone - A Review for Clinical Orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Skeletal defects may result from traumatic, infectious, congenital or neoplastic processes and are considered to be a challenge for reconstructive surgery. Although the autologous bone graft is still the “gold standard”, there is continuing demand for bone substitutes because of associated disadvantages, such as limited supply and potential donor side morbidity [1]. This is not only true for indications in orthopedic and craniomaxillofacial surgeries, but also in repairing endodontic defects and in dental implantology. Before clinical use all new bone substitute materials have to be validated for their osseoconductive and - depending on the composition of the material also –inductive ability, as well as for their long-term biocompatibility in bone. Serving this purpose various bone healing models to test osteocompatibility and inflammatory potential of a novel material on one hand and, on the other hand, non-healing osseous defects to assess the healing potential of a bone substitute material have been developed. Sometimes the use of more than one implantation site can be helpful to provide a wide range of information about a new material [2]. Important markers for biocompatibility and inflammatory responses are the cell types appearing after the implantation of foreign material. There, especially the role of foreign body giant cells (FBGC) is discussed controversial in the pertinent literature, such that it is not clear whether their presence marks an incompatibility of the biomaterial, or whether it belongs to a normal degradation behavior of modern, resorbable biomaterials. This publication is highlighting the different views currently existing about the function of FBGC that appear in response to biomaterials at the implantation sites. A short overview of the general classes of biomaterials, where FBGC may appear as cellular response, is added for clarity, but may not be complete. PMID:19506701

Nuss, Katja M.R; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

2008-01-01

346

Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

1989-01-01

347

Force reflecting hand controller for manipulator teleoperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A force reflecting hand controller based upon a six degree of freedom fully parallel mechanism, often termed a Stewart Platform, has been designed, constructed, and tested as an integrated system with a slave robot manipulator test bed. A force reflecting hand controller comprises a kinesthetic device capable of transmitting position and orientation commands to a slave robot manipulator while simultaneously representing the environmental interaction forces of the slave manipulator back to the operator through actuators driving the hand controller mechanism. The Stewart Platform was chosen as a novel approach to improve force reflecting teleoperation because of its inherently high ratio of load generation capability to system mass content and the correspondingly high dynamic bandwidth. An additional novelty of the program was to implement closed loop force and torque control about the hand controller mechanism by equipping the handgrip with a six degree of freedom force and torque measuring cell. The mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems are discussed and system tests are presented.

Bryfogle, Mark D.

1991-01-01

348

Application of proximity sensors to robotic manipulations  

E-print Network

1992 Major Subject: Bioengineering APPLICATION OF PROXIMITY SENSORS TO ROBOTIC MANIPULATIONS A Thesis by RAINER J. FINK Approved as to style and content by: Geral . Miller (Cha' f Committee) G. Hog ( ad of Dep tment) CI z C ( I Brad D. Etter... 1992 Major Subject: Bioengineering APPLICATION OF PROXIMITY SENSORS TO ROBOTIC MANIPULATIONS A Thesis by RAINER J. FINK Approved as to style and content by: Geral . Miller (Cha' f Committee) G. Hog ( ad of Dep tment) CI z C ( I Brad D. Etter...

Fink, Rainer J.

2012-06-07

349

Control automation in undersea manipulation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for the successful use of automated manipulation in an undersea environment are discussed, and initial specifications for systems which share control between a human operator and an autonomous control element are established. Areas of concern include: (1) objectives of automation; (2) characteristics of the underwater task; (3) hierarchy of control algorithms; (4) man/machine interface; (5) sensory feedback; and (6) general system organization. Special emphasis is placed on the solutions to the problem of controlling an undersea manipulator which is capable of performing certain automatic functions and implementing these solutions using current technology. Current capabilities for control automation are summarized.

Freedy, A.; Weltman, G.

1975-01-01

350

Hybrid position/force control of manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new conceptually simple approach to controlling compliant motions of a robot manipulator is presented. The 'hybrid' technique described combines force and torque information with positional data to satisfy simultaneous position and force trajectory constraints specified in a convenient task related coordinate system. Analysis, simulation, and experiments are used to evaluate the controller's ability to execute trajectories using feedback from a force sensing wrist and from position sensors found in the manipulator joints. The results show that the method achieves stable, accurate control of force and position trajectories for a variety of test conditions.

Raibert, M. H.; Craig, J. J.

1980-01-01

351

Interactive segmentation for manipulation in unstructured environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To perform successful manipulation, robots de- pend on information about objects in their environment. In unstructured environments, such information cannot be given to the robot a priori. It is thus critical for the robot to be able to continuously acquire task-specific information about objects. Towards this goal, we present a robust perceptual skill for identifying, tracking, and segmenting objects in

Jacqueline Kenney; Thomas Buckley; Oliver Brock

2009-01-01

352

Large kinematic error propagation in revolute manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how errors propagate in serial revolute manipulators is important for developing better designs and planning algorithms, as well as understanding the practical limitations on accuracy of multi- link arms. In this paper we provide a systematic propagation method- ology and numerical example that illustrates how large kinematic errors propagate by convolution on the Euclidean motion group.

Yunfeng Wang; Gregory S. Chirikjian

353

Phase conjugating lens for image manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, for the first time, image manipulation using a dual- sided phase conjugated lens is discussed. We demonstrate the ability of the lens to magnify and de-magnify images by changing the frequency of the pump wave. In addition we demonstrate the focusing and displacement capabilities of the lens due to amplitude or phase control of the transmitted field.

Oleksandr Malyuskin; Vincent Fusco

2010-01-01

354

Humanoid Teleoperation for Whole Body Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of successful telemanipulation of large, heavy objects by a humanoid robot. Using a sin- gle joystick the operator controls walking and whole body manipulation along arbitrary paths for up to ten minutes of continuous execution. The robot grasps, walks, pushes, pulls, turns and re-grasps a 55kg range of loads on casters. Our telemanipulation framework changes reference frames

Mike Stilman; Koichi Nishiwaki; Satoshi Kagami

2008-01-01

355

Learning motivated by a manipulation drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four rhesus monkeys were given 12 days' experience in manipulating a mechanical puzzle whose solution did not lead to any special incentive such as food or water. Four matched control subjects had the puzzles placed in their home cages the same period of time, but unassembled  The performance of the two groups was then compared  The experimental monkeys were more

Harry F. Harlow; Margaret Kuenne Harlow; Donald R. Meyer

1950-01-01

356

Planning for Dexterous Manipulation with Sliding Contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dexterous manipulation refers to the skillful execution of object reorienting and repositioning maneuvers, especially when performed within the grasp of an articulated mechani cal hand. In this paper we study the problem of gaining a secure and enveloping grasp of a two-dimensional object by exploiting sliding at the contacts between the object and the hand. This is done in two

Jeffrey C. Trinkle; Richard P. Paul

1990-01-01

357

Perceptual Manipulations Theory Parentheses create visual groups  

E-print Network

is symbolic thought? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Lakoff, G. and Nuñez University, Bloomington, Indiana SYMBOLIC REASONING = NOTATION MANIPULATION Theories of general reasoning. General-Purpose Modular Account: Central processing is generally taken to consist of a repository of rules

Landy, David

358

A framework for planning dexterous manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a general methodology based on R.S. Desai's (1988) concept of contact formations and combine it with a model of contact mechanics to solve the dexterous manipulation planning problem. The model of contact mechanics supports the analysis of contact situations with multiple sliding contacts, allowing it to solve problems not solvable if only rolling contacts are allowed. Based

Jeffrey C. Trinkle; Jerry J. Hunter

1991-01-01

359

Dextrous Manipulation by Rolling and Finger Gaiting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many practical dextrous manipulation tasks involve large-scale motion of the grasped object while main- taining a stable grasp. To plan such tasks, one must control both the motion of the object and the contact locations, while also adhering to the workspace con- straints typical of multi-fingered hands. In this paper, we integrate the relevant theories of contact kinemat- ics, nonholonomic

Li Han; Jeffrey C. Trinkle

1998-01-01

360

Manipulating surface states in topological insulator nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topological insulators show unique properties resulting from massless, Dirac-like surface states that are protected by time-reversal symmetry. Theory predicts that the surface states exhibit quantum spin Hall effect that allows for spins to transport without scattering. However, to date, the direct manipulation of these states with external means remains a significant challenge owing to the predominance of bulk carriers. Here

Faxian Xiu; Liang He; Kang L. Wang

2011-01-01

361

Algebraic Manipulation as Motion within a Landscape  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that students rearranging the terms of a mathematical equation in order to separate variables prior to integration use gestures and speech to manipulate the mathematical terms on the page. They treat the terms of the equation as physical objects in a landscape, capable of being moved around. We analyze our results within the tradition of…

Wittmann, Michael C.; Flood, Virginia J.; Black, Katrina E.

2013-01-01

362

Flexible manipulator control experiments and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling and control design for flexible manipulators, both from an experimental and analytical viewpoint, are described. From the application perspective, an ongoing effort within the laboratory environment at the Ohio State University, where experimentation on a single link flexible arm is underway is described. Several unique features of this study are described here. First, the manipulator arm is slewed by a direct drive dc motor and has a rigid counterbalance appendage. Current experimentation is from two viewpoints: (1) rigid body slewing and vibration control via actuation with the hub motor, and (2) vibration suppression through the use of structure-mounted proof-mass actuation at the tip. Such an application to manipulator control is of interest particularly in design of space-based telerobotic control systems, but has received little attention to date. From an analytical viewpoint, parameter estimation techniques within the closed-loop for self-tuning adaptive control approaches are discussed. Also introduced is a control approach based on output feedback and frequency weighting to counteract effects of spillover in reduced-order model design. A model of the flexible manipulator based on experimental measurements is evaluated for such estimation and control approaches.

