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1

Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery.  

E-print Network

1/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Simon;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation #12;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation Recent work (B-boys & Schweinsberg, Aidekon-Harris) considers branching Brownian

2

Medical Issues: Orthopedics  

MedlinePLUS

... and vitamin D as part of the individual’s nutrition plan, if bone density is compromised Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local Support ...

3

Orthopedics in adolescence.  

PubMed

Many orthopedic problems occur during adolescence. This paper describes the various types of musculoskeletal deformities associated with this stage of development, and discusses methods of diagnosis and correction. It is argued that since such problems are managed most effectively if diagnosed early, the role of the primary-care physician is critical. PMID:6653916

Staheli, L T

1983-12-01

4

Engineering Orthopedic Tissue Interfaces  

PubMed Central

While a wide variety of approaches to engineering orthopedic tissues have been proposed, less attention has been paid to the interfaces, the specialized areas that connect two tissues of different biochemical and mechanical properties. The interface tissue plays an important role in transitioning mechanical load between disparate tissues. Thus, the relatively new field of interfacial tissue engineering presents new challenges—to not only consider the regeneration of individual orthopedic tissues, but also to design the biochemical and cellular composition of the linking tissue. Approaches to interfacial tissue engineering may be distinguished based on if the goal is to recreate the interface itself, or generate an entire integrated tissue unit (such as an osteochondral plug). As background for future efforts in engineering orthopedic interfaces, a brief review of the biology and mechanics of each interface (cartilage–bone, ligament–bone, meniscus–bone, and muscle–tendon) is presented, followed by an overview of the state-of-the-art in engineering each tissue, including advances and challenges specific to regenerating the interfaces. PMID:19231983

Yang, Peter J.

2009-01-01

5

Orthopedic Gene Therapy in 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic disorders, although rarely fatal, are the leading cause of morbidity and impose a huge socioeconomic burden. Their prevalence will increase dramatically as populations age and gain weight. Many orthopedic conditions are difficult to treat by conventional means; however, they are good candidates for gene therapy. Clinical trials have already been initiated for arthritis and the aseptic loosening of prosthetic

Christopher H Evans; Steven C Ghivizzani; Paul D Robbins

2009-01-01

6

Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

2014-07-01

7

Orthopedic involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome.  

PubMed

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a common autoimmune disease, manifested by vascular thrombosis and fetal loss in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Orthopedic involvement is a relatively novel and under-recognized feature of APS. In this article we review the association of primary, secondary, and catastrophic APS with diverse orthopedic conditions, including osteonecrosis in adult and pediatric patients, bone marrow necrosis, nontraumatic fractures, and some other disorders. PMID:17916988

Gorshtein, Alexander; Levy, Yair

2007-04-01

8

[Steroid infiltrations in orthopedics].  

PubMed

For the past 60 years intraarticular infiltrations have been performed with variable results. However, they have improved with time as a result of the innovations seen in the techniques and the glucocorticoids used, according to reports by several authors. We report the experience and results obtained in 10 years in 793 patients applying 5 mg of betamethasone dipropionate and 2 mg of betamethasone sodium phosphate (Diprospan). This was a retrospective, therapeutic and cross-sectional study. Betamethasone was combined with 1 ml of 2% plain lidocaine and 1 ml of bupivacaine or ropivacaine. Infiltrations were used to treat intraarticular conditions, post-traumatic acute inflammatory conditions and degenerative intraarticular conditions of the knee and shoulder. In the soft tissues they were used to treat bursitis, entrapment syndromes, epicondylitis, plantar fasciitis and sprains. Ninety-two percent had an improved clinical picture; it was possible to avoid surgery for several conditions. The conclusion is that infiltrations with betamethasone, both intraarticular and in periarticular structures, are fully justified in orthopedics. If applied properly, they are safe and effective. PMID:21548252

Lara-de la Fuente, R

2011-01-01

9

Medical photography: principles for orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Background Medical photography is used clinically for patient evaluation, treatment decisions, and scientific documentation. Although standards for medical photography exist in many branches of medicine, we have not encountered such criteria in publications in the area of orthopedics. Purpose This study aims to (1) assess the quality of medical images used in an orthopedic publication and (2) to propose standards for medical photography in this area. Methods Clinical photographs were reviewed from all issues of a journal published between the years 2008 and 2012. A quality of clinical images was developed based on the criteria published for the specialties of dermatology and cosmetic surgery. All images were reviewed on the appropriateness of background, patient preparation, and technique. Results In this study, only 44.9% of clinical images in an orthopedic publication adhered to the proposed conventions. Conclusions Standards have not been established for medical photography in orthopedics as in other specialty areas. Our results suggest that photographic clinical information in orthopedic publications may be limited by inadequate presentation. We propose that formal conventions for clinical images should be established. PMID:24708703

2014-01-01

10

Growth factors in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions. PMID:20302195

Zaharia, Comeliu; Niculescu, Marius; Despa, Nicoleta; Simionescu, Maya; Jinga, Victor; Fleseriu, Irina

2010-01-01

11

Orthopedic Management of Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The management of orthopedic problems in spina bifida has seen a dramatic change over the past 10 years. The negative effects of spasticity, poor balance, and the tethered cord syndrome on ambulatory function are better appreciated. There is less emphasis on the hip radiograph and more emphasis on the function of the knee and the prevention of…

Thomson, Jeffrey D.; Segal, Lee S.

2010-01-01

12

Bundled payments in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the concept of bundled payments and the potential applications of bundled payments in orthopedic surgery. 2. For specific situations, outline a clinical episode of care, determine the participants in a bundling situation, and define care protocols and pathways. 3. Recognize the importance of resource utilization management, quality outcome measurement, and combined economic-clinical value in determining the value of bundled payment arrangements. 4. Identify the implications of bundled payments for practicing orthopedists, as well as the legal issues and potential future directions of this increasingly popular alternative payment method. Bundled payments, the idea of paying a single price for a bundle of goods and services, is a financial concept familiar to most American consumers because examples appear in many industries. The idea of bundled payments has recently gained significant momentum as a financial model with the potential to decrease the significant current costs of health care. Orthopedic surgery as a field of medicine is uniquely positioned for success in an environment of bundled payments. This article reviews the history, logistics, and implications of the bundled payment model relative to orthopedic surgery. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(2):128-135.]. PMID:25665112

Bushnell, Brandon D

2015-02-01

13

Atlas of pediatric orthopedic radiology  

SciTech Connect

The book illustrates and discusses general principles including bone growth, dysplasia, trauma, infection, positional abnormalities, and metabolic disease, followed by detailed consideration of each region of the extremities and then the trunk. Those radiographic findings of orthopedic importance are emphasized, with images selected for their instructive value.

Oestreich, A.E.; Crawford, A.H.

1986-01-01

14

Porous metal for orthopedics implants  

PubMed Central

Summary Porous metal has been introduced to obtain biological fixation and improve longevity of orthopedic implants. The new generation of porous metal has intriguing characteristics that allows bone healing and high osteointegration of the metallic implants. This article gives an overview about biomaterials properties of the contemporary class of highly porous metals and about the clinical use in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24133527

Matassi, Fabrizio; Botti, Alessandra; Sirleo, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

2013-01-01

15

Orthopedic Gene Therapy in 2008  

PubMed Central

Orthopedic disorders, although rarely fatal, are the leading cause of morbidity and impose a huge socioeconomic burden. Their prevalence will increase dramatically as populations age and gain weight. Many orthopedic conditions are difficult to treat by conventional means; however, they are good candidates for gene therapy. Clinical trials have already been initiated for arthritis and the aseptic loosening of prosthetic joints, and the development of bone-healing applications is at an advanced, preclinical stage. Other potential uses include the treatment of Mendelian diseases and orthopedic tumors, as well as the repair and regeneration of cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. Many of these goals should be achievable with existing technologies. The main barriers to clinical application are funding and regulatory issues, which in turn reflect major safety concerns and the opinion, in some quarters, that gene therapy should not be applied to nonlethal, nongenetic diseases. For some indications, advances in nongenetic treatments have also diminished enthusiasm. Nevertheless, the preclinical and early clinical data are impressive and provide considerable optimism that gene therapy will provide straightforward, effective solutions to the clinical management of several common debilitating disorders that are otherwise difficult and expensive to treat. PMID:19066598

Evans, Christopher H; Ghivizzani, Steven C; Robbins, Paul D

2008-01-01

16

Airport detection of implanted orthopedic devices.  

PubMed

Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States and other countries have increased airport security. Metal detectors (archway and handheld wand) are used to detect potentially dangerous instruments during airport screening. One consequence is that orthopedic implants are sometimes detected, and patients are detained and searched. The orthopedic literature is inconsistent in its reports on airport screening of patients with orthopedic implants. In this article, I review that literature and examine the factors that make detection of orthopedic implants a less than consistent science. PMID:17131736

Ostrum, Robert F

2006-10-01

17

Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A locking mechanism for orthopedic braces is described which automatically prevents or permits the relative pivotable movement between a lower brace member and an upper brace member. The upper and lower brace members are provided with drilled bores within which a slidable pin is disposed, and depending upon the inclination of the brace members with respect to a vertical plane, the slidable pin will be interposed between both brace members. The secondary or auxiliary latching device includes a spring biased, manually operable lever bar arrangement which is manually unlatched and automatically latched under the influence of the spring.

I-Lechao, J.; Epps, C. H., Jr. (inventors)

1976-01-01

18

Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An orthopedic brace locking mechanism is described which under standing or walking conditions cannot be unlocked, however under sitting conditions the mechanism can be simply unlocked so as to permit bending of the patient's knee. Other features of the device include: (1) the mechanism is rendered operable, and inoperable, dependent upon the relative inclination of the brace with respect to the ground; (2) the mechanism is automatically locked under standing or walking conditions and is manually unlocked under sitting conditions; and (3) the mechanism is light in weight and is relatively small in size.

Chao, J. I.; Epps, C. H., Jr.

1981-01-01

19

Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

Blomstedt, Patric

2014-01-01

20

Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

1996-01-01

21

[Tranexamic acid in orthopedic surgery].  

PubMed

Perioperative bleeding may require blood transfusions, which are sometimes not without complications and risks, with the subsequent increase in health care costs. Among other prevention methods, treatment with tranexamic acid (ATX) has shown to be effective in reducing surgical blood loss, especially in the immediate postoperative period. In this regard, studies evaluating ATX in orthopedic surgery show that it is effective and safe when administered intravenously or intra-articularly. The usual evaluated intravenous doses range between 10mg/Kg and 20mg/kg or a fixed dose of 1g to 2g; while intra-articularly, it varies between 250 mg and 3g. ATX, as an anti-fibrinolytic has a potential thrombotic effect, thus it is contraindicated in those patients at risk or with a history of thrombosis. Its topical administration may be safer, but studies are needed to confirm this. PMID:24126146

Aguilera-Roig, X; Jordán-Sales, M; Natera-Cisneros, L; Monllau-García, J C; Martínez-Zapata, M J

2014-01-01

22

Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

2014-12-01

23

Biology for the Visually or Orthopedically Impaired  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The article suggests methods of working with visually and orthopedically disabled students in the biology laboratory setting to maximize their learning of basic concepts of biology and how to use the scientific method.

Dorothy Tombaugh (Euclid Senior High School;); Roy Tombaugh (;)

2006-06-07

24

Development of a novel orthopedic microfastener  

E-print Network

Over the last decade, biodegradable screws and plates have received wide acceptance over metallic fasteners for orthopedic fracture fixation. A biodegradable fastener would gradually "disappear" during healing of a fractured bone or tissues...

Agnihotri, Mukul Mukund

2007-04-25

25

78 FR 17940 - Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...computerized orthopedic surgical devices, software, implants, and components...

2013-03-25

26

Arthroscopic training resources in orthopedic resident education.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of use, perceived effectiveness, and preference for arthroscopic surgical skill training resources. An electronic survey was sent to orthopedics residents, residency program directors, and orthopedic sports medicine attending physicians in the United States. The frequency and perceived effectiveness of 10 types of adjunctive arthroscopic skills training was assessed. Residents and faculty members were asked to rate their confidence in resident ability to perform common arthroscopic procedures. Surveys were completed by 40 of 152 (26.3%) orthopedic residency program directors, 70 of 426 (16.4%) sports medicine faculty, and 235 of 3,170 (7.4%) orthopedic residents. The use of adjunctive methods of training varied from only 9.8% of programs with virtual reality training to 80.5% of programs that used reading of published materials to develop arthroscopic skill. Practice on cadaveric specimens was viewed as the most effective and preferred adjunctive method of training. Residents trained on cadaveric specimens reported increased confidence in their ability to perform arthroscopic procedures. The resources for developing arthroscopic surgical skill vary considerably across orthopedic residency programs in the United States. Adjunctive training methods were perceived to be effective at supplementing traditional training in the operating room. PMID:24510522

Koehler, Ryan; John, Tamara; Lawler, Jeffrey; Moorman, Claude; Nicandri, Gregg

2015-02-01

27

Obesity in orthopedics and trauma surgery.  

PubMed

In 2012, 32.3% of the French population over 18 years of age was considered overweight (25 ? BMI<30 kg/m(2)) and 15% obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)). Worldwide, 2.8 million people die every year from the complications of obesity. In 2008, the prevalence of obesity was almost double that of 1980. Obesity is a genuine concern for the orthopedic surgeon, as it affects bones and soft tissues on the biomechanical and biochemical level. In traumatology, low-energy trauma is more frequent in obese patients and induces complex comminutive fractures of the extremities. In orthopedics, obesity is an independent risk factor for osteoarthritis, particularly for the knee joint. The goals of this review are to describe specific aspects of the care of obese patients in trauma and orthopedics surgery during the pre-, intra- and postoperative periods, as well as the risk-benefit ratio related to the treatment of the obese patients. PMID:24461910

Parratte, S; Pesenti, S; Argenson, J-N

2014-02-01

28

Symbol manipulation and formula manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, Chinese research workers have noticed that there are systems for symbol manipulation and formula manipulation abroad. But use of computers in China is later. In early years, only assemblers, ALGOL, BASIC and FORTRAN languages were used, which were not suited to help manipulate formulas. Someone has considered extending FORTRAN by manipulation functions. Many people hope to use LISP

Chen Dongyue

1983-01-01

29

Injectable biodegradable materials for orthopedic tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large number of orthopedic procedures performed each year, including many performed arthroscopically, have led to great interest in injectable biodegradable materials for regeneration of bone and cartilage. A variety of materials have been developed for these applications, including ceramics, naturally derived substances and synthetic polymers. These materials demonstrate overall biocompatibility and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as promote tissue

Johnna S Temenoff; Antonios G Mikos

2000-01-01

30

Emotional intelligence in orthopedic surgery residents  

PubMed Central

Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage emotions in oneself and others. It was originally popularized in the business literature as a key attribute for success that was distinct from cognitive intelligence. Increasing focus is being placed on EI in medicine to improve clinical and academic performance. Despite the proposed benefits, to our knowledge, there have been no previous studies on the role of EI in orthopedic surgery. We evaluated baseline data on EI in a cohort of orthopedic surgery residents. Methods We asked all orthopedic surgery residents at a single institution to complete an electronic version of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We used completed questionnaires to calculate total EI scores and 4 branch scores. Data were analyzed according to a priori cutoff values to determine the proportion of residents who were considered competent on the test. Data were also analyzed for possible associations with age, sex, race and level of training. Results Thirty-nine residents (100%) completed the MSCEIT. The mean total EI score was 86 (maximum score 145). Only 4 (10%) respondents demonstrated competence in EI. Junior residents (p = 0.026), Caucasian residents (p = 0.009) and those younger than 30 years (p = 0.008) had significantly higher EI scores. Conclusion Our findings suggest that orthopedic residents score low on EI based on the MSCEIT. Optimizing resident competency in noncognitive skills may be enhanced by dedicated EI education, training and testing. PMID:24666445

Chan, Kevin; Petrisor, Brad; Bhandari, Mohit

2014-01-01

31

Crevice corrosion in orthopedic implant metals.  

PubMed

Studies of orthopedic implant alloys in crevice configuration suggest that cobalt-chromium alloys such as Haynes-Stellite 25 are the best choice for multicomponent implants. It is also shown that severe crevice attack may result from use of mixed metals. PMID:873945

Levine, D L; Staehle, R W

1977-07-01

32

Sensitive manipulation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an effective alternative to the traditional approach to robotic manipulation. In our approach, manipulation is mainly guided by tactile feedback as opposed to vision. The motivation comes from the fact ...

Torres-Jara, Eduardo R. (Eduardo Rafael), 1972-

2007-01-01

33

Sensitive Manipulation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an effective alternative to the traditionalapproach to robotic manipulation. In our approach, manipulation ismainly guided by tactile feedback as opposed to vision. Themotivation comes from the fact ...

Torres-Jara, Eduardo

2007-03-02

34

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective “survival motor neuron” (SMN) protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. PMID:24399883

Haaker, Gerrit; Fujak, Albert

2013-01-01

35

Underwater manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred

P. B. Schrum; G. H. Cohen

1993-01-01

36

Underwater manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls

P. B. Schrum; G. H. Cohen

1992-01-01

37

Underwater manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred

Phillip B. Schrum; George H. Cohen

1993-01-01

38

[The prevention of postoperative deep venous thrombosis in orthopedic surgery].  

PubMed

In a non-comparative prospective trial, efficacy was studied of the use of clexane (enoxiparin) in the prophylaxis of the lower limb deep vein thrombosis and the pulmonary artery thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery. Enrolled in the study were 48 orthopedic patients. Kinds of operations performed included total hip arthroplasty (n = 40), total knee arthroplasty (n = 2), other challenging orthopedic operations (n = 6). Analysis of results of the treatment having been undergone by the patients revealed no case of thrombosis of lower limb deep veins or hemorrhagic complications. Thus, clexane is an effective and reliable prophylaxis modality for thromboembolic complications in orthopedic surgery. PMID:10626456

Rybachuk, O I; Besiedyns'ky?, S M; Huliaiev, D V

1999-09-01

39

Orthopedic resident anatomy review course: a collaboration between anatomists and orthopedic surgeons.  

PubMed

A challenge for new residents and senior residents preparing for board examinations is refreshing their knowledge of basic science disciplines, such as human gross anatomy. The Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Utah School of Medicine has for many years held an annual Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course during the summer months for all of its residents. The primary purpose of the course is to renew competencies in basic science disciplines so that incoming residents more quickly reach a level of functional proficiency and to afford senior residents a platform to teach their junior colleagues. Before 2005, this course was conducted with minimal participation from anyone outside of the Department of Orthopaedics. Many of the residents voiced concerns that the educational benefits were not proportionate to the time invested. To improve the teaching of orthopedic-related anatomy, an educational collaboration between the Departments of Neurobiology and Anatomy and Orthopaedics was established in 2004 and continues to the present time. The major objectives of refining the course pedagogy, developing a Course Manual and Dissection Guide, and evaluating the results by administering a course survey questionnaire are described in this article. Implementation of all facets of the revised course has resulted in better participation by orthopedic faculty and more favorable reviews by the participating residents. Based on current levels of interest and positive comments from course participants, the Anatomy and Orthopedic faculty course directors plan to continue to develop course materials and pedagogy. PMID:21786430

DeFriez, Curtis B; Morton, David A; Horwitz, Daniel S; Eckel, Christine M; Foreman, K Bo; Albertine, Kurt H

2011-01-01

40

Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course: A Collaboration between Anatomists and Orthopedic Surgeons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A challenge for new residents and senior residents preparing for board examinations is refreshing their knowledge of basic science disciplines, such as human gross anatomy. The Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Utah School of Medicine has for many years held an annual Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course during the summer months…

DeFriez, Curtis B.; Morton, David A.; Horwitz, Daniel S.; Eckel, Christine M.; Foreman, K. Bo; Albertine, Kurt H.

2011-01-01

41

Hunting stand-related injuries in orthopedics.  

PubMed

Hunting remains an extremely popular recreational activity, with nearly 15 million Americans receiving a hunting license annually. Precautions have helped decrease accidents, but hunting-related injuries remain relatively common. The majority of severe, hunting-related accidents involve either a fall from a hunting platform or an accidental shooting. Both of these mechanisms frequently result in orthopedic injuries, many of which require operative care. Although firearms-associated injury has seemingly decreased, hunting platform falls and their sequelae are increasing. Understanding the mechanisms of these injuries and increasing awareness of them may minimize their morbidity and mortality or help prevent them altogether. PMID:25188622

Lebus, George F; Krueger, Chad A; Stinner, Daniel J; Mir, Hassan R

2014-09-01

42

The use of orthopedic surgical devices for forensic identification.  

PubMed

Surgically implanted devices have become increasingly common in modern skeletal material. Therefore, having the knowledge of the variety of implanted orthopedic devices, their manufacturer, and where to find and how to use identifying numbers in such implants can assist in the identification process when traditional methods are not applicable. Orthopedic device manufacturers are required by the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 and the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 to track permanently implanted devices. Manufacturer information on orthopedic devices associates the orthopedic surgeon who implanted the device with the patient. By providing a current list of the most common orthopedic device manufacturers in the U.S.A. and the associated contact information, investigators will have updated tools for the individuation process. Despite numerous complicating factors regarding how device data are tracked, the information presented here can assist forensic professionals with obtaining presumptive and/or positive identifications. PMID:21342187

Wilson, Rebecca J; Bethard, Jonathan D; DiGangi, Elizabeth A

2011-03-01

43

Caring for the incarcerated: an orthopedic perspective.  

PubMed

According to the 1976 Supreme Court case of Estelle v Gamble, the government is required to provide prisoners access to the necessary care for known, serious medical needs. Failure to do so violates the Eighth Amendment prohibiting the imposition of "cruel and unusual punishment." Currently, more than 2.5 million Americans are imprisoned, the highest per capita rate in the world. In the current fiscal climate and with burgeoning health care costs for society as a whole, providing care for prisoners poses both moral and logistical challenges. From an orthopedic standpoint, caring for the incarcerated raises uniquely challenging issues due to the nature of this patient population and their types of musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:24309118

Munns, Justin; Samora, Julie Balch; Granger, Jeffrey F; Ng, Vincent Y

2013-12-01

44

Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2003-06-30

45

Application of Stem Cells in Orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Stem cell research plays an important role in orthopedic regenerative medicine today. Current literature provides us with promising results from animal research in the fields of bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. While early clinical results are already published for bone and cartilage repair, the data about tendon repair is limited to animal studies. The success of these techniques remains inconsistent in all three mentioned areas. This may be due to different application techniques varying from simple mesenchymal stem cell injection up to complex tissue engineering. However, the ideal carrier for the stem cells still remains controversial. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of current basic research and clinical data concerning stem cell research in bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. Furthermore, a focus is set on different stem cell application techniques in tendon reconstruction, cartilage repair, and filling of bone defects. PMID:22550505

Schmitt, Andreas; van Griensven, Martijn; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Buchmann, Stefan

2012-01-01

46

Orthopedic surgical analyzer for percutaneous vertebroplasty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the spine is one of the most complex joint structures in the human body, its surgical treatment requires careful planning and high degree of precision to avoid any unwanted neurological compromises. In addition, comprehensive biomechanical analysis can be very helpful because the spine is subject to a variety of load. In case for the osteoporotic spine in which the structural integrity has been compromised, it brings out the double challenges for a surgeon both clinically and biomechanically. Thus, we have been developing an integrated medical image system that is capable of doing the both. This system is called orthopedic surgical analyzer and it combines the clinical results from image-guided examination and the biomechanical data from finite element analysis. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, this system was applied to percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a surgical procedure that has been recently introduced for the treatment of compression fracture of the osteoporotic vertebrae. It involves puncturing vertebrae and filling with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Recent studies have shown that the procedure could provide structural reinforcement for the osteoporotic vertebrae while being minimally invasive and safe with immediate pain relief. However, treatment failures due to excessive PMMA volume injection have been reported as one of complications. It is believed that control of PMMA volume is one of the most critical factors that can reduce the incidence of complications. Since the degree of the osteoporosis can influence the porosity of the cancellous bone in the vertebral body, the injection volume can be different from patient to patient. In this study, the optimal volume of PMMA injection for vertebroplasty was predicted based on the image analysis of a given patient. In addition, biomechanical effects due to the changes in PMMA volume and bone mineral density (BMD) level were investigated by constructing clinically relevant finite element models. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate the feasibility of our orthopedic surgical analyzer in a case for percutaneous vertebroplasty.

Tack, Gye Rae; Choi, Hyung Guen; Lim, Do H.; Lee, Sung J.

2001-05-01

47

Underwater manipulator  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1992-12-31

48

Underwater manipulator  

DOEpatents

Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

1993-04-20

49

Insights into Avicenna's knowledge of the science of orthopedics.  

PubMed

The art of orthopedics traces its history back to ancient civilizations like those of the Egyptians. The evolution of this branch of medicine is indebted to investigations of many scientists, including Greek, Roman and Persian scholars. The Persian physician Avicenna (980-1037 AD) is one such scientist who investigated different aspects of orthopedics. It is possible to analyze Avicenna's knowledge of orthopedics and his contributions to this branch of medicine by an examination of his epic encyclopedia of medicine, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). PMID:24649417

Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Meibodi, Mohammad Kalantari

2014-01-18

50

Orthopedic Health: Osteoarthritis— What You Should Know (quiz)  

MedlinePLUS

... Past Issues Orthopedic Health Osteoarthritis— What You Should Know Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. How much do you know about osteoarthritis, its causes, and its therapies? Take ...

51

The Effects of Standardized Feedback on Orthopedic Patient Evaluation Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined whether there are performance differences between surgery clerks provided corrective reinforcement on orthopedic history and physical examination write-ups and those assessed by traditional feedback means when both groups are exposed to the feedback instrument. (MLW)

DaRosa, Debra A.; And Others

1984-01-01

52

Orthopedic Health: Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past ... Exercise helps bone density, improves muscle strength and joint flexibility, and enhances your balance. Take part in ...

53

45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability...includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns,...

2014-10-01

54

Are academic orthopedic surgeons interested in global health?  