Yurkovich, S.; Ozguner, U.; Tzes, A.; Kotnik, P. T.

1987-01-01

363

Electrical Forces For Microscale Cell Manipulation  

E-print Network

differentiation (3) to detecting pathogenic bac- teria in food supplies (4), cell-based assays are crucial that our fingers cannot grasp. Many techniques exist to physically manipulate cells, including optical tweezers (5), acoustic forces (6), and surface modification (7). Electrical forces are an increas- ingly

Voldman, Joel

364

A micromagnetic actuator for biomolecule manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and low cost way to attract and mix magnetic beads is reported, in which microserpentines wires shape were used in combination with a permanent magnet to polarize and magnetically saturate beads. The research included the design, modelling and an empirical evaluation of a novel device for manipulation of paramagnetic beads. The results reported indicate that the performance of

Hervé Rostaing; Hichem Chetouani; Marin Gheorghe; Paul Galvin

2007-01-01

365

Concurrent manipulation of binary search trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concurrent manipulation of a binary search tree is considered in this paper. The systems presented can support any number of concurrent processes which perform searching, insertion, deletion, and rotation (reorganization) on the tree, but allow any process to lock only a constant number of nodes at any time. Also, in the systems, searches are essentially never blocked. The concurrency

H. T. Kung; Philip L. Lehman

1980-01-01

366

Strengthening Controls from Within: Manipulated by Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since friendship and peer relationships are particularly important to teenagers, students with passive aggressive behaviors frequently and intentionally "set up" more aggressive peers to get them to react and to lose control, guaranteeing a behavioral consequence. As a result, the victim of being set up or "manipulated" also ends up being…

Brasler, Claire E.; Laursen, Erik K.

2004-01-01

367

Tip velocity tracking control for elastic manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique approach to tip velocity control of an elastic robotic manipulator is presented. This method has potential application in teleoperation control and in applications where the trajectory is generated in real-time. Control is effected by reducing the tip velocity tracking error between the desired tip velocity and the measured tip velocity. Thus, in teleoperation, the concept of dead reckoning

Manfred Dieter Martin Sever

1998-01-01

368

Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The industrial and environmental applications for robots with a relatively large workspace has increased significantly in the last few years. To accommodate the demands, the manipulator is usually designed with long, lightweight links that are inherently flexible. Ongoing research at Georgia Tech into the behavior and design of these flexible links is discussed.

Book, Wayne J.

1991-01-01

369

Manipulating the Near Field With Metamaterials  

E-print Network

Manipulating the Near Field With Metamaterials John Pendry #12;September 2004 Optics & Photonics built. At optical frequencies, metamaterial designs that exploit the plasma resonances of a free metal surface are waiting to be exploited. (Facing page) A sphere constructed of metamaterial by David R. Smith

La Rosa, Andres H.

370

Recursive Lagrangian Dynamics of Flexible Manipulator Arms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear equations of motion are developed for flexible manipulator arms consisting of rotary joints that connect pairs of flexible links. Kinematics of both the rotary-joint mo tion and the link deformation are described by 4 X 4 trans formation matrices. The link deflection is assumed small so that the link transformation can be composed of summations of assumed link shapes.

1984-01-01

371

Control of robotic manipulator using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of hierarchical control on a robotic manipulator using fuzzy logic. A decentralized control approach is implemented, i.e., individual controllers control the two links of the robot. The kinematic aspect of the control is treated as the supervisory mode at a higher level and the joint control is treated as the lower level. Fuzzy logic based

Kishan Kumar Kumbla; MO Jamshidi

1994-01-01

372

Two adaptive control structures of robot manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes two simple adaptive control schemes of robot manipulators. The first one is the state feedback control which consists of feedforward from the desired position trajectory, PD feedback from the actual trajectory, and an auxiliary input. The second one is the feedforward\\/feedback control which consists of a feedforward term from the desired position, velocity, and acceleration trajectory based

M. Jamshidi; B. J. Oh; H. Seraji

1992-01-01

373

SDM: selective dynamic manipulation of visualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new set of interactive techniques for 2D and 3D visualizations. This set of techniques is called SDM (Selective Dynamic Manipulation). Selective, indicating our goal for providing a high degree of user control in selecting an object set, in selecting interactive techniques and the properties they affect, and in the degree to which a user

Mei C. Chuah; Steven F. Roth; Joe Mattis; John Kolojejchick

1995-01-01

374

Repetitive learning control of robotic manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis deals with the repetitive learning control of robotic manipulators. The research topic is motivated by the fact that industrial robots usually perform repetitive tasks. Unlike other conventional controllers, the repetitive learning controller can improve the performance of a robot as it repeats the same task. The proposed control strategy has advantages of easy implementation, low cost and better

Jianguo Fu

1994-01-01

375

Repetitive Learning Control of Robotic Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis deals with the repetitive learning control of robotic manipulators. The research topic is motivated by the fact that industrial robots usually perform repetitive tasks. Unlike other conventional controllers, the repetitive learning controller can improve the performance of a robot as it repeats the same task. The proposed control strategy has advantages of easy implementation, low cost and better

Jianguo Fu

1993-01-01

376

Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially

J. A. Greenblatt; W. J. Lewis

1983-01-01

377

Fault Tree Analysis Using Bit Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an efficient technique for computerized fault-tree analysis. The technique is based upon binary coding of events and bit manipulation for tree reduction, reducing both computation time and computer storage requirements. The operations include generation of minimal cut sets for trees containing arbitrary AND and OR logic, and determination of top event existence probability for s-independent minimal cut

Dean B. Wheeler; Jason S. Hsuan; Ralph R. Duersch; Glenn M. Roe

1977-01-01

378

Underwater autonomous manipulation for intervention missions AUVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many underwater intervention tasks are today performed using manned submersibles or remotely operated vehicles in teleoperation mode. Autonomous underwater vehicles are mostly employed in survey applications. In fact, the low bandwidth and significant time delay inherent in acoustic subsea communications represent a considerable obstacle to remotely operate a manipulation system, making it impossible for remote controllers to react to problems

Giacomo Marani; Song K. Choi; Junku Yuh

2009-01-01

379

Genetic manipulation: Impact on man and society  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Transitory Recombination Between Phage and Plasmid Genomes; Gene Cloning and Bacterial Pathogenicity; Sequence Organization of the Vertebrate Genome; Retroviruses and Mammalian Development; Chromosome Translocations and Oncogene Activation; and Genetic Manipulation of Drosophila with Transposable P Elements.

Arber, W.; Illmensee, K.; Peacock, W.J.; Starlinger, P.

1984-01-01

380

Genetic Manipulation of Antibiotic-Producing Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of directed selection techniques and genetic engineering methods for manipulation of antibiotic-producing microorganisms is generating a new era in industrial microbiology. Modern methods, based on advances in the knowledge of the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory mechanisms involved in the induction and repression of genes involved in antibiotic synthesis, provide a means of increasing antibiotic activity. Hence, recombinant DNA

John N. Vournakis; Richard P. Elander

1983-01-01

381

Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators  

SciTech Connect

The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2/sup 0/ deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

1984-04-01

382

Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators  

SciTech Connect

The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

1984-07-01

383

Data-Parallel String-Manipulating Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications ranging from malware detection to graphics to Web security sanitization depend on string transformations, but writing such transformations is a challenge. Making these transformations run in parallel on a cluster of machines or special hardware is an even greater challenge. We answer this challenge with fast, parallel string manipulating code compiled from BEK, a domain-specific language for writing complex

Margus Veanes; David Molnar; Todd Mytkowicz; Benjamin Livshits

2012-01-01

384

Causal Inference of Ambiguous Manipulations Peter Spirtes*  

E-print Network

, there are two sorts of cholesterol: LDL cholesterol causes heart disease, and HDL cholesterol prevents heart variables, such as LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, we will say that manipulation of that variable. Through an observational study, researchers discover, they think, that high cholesterol levels cause heart

Spirtes, Peter

385

Kinematic analysis of the ARID manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The kinematic structure of the ARID manipulator lends itself to simple forward and inverse kinematics analysis. The purpose of this paper is to fully document and verify an existing analysis. The symbolic software package MATHEMATICA was used to produce and verify the equations presented here. In the analysis to follow, the standard Devenit-Hartenberg kinematic parameters of the ARID were employed.

Doty, Keith L

1992-01-01

386

Interactive data manipulation program. FAWTEK user guide  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the interactive data acquisition and manipulation program FAWTEK.'The program allows users of the electron beam data acquisition facility to control the R7912 digitizers and to perform a variety of mathematical operations on data arrays. Commands are entered in a high level language via a Tektronix 4010 terminal console. Each command directive and associated parameters is described in detail.

Boyer, W. B.; Sauer, S.