PubMed

Two thirds of the world's population lack orthopedic services. Natural disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake temporarily increased volunteering, but the decision to volunteer regularly is likely multifactorial. In the study reported here, we investigated whether academic orthopedic surgeons are interested in volunteering abroad and identified factors that influence participation. Academic orthopedic surgeons were identified through the faculty listings of all 154 orthopedic residency programs listed by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Electronic Residency Application Service and were sent surveys by e-mail. Of the 3,697 eligible academic orthopedic surgeons, 600 were randomly selected, and 109 completed the survey. Of the 109 respondents, 52% had volunteered abroad previously, and 62% said they were highly likely to volunteer abroad in the future. The most common barriers were scheduling, and family and social commitments (65% and 66%, respectively), followed by lack of specialty-specific opportunities (40%). In a multivariate model, the only barrier significantly decreasing likelihood to volunteer abroad was concern for medical safety (P = .015). Altruistic motivations (P = .005), religious sentiments (P = .006), international networking (P = .004), and fulfilling the true medical creed (P = .015) significantly increased likelihood. Academic orthopedic surgeons are interested in volunteering abroad. Addressing common motivations and barriers may help improve care in the developing world. PMID:24660182

Makhni, Melvin C; Miao, Diana; Zurakowski, David; Day, Charles S

2014-03-01

55

Orthopedic surgery and its complication in systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic immune-complex mediated autoimmune condition which chiefly affects women during their prime year. While the management of the condition falls into the specialty of internal medicine, patients with SLE often present with signs and symptoms pertaining to the territory of orthopedic surgery such as tendon rupture, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteonecrosis, osteoporotic fracture and infection including septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis. While these orthopedic-related conditions are often debilitating in patients with SLE which necessitate management by orthopedic specialists, a high index of suspicion is necessary in diagnosing these conditions early because lupus patients with potentially severe orthopedic conditions such as osteomyelitis frequently present with mild symptoms and subtle signs such as low grade fever, mild hip pain and back tenderness. Additionally, even if these orthopedic conditions can be recognized, complications as a result of surgical procedures are indeed not uncommon. SLE per se and its various associated pharmacological treatments may pose lupus patients to certain surgical risks if they are not properly attended to and managed prior to, during and after surgery. Concerted effort of management and effective communication among orthopedic specialists and rheumatologists play an integral part in enhancing favorable outcome and reduction in postoperative complications for patients with SLE through thorough pre-operative evaluation, careful peri-operative monitoring and treatment, as well as judicious postoperative care. PMID:24653977

Mak, Anselm

2014-01-18

56

Orthopedic surgery and its complication in systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic immune-complex mediated autoimmune condition which chiefly affects women during their prime year. While the management of the condition falls into the specialty of internal medicine, patients with SLE often present with signs and symptoms pertaining to the territory of orthopedic surgery such as tendon rupture, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteonecrosis, osteoporotic fracture and infection including septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis. While these orthopedic-related conditions are often debilitating in patients with SLE which necessitate management by orthopedic specialists, a high index of suspicion is necessary in diagnosing these conditions early because lupus patients with potentially severe orthopedic conditions such as osteomyelitis frequently present with mild symptoms and subtle signs such as low grade fever, mild hip pain and back tenderness. Additionally, even if these orthopedic conditions can be recognized, complications as a result of surgical procedures are indeed not uncommon. SLE per se and its various associated pharmacological treatments may pose lupus patients to certain surgical risks if they are not properly attended to and managed prior to, during and after surgery. Concerted effort of management and effective communication among orthopedic specialists and rheumatologists play an integral part in enhancing favorable outcome and reduction in postoperative complications for patients with SLE through thorough pre-operative evaluation, careful peri-operative monitoring and treatment, as well as judicious postoperative care. PMID:24653977

Mak, Anselm

2014-01-01

57

Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods - We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results - Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation - CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris Jw; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

2014-12-01

58

Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose — In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results — Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation — CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris JW; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

2014-01-01

59

Orthopedic rehabilitation using the "Rutgers ankle" interface.  

PubMed

A novel ankle rehabilitation device is being developed for home use, allowing remote monitoring by therapists. The system will allow patients to perform a variety of exercises while interacting with a virtual environment (VE). These game-like VEs created with WorldToolKit run on a host PC that controls the movement and output forces of the device via an RS232 connection. Patients will develop strength, flexibility, coordination, and balance as they interact with the VEs. The device will also perform diagnostic functions, measuring the ankle's range of motion, force exertion capabilities and coordination. The host PC transparently records patient progress for remote evaluation by therapists via our existing telerehabilitation system. The "Rutgers Ankle" Orthopedic Rehabilitation Interface uses double-acting pneumatic cylinders, linear potentiometers, and a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) force sensor. The controller contains a Pentium single-board computer and pneumatic control valves. Based on the Stewart platform, the device can move and supply forces and torques in 6 DOFs. A proof-of-concept trial conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) provided therapist and patient feedback. The system measured the range of motion and maximum force output of a group of four patients (male and female). Future medical trials are required to establish clinical efficacy in rehabilitation. PMID:10977590

Girone, M; Burdea, G; Bouzit, M; Popescu, V; Deutsch, J E

2000-01-01

60

Remote Manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SPAR Aerospace Limited's "Canadarm," Canada's contribution to the space shuttle. It is a crane which can operate as a 50 foot extension of an astronaut's arm. It can lift 65,000 pounds in space and retrieve satellites for repair, etc. Redesigned versions have energy and mining applications. Some of its hardware has been redeveloped for use as a Hydro manipulator in a nuclear reactor where it is expected to be extremely cost effective.

1986-01-01

61

Novel Applications of Osseointegration in Orthopedic Limb Salvage Surgery.  

PubMed

Osseointegration is a biologic process vital to modern endoprosthetic fixation in orthopedic surgery. Numerous engineering advancements have improved the utilization of this technology in orthopedics; however, issues such as stress shielding, aseptic loosening, and bone loss remain an ongoing challenge. These host responses are especially problematic in limb salvage surgery. Novel applications of osseointegration have been developed to address some of these fixation issues with massive tumor endoprostheses. This articles reviews osseointegration and emerging novel applications of this technology in limb salvage surgery and future prosthetics for amputees. PMID:25435037

Monument, Michael J; Lerman, Daniel M; Randall, R Lor

2015-01-01

62

Telediagnosis system for orthopedic deformity analysis based on 3D medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the structural complexity of the bone, it is difficult to diagnose and make a treatment plan for injuries and diseases in bones. In this paper, we designed and implemented a telediagnosis system for orthopedic deformity analysis based on 3D medical imaging. In order to define the intersseous relationships in each bone and to evaluate a deformity without invasions, the system produces volumetric images by reconstructing the planar images spatially and provides deformity analysis by measuring distance, area, volume and angle among the bones. The reconstructed volumetric images are freely manipulated to simulate surgical operations such as translation, scaling, rotation and so on. Our system integrates three main components: server, clients and communication subsystem. It is also composed of three main functions including the information control manager for event and message process used between client and server, and surgical simulation manager for object visualization and manipulation in individual bones, and the medical database manager for patient information. The system also supports user-friendly graphical user interface and simultaneous use by multiple users.

Kim, Myoung-Hee; Hong, Helen; Kim, Min-A.

2000-04-01

63

Force relaxation and sprinback of novel elastic orthopedic cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerclage cables have proven to be very useful in the orthopedic field for bones stabilization and plate fixation but the initial enthusiasm for metallic cables has declined with their high complication rates. Metal materials provide limited elastic deformation compromising their ability to maintain compression. This study compares the mechanical properties of new elastic cables with cobalt-chrome and stainless-steel cables. Methods:

Fanny Canet; Yannick Baril; Vladimir Brailovski; Yvan Petit; Guillaume Bissonnette; G-Yves Laflamme

2011-01-01

64

Mechanics considerations for microporous titanium as an orthopedic implant material  

E-print Network

Mechanics considerations for microporous titanium as an orthopedic implant material Sarah Thelen of a recently developed porous titanium (Ti) material for load-bearing implants. This material may have­ Tanaka). Finally, two-dimensional finite element models based on optical micrographs of the material

Barthelat, Francois

65

The Special Orthopedic Hospital—Past and Present  

PubMed Central

Pioneer orthopedic institutions established in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and in the U.S.A. in the second half of the 19th and the first decade of the 20th century, can trace their ancestry in ideas back to the practice and teachings of Hippocrates. Experience in treatment of great numbers of injured soldiers in the First World War opened a new era in reconstructive surgery of the locomotor system. After the Second World War, in advanced nations the pattern of crippling diseases showed a spectacular change. Problems that justify the existence of large special orthopedic hospitals are, in children, the more complex congenital deformities, cerebral palsies, and the increasing number of injuries due to hazards of modern life; in the adult, the reconstructive surgery of trauma and of arthritis. In modern orthopedic hospitals physicians have joined orthopedic surgeons in the study of the natural history of the various forms of arthritis. These centres provide facilities for biomechanical research and postgraduate training which acute general hospitals cannot offer. PMID:14228224

Platt, Harry

1964-01-01

66

Production of new titanium alloy for orthopedic implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beta titanium alloys is one of the most promising groups of the titanium alloys. This fact is due to the good formability, mechanical properties and potential applications; moreover, these alloys present the highest level of mechanical, fatigue and corrosion resistance. The beta titanium alloys present the lowest elastic modulus, an interesting property for orthopedic implants. A ? alloy recently

E. B. Taddei; V. A. R. Henriques; C. R. M. Silva; C. A. A. Cairo

2004-01-01

67

Block to succeed: the Canadian orthopedic resident research experience  

PubMed Central

Background We assessed the current state of Canadian orthopedic resident research and the effect of protected block research time on the numbers of grants obtained, research projects completed, submissions for publication, publications and conference presentations. Methods We administered a 27-item cross-sectional survey containing quantitative and qualitative questions to postgraduate year (PGY)-3 to -5 residents in all 16 Canadian orthopedic training programs in the academic year of Jul. 1, 2005, to Jun. 30, 2006. Results There was an overall response rate of 45% (85/188) from residents in 15 of 16 orthopedic programs: 56% (48/85) of respondents took block research time of at least 1 month (mean 5 mo). The number of months taken was positively correlated with the number of grants obtained (r = 0.28, p = 0.011) and publications (r = 0.23, p = 0.031). Residents who took block time obtained more grants (Fisher exact test 3.54, p = 0.048) and publications (Fisher exact test 6.09, p = 0.012) than those who did not take block time. About 41% (35/85) of respondents said time was the biggest obstacle to research. Conclusion Providing protected block research time during residency allows Canadian orthopedic residents greater research success. PMID:19503662

Chan, Robert K.W.; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hutchison, Carol

2009-01-01

68

Stability of implants as anchorage for orthopedic traction.  

PubMed

The aim of this animal study was to investigate the stability of osseointegrated fixtures when used as anchorage for orthopedic traction with extreme force magnitude. Three Brånemark fixtures were placed in the left zygomatic arch and three in the right of five adult dogs. An orthopedic nonaxial force of 5 N was applied using an intraoral coil system. The initial displacement immediately after force application was measured by means of speckle interferometry. After 2 months of continuous loading, bone adaptation and mineralization around all implants were analyzed. All the loaded implants were immobile. Significant marginal bone loss at the abutment-fixture interface (<1 mm) was observed around each loaded fixture implant. Bone remodeling was significantly more pronounced at the tension side of the implants, irrespective of fixture length. Radiographical and histological analyses showed bone with normal trabecular pattern around the implants. PMID:10515136

De Pauw, G A; Dermaut, L; De Bruyn, H; Johansson, C

1999-10-01

69

Risk of surgical site infection in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with surgical site infections in orthopedic surgical patients at a public hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2005 and 2007. A historical cohort of 3,543 patients submitted to orthopedic surgical procedures. A descriptive analysis was conducted and surgical site infection incidence rates were estimated. To verify the association between infection and risk factors, the Chi-square Test was used. The strength of association of the event with the independent variables was estimated using Relative Risk, with a 95% confidence interval and p<0.05. The incidence of surgical site infection was 1.8%. Potential surgical wound contamination, clinical conditions, time and type of surgical procedure were statistically associated with infection. Identifying the association between surgical site infection and these risk factors is important and contributes to nurses' clinical practice. PMID:22249670

Ercole, Flávia Falci; Franco, Lúcia Maciel Castro; Macieira, Tamara Gonçalves Rezende; Wenceslau, Luísa Cristina Crespo; de Resende, Helena Isabel Nascimento; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado

2011-01-01

70

Health economics and health preference concepts to orthopedics practitioners  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to describe concepts of health economics in order to update and provide the orthopedic practitioner decision making parameters based on preferences. Four basic types of studies of economical evaluation were presented (cost minimization analysis, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility), as well as the origin, the concept, advantages and disadvantages of using QALY and utility. It was discussed the importance of costs and of SF-6D, an instrument able to get through the utility data from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Physicians, especially orthopedic practitioners, are increasingly using technologies which are progressively expensive, thus, they should be able to understand health economics concepts, the importance of utility in clinical decision making process and economic analysis in health.09+ PMID:24868190

Araújo, Carlos Delano Mundim; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Hochman, Bernardo; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

2014-01-01

71

Nitrogen plasma-implanted nickel titanium alloys for orthopedic use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel–titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) have attracted much attention as orthopedic materials due to their shape memory effect and super-elasticity. However, this alloy consists of equal amounts of nickel and titanium and Ni is well known to cause allergy or other deleterious effects in living tissues. To improve the surface corrosion resistance and mitigate Ni leaching, we have modified the

K. W. K. Yeung; R. W. Y. Poon; X. M. Liu; Paul K. Chu; C. Y. Chung; X. Y. Liu; S. Chan; W. W. Lu; D. Chan; K. D. K. Luk; K. M. C. Cheung

2007-01-01

72

Tissue Engineering Strategies for the Regeneration of Orthopedic Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major focus in the field of orthopedic tissue engineering is the development of tissue engineered bone and soft tissue grafts\\u000a with biomimetic functionality to allow for their translation to the clinical setting. One of the most significant challenges\\u000a of this endeavor is promoting the biological fixation of these grafts with each other as well as the implant site. Such

Helen H. Lu; Siddarth D. Subramony; Margaret K. Boushell; Xinzhi Zhang

2010-01-01

73

Blood conservation strategies in orthopedic surgeries: A review  

PubMed Central

In orthopedics management of surgical blood loss is an important aspect which has evolved along with modern surgeries. Replacement of lost blood by transfusion alone is not the answer as was considered earlier. Complications like infection and immune reaction due to blood transfusion are a major concern. Today numerous techniques are available in place of allogenic blood transfusion which can be employed safely and effectively. In this article we have reviewed these techniques, their merits and demerits.

Sambandam, Balaji; Batra, Sahil; Gupta, Rajat; Agrawal, Nidhi

2013-01-01

74

Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery (CAOS): Pros and Cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has recently evolved as an important technical application that has offered substantial\\u000a improvements over conventional instrumented methods. The possibility of using computers in total joint replacement surgery\\u000a is not a recent discovery, as Bargar and Paul introduced the first successful robotic application for total hips in 1987.1 Their system was a development effort with IBM, which

James B. Stiehl

75

Student opinions on orthopedic residency selection, education, and work hours.  

PubMed

Other articles have been written about resident selection, musculoskeletal education, work hours, and call coverage, but none has described orthopedic applicants' opinions on these issues. We conducted a study to gain insight into applicants' attitudes about issues relevant to the specialty. We distributed a survey to 53 applicants interviewing for an orthopedic residency. The survey used both a multiple-choice format and a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree or least important) to 5 (strongly agree or most important). Respondents rated the adequacy of musculoskeletal education in medical school a mean standard deviation (SD) of 2.00 (0.8) on the Likert scale. Ranking the factors most valuable to an orthopedic surgery application, they rated United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 board examination scores a mean (SD) of 4.26 (0.9). In addition, of the 53 respondents, 46 (87%) anticipated working as a resident more than 80 hours per week, and 36 (68%) anticipated working as an attending 60 to 70 hours per week or less. Respondents also agreed that they should receive compensation for call coverage. Therefore, students agreed that medical school education is insufficient, rated USMLE scores the most important application factor, anticipated working more than 80 hours per week, and agreed that call coverage should be compensated. PMID:24078953

Hussain, Waqas; Hussain, Haroon; Manning, David W

2013-08-01

76

Manipulation of Thermal Phonons  

E-print Network

to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials — phononic crystals — might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many...

Hsu, Chung-Hao

2013-03-28

77

Improving A Remote Manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Set of three reports describes work on Protoflight Manipulator Assembly (PFMA). "Performance Characteristics of Protoflight Manipulator Assembly" presents parameters of PFMA after refurbishment of operating components. "End Effector and Task Board Development for the Protoflight Manipulator Assembly" describes special tools and adaptations allowing PFMA to be used for servicing equipment. "Modular Software Development for the Protoflight Manipulator Assembly" documents interface and control software for PFMA.

Haslam, John W., Jr.; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Fagg, Mary F.; Rodriguez, Ricardo C.

1989-01-01

78

The Insignificance of Manipulation  

E-print Network

The Insignificance of Manipulation David Papineau Summary I want to show that Jim Woodward's account of causation is not a manipulability theory, whatever its other virtues. (Of course,we can all agree that causation is needed for manipulation--ie an action producing a desired result. But so

Fitelson, Branden

79

Questions about Neck Manipulation?  

MedlinePLUS

Questions About Neck Manipulation? Chiropractic is widely recognized as one of the safest drug-free, non-invasive therapies available for the treatment of ... of chiropractic, osteopaths and physical therapists provide--neck manipulation (also known as cervical manipulation)—with a certain ...

80

Tactics of Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulation is one means by which environments are altered to correspond to characteristics of individuals. We conducted two studies to identify the manipulation tactics that people use to elicit and terminate the actions of others. Factor analyses of four instruments revealed six types of tactics: charm, silent treatment, coercion, reason, regression, and debasement. Tactics of manipulation showed strong individual difference

David M. Buss; Mary Gomes; Dolly S. Higgins; Karen Lauterbach

1987-01-01

81

Multiple testing in orthopedic literature: a common problem?  

PubMed Central

Background Performing multiple tests in primary research is a frequent subject of discussion. This discussion originates from the fact that when multiple tests are performed, it becomes more likely to reject one of the null hypotheses, conditional on that these hypotheses are true and thus commit a type one error. Several correction methods for multiple testing are available. The primary aim of this study was to assess the quantity of articles published in two highly esteemed orthopedic journals in which multiple testing was performed. The secondary aims were to determine in which percentage of these studies a correction was performed and to assess the risk of committing a type one error if no correction was applied. Methods The 2010 annals of two orthopedic journals (A and B) were systematically hand searched by two independent investigators. All articles on original research in which statistics were applied were considered. Eligible publications were reviewed for the use of multiple testing with respect to predetermined criteria. Results A total of 763 titles were screened and 127 articles were identified and included in the analysis. A median of 15 statistical inference results were reported per publication in both journal A and B. Correction for multiple testing was performed in 15% of the articles published in journal A and in 6% from journal B. The estimated median risk of obtaining at least one significant result for uncorrected studies was calculated to be 54% for both journals. Conclusion This study shows that the risk of false significant findings is considerable and that correcting for multiple testing is only performed in a small percentage of all articles published in the orthopedic literature reviewed. PMID:24053281

2013-01-01

82

Microwave processing of cleft palate orthopedic expansion devices.  

PubMed

This article describes a method for making a palatal expansion device for use in conjunction with orthopedic repositioning of the premaxilla in patients with bilateral cleft palate. The technique of constructing the devices involves the microwave processing of a permanent soft liner and a heat-cured acrylic resin in a single-stage curing cycle. The resultant expansion device has the advantages of a soft liner for retention in the nasal cavity and an oral cavity surface that is smooth and closely adapted to the tissues. A paper cover is used during the flasking process, which allows packing of materials without displacement into undesirable locations. PMID:1403884

McKinstry, R E; Browning, S

1992-06-01

83

The Early Years of Organized Chiropractic Orthopedics, 1954–1973: A Social History  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper presents the origins and development of the organized chiropractic orthopedics movement in the United States from 1954–1973. Methods: Hand searches of early periodicals were performed and information was organized chronologically to create a timeline. Context for the timeline was provided by extracting pertinent information from audio recordings of interviews. Relevant background information was located using the cumulative index of the journal Chiropractic History and searching the MANTIS database. Historical Features: After World War I, The advent of third party reimbursement for health care created a new environment for health care practitioners. For doctors of chiropractic, this event provided the impetus to begin the postgraduate chiropractic orthopedics program over 50 years ago. In 1954, Alvin A. Hancock, DC and F. Maynard Lipe, DC successfully launched an active orthopedics movement after several earlier attempts failed during the 1940s and early 1950s. The movement generated from the desire to train and certify chiropractors to manage personal injury and workers’ compensation low back injuries. In addition to developing interdisciplinary educational programs, the chiropractic orthopedics group was responsible for producing a research agenda, some of the profession’s early orthopedic-focused research, and for starting the National Council on Chiropractic Orthopedics of the National Chiropractic Association, which later became the American Chiropractic Association Council on Orthopedics. These organizations produced thousands of specialists in chiropractic orthopedics, later known as Diplomates of the American Board of Chiropractic Orthopedists. Conclusion: Several orthopedics interest groups were formed and credentialing processes were created to qualify doctors as recognized chiropractic orthopedics specialists. The popularity of this movement resulted in the inclusion of orthopedics into core chiropractic college curricula and the production of various research studies before the development of the modern science of chiropractic. PMID:19488411

Green, Bart N.; Johnson, Claire D.

2009-01-01

84

Laser-deposited Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta orthopedic alloys.  

PubMed

The complex quaternary Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta orthopedic alloy has been successfully deposited from a powder feedstock consisting of a blend of elemental titanium, niobium, zirconium, and tantalum powders, using the laser engineered net-shaping (LENStrade mark) process. In the as laser-deposited form, these alloys exhibit a substantially higher tensile strength as compared with more conventionally processed counterparts of similar composition, while maintaining excellent ductility and a low modulus. Furthermore, the as-deposited alloys appear to exhibit a <001> texture, with a substantially large number of grains of the beta phase aligning one of their <001> axes nearly normal to the substrate or parallel to the growth direction. The microstructure of the as-deposited as well as tensile-tested alloys have been characterized in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation microscopy (OM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Formation of a high density of shear bands, possibly arising from slip localization due to precipitates of the omega phase in the beta matrix, is clearly evident in the tensile-tested sample. The enhanced tensile strength and low modulus in these laser-deposited alloys coupled with the ability to form near-net shape components makes LENS an attractive processing technology for orthopedic implants. PMID:16637044

Banerjee, R; Nag, S; Samuel, S; Fraser, H L

2006-08-01

85

Citrate-based Biodegradable Injectable hydrogel Composites for Orthopedic Applications.  

PubMed

Previous studies have confirmed that natural bone apatite crystals are bound with citrate-rich molecules. Citrates on apatite crystals impact bone development and its load-bearing function. However, such understanding has never been translated into bone biomaterials design. Herein, a first citrate-based injectable composite material for orthopedic applications is developed based on our recently developed biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) maleate citrate (PEGMC) and hydroxyapatite (HA). PEGMC contains rich carboxylic groups that could chelate with calcium-containing HA thus facilitating polymer/HA interactions, similar to natural citrate-bound apatite crystal. The crosslinking of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) with PEGMC/HA composites allows an addition control over degradation and mechanical properties of the crosslinked PEGMC/HA (CPEGMC/HA) composites. CPEGMC/HA composite can serve as an ideal injectable cell carrier as confirmed by the enhanced DNA content, ALP activity, and calcium production through a human fetal osteoblast encapsulation study. Ex vivo study on porcine femoral head demonstrated that PEGMC/HA is a potentially promising injectable biodegradable bone material for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Development of biodegradable citrate-based injectable PEGMC/HA composite is an initial step for the development of the next generation of bone tissue engineering and orthopedic biomaterials. PMID:23977427

Gyawali, Dipendra; Nair, Parvathi; Kim, Harry K W; Yang, Jian

2013-01-01

86

Experimental and clinical performance of porous tantalum in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Porous tantalum, a new low modulus metal with a characteristic appearance similar to cancellous bone, is currently available for use in several orthopedic applications (hip and knee arthroplasty, spine surgery, and bone graft substitute). The open-cell structure of repeating dodecahedrons is produced via carbon vapor deposition/infiltration of commercially pure tantalum onto a vitreous carbon scaffolding. This transition metal maintains several interesting biomaterial properties, including: a high volumetric porosity (70-80%), low modulus of elasticity (3MPa), and high frictional characteristics. Tantalum has excellent biocompatibility and is safe to use in vivo as evidenced by its historical and current use in pacemaker electrodes, cranioplasty plates and as radiopaque markers. The bioactivity and biocompatibility of porous tantalum stems from its ability to form a self-passivating surface oxide layer. This surface layer leads to the formation of a bone-like apatite coating in vivo and affords excellent bone and fibrous in-growth properties allowing for rapid and substantial bone and soft tissue attachment. Tantalum-chondrocyte composites have yielded successful early results in vitro and may afford an option for joint resurfacing in the future. The development of porous tantalum is in its early stages of evolution and the following represents a review of its biomaterial properties and applications in orthopedic surgery. PMID:16737737

Levine, Brett Russell; Sporer, Scott; Poggie, Robert A; Della Valle, Craig J; Jacobs, Joshua J

2006-09-01

87

[The specificities of orthopedic trauma in the geriatric patient].  

PubMed

Aging of the population represents an ubiquitous and ever-growing phenomenon in the developed countries. Geriatric traumatology is a constant-developping sub-speciality of orthopedics and traumatology; it deals with the specific medical problems developed by older patients when affected by muskuloskeletal trauma. The optimal treatment of this pathology as well as the age threshold used to define the "geriatric" patient are still subjects of debate. Chronological age cannot be used as the sole inclusion criteria; physiological age as defined by comorbidities seems to be more appropriate. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview of the problems that the orthopedic surgeons faces when dealing with geriatric trauma: timing of surgery and anesthesia, technical aspects of surgery and fractures, complications and problems with the postoperative management of geriatric patients. Geriatric trauma is already today an important problem; it will certainly become a great challenge in coming years. The solution must reside in a multidisciplinary approach backed up by a solid infra-structure and good management decisions. PMID:25065248

Valcu, C A; Kurth, W; Remy, B; Gillet, P

2014-01-01

88

Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

1989-01-01

89

The Orthopedically Disabled Child: Psychological Implications with an Individual Basis. July 1984 Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…

Sigmon, Scott B.

90

Patterns of costs and spending among orthopedic surgeons across the United States: a national survey.  

PubMed

Due to rising medical costs, the purpose of this study was to investigate the spending patterns of orthopedic surgeons across the United States and the financial implications of such behavior. Overall, 2,000 randomly chosen orthopedic surgeons from the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) were invited to answer web-based surveys on their utilization of healthcare resources; 1,214 (61%) completed the survey. There was a significant difference (P < .001) in monthly expenditure based on 8 domains of orthopedic care for the average orthopedist: x-ray costs were $7,536, computed tomography costs were $2,340, magnetic resonance imaging costs were $14,975, ultrasound costs were $686, laboratory test costs were $969, specialty referral costs were $1,389, biopsy costs were $1,314, and hospital admission costs were $6,808. Significant differences in monthly expenditure existed based on orthopedist practice setting (P < .001), subspecialty (P < .001), gender (P < .001), and age (P < .001). Demographics with the highest monthly spending included orthopedic private group setting ($36,278), orthopedic oncology subspecialty ($41,795), male gender ($33,843), and age 50 to 59 ($35,559). The average monthly expenditure for orthopedists nationally was calculated to be $33,436 per physician. Given there are approximately 20,400 practicing orthopedists, the annual United States expenditure in orthopedic surgery was calculated to be $8.2 billion. Orthopedic spending is a significant component of national healthcare expenditure. PMID:24490192

Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Mir, Hassan R; Obremskey, William T; Lee, Young M; Thakore, Rachel V; Sethi, Manish K

2014-01-01

91

Magnitude and meaningfulness of change in SF36 scores in four types of orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Medical Outcomes General Health Survey (SF-36) is a widely used health status measure; however, limited evidence is available for its performance in orthopedic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and meaningfulness of change and sensitivity of SF-36 subscales following orthopedic surgery. METHODS: Longitudinal data on outcomes of total hip replacement (THR, n =

Lucy Busija; Richard H Osborne; Anna Nilsdotter; Rachelle Buchbinder; Ewa M Roos

2008-01-01

92

Characterization and bond strength of electrolytic HA\\/TiO2 double layers for orthopedic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufficient bonding of juxtaposed bone to an orthopedic\\/dental implant could be caused by material surface properties that do not support new bone growth. For this reason, fabrication of biomaterials surface properties, which support osteointegration, should be one of the key objectives in the design of the next generation of orthopedic\\/dental implants. Titanium and titanium alloy have been widely used in

Chi-Min Lin; Shiow-Kang Yen

2004-01-01

93

Manipulability of Robotic Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the manipulating ability of robotic mechanisms in positioning and orienting end-effectors and proposes a measure of manipulability. Some properties of this measure are obtained, the best postures of various types of manipulators are given, and a four-degree-of-freedom finger is considered from the viewpoint of the measure. The pos tures somewhat resemble those of human arms and fingers.