1980-02-01

387

Disrupting Reconsolidation: Pharmacological and Behavioral Manipulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited modifications. At the same time, the fear-erasing effects…

Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

2011-01-01

388

Direct manipulation of free-form deformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-form deformation (FFD) is a powerful modeling tool, but controlling the shape of an object under complex deformations is often difficult. The interface to FFD in most conventional systems simply represents the underlying mathematics directly; us ers de- scribe deformations by manipulating control points. The difficulty in controlling shape precisely is largely due to the control points being extraneous to

William M. Hsu; John F. Hughes; Henry Kaufman

1992-01-01

389

Genetic Manipulation of Turfgrasses ORNAMENTALS: TURFGRASS  

E-print Network

. Genetic Transformation for Value-Added Traits and Varietal Improvement Genomic and cellular tools allow, competitiveness against weeds, and nutrient uptake efficiency. Tis- sue culture and genetic transformationGenetic Manipulation of Turfgrasses ORNAMENTALS: TURFGRASS Though turfgrass is not food, fiber

390

Controlling an uninstrumented manipulator by visual servoing  

E-print Network

[Nokin 97] is a deep underwater Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV), built and operated by Ifremer, used servoing has already been used to control ROVs (e.g., [Rives 97, Lots 00, Lots 01, Van Der Zwaan 01]). As already stated, the goal is not to control the ROV itself, but to control the motion of its manipulator

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Cell Signaling Experiments Driven by Optical Manipulation  

PubMed Central

Cell signaling involves complex transduction mechanisms in which information released by nearby cells or extracellular cues are transmitted to the cell, regulating fundamental cellular activities. Understanding such mechanisms requires cell stimulation with precise control of low numbers of active molecules at high spatial and temporal resolution under physiological conditions. Optical manipulation techniques, such as optical tweezing, mechanical stress probing or nano-ablation, allow handling of probes and sub-cellular elements with nanometric and millisecond resolution. PicoNewton forces, such as those involved in cell motility or intracellular activity, can be measured with femtoNewton sensitivity while controlling the biochemical environment. Recent technical achievements in optical manipulation have new potentials, such as exploring the actions of individual molecules within living cells. Here, we review the progress in optical manipulation techniques for single-cell experiments, with a focus on force probing, cell mechanical stimulation and the local delivery of active molecules using optically manipulated micro-vectors and laser dissection. PMID:23698758

Difato, Francesco; Pinato, Giulietta; Cojoc, Dan

2013-01-01

392

Opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique for highperformance  

SciTech Connect

This communication first demonstrates bio-compatibility of a recently developed opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique, using microorganisms. Aggregation, patterning, translation, trapping and size-based separation of microorganisms performed with the technique firmly establishes its usefulness for development of a high-performance on-chip bioassay system.

Kwon, Jae-Sung [Purdue University; Ravindranath, Sandeep [Purdue University; Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Irudayaraj, Joseph [Purdue University; Wereley, Steven T. [Purdue University

2012-01-01

393

Depression: Motivational deficit versus social manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hypotheses of depression were tested. One states that depression is a motivational deficit, where motivation equals a person's expectancy of an outcome multiplied by the value of that outcome. An alternative hypothesis states that depression is a social manipulation aimed at eliciting sympathy from others. To test these hypotheses, 60 undergraduates were divided into a depressed, a psychiatric control,

Christopher Layne; William Lefton; Doris Walters; James Merry

1983-01-01

394

Subpicosecond Coherent Manipulation of X-Rays  

SciTech Connect

The Takagi-Taupin theory is synthesized with the eikonal theory in a unified space-time approach, based upon microscopic electromagnetism. It is designed specifically to address x-ray diffraction in crystal structures being modified within down to a few femtosconds. Possible applications in the subpicosecond coherent manipulation of x-rays are given.

Adams, Bernhard W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2004-05-12

395

Tip velocity tracking control for elastic manipulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique approach to tip velocity control of an elastic robotic manipulator is presented. This method has potential application in teleoperation control and in applications where the trajectory is generated in real-time. Control is effected by reducing the tip velocity tracking error between the desired tip velocity and the measured tip velocity. Thus, in teleoperation, the concept of dead reckoning is used, so that while the manipulator's desired tip velocity is specified, the goal is for the tip to follow a path, leading toward a desired terminal position. This is done by concentrating the controller's effort on the manipulator tip while allowing the manipulator's links to deform., The controller utilizes a gain scheduling scheme to arrive at an appropriate feedback law. The control algorithm is implemented using a parallel-processing scheme on a multiprocessor system which consists of INMOS TransputersRTM . Experimental results are obtained using Radius, the Space Robotics Laboratory Facility at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies. Radius was designed to serve specifically as a test-bed for the development and evaluation of control methods for elastic manipulators. For the present work Radius is configured as a two-link manipulator with both links structurally flexible. One of the trajectories used for the simulations and experiment is a square, which is quite difficult for an elastic manipulator to execute. This box trajectory is more demanding than trajectories typically executed by Canadarm and so link elasticity becomes an important consideration. The effect of elasticity is demonstrated using an independent joint PD controller. In simulation, excellent tip velocity tracking was achieved using the proposed controller. In the experiment, reasonable accuracy in following the desired tip path was attained, however, disturbances, mainly a result of unmodeled joint dynamics, caused degraded performance. The controller may be improved by making it more robust to disturbances and by adding control terms to assist in minimizing the tip position tracking error. Notable contributions include the design, parallelization, and parallel implementation of the tip velocity tracking controller. In addition, experimental results were obtained and a preliminary stability investigation of the controller was done.

Sever, Manfred Dieter Martin

396

Analyses and comparison of a novel, hybrid, multifunctional orthopedic composite and implant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the orthopedic/medical device industry, 2, 2' -bis-(4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)- and diurethanedimethacrylate (DUDMA)-based polymeric biomaterials have become well-known substitutes for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)- and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based biomaterials, respectively. The development of these polymeric biomaterials cannot continue without direct comparison studies against currently marketed materials. The initiative for this research stems wholly from developing analytical methodologies that assist in qualifying novel biomaterials under development, by evaluating their chemical properties, performance, and safety. The goals of this research were: (i) Characterize the assay/quality of every resin component and quantify elution of extractable monomers from novel, DUDMA-based RHAKOSS(TM) implant, (ii) Determine degree of conversion (alpha) and rate of polymerization (Rp) for novel, Bis-GMA-based CORTOSS(TM) composite, (iii) Assess risk for radical-induced post-surgical cytotoxicity for CORTOSS, (iv) Determine if surface radical chemistries occur for sterilized RHAKOSS and assess its oxidative stability, and (v) Quantify antibiotic elution from antibiotic-impregnated CORTOSS and identify factors that control elution. The phenomena studied necessitated the utilization of several analytical spectroscopic techniques; fluorometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), attenuated total reflectance---Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A battery of lateral chemical techniques were employed as well; including molecular derivatization/tagging, phase partitioning, spin-trapping, and thermal annealing. Results demonstrated that RHAKOSS monomer percent compositions were prepared according to formulations and monomer elution was virtually undetectable, serving as an empirical gauge to portend degree of polymerization (DOP). A high alpha was reported for CORTOSS and essentially all bifunctional monomers had at least one functional group polymerized, stressing low monomer elution potential. Regarding cytotoxicity, CORTOSS impeded further production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH), whereas RHAKOSS did not facilitate the Fenton reaction but displayed some chelating abilities. Residual radicals in RHAKOSS were easily terminated, thus not projected to form oxidative degradants. Additionally, significant antibiotic concentrations, over extended durations, eluted from CORTOSS in linear-type fashion, advocating a sustained therapeutic effect, and phase partitioning correlated antibiotic release to hydrophilicity. The incurred data comprehensively argues in favor of the excellent biocompatibility that CORTOSS and RHAKOSS inherently possess, and was definitive in rendering them as advanced biomaterials, possessing favorable chemical properties.

Dicicco, Michael

397

Medicolegal corner: Quadriplegia following chiropractic manipulation.  

PubMed

A 45 year old male with multiple comorbidities presented to his internist with a 2 week history of right sided neck pain and tenderness, accompanied by tingling in the hand. The internists' neurological examination was normal, except for decreased range of motion of the right arm. He referred the patient to a chiropractor; he performed plain X rays which revealed mild spasm, but never ordered a magnetic resonance imaging study. The chiropractor manipulated the patient's neck on two successive days. By the morning of the third visit, the patient reported extreme pain and difficulty walking. Without performing a new neurological examination or obtaining an MR scan, the chiropractor again manipulated the patient's neck. He immediately became quadriplegic. Despite undergoing an emergency C5 C6 anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion to address a massive disc found on the MR scan (CT was negative), the patient remained quadriplegic (e.g., C4 sensory, C6 motor levels). A major point of negligence in this case was the failure of both the referring internist and chiropractor to order an MR of the cervical spine prior to the chiropractic manipulation. The internist claimed that there was no known report of permanent quadriplegia resulting from neck manipulation in any medical journal, article or book, or in any literature of any kind or on the internet and that the risk of this injury must be vanishingly small given the large numbers of manipulations performed annually. The total amount of the verdict was $14,596,000.00 the internist's liability was 5% ($759,181.65). PMID:23878767

Epstein, Nancy E; Forte Esq, Carol L

2013-01-01

398

Manipulator Performance Evaluation Using Fitts' Taping Task  

SciTech Connect

Metaphorically, a teleoperator with master controllers projects the user's arms and hands into a re- mote area, Therefore, human users interact with teleoperators at a more fundamental level than they do with most human-machine systems. Instead of inputting decisions about how the system should func- tion, teleoperator users input the movements they might make if they were truly in the remote area and the remote machine must recreate their trajectories and impedance. This intense human-machine inter- action requires displays and controls more carefully attuned to human motor capabilities than is neces- sary with most systems. It is important for teleoperated manipulators to be able to recreate human trajectories and impedance in real time. One method for assessing manipulator performance is to observe how well a system be- haves while a human user completes human dexterity tasks with it. Fitts' tapping task has been, used many times in the past for this purpose. This report describes such a performance assessment. The International Submarine Engineering (ISE) Autonomous/Teleoperated Operations Manipulator (ATOM) servomanipulator system was evalu- ated using a generic positioning accuracy task. The task is a simple one but has the merits of (1) pro- ducing a performance function estimate rather than a point estimate and (2) being widely used in the past for human and servomanipulator dexterity tests. Results of testing using this task may, therefore, allow comparison with other manipulators, and is generically representative of a broad class of tasks. Results of the testing indicate that the ATOM manipulator is capable of performing the task. Force reflection had a negative impact on task efficiency in these data. This was most likely caused by the high resistance to movement the master controller exhibited with the force reflection engaged. Measurements of exerted forces were not made, so it is not possible to say whether the force reflection helped partici- pants control force during testing.