Tsuneo Yoshikawa

1985-01-01

94

Manipulator mounted transfer platform  

DOEpatents

A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

Dobbins, James C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hoover, Mark A. (Idaho Falls, ID); May, Kay W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ross, Maurice J. (Pocatello, ID)

1990-01-01

95

Coordinating locomotion and manipulation of a mobile manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile manipulator in this study is a manipulator mounted on a mobile platform. Assuming the end point of the manipulator is guided, e.g., by a human operator to follow an arbitrary trajectory, it is desirable that the mobile platform is able to move as to position the manipulator in certain preferred configurations. Since the motion of the manipulator is

Y. Yamamoto; Xiaoping Yun

1994-01-01

96

Infection Mitigation Efficacy of Photoactive Titania on Orthopedic Implant Materials  

PubMed Central

In order to impede infection and achieve accelerated wound healing in the postorthopaedic surgery patients, a simple and benign procedure for creating nanotubular or nanofibrillar structure of photoactive TiO2 on the surface of Ti plates and wires is described. The nanoscale TiO2 films on titanium were grown by hydrothermal processing in one case and by anodization in the presence of dilute mineral acids under mild and benign conditions in the other. Confocal microscopy results demonstrated at least 50% reduction in the population of E. coli colonies (concentration 2.15 × 107?cells/mL) on TiO2-coated implants upon an IR exposure of up to 30?s; it required ?20?min of exposure to UV beam for the same effect. These findings suggest the probability of eliminating wound infection during and after orthopedic surgical procedures by brief illumination of photoactive titania films on the implants with an IR beam. PMID:21994891

Azad, Abdul-Majeed; Hershey, Ryan; Aboelzahab, Asem; Goel, Vijay

2011-01-01

97

Mechanical Properties of Nanotextured Titanium Orthopedic Screws for Clinical Applications.  

PubMed

In this work, we modified the topography of commercial titanium orthopedic screws using electrochemical anodization in a 0.4?wt% hydrofluoric acid solution to produce titanium dioxide nanotube layers. The morphology of the nanotube layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the nanotube layers were investigated by screwing and unscrewing an anodized screw into several different types of human bone while the torsional force applied to the screwdriver was measured using a torque screwdriver. The range of torsional force applied to the screwdriver was between 5 and [Formula: see text]. Independent assessment of the mechanical properties of the same surfaces was performed on simple anodized titanium foils using a triboindenter. Results showed that the fabricated nanotube layers can resist mechanical stresses close to those found in clinical situations. PMID:23904907

Descamps, Stephane; Awitor, Komla O; Raspal, Vincent; Johnson, Matthew B; Bokalawela, Roshan S P; Larson, Preston R; Doiron, Curtis F

2013-06-01

98

Regulatory perspective on characterization and testing of orthopedic bone cements.  

PubMed

This paper provides a general regulatory background of acrylic bone cements, chemical composition information on several commercially available bone cements, physical and chemical methods of analyses, mechanical test methods, and risks and failure mechanisms of acrylic bone cements. Suggestions and recommendations presented in Tables 2 and 3 are not mandatory requirements but reflect data and methodologies which the FDA's Orthopedic Devices Branch (ORDB) believes to be acceptable to evaluate most pre-clinical data. FDA may require information in addition to that contained in this paper. In some instances, a sponsor may be able to sufficiently justify the omission of some tests. Although this paper describes certain administrative requirements, it does not take the place of the requirements contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) Parts 801, 807, 812, and 814 or those found in the statute. PMID:9830987

Demian, H W; McDermott, K

1998-09-01

99

Clothing Manipulation Takeo Igarashi  

E-print Network

various cloth configurations quickly during the design process , both in 3D character design and realClothing Manipulation Takeo Igarashi Computer Science Department, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo techniques (and the underlying implementations) for putting clothes on a 3D character and manipulating them

Hughes, John

100

Direct Manipulation Interfaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a cognitive account of both the advantages and disadvantages of direct manipulation interfaces, i.e., the use of icons to manipulate and interact directly with data rather than writing programs or calling on a set of statistical subroutines. Two underlying phenomena that give rise to the sensation of directness are identified.…

Hutchins, Edwin L.; And Others

101

Hydroxyapatite-nanotube composites and coatings for orthopedic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) has received wide attention in orthopedics, due to its biocompatibility and osseointegration ability. Despite these advantages, the brittle nature and low fracture toughness of HA often results in rapid wear and premature fracture of implant. Hence, there is a need to improve the fracture toughness and wear resistance of HA without compromising its biocompatibility. The aim of the current research is to explore the potential of nanotubes as reinforcement to HA for orthopedic implants. HA- 4 wt.% carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and coatings are synthesized by spark plasma sintering and plasma spraying respectively, and investigated for their mechanical, tribological and biological behavior. CNT reinforcement improves the fracture toughness (>90%) and wear resistance (>66%) of HA for coating and free standing composites. CNTs have demonstrated a positive influence on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization activities of osteoblasts, during in-vitro biocompatibility studies. In-vivo exposure of HA-CNT coated titanium implant in animal model (rat) shows excellent histocompatibility and neobone integration on the implant surface. The improved osseointegration due to presence of CNTs in HA is quantified by the adhesion strength measurement of single osteoblast using nano-scratch technique. Considering the ongoing debate about cytotoxicity of CNTs in the literature, the present study also suggests boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) as an alternative reinforcement. BNNT with the similar elastic modulus and strength as CNT, were added to HA. The resulting composite having 4 wt.% BNNTs improved the fracture toughness (˜85%) and wear resistance (˜75%) of HA in the similar range as HA-CNT composites. BNNTs were found to be non-cytotoxic for osteoblasts and macrophages. In-vitro evaluation shows positive role of BNNT in osteoblast proliferation and viability. Apatite formability of BNNT surface in ˜4 days establishes its osseointegration ability.

Lahiri, Debrupa

102

Orthopedic Correction of Growing Hyperdivergent, Retrognathic, Patients with Miniscrew Implants  

PubMed Central

Traditional orthodontic treatments do not adequately address the skeletal problems of retrognathic, hyperdivergent, Class II adolescents; the few approaches that do require long-term patient compliance. This paper introduces a novel approach using miniscrew implants (MSIa) and growth to treat retrognathic hyperdivergent adolescents. Nine consecutive patients were evaluated at the start of treatment (13.2 ±1.1 years of age) and again at the end of the orthopedic phase (after 1.9 ±0.3 years). Each patient had two MSIs placed in either side of the palate. Coil springs (150 g) extended from the MSIs to a RPE, which served as a rigid segment for intruding the maxillary premolar and molars. Two additional MSIs were placed between the first mandibular molars and second premolars; coil spring (150 g) extended from the MSIs to hold or intrude the mandibular molars. Prior to treatment, the patients exhibited substantial and significant mandibular retrusion (Z-score=?1.0), facial convexity (Z-score=0.7), and hyperdivergence (Z-score=1.6). Treatment produced consistent and substantial orthopedic effects. The chin was advanced an average of 2.4 mm, the SNB angle increased by 2.1°, the mandibular plane angle decreased 3.9°, and facial convexity decreased by approximately 3.2°. Questionnaires showed that this treatment approach was not painful or uncomfortable; the majority of the patients indicated that they were very likely to recommend the treatment to others. Treatment was accomplished by titrating the amount of orthodontic intrusion performed based on the individuals’ growth potential. PMID:21236539

Buschang, Peter H.; Carrillo, Roberto; Rossouw, P. Emile

2010-01-01

103

Applications of finite element simulation in orthopedic and trauma surgery  

PubMed Central

Research in different areas of orthopedic and trauma surgery requires a methodology that allows both a more economic approach and the ability to reproduce different situations in an easy way. Simulation models have been introduced recently in bioengineering and could become an essential tool in the study of any physiological unity, regardless of its complexity. The main problem in modeling with finite elements simulation is to achieve an accurate reproduction of the anatomy and a perfect correlation of the different structures, in any region of the human body. Authors have developed a mixed technique, joining the use of a three-dimensional laser scanner Roland Picza captured together with computed tomography (CT) and 3D CT images, to achieve a perfect reproduction of the anatomy. Finite element (FE) simulation lets us know the biomechanical changes that take place after hip prostheses or osteosynthesis implantation and biological responses of bone to biomechanical changes. The simulation models are able to predict changes in bone stress distribution around the implant, so allowing preventing future pathologies. The development of a FE model of lumbar spine is another interesting application of the simulation. The model allows research on the lumbar spine, not only in physiological conditions but also simulating different load conditions, to assess the impact on biomechanics. Different degrees of disc degeneration can also be simulated to determine the impact on adjacent anatomical elements. Finally, FE models may be useful to test different fixation systems, i.e., pedicular screws, interbody devices or rigid fixations compared with the dynamic ones. We have also developed models of lumbar spine and hip joint to predict the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures, based on densitometric determinations and specific biomechanical models, including approaches from damage and fracture mechanics. FE simulations also allow us to predict the behavior of orthopedic splints applied to the correction of deformities, providing the recovering force-displacement and angle-moment curves that characterize the mechanical behavior of the splint in the overall range of movement. PMID:22550621

Herrera, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Cegoñino, José; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Puértolas, Sergio; López, Enrique; Mateo, Jesús; Gracia, Luis

2012-01-01

104

Prevalence of Internet and Social Media Usage in Orthopedic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Prior studies in other specialties have shown that social networking and Internet usage has become an increasingly important means of patient communication and referral. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Internet or social media usage in new patients referred to a major academic orthopedics center and to identify new avenues to optimize patient recruitment and communication. New patients were surveyed (n=752) between December 2012 to January 2013 in a major academic orthopaedic center to complete a 15-item questionnaire including social media and Internet usage information. Data was collected for all orthopaedic sub-specialties and statistical analysis was performed. Fifty percent of patients use social networking sites, such as Facebook. Sports medicine patients tend to be higher social networking users (35.9%) relative to other services (9.8-17.9%) and was statistically higher when compared to the joints/tumor service (P<0.0001). Younger age was the biggest indicator predicting the use of social media. Patients that travelled between 120 to 180 miles from the hospital for their visits were significantly more likely to be social media users, as were patients that did research on their condition prior to their new patient appointment. We conclude that orthopedic patients who use social media/Internet are more likely to be younger, researched their condition prior to their appointment and undergo a longer average day’s travel (120-180 miles) to see a physician. In an increasingly competitive market, surgeons with younger patient populations will need to utilize social networking and the Internet to capture new patient referrals. PMID:25317312

Curry, Emily; Nguyen, Joseph; Matzkin, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

105

Zero Moment Point Manipulability Ellipsoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose zero moment point (ZMP) manipulability ellipsoid as an extension to the existing ZMP balance criterion. The ZMP manipulability ellipsoid was developed by combining the ZMP balance criterion, the humanoid robot dynamics and the manipulability of robotic manipulators. The ZMP manipulability ellipsoid represents the ability of a humanoid robot to instantly move the ZMP from its

Nirut Naksuk; C. S. George Lee

2006-01-01

106

Insights into Avicenna’s knowledge of the science of orthopedics  

PubMed Central

The art of orthopedics traces its history back to ancient civilizations like those of the Egyptians. The evolution of this branch of medicine is indebted to investigations of many scientists, including Greek, Roman and Persian scholars. The Persian physician Avicenna (980-1037 AD) is one such scientist who investigated different aspects of orthopedics. It is possible to analyze Avicenna’s knowledge of orthopedics and his contributions to this branch of medicine by an examination of his epic encyclopedia of medicine, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). PMID:24649417

Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Meibodi, Mohammad Kalantari

2014-01-01

107

Pre: Surgical orthopedic pre-maxillary alignment in bilateral cleft lip and palate patient  

PubMed Central

Pre-surgical orthopedic appliances are mainly used to retract and align the protruded and deviated pre-maxilla and to facilitate initial lip repair. This article presents a case report of a five year old male child patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate in whom a special custom made pre-surgical orthopedic appliance was delivered. Use of a special custom made presurgical orthopedic appliance for repositioning pre-maxilla in bilateral cleft lip and palate patient is discussed in this article. PMID:23293501

Ellore, Vijaya Prasad Kamavaram; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Taranatha, Mahantesha; Nara, Asha; Gunjalli, Gururaj; Bhat, Ashwin Devasya

2012-01-01

108

Update: Biochemistry of Genetic Manipulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various topics on the biochemistry of genetic manipulation are discussed. These include genetic transformation and DNA; genetic expression; DNA replication, repair, and mutation; technology of genetic manipulation; and applications of genetic manipulation. Other techniques employed are also considered. (JN)

Barker, G. R.

1983-01-01

109

Anthropomorphic Remote Manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-armed telerobot undergoing development manipulates objects with dexterity approaching that of human. Designed to be remotely operated by human. Operator wears harness with exoskeletonlike sleeves and gloves; remote manipulator follows operator's arm, hand, and finger movements and feeds back position and force information so operator has sense of manipulating object held by telerobot. Developed for use in outer space. Suited for such terrestrial uses as handling materials and maintaining equipment in hazardous environments where mechanical dexterity and nearly instantaneous feedback of sensory information needed.

Jau, Bruno M.

1991-01-01

110

[Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: value in orthopedics].  

PubMed

We emphasize the opportunity of an in vivo bone mass measurement with an easy and accurate technique for orthopedic practice. At the present time, Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most used technique, and is a safe and short examination. It can assess the quantity of mineral of any region of the body with a remarkable reproducibility (1 to 3 per cent). New machines are improved, and they permit many practical applications beyond the osteoporosis field. Thus, in orthopedics, we can distinguish several interesting topics. Peripheral risk of fracture can be evaluated because of good correlation between bone mineral content and biomechanical properties of bone. Even if a peripheral fracture occurs after a fall, low bone mineral density plays an important role, as in the case of femoral neck fractures in elderly patients. In traumatological practice, a DEXA with a specialized advice has to be requested if the traumatism cannot fully explain the occurrence of the peripheral fracture. Low bone mineral density defines an osteoporotic state, with the possibility of selecting adequate therapy. The good reproducibility of the measurement allows early estimation of bone loss following a period of immobilization. Varying models of osteosynthesis can be compared in vivo, to evaluate a decrease of "stress shielding" bone resorption. The role of stiffness of an implant on regional bone mineral content can be assessed. Likewise, periprosthetic bone mineral content can be measured in various regions, and followed over time. Specific software allows the exclusion of the region where the metallic prosthesis is projected. The reproducibility of this peripheral bone mineral content is 2 to 3 per cent, which individually allows an estimation of variations of more than 5 per cent. It will be possible to evaluate in vivo the influence of various parameters of the prosthesis on bone mineral content in controlled studies, such as the role of the shape, the position, the structure, the coating. Mineral content of biomaterials and bone grafts are taken into account. Focusing the X Ray beam allows ultrahigh resolution. Precise measurements of very small parts of bone such as rodent tibia or vertebra are possible. The good reproducibility (2 per cent) authorizes the evaluation of various parameters which modify bone remodeling, such as immobilization or activity, ovariectomy. Preventive or curative therapeutics which change bone mass can be evaluated in animal pre clinical studies. There are other methods of measurement of bone mineral content. Digitalization of radiographs is not sufficiently accurate and CT Scan generate high levels of radiation. The DEXA is actually the best compromise for an accurate and reproducible measurement of the bone mineral content in vivo. This method will certainly be an important tool in orthopedics for several clinical or animal investigations in the future. PMID:8560002

Maugars, Y; Berthelot, J M; Delécrin, J; Trécant, M; Passuti, N; Daculsi, G; Prost, A

1995-01-01

111

The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teachi

Sara Nottingham

2010-05-01

112

Risk of hepatitis C virus exposure in orthopedic surgery: is universal screening needed?  

PubMed

The aging baby boomer generation will soon start using tremendous orthopedic surgical resources. This group has also been identified as a group at high risk for having undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of HCV among orthopedic surgery patients at our institution-using their demographic data to determine whether they represent a unique cohort at high risk for having undiagnosed HCV. We estimated that we operated on as many as 233 patients with undiagnosed HCV in 2011. A cost-effective, universal preoperative HCV screening program may reduce the risk for occupational exposure in orthopedic surgery and significantly benefit public health by bringing undiagnosed patients to treatment. A robust screening program requires several ethical considerations. By offering routine screening to patients, orthopedic surgeons have an opportunity to maintain intraoperative safety and improve the health of the public. PMID:24945483

DelSole, Edward M; Mercuri, John J; Stachel, Anna; Phillips, Michael S; Zuckerman, Joseph D

2014-06-01

113

Improved performance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for orthopedic applications  

E-print Network

A considerable number of total-joint replacement devices used in orthopedic medicine involve articulation between a metallic alloy and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Though this polymer has excellent wear resistance, the wear...

Plumlee, Kevin Grant

2009-05-15

114

Rational design of nanofiber scaffolds for orthopedic tissue repair and regeneration  

PubMed Central

This article reviews recent significant advances in the design of nanofiber scaffolds for orthopedic tissue repair and regeneration. It begins with a brief introduction on the limitations of current approaches for orthopedic tissue repair and regeneration. It then illustrates that rationally designed scaffolds made up of electrospun nanofibers could be a promising solution to overcome the problems that current approaches encounter. The article also discusses the intriguing properties of electrospun nanofibers, including control of composition, structures, orders, alignments and mechanical properties, use as carriers for topical drug and/or gene sustained delivery, and serving as substrates for the regulation of cell behaviors, which could benefit musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration. It further highlights a few of the many recent applications of electrospun nanofiber scaffolds in repairing and regenerating various orthopedic tissues. Finally, the article concludes with perspectives on the challenges and future directions for better design, fabrication and utilization of nanofiber scaffolds for orthopedic tissue engineering. PMID:23987110

Ma, Bing; Xie, Jingwei; Jiang, Jiang; Shuler, Franklin D; Bartlett, David E

2013-01-01

115

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2012-04-01

116

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2014-04-01

117

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2010-04-01

118

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2011-04-01

119

21 CFR 888.5850 - Nonpowered orthopedic traction apparatus and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orthopedic traction apparatus is a device that consists of a rigid frame with nonpowered traction accessories, such as cords, pulleys, or weights, and that is intended to apply a therapeutic pulling force to the skeletal system. (b)...

2013-04-01

120

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

2008-12-10

121

Remote manipulator dynamic simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulator to generate the real time visual scenes required to perform man in the loop investigations of remote manipulator application and design concepts for the space shuttle is described. The simulated remote manipulator consists of a computed display system that uses a digital computer, the electronic scene generator, an operator's station, and associated interface hardware. A description of the capabilities of the implemented simulation is presented. The mathematical models and programs developed for the simulation are included.

Wild, E. C.; Donges, P. K.; Garand, W. A.

1972-01-01

122

Development of a content-valid standardized orthopedic assessment tool (SOAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content validation of an instrument that measures student performance in OSCE-type practical examinations is a critical step\\u000a in a tool's overall validity and reliability [Hopkins (1998), Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation (8th ed.). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon]. The purpose of the paper is to outline the process employed to create a content-valid\\u000a Standardized Orthopedic Assessment Tool (SOAT). Orthopedic assessment

Mark Lafave; Larry Katz; Dale Butterwick

2008-01-01

123

Oral factor Xa inhibitors for thromboprophylaxis in major orthopedic surgery: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major cause of morbidity and\\u000a mortality in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Routine thromboprophylaxis has been the standard of care over the\\u000a last 20 years. Currently available options for the prevention of VTE in major orthopedic surgery include low molecular weight\\u000a heparins, vitamin K antagonists, and, more

Davide Imberti; Chiara Dall’Asta; Matteo Giorgi Pierfranceschi

2009-01-01

124

Micro manipulator motion control to counteract macro manipulator structural vibrations  

SciTech Connect

Inertial force damping control by micro manipulator modulation is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a micro/macro manipulator system. The proposed controller, developed using classical control theory, is added to the existing control system. The proposed controller uses real-time measurements of macro manipulator flexibility to adjust the motion of the micro manipulator to counteract structural vibrations. Experimental studies using an existing micro/macro flexible link manipulator testbed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to suppression of vibrations in the macro/micro manipulator system using micro-manipulator-based inertial active damping control.

Lew, J.Y.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Evans, M.S.; Bennett, D.W.

1995-02-01

125

Physical examination and radiographic interpretation of carpal anatomy in orthopedic residents and emergency medicine physicians.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate carpal anatomy proficiency in orthopedic residents as well as emergency medicine physicians. Orthopedic surgery residents and emergency medicine physicians were tested on their understanding of normal carpal anatomy using a Wrist Anatomy Assessment (WAA) score, which consists of both palpation of carpal bony landmarks and radiographic interpretation of the carpal bones. There were 89 participants in this study. Cohorts of orthopedic residents (n = 20), emergency medicine residents (n = 21), emergency medicine attending physicians (n = 26), and 4th-year medical students (22) were used. Group size was based on 100% orthopedic resident involvement. Total WAA scores (score of 17 = 100% correct) ranged from 2 to 16, with a mean of 8.6. Carpal palpation and radiographic interpretation means were both significantly better in the orthopedic resident cohort (total WAA score, 13.8), compared with either of the emergency medicine groups (resident total WAA score, 7.5; attending total WAA score, 7.2). Orthopedic residents have a better understanding of the clinical and radiographic anatomy of the carpal bones than emergency medicine residents and attending physicians. Future research to test educational interventions to improve carpal anatomy education is warranted. PMID:22837989

Russo, Glenn S; Olson, Randy L; Varthi, Arya; Patel, Nimit; Leger, Robin; Rodner, Craig M

2012-06-01

126

Snow Catastrophe Conditions: What is its Impact on Orthopedic Injuries?  

PubMed Central

Background: Iran places sixth amongst high risk natural disaster countries and Guilan province of Iran shoulders a large amount of socio-economic burden due to snow catastrophes. The more knowledge of circumstances we have, the more efficient our future encounters will be. Methods: In this retrospective study, of all of the patients admitted to Poursina Hospital due to snow and ice related trauma in the first two weeks of February 2014, 306 cases were found eligible for entry into the present study. Results: Of the 306 eligible patients (383 injuries), there were 175 men (57.2%) and 131 women (42.8%). Most patients suffered from orthopedic injuries (81%) and the most common fractures were distal radius fractures in the upper extremities and hip fractures in the lower extremities. Slipping was the most common and motor vehicle accidents had the rarest injury mechanisms. It was shown that the frequency of injuries were higher on icy days (67.6%) than snowy days (32.4%). Conclusions: Snow crises may lead to increased risk of slipping and falling situations, especially on icy days. The peak of injury rates is a few days after snowfall with the most common injury being distal radius fracture. Providing essential instructions and supporting resource allocation to better handle such catastrophes may improve outcomes. PMID:25207329

Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Karimi-Mobarakeh, Mahmoud; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Saheb-Ekhtiari, Khashayar; Hashemi-Motlagh, Keyvan

2014-01-01

127

Pelvic ring fractures: what the orthopedic surgeon wants to know.  

PubMed

Treating trauma patients with displaced pelvic fractures requires a multidisciplinary approach at a designated trauma center to reduce morbidity and mortality. Immediate recognition of pelvic ring disruption and determination of pelvic stability are critical components in the evaluation of such patients. Stability is achieved by the ability of the osseoligamentous structures of the pelvis to withstand physiologic stresses without abnormal deformation. The supporting pelvic ligaments, including the posterior and anterior sacroiliac, iliolumbar, sacrospinous, and sacrotuberous ligaments, play a crucial role in pelvic stabilization. Radiologists should be familiar with the ligamentous anatomy and biomechanics relevant to understanding pelvic ring disruptions, as well as the Young and Burgess classification system, a systematic approach for interpreting pelvic ring disruptions and assessing stability on the basis of fundamental force vectors that create predictable patterns. This system provides an algorithmic approach to interpreting images and categorizes injuries as anterioposterior (AP) compression, lateral compression, vertical shear, or combined. Opening and closing of the pelvis from rotational forces result in AP compression and lateral compression injuries, respectively, whereas vertical shear injuries result from cephalad displacement of the hemipelvis. AP and lateral compression fractures are divided into types 1, 2, and 3, with increasing degrees of severity. Knowledge of these injury patterns leads to prompt identification and diagnosis of other subtle injuries and associated complications at pelvic radiography and cross-sectional imaging, allowing the orthopedic surgeon to apply corrective forces for prompt pelvic stabilization. PMID:25208283

Khurana, Bharti; Sheehan, Scott E; Sodickson, Aaron D; Weaver, Michael J

2014-01-01

128

Tissue engineering strategies for the regeneration of orthopedic interfaces.  