Draper, J.V.; Jared, B.C.; Noakes, M.W.

1999-04-25

399

Manipulator Comparative Testing Program: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The manipulator systems tested included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Central Research Laboratories Model M-2, and the GCA PaR Systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (1) the BILARM in master/slave mode without force reflection, (2) the BILARM in master/slave mode with force reflection, (3) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode without force reflection, (4) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode with force reflection, (5) the BILARM with switchbox controls, and (6) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments examined differences between master/slave systems with and without force reflection and differences between master/slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems. A fourth experiment examined the relative contributions of the remote viewing system and the manipulator system to the performance of remote handling tasks. Results of the experiments showed that operators using the Model M-2 in master/slave mode had significantly faster times to completion than operators using the BILARM in master/slave mode, with about the same error rate per trial. Operators were slower using the BILARM with force reflection than without it, and they committed more errors. There was no statistically significant difference between force-reflection and nonforce-reflection conditions for the M-2 manipulator for any of the performance criteria. Tasks and procedures used in this testing were not sensitive to differences within any single system. No inferences about the effect of force reflection on remote task performance should be made from these data. The two manipulator systems in switchbox mode had significantly slower times to completion than any system in master/slave mode, with approximately the same error rate per trial. There were no significant differences between the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR arm.

Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

1987-02-01

400

Bioactive ceramic coating on orthopedic implants for enhanced bone tissue integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue integration between bone and orthopedic implant is essential for implant fixation and longevity. An immunological response leads to fibrous encapsulation of metallic implants leading to implant instability and failure. Bioactive ceramics have the ability to directly bond to bone; however, they have limited mechanical strength for load bearing applications. Coating bioactive ceramics on metallic implant offers the exciting opportunity to enhance bone formation without compromising the mechanical strength of the implant. In the present study, we have developed a novel bioactive silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC) coating on medical grade Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic implant using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and evaluated bone tissue response to the coated implant at the cellular level. The effect of SCPC composition and suspending medium pH on the zeta potential of three different SCPC formulations; SCPC25, SCPC50 and SCPC75 were analyzed. The average zeta potential of SCPC50 in pure ethanol was more negative than that of SCPC25 or SCPC75; however the difference was not statistically significant. Ti-6Al-4V discs were passivated, coated with SCPC50 (200 nm - 10 mum) and thermally treated at 600 - 800 ºC to produce a coating thickness in the range of 43.1 +/- 5.7 to 30.1 +/- 4.6 ?m. After treatment at 600, 700 and 800 ºC, the adhesion strength at the SCPC50/Ti-6Al-4V interface was 42.6 +/- 3.6, 44.7 +/- 8.7 and 47.2 +/- 4.3 MPa, respectively. XRD analyses of SCPC50 before and after EPD coating indicated no change in the crystallinity of the material. Fracture surface analyses showed that failure occurred within the ceramic layer or at the ceramic/polymer interface; however, the ceramic/metal interface was intact in all samples. The adhesion strength of SCPC50-coated substrates after immersion in PBS for 2 days (11.7 +/- 3.9 MPa) was higher than that measured on commercially available hydroxyapatite (HA) coated substrates (5.5 +/- 2.7 MPa), although the difference was not statistically significant. SEM - EDX analyses of SCPC50-coated Ti-6Al-4V pre-immersed in PBS for 7 days showed the formation of a Ca-deficient HA surface layer. Bone cells attached to the SCPC50-coated implants expressed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alkaline phosphatase activity (82.4 +/- 25.6 nmoles p-NP/mg protein/min) than that expressed by cells attached to HA-coated or uncoated implants. Protein adsorption analyses showed that SCPC50-coated substrates adsorbed significantly more (p < 0.05) serum protein (14.9 +/- 1.2 mug) than control uncoated substrates (8.9 +/- 0.7 mug). Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that the SCPC50 coating has a high affinity for serum fibronectin. Protein conformation analyses by FTIR showed that the ratio of the area under the peak for amide I/amide II bands was significantly higher (p < 0.05) on the surface of SCPC50-coated substrate (5.0 +/- 0.6) than that on the surface of the control uncoated substrates (2.2 +/- 0.3). Moreover, ICP-OES analyses indicated that SCPC50-coated substrates withdrew Ca ions from, and released P and Si ions into, the tissue culture medium, respectively. In conjunction with the favorable protein adsorption and modifications in medium composition, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells attached to SCPC50-coated substrates expressed 10-fold higher level of mRNA encoding osteocalcin and had significantly higher production of osteopontin and osteocalcin proteins than cells attached to the uncoated Ti-6Al-4V substrate. In addition, osteoblast-like cells attached to the SCPC50-coated substrates produced significantly lower levels of the inflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokines, IL-6, IL-12p40 and RANKL than those attached to uncoated Ti-6Al-4V. Surface topography analyses using AFM suggested that the SCPC50 particles deposit onto the metal surface in a manner that preferentially fills the grooves on the substrate created during substrate preparation. An increase in the surface roughness of the SCPC50-coated substrate from 217.8 +/- 54.6 nm to 284.3 +/- 37.3 nm was accompani

Aniket

401

Blockade of JNK and NFAT Pathways Attenuates Orthopedic Particle-Stimulated Osteoclastogenesis of Human Osteoclast Precursors and Murine Calvarial Osteolysis  

PubMed Central

Particles released from orthopedic implants attract immune host defense cells to the bone-implant interface and contribute to development of inflammation. The inflammatory microenvironment supports recruitment and differentiation of osteoclasts, the primary culprit of osteolysis. Therefore, understanding the complex signals that contribute to osteoclastogenesis and osteolysis is a sensible approach to design strategies to inhibit bone loss. The signaling cascades that coordinate osteoclastogenesis have been widely investigated. These include MAP kinases, Akt/PI3K pathway, NF-?B signal transduction pathway, and NFAT pathway. We have recently reported that polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles activate the NFAT pathway in murine osteoclast precursors and that NFAT inhibitors dose-dependently block PMMA-induced osteoclastogenesis. In the current study, we examined the role of JNK and NFATc1 in mice in response to PMMA particles using murine calvaria model. We show that locally administered MAPK/JNK inhibitor SP600125 and calcineurin/NFAT inhibitor cyclosporine-A effectively blocked PMMA-induced osteolysis in murine calvaria. To buttress the clinical relevance of JNK/NFATc1-based regulation of PMMA-induced osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated the effect of PMMA using human macrophages. We demonstrate that SP600125 and cyclosporine-A abolished particle-induced osteoclastogenesis in human osteoclast progenitors retrieved from patients undergoing total hip replacement. Thus JNK and NFATc1 appear to act as significant mediators of orthopedic particle-induced osteolysis in humans. PMID:22847537

Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Clohisy, John C.F.; Ito, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Takeo; Abu-Amer, Yousef

2012-01-01

402

Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program  

PubMed Central

Objective The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002). The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001). Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001). Conclusion Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents’ progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. PMID:25278788

Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Alrabai, Hamza M; Alrehaili, Osama A; Aljurayyan, Abdulaziz N; Alsaif, Ranyah M; Algarni, Nizar; Al-Khawashki, Hazem M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D

2014-01-01

403

Blended learning approach improves teaching in a problem-based learning environment in orthopedics - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background While e-learning is enjoying increasing popularity as adjunct in modern teaching, studies on this topic should shift from mere evaluation of students’ satisfaction towards assessing its benefits on enhancement of knowledge and skills. This pilot study aimed to detect the teaching effects of a blended learning program on students of orthopedics and traumatology in the context of a problem-based learning environment. Methods The project NESTOR (network for students in traumatology and orthopedics) was offered to students in a problem-based learning course. Participants completed written tests before and directly after the course, followed by a final written test and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) as well as an evaluation questionnaire at the end of the semester. Results were compared within the group of NESTOR users and non-users and between these two groups. Results Participants (n?=?53) rated their experiences very positively. An enhancement in knowledge was found directly after the course and at the final written test for both groups (p?