PubMed

A major focus in the field of orthopedic tissue engineering is the development of tissue engineered bone and soft tissue grafts with biomimetic functionality to allow for their translation to the clinical setting. One of the most significant challenges of this endeavor is promoting the biological fixation of these grafts with each other as well as the implant site. Such fixation requires strategic biomimicry to be incorporated into the scaffold design in order to re-establish the critical structure-function relationship of the native soft tissue-to-bone interface. The integration of distinct tissue types (e.g. bone and soft tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, or tendons), necessitates a multi-phased or stratified scaffold with distinct yet continuous tissue regions accompanied by a gradient of mechanical properties. This review discusses tissue engineering strategies for regenerating common tissue-to-tissue interfaces (ligament-to-bone, tendon-to-bone, or cartilage-to-bone), and the strategic biomimicry implemented in stratified scaffold design for multi-tissue regeneration. Potential challenges and future directions in this emerging field will also be presented. It is anticipated that interface tissue engineering will enable integrative soft tissue repair, and will be instrumental for the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems with biomimetic complexity and functionality. PMID:20422291

Lu, Helen H; Subramony, Siddarth D; Boushell, Margaret K; Zhang, Xinzhi

2010-06-01

129

Development of an orthopedic surgery trauma patient handover checklist  

PubMed Central

Background In surgery, preoperative handover of surgical trauma patients is a process that must be made as safe as possible. We sought to determine vital clinical information to be transferred between patient care teams and to develop a standardized handover checklist. Methods We conducted standardized small-group interviews about trauma patient handover. Based on this information, we created a questionnaire to gather perspectives from all Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) members about which topics they felt would be most important on a handover checklist. We analyzed the responses to develop a standardized handover checklist. Results Of the 1106 COA members, 247 responded to the questionnaire. The top 7 topics felt to be most important for achieving patient safety in the handover were comorbidities, diagnosis, readiness for the operating room, stability, associated injuries, history/mechanism of injury and outstanding issues. The expert recommendations were to have handover completed the same way every day, all appropriate radiographs available, adequate time, all appropriate laboratory work and more time to spend with patients with more severe illness. Conclusion Our main recommendations for safe handover are to use standardized checklists specific to the patient and site needs. We provide an example of a standardized checklist that should be used for preoperative handovers. To our knowledge, this is the first checklist for handover developed by a group of experts in orthopedic surgery, which is both manageable in length and simple to use. PMID:24461220

LeBlanc, Justin; Donnon, Tyrone; Hutchison, Carol; Duffy, Paul

2014-01-01

130

Bioactive, mechanically favorable, and biodegradable copolymer nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of mechanically favorable, bioactive, and biodegradable copolymer nanocomposites for potential bone applications. The nanocomposites consist of in situ polymerized biodegradable copolyester with hydroxyapatite (HA). Biodegradable copolyesters comprise carboxy terminated poly(propylene fumarate) (CT-PPF) and poly(trimethylol propane fumarate co mannitol sebacate) (TF-Co-MS). Raman spectral imaging clearly reveals a uniform homogenous distribution of HA in the copolymer matrix. The mechanical studies reveal that improved mechanical properties formed when crosslinked with methyl methacrylate (MMA) when compared to N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP). The SEM micrographs of the copolymer nanocomposites reveal a serrated structure reflecting higher mechanical strength, good dispersion, and good interfacial bonding of HA in the polymer matrix. In vitro degradation of the copolymer crosslinked with MMA is relatively more than that of NVP and the degradation decreases with an increase in the amount of the HA filler. The mechanically favorable and degradable MMA based nanocomposites also have favorable bioactivity, blood compatibility, cytocompatibility and cell adhesion. The present nanocomposite is a more promising material for orthopedic applications. PMID:24863211

Victor, Sunita Prem; Muthu, Jayabalan

2014-06-01

131

Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cement for orthopedic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cements were synthesized, formulated, and evaluated for orthopedic application. The formulation of different amino acid containing glass-ionomer bone cements was optimized, and conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements were compared. Properties of interest included handling characteristics, physical and chemical properties, and mechanical strength of the bone cement. The study was based on the synthesis of different vinyl containing amino acids, different polyelectrolytes containing these amino acid residues, and different resin-modified polyelectrolytes, as well as formulation and evaluation of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements using these polyelectrolytes. Systematic preparation of polyelectrolytes and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cements were essential features of this work, since we anticipated that the mechanical properties of the glass-ionomer bone cements could be strongly affected by the nature of the polyelectrolytes and formulation. Mechanical properties were evaluated in a screw driven mechanical testing machine, and structure-property relationships were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the fracture surface of the specimens. How the structure of polyelectrolytes, such as different amino acid residues, molecular weight, different modifying resin, and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cement, affected the mechanical properties was also studied.

Wu, Wei

132

ROBOTICS -INTRODUCTION t Manipulator Arms  

E-print Network

ROBOTICS - INTRODUCTION t Manipulator Arms The common industrial manipulator is often referred to as a robot arm, with links and joints described in similar terms. Manipulators which emulate). A representative articulated manipulators is the ASEA robot. ASEA robot performing a mechanical assembly task

Petriu, Emil M.

133

Preventing Manipulation by Restricting Information  

E-print Network

6 Preventing Manipulation by Restricting Information It was shown in the last chapter that computational complexity does not seem to be a very strong barrier against manipulation. Consequently, we need for the cases where there is one manipulator, by restricting the manipulator's information about the other

Chen, Yiling

134

Simulation of robot manipulators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories` Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment.

Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

1995-03-01

135

Model based manipulator control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

1989-01-01

136

Biocompatibility evaluation of porous ceria foams for orthopedic tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Ceria ceramics have the unique ability to protect cells from free radical-induced damage, making them materials of interest for biomedical applications. To expand upon the understanding of the potential of ceria as a biomaterial, porous ceria, fabricated via direct foaming, was investigated to assess its biocompatibility and its ability to scavenge free radicals. A mouse osteoblast (7F2) cell line was cultured with the ceria foams to determine the extent of the foams' toxicity. Toxicity assessments indicate that mouse osteoblasts cultured directly on the ceria scaffold for 72 h did not show a significant (p?>?0.05) increase in toxicity, but rather show comparable toxicity to cells cultured on porous 45S5 Bioglass®. The in vitro inflammatory response elicited from porous ceria foams was measured as a function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) secreted from a human monocytic leukemia cell line. Results indicate that the ceria foams do not cause a significant inflammatory response, eliciting a response of 27.1?±?7.1 pg mL(-1) of TNF-? compared to 36.3?±?5.8 pg mL(-1) from cells on Bioglass, and 20.1?±?2.9 pg mL(-1) from untreated cells. Finally, we report cellular toxicity in response to free radicals from tert-butyl hydroperoxide with and without foamed ceria. Our preliminary results show that the foamed ceria is able to decrease the toxic effect of induced oxidative stress. Collectively, this study demonstrates that foamed ceria scaffolds do not activate an inflammatory response, and show potential free radical scavenging ability, thus they have promise as an orthopedic biomaterial. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 8-15, 2015. PMID:24677427

Ball, Jordan P; Mound, Brittnee A; Monsalve, Adam G; Nino, Juan C; Allen, Josephine B

2015-01-01

137

Updating Memory after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Orthopedic Injuries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Few studies have examined the trajectory of recovery of executive function (EF) after mild TBI (mTBI). Therefore, consensus has not been reached on the incidence and extent of EF impairment after mTBI. The present study investigated trajectory of change in executive memory over 3 months after mTBI on 59 right-handed participants with mTBI, as defined by Centers for Disease Control criteria, ages 14–30 years, recruited within 96 hours post-injury and tested <1 week (baseline), 1 month, and 3 months after injury. Also included were 58 participants with orthopedic injury (OI) and 27 typically developing (TD) non-injured participants with similar age, socioeconomic status, sex, and ethnicity. MRI data were acquired at baseline and 3 months. Although criteria included a normal CT scan, lesions were detected by MRI in 19 mTBI patients. Participants completed the KeepTrack task, a verbal recall task placing demands on goal maintenance, semantic memory, and memory updating. Scores reflected items recalled and semantic categories maintained. The mTBI group was divided into two groups: high (score ?12) or low (score <12) symptoms based on the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). Mixed model analyses revealed the trajectory of change in mTBI patients (high and low RPQ), OI patients, and TD subjects were similar over time (although the TD group differed from other groups at baseline), suggesting no recovery from mTBI up to 90 days. For categories maintained, differences in trajectory of recovery were discovered, with the OI comparison group surprisingly performing similar to those in the mTBI group with high RPQ symptoms, and different from low RPQ and the TD groups, bringing up questions about utility of OIs as a comparison group for mTBI. Patients with frontal lesions (on MRI) were also found to perform worse than those without lesions, a pattern that became more pronounced with time. PMID:23227898

Li, Xiaoqi; Ibarra, Alyssa; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Barnes, Amanda; McCauley, Stephen R.; McCarthy, James; Hoxhaj, Shkelzen; Mendez, Donna; Hunter, Jill V.; Levin, Harvey S.; Smith, Douglas H.

2013-01-01

138

Manipulating the Gradient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

Gaze, Eric C.

2005-01-01

139

Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

Labelle, Gilbert

140

Diffy Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffy is a virtual manipulative that allows students to practice their subtraction facts with whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, or money. It is a puzzle of sorts with four black numbers placed at the corners of a black square. The first goal is to fill in the four blanks in the blue circles in the middle of each side of the black square.

University, Utah S.

2011-06-28

141

Minor surgical manipulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractMadam:– There is increasing community concern over minor surgical manipulations of animals. People are questioning our rights to dock tails. to castrate domestic species, to earmark and to brand for other than therapeutic reasons. The develvetting of deer remains remarkably unchallenged in this country, although there is widespread doubt in the western world about the claimed efficacy of the product

Gabrielle George

1985-01-01

142

Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections: an important consideration for orthopedic surgeons.  

PubMed

Postoperative infections in joint prostheses and fracture-fixation devices commonly involve both MRSA and methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus. In addition, community-acquired MRSA has also become an important consideration when infected patients are admitted to the hospital from the community. Preoperative colonization with MRSA and methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus increases the risk of postoperative surgical site infections in orthopedic patients. Up to 5.3% of orthopedic patients are colonized with these organisms on hospital admission. Screening and decolonization of methicillin resistant staphylococci decrease the incidence of postoperative surgical site infections in the orthopedic patient. This may be particularly important in orthopedic implants given the difficulty encountered in treating infected prosthesis. Current US guidelines advocate screening for methicillin resistant staphylococci only when risk factors are present. Growing evidence suggests that screening and decolinization of all patients having elective orthopedic procedures, especially those including prosthetic implants, will decrease the incidence of postoperative infections. The infected prosthesis may be potentially salvaged if the clinical manifestations of infection have been present for < or = 10 days, the implant is stable, and the etiologic organisms are susceptible to oral antibiotics. PMID:15237895

Shams, Wael E; Rapp, Robert P

2004-06-01

143

Opioid use for Chronic Pain Management in Italy: Results from the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey Project  

PubMed Central

Pain is a common symptom in orthopedic patients, but is managed sub-optimally, partly due to scarce opioid use in severe cases. The aim of the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey (POIS) was to evaluate changes in pain management in Italian orthopedic practice 2 years after a legislative change (Law 38/2010) simplifying opioid access for pain control. A web-based survey on the knowledge of this law and trends observed in clinical practice for severe pain treatment was administered to 143 Italian orthopedic specialists. In total, 101 (70%) respondents showed a high level of knowledge. Nevertheless, 54.5% stated that they do not use opioids for severe osteo-articular pain management. Main barriers to opioid use are fear of adverse events (61.4%), especially nausea/vomiting and constipation, and patient resistance (29.7%). A modest knowledge of pain classification was also demonstrated. Opioid use remains very limited in Italian orthopedic practice. Physicians’ fear of side effects showed poor knowledge of strategies for effective management of opioid-related adverse events, such as combined oral prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone. Continuing educational programs could improve delivery of evidence-based pain management. PMID:25002934

Fanelli, Guido; Cherubino, Paolo; Compagnone, Christian

2014-01-01

144

Proportionate cancer mortality in methyl methacrylate-exposed orthopedic surgeons compared to general surgeons.  

PubMed

Methyl methacrylate (MMA), a volatile liquid used to make dentures, hearing aids, joint prostheses, and medical adhesives, has been associated with colorectal carcinomas in acrylic sheet manufacturing workers. A case-control proportionate cancer mortality investigation was conducted to determine cancer death differences in orthopedic surgeons performing total joint replacements (TJRs) (MMA-exposed cases) and general surgeons not performing TJRs (unexposed controls). The American Colleges of Orthopedic Surgeons and General Surgeons provided complete demographic information on 468 male orthopedic surgeons and 1,890 male general surgeons who died during 1991-2001. Decedent data was submitted to the National Death Index for matching with underlying causes of death on state death certificates. Proportionate differences in ages at death, deaths from cancer, and deaths from site-specific cancers were analyzed for statistically significant differences by unpaired, two-tailed t tests for continuous variables and by both proportionate cancer mortality ratios and Yates-corrected chi squares for categorical variables. Orthopedic surgeons died of cancer more often (? (2)?=?7.699, P?=?0.006) and at younger (t?=?5.53, P?orthopedic surgeons died of esophageal cancer (? (2)?=?4.372, P?=?0.037) and myeloproliferative malignancies (? (2)?=?4.369, P?=?0.037) more often than general surgeons. Orthopedic surgeons are chronically exposed to MMA and are proportionately more likely to die from cancer, especially esophageal and myeloproliferative cancers, than general surgeons. MMA-exposed healthcare workers may be at increased risks of untimely deaths from site-specific malignancies. PMID:21279556

Diaz, James Henry

2011-06-01

145

Quantum Computation and Spin Manipulation  

E-print Network

1 Quantum Computation and Spin Manipulation 0Anthony Hams #12;Quantum Computation and Spin Manipulation Anthony Hams #12;To my grandfathers The work described in this thesis was performed at the Centre, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands. Anthony Hams Quantum Computation and Spin Manipulation

146

Data Evaluation, Completion and Manipulation  

E-print Network

Data Evaluation, Completion and Manipulation Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office on Data Evaluation, Completion and Manipulation By GE Global Research Niskayuna, New York And University: Data Evaluation, Completion and Manipulation The objective of task 7 is to outline the additional data

147

ACHIEVING DEXTEROUS MANIPULATION FOR MINIMALLY  

E-print Network

ACHIEVING DEXTEROUS MANIPULATION FOR MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGICAL ROBOTS THROUGH THE USE;Hydraulics offers advantages for surgical manipulators. 5 #12;6 #12;The components are housed within the manipulator itself. 7 #12;8 #12;The backbone is assumed to take the lowest energy shape. 9 #12;The backbone

Wu, Mingshen

148

Rehabilitation and physical therapy for selected orthopedic conditions in veterinary patients.  

PubMed

A specific diagnosis is needed to perform optimal rehabilitation of orthopedic problems. A well-planned rehabilitation program is important for orthopedic patients when surgical repairs are mechanically weak (eg, when repairing fractures in skeletally immature patients or when repairing tendons or ligaments). Joint immobilization is sometimes used to protect weak surgical repairs. The duration of immobilization should be minimized, particularly in situations with potential loss of joint motion. Evidence-based information regarding specific modalities and techniques for rehabilitation of injured dogs and cats is generally lacking. The choice of modalities and techniques must be based on common sense, knowledge of rehabilitation techniques, and clinical experience. PMID:25432683

Henderson, Andrea L; Latimer, Christian; Millis, Darryl L

2015-01-01

149

DNA interactive manipulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers three interactive modules that treat teachers to a direct look at scientists who worked to unlock the mysteries of genes and the technological advancements that aided their discoveries. The modules are arranged by topics that focus on how to manipulate genes, how enzymes are used in manipulation, and the possibilities inherent in recombinant DNA technology. Each module is subdivided into additional parts. These parts include images of scientists who contributed to the history of gene discoveries. By clicking on the images, teachers are taken to a new window to watch short videos by or about the scientists. Teachers can also click on links to computer simulations, such as a tutorial to see how yeast is used to make human insulin. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Laboratory, Dolan D.