2014-01-01

404

An Orthopedic-, Surgical-, and Epidemiological-Based Investigation of Leprosy, in the Tamil Nadu State of India  

PubMed Central

No other research paper has ever been written about leprosy in this manner. The orthopedic and surgical implications, as well as the functional debility caused by the disease, have not been previously explained by past research as they have in such a comprehensive manner in this paper. The results of this study have regional and global implications as they pertain to disease pathology, risk factor recognition/disease prevention, and treatment. This paper is a unique, in that it also serves as a combination of a review of the current medical literature, as well as an epidemiological survey of the disease in a region of the world which has never been researched in the past. Clinical data points to the possibility of a new strain of the disease. This information is of significance because it effects prevention and improved treatment of the disease, which leads to devastating sequela. This was a cross-sectional study involving subjects diagnosed with leprosy in the Chengalpet region of the Kancheepuram District, of the Tamil Nadu state of India. The study was performed at the Tamil Nadu Medical College Teaching Hospital and Research Center. This study included various physical examinations, observation and survey of lesions, questionnaires in regard the debilitating orthopedic and medical effects of the disease, as well as treatment options. PMID:22666605

Samona, Jason; Samona, Scott; Samona, Cameron; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Shekhar, P.; Kubern, D.; Mohan Kumar, P. S.; Nassiri, Reza

2012-01-01

405

Predicting Postoperative Vomiting for Orthopedic Patients Receiving Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia with the Application of an Artificial Neural Network  

PubMed Central

Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) was used in many patients receiving orthopedic surgery to reduce postoperative pain but is accompanied with certain incidence of vomiting. Predictions of the vomiting event, however, were addressed by only a few authors using logistic regression (LR) models. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are pattern-recognition tools that can be used to detect complex patterns within data sets. The purpose of this study was to develop the ANN based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA used. From January to March 2007, the PCEA records of 195 patients receiving PCEA after orthopedic surgery were used to develop the two predicting models. The ANN model had a largest area under curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The areas under ROC curves of ANN and LR models were 0.900 and 0.761, respectively. The computer-based predictive model should be useful in increasing vigilance in those patients most at risk for vomiting while PCEA is used, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention, or even in suggesting the use of alternative methods of analgesia. PMID:25162027

Ting, Chien-Kun; Lin, Shih-Pin

2014-01-01

406

INTEGRATED MULTISENSORY ROBOTIC HAND SYSTEM FOR DEFORMABLE OBJECT MANIPULATION  

E-print Network

sensors and a stereoscopic vision device. The resulting prototype of the integrated multisensory systemINTEGRATED MULTISENSORY ROBOTIC HAND SYSTEM FOR DEFORMABLE OBJECT MANIPULATION Fouad F. Khalil robotic hand capabilities when manipulating deformable objects. KEY WORDS Sensor fusion, deformable

Payeur, Pierre

407

Compliance and Force Control for Computer Controlled Manipulators  

E-print Network

Compliant motion occurs when the manipulator position is constrained by the task geometry. Compliant motion may be produced either by a passive mechanical compliance built in to the manipulator, or by an active ...

Mason, Matthew Thomas

1979-04-01

408

A Possible Novel Strategy for Reproductive Manipulation by an Endosymbiont  

E-print Network

Reproductive manipulation is commonly seen in insects infected by maternally inherited endosymbionts. These endosymbionts have adopted several strategies to manipulate their hosts in order to guarantee their transmission into the next host...

Haltom, Amanda R

2012-07-11

409

A virtual manipulator model for space robotic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future robotic manipulators carried by a spacecraft will be required to perform complex tasks in space, like repairing satellites. Such applications of robotic manipulators will encounter a number of kinematic, dynamic and control problems due to the dynamic coupling between the manipulators and the spacecraft. A new analytical modeling method for studying the kinematics and dynamics of manipulators in space is presented. The problem is treated by introducing the concept of a Virtual Manipulator (VM). The kinematic and dynamic motions of the manipulator, vehicle and payload, can be described relatively easily in terms of the Virtual Manipulator movements, which have a fixed base in inertial space at a point called a Virtual Ground. It is anticipated that the approach described here will aid in the design and development of future space manipulator systems.

Dubowsky, S.; Vafa, Z.

1987-01-01

410

High-Throughput Single-Cell Manipulation in Brain Tissue  

E-print Network

The complexity of neurons and neuronal circuits in brain tissue requires the genetic manipulation, labeling, and tracking of single cells. However, current methods for manipulating cells in brain tissue are limited to ...

Steinmeyer, Joseph Daly

411

Magnetic manipulation with several mobile coils towards gastrointestinal capsular endoscopy.  

E-print Network

tract Traditional techniques for exploring the gastrointestinal tract are based on en- doscopyMagnetic manipulation with several mobile coils towards gastrointestinal capsular endoscopy manipulation, capsule endoscope, variable magnetic field 1 Introduction 1.1 Exploration of the gastrointestinal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section 19.32 Customs...Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing,...

2011-04-01

413

Control strategy for cooperating disparate manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To manipulate large payloads typical of space construction, the concept of a small arm mounted on the end of a large arm is introduced. The main purposes of such a configuration are to increase the structural stiffness of the robot by bracing against or locking to a stationary frame, and to maintain a firm position constraint between the robot's base and workpieces by grasping them. Possible topologies for a combination of disparate large and small arms are discussed, and kinematics, dynamics, controls, and coordination of the two arms, especially when they brace at the tip of the small arm, are developed. The feasibility and improvement in performance are verified, not only with analytical work and simulation results but also with experiments on the existing arrangement Robotic Arm Large and Flexible and Small Articulated Manipulator.

Lew, Jae Young

1989-01-01

414

Novel meta-surfaces for wave manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meta-materials are man-made electromagnetic (EM) materials composed by subwavelength local resonance structures of electric and/or magnetic type, and thus possess arbitrary values of permittivity and permeability dictated by such resonance structures. Many novel EM properties, such as the negative refraction, the superlensing effect, and even the invisibility cloaking were predicted or discovered based on meta-materials. By carefully designing metamaterials with appropriate EM wave properties, one can employ metamaterials to efficiently manipulate various properties of EM waves, including the wave propagation, polarization, and so on. Here, we present our latest theoretical and experimental efforts in designing novel meta-surfaces (ultra-thin metamaterials) with anomalous EM wave properties to allow efficiently manipulating wave propagation directions. Furthermore, our system can also convert propagating wave to surface plasmon polariton. Microwave experiments are performed on realistic structures to successfully realize the theoretical predictions, and the obtained results are in agreements with FDTD simulations.

Sun, Shulin; He, Qiong; Xiao, Shiyi; Xu, Qin; Zhou, Lei

2011-03-01

415

Computer assisted learning in manipulative therapy education.  

PubMed

Teaching manipulative therapy is one of the most relevant issues in a physiotherapy course. However, for an effective instruction of this topic practical experience is considered fundamental. To achieve this purpose, this paper presents a computer assisted environment for the practical learning of manipulative therapy. The implementation of such a laboratory includes standard Personal Computers (PCs), the popular software package Matlab, a digital camera and gloves with embedded strength sensors located in the thumb and near the wrist. The students wear a glove that measures the applied force in the patient. These signals are acquired and stored in a computer providing the teachers with the necessary information to analyze the applied force and verify if the manual therapy was successful. A digital camera is also used to record the images of the student's movements during the manual therapy application. The developed system has an autonomy of 15h allowing the application of thirty therapies and the corresponding data analysis. PMID:21185220

Dias, Octavio Páscoa; Amaral, Tito Gerardo Batoreo; Fernão Pires, Vitor

2011-06-01

416

Manipulating surface states in topological insulator nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators show unique properties resulting from massless, Dirac-like surface states that are protected by time-reversal symmetry. Theory predicts that the surface states exhibit quantum spin Hall effect that allows for spins to transport without scattering. However, to date, the direct manipulation of these states with external means remains a significant challenge owing to the predominance of bulk carriers. Here we show the first experimental evidence of surface-state modulation through the observation of voltage-controlled quantum oscillations in Bi2Te3 nanostructures. The surface conduction can be dramatically enhanced with external gate bias. Up to 51 percent of the total conductance is attributed to the surface states. The ability to manipulate the surface states mark an important milestone in the development of TI materials and may further open up exciting and novel applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

Xiu, Faxian; He, Liang; Wang, Kang L.

2011-03-01

417

Manipulation of vortices by magnetic domain walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a type-II superconductor, the magnetic field penetrates in the form of thin filaments called vortices. The controlled behavior of these vortices may provide the basis for a new generation of nanodevices. We present here a series of experiments showing simultaneous manipulation and imaging of individual vortices in a NbSe2 single crystal. The magnetic field from a Bloch wall in a ferrite garnet film (FGF) is used to manipulate the vortices. High-resolution magneto-optical imaging enables real-time observation of the vortex positions using the Faraday effect in the same FGF. Depending on the thickness of the sample, the vortices are either swept away or merely bent with the Bloch wall.

Goa, P. E.; Hauglin, H.; Olsen, A.?. A. F.; Shantsev, D.; Johansen, T. H.

2003-01-01

418

Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

1983-01-01

419

Optical Manipulation with Speckle Light Fields  

E-print Network

Optical tweezers have been widely applied to trap and manipulate micro- and nano-objects, such as cells, organelles and macromolecules. Generating well-controlled optical forces usually requires a highly focused laser beam, which means a careful engineering of the setups and the samples. Although similar conditions are routinely met in research laboratories, optical imperfections or scattering limit the applicability of this technique to real-life situations, such as in biomedical or microfluidic applications. Nonetheless, scattering of coherent light by disordered structures gives rise to speckles, random diffraction patterns with well-defined statistical properties. Here, we demonstrate how speckle fields can become a versatile tool to perform fundamental optical manipulation tasks such as trapping, guiding and sorting, exploiting the emergence of anomalous diffusion and drift in time-varying speckles. The simplicity and high-throughput of this technique greatly broadens the perspectives of optical manipula...

Volpe, Giorgio; Gigan, Sylvain

2014-01-01

420

Bacterial pathogen manipulation of host membrane trafficking.  

PubMed

Pathogens use a vast number of strategies to alter host membrane dynamics. Targeting the host membrane machinery is important for the survival and pathogenesis of several extracellular, vacuolar, and cytosolic bacteria. Membrane manipulation promotes bacterial replication while suppressing host responses, allowing the bacterium to thrive in a hostile environment. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various strategies used by both extracellular and intracellular bacteria to hijack host membrane trafficking machinery. We start with mechanisms used by bacteria to alter the plasma membrane, delve into the hijacking of various vesicle trafficking pathways, and conclude by summarizing bacterial adaptation to host immune responses. Understanding bacterial manipulation of host membrane trafficking provides insights into bacterial pathogenesis and uncovers the molecular mechanisms behind various processes within a eukaryotic cell. PMID:25103867

Asrat, Seblewongel; de Jesús, Dennise A; Hempstead, Andrew D; Ramabhadran, Vinay; Isberg, Ralph R

2014-10-11

421

Light manipulation principles in biological photonic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science of light and colour manipulation continues to generate interest across a range of disciplines, from mainstream biology, across multiple physics-based fields, to optical engineering. Furthermore, the study of light production and manipulation is of significant value to a variety of industrial processes and commercial products. Among the several key methods by which colour is produced in the biological world, this review sets out to describe, in some detail, the specifics of the method involving photonics in animal and plant systems; namely, the mechanism commonly referred to as structural colour generation. Not only has this theme been a very rapidly growing area of physics-based interest, but also it is increasingly clear that the biological world is filled with highly evolved structural designs by which light and colour strongly influence behaviours and ecological functions.

Starkey, Tim; Vukusic, Pete

2013-10-01

422

Adaptive control of space based robot manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For space based robots in which the base is free to move, motion planning and control is complicated by uncertainties in the inertial properties of the manipulator and its load. A new adaptive control method is presented for space based robots which achieves globally stable trajectory tracking in the presence of uncertainties in the inertial parameters of the system. A partition is made of the fifteen degree of freedom system dynamics into two parts: a nine degree of freedom invertible portion and a six degree of freedom noninvertible portion. The controller is then designed to achieve trajectory tracking of the invertible portion of the system. This portion consist of the manipulator joint positions and the orientation of the base. The motion of the noninvertible portion is bounded, but unpredictable. This portion consist of the position of the robot's base and the position of the reaction wheel.

Walker, Michael W.; Wee, Liang-Boon

1991-01-01

423

Graphene plasmonic lens for manipulating energy flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manipulating the energy flow of light is at the heart of modern information and communication technologies. Because photons are uncharged, it is still difficult to effectively control them by electrical means. Here, we propose a graphene plasmonic (GP) lens to efficiently manipulate energy flow by elaborately designing the thickness of the dielectric spacer beneath the graphene sheet. Different from traditional metal-based lenses, the proposed graphene plasmonic lens possesses the advantages of tunability and excellent confinement of surface plasmons. It is found that the proposed lens can be utilized to focus and collimate the GP waves propagating along the graphene sheet. Particularly, the lens is dispersionless over a wide frequency range and the performance of lens can be flexibly tuned by adjusting the bias voltage. As an application of such a lens, the image transfer of two point sources with a separation of ?0/30 is demonstrated.

Wang, Guoxi; Liu, Xueming; Lu, Hua; Zeng, Chao

2014-02-01

424

Atom manipulation on an insulating surface at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic manipulation enables us to fabricate a unique structure at the atomic scale. So far, many atomic manipulations have been reported on conductive surfaces, mainly at low temperature with scanning tunnelling microscopy, but atomic manipulation on an insulator at room temperature is still a long-standing challenge. Here we present a systematic atomic manipulation on an insulating surface by advanced atomic force microscopy, enabling construction of complex patterns such as a ‘Swiss cross’ of substitutional bromine ions in the sodium chloride surface.

Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S.; Canova, Filippo Federici; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Meyer, Ernst

2014-07-01

425

Dynamic Singularities in Free-Floating Space Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic Singularities are shown for free-floating space manipulator systems where the spacecraft moves in response to manipulator motions without compensation from its attitude control system. At a dynamic singularity the manipulator is unable to move its end-effector in some inertial direction; thus dynamic singularities must be considered in the design, planning, and control of free-floating space manipulator systems. The existence

Evangelos Papadopoulos; Steven Dubowsky

1993-01-01

426

Manipulating perception versus action in recalibration tasks.  

PubMed

We conducted six experiments to examine how manipulating perception versus action affects perception-action recalibration in real and imagined blindfolded walking tasks. Participants first performed a distance estimation task (pretest) and then walked through an immersive virtual environment on a treadmill for 10 min. Participants then repeated the distance estimation task (posttest), the results of which were compared with their pretest performance. In Experiments 1a, 2a, and 3a, participants walked at a normal speed during recalibration, but the rate of visual motion was either twice as fast or half as fast as the participants' walking speed. In Experiments 1b, 2b, and 3b, the rate of visual motion was kept constant, but participants walked at either a faster or a slower speed. During pre- and posttest, we used either a blindfolded walking distance estimation task or an imagined walking distance estimation task. Additionally, participants performed the pretest and posttest distance estimation tasks in either the real environment or the virtual environment. With blindfolded walking as the distance estimation task for pre- and posttest, we found a recalibration effect when either the rate of visual motion or the walking speed was manipulated during the recalibration phase. With imagined walking as the distance estimation task, we found a recalibration effect when the rate of visual motion was manipulated, but not when the walking speed was manipulated in both the real environment and the virtual environment. Discussion focuses on how spatial-updating processes operate on perception and action and on representation and action. PMID:23715972

Ziemer, Christine J; Branson, Mia J; Chihak, Benjamin J; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

2013-08-01

427

Multiphoton Coherent Manipulation in Large Spin Qubits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manipulation of quantum information allows certain algorithms to be performed at unparalleled speeds. Photons are an ideal choice to manipulate qubits as they interact with quantum systems in predictable ways. They are a versatile tool for manipulating, reading/coupling qubits and for encoding/transferring quantum information over long distances. Spin-based qubits have well known behavior under photon driving and can be potentially operated up to room temperature. When diluted enough to avoid uncontrolled spin-spin interactions, a variety of spin qubits show long coherence times, e.g. the nitrogen vacancies in pure diamonds (1,2), nitrogen atoms trapped in a C60 cage (3), Ho3+ and Cr5+ ions (4,5) and molecular magnets (6,7). We have used large spin Mn2+ ions (S=5/2) to realize a six level system that can be operated by means of single as well as multi-photon coherent Rabi oscillations (8). This spin system has a very small anisotropy whose effect can be tuned in-situ to turn the system into a multi-level harmonic system. This offer new ways of manipulating, reading and resetting a spin qubit. Decoherence effects are strongly reduced by the quasi-isotropic electron interaction with the crystal field and with the 55Mn nuclear spins. [0pt] 1. R. Hanson et al., Science 320, 352 (2008). [0pt] 2. M.V. Gurudev Dutt et al., Science 316, 1312 (2007). [0pt] 3. G.W. Morley et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 220501 (2007). [0pt] 4. S. Bertaina et al., Nat. Nanotech. 2, 39 (2007). [0pt] 5. S. Nellutla et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 137601 (2007). [0pt] 6. A. Ardavan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 057201 (2007). [0pt] 7. S. Bertaina et al., Nature 453, 203,(2008). [0pt] 8. S. Bertaina et al., submitted.

Chiorescu, Irinel

2009-03-01

428

Manipulation of gene function in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Xenopus laevis embryos are particularly well suited to address questions requiring either knockdown or overexpression of genes in a tissue-specific fashion during vertebrate embryonic development. These manipulations are achieved by targeted injection of either antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, or synthetic mRNAs, respectively, into the early embryo. Herein we offer detailed protocols describing how to design and perform these experiments successfully, as well as a brief discussion of considerations for performing a microarray analysis in this organism. PMID:21805261

Mimoto, Mizuho S.; Christian, Jan L.

2012-01-01

429

Multivariable PID Controller For Robotic Manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gains updated during operation to cope with changes in characteristics and loads. Conceptual multivariable controller for robotic manipulator includes proportional/derivative (PD) controller in inner feedback loop, and proportional/integral/derivative (PID) controller in outer feedback loop. PD controller places poles of transfer function (in Laplace-transform space) of control system for linearized mathematical model of dynamics of robot. PID controller tracks trajectory and decouples input and output.

Seraji, Homayoun; Tarokh, Mahmoud

1990-01-01

430

Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that this evolution can be accomplished while conducting critical on-orbit operations with minimal hardware changes.

Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.

2007-01-01

431

Manipulating MDD Relaxations for Combinatorial Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We study the application of limited-width MDDs (multi-valued decision diagrams) as discrete relaxations for combinatorial\\u000a optimization problems. These relaxations are used for the purpose of generating lower bounds. We introduce a new compilation\\u000a method for constructing such MDDs, as well as algorithms that manipulate the MDDs to obtain stronger relaxations and hence\\u000a provide stronger lower bounds. We apply our methodology

David Bergman; Willem-Jan van Hoeve; John N. Hooker

2011-01-01

432

BASIC Data Manipulation And Display System (BDMADS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BDMADS, a BASIC Data Manipulation and Display System, is a collection of software programs that run on an Apple II Plus personal computer. BDMADS provides a user-friendly environment for the engineer in which to perform scientific data processing. The computer programs and their use are described. Jet engine performance calculations are used to illustrate the use of BDMADS. Source listings of the BDMADS programs are provided and should permit users to customize the programs for their particular applications.

Szuch, J. R.

1983-01-01

433

Intracellular manipulation of chromatin using magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic tweezers are widely used for manipulating small magnetic beads inside the cell cytoplasm in order to gain insight\\u000a into the structural and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. Here we discuss the use of magnetic tweezers for the study\\u000a of nuclear architecture and the mechanical properties of chromatin in living cells. A custom-built, dedicated micro magnetic\\u000a tweezer set-up is described.

Johannes S. Kanger; Vinod Subramaniam; Roel van Driel

2008-01-01

434

COOPERATIVE AND SUPERVISORY CONTROL FOR PAYLOAD MANIPULATION  

E-print Network

E. Hurtado Department of Aerospace Engineering There are many tasks done by humans today that could be done by robots. One environment where robots are especially useful is space. Because of the limitations of astronauts, robots could... be sent to a planetary environment to prepare a habitat. This thesis considers two problems that arise when considering sending robots to a planetary environment. The first problem is the cooperative control of two robots manipulating flexible...

Holmstrom, Kristen

2009-06-09

435

A genetic tool to manipulate litter size  

PubMed Central

Introduction Experimental litter size manipulations are often not problem free. Typically conducted shortly after birth or oviposition, they do not account for the energy already invested into the production of the offspring. Such effects make it difficult to interpret the results from experimental litter size manipulations and therefore to study optimality of litter or clutch size, a long debated topic in evolutionary biology. Results We propose the use of a mating design based on a selfish genetic element, the t haplotype, to reduce litter size in an eutherian mammal, the house mouse. Most t haplotypes are recessive lethal and therefore lead to the death of all homozygous embryos. Litter sizes can be reduced by up to 50% by pairing a +/t female with a +/t male instead of a +/+ male. Conclusions This method allows litter size manipulation before birth without the use of invasive techniques, therefore providing an excellent tool for studying optimal litter size and ultimately helping to understand life history strategies. PMID:24564853

2014-01-01

436

A 3D interactive optical manipulation platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional light structures can be created by modulating the spatial phase and polarization properties of the laser light. A particularly promising technique is the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method invented and patented at Riso National Laboratory. Based on the combination of programmable spatial light modulator devices and an advanced graphical user-interface the GPC method enables real-time, interactive and arbitrary control over the dynamics and geometry of synthesized light patterns. Recent experiments have shown that GPC-driven micro-manipulation provides a unique technology platform for fully user-guided assembly of a plurality of particles in a plane, control of particle stacking along the beam axis, manipulation of multiple hollow beads, and the organization of living cells into three-dimensional colloidal structures. These demonstrations illustrate that GPC-driven micro-manipulation can be utilized not only for the improved synthesis of functional microstructures but also for non-contact and parallel actuation crucial for sophisticated opto- and micro-fluidic based lab-on-a-chip systems.

Glückstad, Jesper; Rodrigo, Peter J.; Nielson, Ivan P.

2005-12-01

437

Optofluidic cell manipulation for a biological microbeam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the fabrication and integration of light-induced dielectrophoresis for cellular manipulation in biological microbeams. An optoelectronic tweezers (OET) cellular manipulation platform was designed, fabricated, and tested at Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The platform involves a light induced dielectrophoretic surface and a microfluidic chamber with channels for easy input and output of cells. The electrical conductivity of the particle-laden medium was optimized to maximize the dielectrophoretic force. To experimentally validate the operation of the OET device, we demonstrate UV-microspot irradiation of cells containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged DNA single-strand break repair protein, targeted in suspension. We demonstrate the optofluidic control of single cells and groups of cells before, during, and after irradiation. The integration of optofluidic cellular manipulation into a biological microbeam enhances the facility's ability to handle non-adherent cells such as lymphocytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that OET cell handling is successfully implemented in a biological microbeam.

Grad, Michael; Bigelow, Alan W.; Garty, Guy; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J.

2013-01-01

438

Electric and Magnetic Manipulation of Biological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New types of biological cell manipulation systems, a micropost matrix, a microelectromagnet matrix, and a microcoil array, were developed. The micropost matrix consists of post-shaped electrodes embedded in an insulating layer. With a separate ac voltage applied to each electrode, the micropost matrix generates dielectrophoretic force to trap and move individual biological cells. The microelectromagnet matrix consists of two arrays of straight wires aligned perpendicular to each other, that are covered with insulating layers. By independently controlling the current in each wire, the microelectromagnet matrix creates versatile magnetic fields to manipulate individual biological cells attached to magnetic beads. The microcoil array is a set of coils implemented in a foundry using a standard silicon fabrication technology. Current sources to the coils, and control circuits are integrated on a single chip, making the device self-contained. Versatile manipulation of biological cells was demonstrated using these devices by generating optimized electric or magnetic field patterns. A single yeast cell was trapped and positioned with microscopic resolution, and multiple yeast cells were trapped and independently moved along the separate paths for cell-sorting.

Lee, H.; Hunt, T. P.; Liu, Y.; Ham, D.; Westervelt, R. M.

2005-06-01

439

Manipulation of Microtubules and Actin by Dielectrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myosin and kinesin are ATP powered motor proteins which process along cytoskeletal filaments (actin and microtubules respectively). These motor proteins, which have a motor domain and a payload carrying head domain, are used to transport material within a cell. The filaments possess a structural polarity which dictates the direction of motion of the associated motor protein. By laying down tracks of microtubules or actin, motor protein / filament systems could be utilized in nanodevices for molecular transport. In order for these systems to be useful as nanomechanisms, the transport of material by motor proteins must result in a net flux of material in a specified direction. For maximum efficiency this necessitates that the filaments be aligned parallel, and with a coherent structural polarity orientation. Dielectrophoresis, which utilizes the polarizability of a molecule in an AC field gradient, has been shown to be effective in manipulating biopolymers. In this study, AC electrokinetic manipulation is used to align actin filaments and microtubules. The AC field gradient is achieved using a 2-dimensional quadrapole microelectrode made from indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on a glass substrate. Since ITO is transparent, the filaments can be manipulated and simultaneously imaged using differential interference contrast (DIC) or fluorescence microscopy.

Meehan, Timothy

2001-11-01

440

Optofluidic cell manipulation for a biological microbeam  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the fabrication and integration of light-induced dielectrophoresis for cellular manipulation in biological microbeams. An optoelectronic tweezers (OET) cellular manipulation platform was designed, fabricated, and tested at Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The platform involves a light induced dielectrophoretic surface and a microfluidic chamber with channels for easy input and output of cells. The electrical conductivity of the particle-laden medium was optimized to maximize the dielectrophoretic force. To experimentally validate the operation of the OET device, we demonstrate UV-microspot irradiation of cells containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged DNA single-strand break repair protein, targeted in suspension. We demonstrate the optofluidic control of single cells and groups of cells before, during, and after irradiation. The integration of optofluidic cellular manipulation into a biological microbeam enhances the facility's ability to handle non-adherent cells such as lymphocytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that OET cell handling is successfully implemented in a biological microbeam. PMID:23387672

Grad, Michael; Bigelow, Alan W.; Garty, Guy; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J.

2013-01-01

441

Mathematical Manipulative Models: In Defense of "Beanbag Biology"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical manipulative models have had a long history of influence in biological research and in secondary school education, but they are frequently neglected in undergraduate biology education. By linking mathematical manipulative models in a four-step process--1) use of physical manipulatives, 2) interactive exploration of computer…

Jungck, John R.; Gaff, Holly; Weisstein, Anton E.

2010-01-01

442

Design and fabricate a pair of Rancho anthropomorphic manipulator arms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic design features of the Rancho Anthropomorphic Manipulator (RAM), bilateral manipulator system are reported. In contrast with other previous electrically powered manipulators, the RAM features increased payload capability, structural integrity, position control, and the ability to interchange its own terminal devices. A set of detailed design drawings and a motion picture are considered.

Allen, J. R.; Karchak, A., Jr.; Bontrager, E. L.

1972-01-01

443

Force, current and field effects in single atom manipulation  

E-print Network

Force, current and field effects in single atom manipulation K.-F. Braun , S.-W. Hla , N. Pertaya present a detailed investigation of the manipulation of Ag and Au atoms with a STM tip on the Ag(111 of the atom during manipulation. The threshold tunnelling resistance and tip-height to move a Au/Ag atom have

Hla, Saw-Wai

444

Distributed Manipulation of Flat Objects With Two Airflow Sinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed manipulation systems induce motions on objects through the application of forces at many points of contact. Current forms of distributed manipulation include multiple mobile robots, vibrating plates, actively controlled arrays of air jets, and planar micro- and macro-mechanical arrays of actuators. The authors have presented a new form of distributed manipulation using passive airflow fields. This paper lays out

Hyungpil Moon; Jonathan E. Luntz

2006-01-01

445

Robot Learning of Everyday Object Manipulations via Human Demonstration  

E-print Network

Robot Learning of Everyday Object Manipulations via Human Demonstration Hao Dang and Peter K. Allen Abstract-- We deal with the problem of teaching a robot to manipulate everyday objects through human a method that enables a robot to decompose a demonstrated task into sequential manipulation primitives

Allen, Peter K.

446

End-User Visualization and Manipulation of Distributed Aggregate Data  

E-print Network

Drive Saint Louis, MO 63130-4899 December 1997 #12;End-User Visualization and ManipulationEnd-User Visualization and Manipulation of Distributed Aggregate Data T. Paul McCartney, Kenneth J://www.cs.wustl.edu/cs/playground/euphoria/ Abstract Aggregate visualization and manipulation enables the viewing and interaction of dynamically

Goldman, Kenneth J.

447

Interactive Motion Correction and Object Manipulation Ari Shapiro  

E-print Network

, it is not practical to rely on pre-designed mo- tions when object grasping and manipulation are required for arbiInteractive Motion Correction and Object Manipulation Ari Shapiro University of California, Los- rection (to remove collisions) and (b) synthesis of realistic object manipulation sequences on top

Kallmann, Marcelo

448

End effector constrained path planning for 7DOF manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents more reliable and fast path planning method for end effector constrained 7DOF redundant manipulators. Conventional path planning for redundant manipulators used jacobian based planning method for convenience. But it is not easy to apply in case of constrained tasks and redundant manipulators. On the contrary in this paper we uses position based path planning by inverse kinematics.

Kyongmo Koo; Xin Jiang; Atsushi Konno; Masaru Uchiyama

2010-01-01

449

Experiments with Nonholonomic Manipulation Siddhartha S. Srinivasa1  

E-print Network

Lafayette, IN - 47907 Abstract This paper summarizes ongoing work with a mo- bile manipulator (MobipulatorExperiments with Nonholonomic Manipulation Siddhartha S. Srinivasa1 , Christopher R. Baker1, a configuration space plan- ner that plans wheel motions to manipulate paper, and a visual servoing system

450

A Generic Motion Planner for Robot Multi-fingered Manipulation  

E-print Network

, multi-fingered manipulation, finger gaiting, grasp computation, mo- tion planning 1 IntroductionA Generic Motion Planner for Robot Multi-fingered Manipulation Jean-Philippe Saut1 , Anis Sahbani2.perdereau@upmc.fr Abstract This paper addresses the dexterous manipulation-planning problem, which deals with motion planning

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

Hybrid Kinematics and Stability Analysis for the Mobile Modular Manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the following issues: how to b uild the hybrid kinematics model for the mobile mod ular manipulator, how to decompose a given task into mot ions to be carried out by the manipulator or the mo bile platform, and what conditions to meet to avoid the mobile modular manipulator from tip-over. In this paper, the post ure

Yangmin Li; Yugang Liu

2004-01-01

452

Designing Equally Fault-Tolerant Configurations for Kinematically Redundant Manipulators  

E-print Network

of serial or parallel manipulators is critical for tasks requiring robots to operate in remote and hazardous for dexterous operations in a relatively small location, e.g., laser pointing [6] and manipulation of nuclear-1373, USA (e-mail: aam@colostate.edu). relative manipulability index. These bounds motivate the goal

Maciejewski, Anthony A.

453

DEXTERITY OF MANIPULATOR ARMS AT AN OPERATING POINT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for analyzing dexterity, hence functionality of robotic manipulators at an operating point. Dexterity of Manipulators comprising spherical wrists is studied. The goal is to provide the user with knowledge of orientability of the end-effector at a target. Wrist accessible output sets are determined analytically by first determining manipulator singularities, followed by back substituting the singularities

Karim Abdelmalek

1995-01-01

454

Mobile manipulation using tracks of a tracked mobile robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the investigation on mobile manipulation of a self-reconfigurable tracked mobile robot, using its tracks for both manipulation and locomotion. It is desirable for a mobile robot to possess manipulation capability in unstructured environments, especially in the scenario which is unsuitable for human beings. However, it is not convenient for such a mobile robot to carry an onboard

Yugang Liu; Guangjun Liu

2009-01-01

455

Experimental manipulations of self-affirmation: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this systematic review of studies using self-affirmation manipulations was to identify research gaps and provide information to guide future research. We describe study characteristics, categories of manipulations, and report effects on various dependent variables. Our search strategies yielded 47 eligible articles (69 studies). Manipulations varied by affirmation domain (values or personal characteristics), attainment (participant- or investigator-identified), and

Amy MCQueen; William M. P. Klein

2006-01-01

456

Improving Children's Listening Comprehension with a Manipulation Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the cognitive benefits of physical manipulation. Participants were 76 kindergarten and first-grade students randomly assigned to 2 strategies: stories with pictures or manipulation. In the pictures strategy, participants listened to story content and viewed pictures. In the manipulation strategy, participants moved…

Marley, Scott C.; Szabo, Zsuzsanna

2010-01-01

457

19 CFR 146.33 - Temporary deposit for manipulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary deposit for manipulation. 146.33 Section 146.33 Customs... § 146.33 Temporary deposit for manipulation. Imported merchandise for which...be brought temporarily to a zone for manipulation and return to Customs territory...

2011-04-01

458

Physical versus Virtual Manipulative Experimentation in Physics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical or virtual manipulative experimentation can differentiate physics learning. There were four experimental conditions, namely Physical Manipulative Experimentation (PME), Virtual Manipulative Experimentation (VME), and two sequential combinations of PME and VME, as well as a control condition…

Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios

2011-01-01

459

Study on a novel 6DOF combinational parallel manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel 6-DOF parallel manipulator composed of two limited-DOF manipulators is proposed in this paper, the degree of freedom (DOF) of this manipulator is analyzed and the position kinematic modeling is established. The Jacobian matrix is derived by vector loops equations. The workspace is determined considering the interference check by the numerical method. Furthermore, the performance of the mechanism is

Wei Zhao; Bing Li; Hongjian Yu; Ying Hu

2009-01-01

460

Redundancy Resolution of a Cartesian Space Operated Heavy Industrial Manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tunneling and mining construction work, heavy and large manipulators are used to spray liquid concrete on the walls. These manipulators are usually operated manu- ally with simple units allowing to control all actuators independently. In cooperation between industry and uni- versity, a novel control system has been developed for the redundant heavy manipulator Robojet® that supports the operator by

Marcel Honegger; A. Codourey

1998-01-01

461

Controversies in timing of the first dose of anticoagulant prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Adjusted doses of oral warfarin sodium or fixed doses of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) are the standard approaches for preventing venous thromboembolism following major orthopedic surgery of the legs. In recent years, new anticoagulants have been compared with either LMWH or warfarin. The optimal timing for the first dose of LMWH prophylaxis and of the new anticoagulants is controversial. Recent clinical trials of LMWH and of newer anticoagulants have provided new information on the relationship between the timing of the first anticoagulant dose and the efficacy and safety of thromboprophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery. These data on the optimal timing of initiating prophylaxis come from limited direct randomized comparisons of different timing with the same anticoagulant, subgroup analysis of large studies with a single anticoagulant, indirect comparisons across studies in systematic reviews, and single randomized trials comparing different anticoagulants. In the direct comparison of the same anticoagulant, preoperative initiation of the same regimen of LMWH (dalteparin) increased major bleeding, without improved antithrombotic efficacy compared to the early postoperative regimen. Fondaparinux, 2.5 mg, begun 6 h postoperatively is more effective and as safe as the currently approved regimens of enoxaparin begun either 12 h preoperatively, or 12 to 24 h postoperatively, in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. In a subgroup analysis of several large randomized trials, fondaparinux, 2.5 mg, begun < 6 h postoperatively was associated with increased major bleeding, without improved efficacy. The results of indirect comparisons also favor the use of a 6-h postoperative starting time for the first dose, while the single randomized trials comparing different anticoagulants performed to date are not helpful in establishing an optimal time for the first dose. The aggregate clinical research evidence supports the following general conclusions about the relationship between the timing of the first anticoagulant dose and the efficacy and safety of prophylaxis: (1) preoperative initiation is not required for good efficacy and, when begun within 2 h of surgery, increases major bleeding; (2) initiation at 6 h postoperatively is effective and not associated with increased major bleeding; (3) initiation < 6 h postoperatively increases major bleeding, without improved efficacy; thus, 6 h appears to be the threshold for early postoperative administration; and (4) initiation 12 to 24 h postoperatively may be less effective than initiation at 6 h, but further randomized trials comparing the same anticoagulant initiated at different times postoperatively (eg, 6 h vs 12 h) are required to establish definitively the optimal timing of the first anticoagulant dose. PMID:14668421

Raskob, Gary E; Hirsh, Jack

2003-12-01

462

Benchmarking the perioperative process: III. Effects of regional anesthesia clinical pathway techniques on process efficiency and recovery profiles in ambulatory orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives: (1) To incorporate regional anesthesia options for common outpatient orthopedic surgery into clinical pathways; (2) to use the clinical pathway format and the Procedural Times Glossary published by the Association of Anesthesia Clinical Directors (AACD) as management tools to measure postoperative same-day surgery processes and discharge outcomes; and (3) to determine the effects of general, regional, and combined

Brian A Williams; Barbara M DeRiso; Chiara M Figallo; Joel W Anders; Lori B Engel; Kari A Sproul; Hakan Ilkin; Christopher D Harner; Freddie H Fu; Nandu J Nagarajan; John H Evans; W. David Watkins

1998-01-01