2005-01-01

150

Kinematics of robot manipulators  

SciTech Connect

The theory and methodology of design of general-purpose machines that may be controlled by a computer to perform all the tasks of a set of special-purpose machines is the focus of modern machine design research. These seventeen contributions chronicle recent activity in the analysis and design of robot manipulators that are the prototype of these general-purpose machines. They focus particularly on kinematics, the geometry of rigid-body motion, which is an integral part of machine design theory. The challenges to kinematics researchers presented by general-purpose machines such as the manipulator are leading to new perspectives in the design and control of simpler machines with two, three, and more degrees of freedom. Researchers are rethinking the uses of gear trains, planar mechanisms, adjustable mechanisms, and computer controlled actuators in the design of modern machines.

McCarthy, J.M.

1986-01-01

151

Microradiographic microsphere manipulator  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

Singleton, Russell M. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

152

Manipulation of quantum evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

1994-01-01

153

The historic predictive value of Canadian orthopedic surgery residents’ orthopedic in-training examination scores on their success on the RCPSC certification examination  

PubMed Central

Background Positive correlation between the orthopedic in-training examination (OITE) and success in the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery examination has been reported. Canadian training programs in internal medicine, anesthesiology and urology have found a positive correlation between in-training examination scores and performance on the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) certification examination. We sought to determine the potential predictive value of the OITE scores of Canadian orthopedic surgery residents on their success on their RCPSC examinations. Methods A total of 118 Canadian orthopedic surgery residents had their annual OITE scores during their 5 years of training matched to the RCPSC examination oral and multiple-choice questions and to overall examination pass/fail scores. We calculated Pearson correlations between the in-training examination for each postgraduate year and the certification oral and multiple-choice questions and pass/fail marks. Results There was a predictive association between the OITE and success on the RCPSC examination. The association was strongest between the OITE and the written multiple-choice examination and weakest between the OITE and the overall examination pass/fail marks. Conclusion Overall, the OITE was able to provide useful feedback to Canadian orthopedic surgery residents and their training programs in preparing them for their RCPSC examinations. However, when these data were collected, truly normative data based on a Canadian sample were not available. Further study is warranted based on a more refined analysis of the OITE, which is now being produced and includes normative percentile data based on Canadian residents. PMID:25078931

Yen, David; Athwal, George S.; Cole, Gary

2014-01-01

154

Selective laser sintering of calcium phosphate materials for orthopedic implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two technologies, Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) and bioceramics are combined in this work to prepare bone replacement implants with complex geometry. SFF has emerged as a crucial technique for rapid prototyping in the last decade. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is one of the established SFF manufacturing processes that can build three-dimensional objects directly from computer models without part-specific tooling or human intervention. Meanwhile, there have been great efforts to develop implantable materials that can assist in regeneration of bone defects and injuries. However, little attention has been focused in shaping bones from these materials. The main thrust of this research was to develop a process that can combine those two separate efforts. The specific objective of this research is to develop a process that can construct bone replacement material of complex geometry from synthetic calcium phosphate materials by using the SLS process. The achievement of this goal can have a significant impact on the quality of health care in the sense that complete custom-fit bone and tooth structures suitable for implantation can be prepared within 24--48 hours of receipt of geometric information obtained either from patient Computed Tomographic (CT) data, from Computer Aided Design (CAD) software or from other imaging systems such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Holographic Laser Range Imaging (HLRI). In this research, two different processes have been developed. First is the SLS fabrication of porous bone implants. In this effort, systematic procedures have been established and calcium phosphate implants were successfully fabricated from various sources of geometric information. These efforts include material selection and preparation, SLS process parameter optimization, and development of post-processing techniques within the 48-hour time frame. Post-processing allows accurate control of geometry and of the chemistry of calcium phosphate, as well as control of micro and macro pore structure, to maximize bone healing and provide sufficient mechanical strength. It also permits the complete removal of the polymeric binders that are resided in the SLS process. In collaboration with the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and BioMedical Enterprises, Inc., porous implants based on anatomical geometry have been successfully implanted in rabbits and dogs. These histologic animal studies reveal excellent biocompatibility and show its great potential for commercial custom-fit implant manufacture. The second research effort involves fabrication of fully dense bone for application in dental restoration and load-bearing orthopedic functions. Calcium phosphate glass melts, proven to be biocompatible in the first effort, were cast into carbon molds. Processes were developed for preparing the molds. These carbon molds of anatomic shape can be prepared from either Computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling of slab stock or SLS processing of thermoset-coated graphite powder. The CNC milling method provides accurate dimension of the molds in a short period of time, however, the capable geometries are limited; generally two pieces of molds are required for complex shapes. The SLS method provides very complex shape green molds. However, they need to go through pyrolysis of thermoset binder to provide the high temperature capability reached at calcium phosphate melt temperatures (1100°C) and noticeable shrinkage was observed during pyrolysis. The cast glass was annealed to develop polycrystalline calcium phosphate. This process also exhibits great potential.

Lee, Goonhee

155

Late orthopedic effects in children with Wilms' tumor treated with abdominal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Between 1970 and 1984, 31 children with biopsy-proven Wilms' tumor received nephrectomy, chemotherapy, and abdominal irradiation and were followed beyond skeletal maturity. Three patients (10%) developed late orthopedic abnormalities requiring intervention. Ten children received orthovoltage irradiation, and all cases requiring orthopedic intervention or developing a scoliotic curve of greater than 20 degrees were confined to this group, for a complication frequency of 50%. Those children who developed a significant late orthopedic abnormality (SLOA) as defined were treated to a higher median dose (2,890 cGy) and a larger field size (150 cm2) than those who did not (2,580 cGy and 120 cm2). Age at irradiation, sex, and initial stage of disease did not appear to influence the risk of developing an SLOA. No child who received megavoltage irradiation developed an SLOA despite treatment up to 4,000 cGy or to field sizes of 400 cm2. We conclude that modern radiotherapy techniques rarely lead to significant late orthopedic abnormalities previously associated with abdominal irradiation in children with Wilms' tumor.

Rate, W.R.; Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; D'Angio, G.J. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

1991-01-01

156

A Moving Least Squares method for implant model deformation in Computer Aided Orthopedic Surgery for  

E-print Network

A Moving Least Squares method for implant model deformation in Computer Aided Orthopedic Surgery surgical procedure. Computer Aided Orthope- dic Surgery (CAOS) systems are extensively used for the planning of surgeries for fractures of lower extremities. These systems are input an X-Ray image

Coto, Ernesto

157

A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices  

PubMed Central

The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes. PMID:19662153

Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

2009-01-01

158

A Prototype Robotic Arm for Use by Severely Orthopedically Handicapped Students. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 18-month pilot project, which ran from October 1, 1987 to March 31, 1989, developed a prototype robotic arm for educational use by students with severe orthopedic disabilities in the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The developmental effort was intended first, to provide direct access to currently available instructional materials and, second,…

Howell, Richard

159

High energy devices versus low energy devices in orthopedics treatment modalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orthopedic consensus group defined in 1997 the 42 most likely relevant parameters of orthopedic shock wave devices. The idea of this approach was to correlate the different clinical outcomes with the physical properties of the different devices with respect to their acoustical waves. Several changes in the hypothesis of the dose effect relationship have been noticed since the first orthopedic treatments. The relation started with the maximum pressure p+, followed by the total energy, the energy density; and finally the single treatment approach using high, and then the multiple treatment method using low energy. Motivated by the reimbursement situation in Germany some manufacturers began to redefine high and low energy devices independent of the treatment modality. The OssaTron as a high energy, single treatment electro hydraulic device gained FDA approval as the first orthopedic ESWT device for plantar fasciitis and, more recently, for lateral epicondylitis. Two low energy devices have now also gained FDA approval based upon a single treatment. Comparing the acoustic data, differences between the OssaTron and the other devices are obvious and will be elaborated upon. Cluster analysis of the outcomes and the acoustical data are presented and new concepts will be suggested.

Schultheiss, Reiner

2003-10-01

160

Deep Femoral Artery Branch Pseudoaneurysm After Orthopedic Procedure Requiring Surgical Treatment: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Pseudoaneurysms (PSA) of deep femoral artery (DFA) have been reported following penetrating and blunt trauma to the thigh and orthopedic procedures of the proximal femur. We describe a case of pseudoaneurysm of DFA as a late complication of limb trauma which was confirmed by exploration in an urgent surgery. After two operations successful surgical repair was performed. PMID:24350112

Khoshnevis, Jalalludin; Sobhiyeh, Mohammad Reza; Fallah Zavareh, Mahtab

2012-01-01

161

Increased osteoblast cell density on nanostructured PLGA-coated nanostructured titanium for orthopedic applications  

PubMed Central

There are more than 30,000 orthopedic implant revision surgeries necessary each year in part due to poor implant fixation with juxtaposed bone. A further emphasis on the current problems associated with insufficient bone implant performance is the fact that many patients are receiving hip implants earlier in life, remaining active older, and that the human lifespan is continuously increasing. Collectively, it is clear that there is a strong clinical need to improve implant performance through proper, prolonged fixation. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to improve the performance of titanium (Ti), one of the most popular orthopedic implant materials. Accordingly, the proliferative response of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on novel nanostructured Ti/PLGA (poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid) composites was examined. This study showed that nano-topography can be easily applied to Ti (through anodization) and porous PLGA (through NaOH chemical etching) to enhance osteoblast cell proliferation which may lead to better orthopedic implant performance. This straight forward application of nano-topography on current bone implant materials represents a new direction in the design of enhanced biomaterials for the orthopedic industry. PMID:18019847

Smith, Lester J; Swaim, John S; Yao, Chang; Haberstroh, Karen M; Nauman, Eric A; Webster, Thomas J

2007-01-01

162

The Physical Fitness of Sensory and Orthopedically Impaired Youth: Project UNIQUE. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report summarizes findings from an examination of the physical fitness of orthopedically and sensory impaired students (10-17 years old). Physical fitness was hypothesized to include six areas: body composition, muscular strength/endurance, speed, agility, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. A chapter on methods details subject…

Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.

163

Titanium surfaces with adherent selenium nanoclusters as a novel anticancer orthopedic material.  

PubMed

Current orthopedic implants have several problems that include poor osseointegration for extended periods of time, stress shielding and wear debris-associated bone cell death. In addition, numerous patients receive orthopedic implants as a result of bone cancer resection, yet current orthopedic materials were not designed to prevent either the occurrence or reoccurrence of cancer. The objective of this in vitro study was to create a new biomaterial which can both restore bone and prevent cancer growth at the implant-tissue interface. Elemental selenium was chosen as the biologically active agent in this study because of its known chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties. It was found that when selenite salts were reduced by glutathione in the presence of an immersed titanium substrate, elemental selenium nucleated and grew into adherent, hemispherical nanoclusters that formed a nanostructured composite surface. Three types of surfaces with different selenium surface densities on titanium were fabricated and confirmed by SEM images, AFM, and XPS profiles. Compared to conventional untreated titanium, a high-density selenium-doped surface inhibited cancerous bone cell proliferation while promoting healthy bone cell functions (including adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition). These findings showed for the first time the potential of selenium nanoclusters as a chemopreventive titanium orthopedic material coating that can also promote healthy bone cell functions. PMID:19918919

Tran, Phong A; Sarin, Love; Hurt, Robert H; Webster, Thomas J

2010-06-15

164

ArthroNav:Computer Assisted Navigation System for Orthopedic Surgery using Endoscopic Images  

E-print Network

ArthroNav:Computer Assisted Navigation System for Orthopedic Surgery using Endoscopic Images Jo~ao. P. Barreto, R. Melo, M. Antunes, M. Lourenc¸o and F. Vasconcelos Institute of Systems and Robotics.uc.pt} Abstract--In the future, medicine will increasingly rely in Com- puter Aided Surgery and Diagnosis, hence

Barreto, Joao

165

Manipulation of thermal phonons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing materials that can conduct electricity easily, but block the motion of phonons is necessary in the applications of thermoelectric devices, which can generate electricity from temperature differences. In converse, a key requirement as chips get faster is to obtain better ways to dissipate heat. Controlling heat transfer in these crystalline materials devices --- such as silicon --- is important. The heat is actually the motion or vibration of atoms known as phonons. Finding ways to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials --- phononic crystals --- might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many fields of physical sciences and engineering, acoustic wave propagation in solids attracts many researchers. Wave propagation phenomena can be analyzed by mathematically solving the acoustic wave equation. However, wave propagation in inhomogeneous media with various geometric structures is too complex to find an exact solution. Hence, the Finite Difference Time Domain method is developed to investigate these complicated problems. In this work, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain formula is derived from acoustic wave equations based on the Taylor's expansion. The numerical dispersion and stability problems are analyzed. In addition, the convergence conditions of numerical acoustic wave are stated. Based on the periodicity of phononic crystal, the Bloch's theorem is applied to fulfill the periodic boundary condition of the FDTD method. Then a wide-band input signal is used to excite various acoustic waves with different frequencies. In the beginning of the calculation process, the wave vector is chosen and fixed. By means of recording the displacement field and taking the Fourier transformation, we can obtain the eigenmodes from the resonance peaks of the spectrum and draw the dispersion relation curve of acoustic waves. With the large investment in silicon nanofabrication techniques, this makes tungsten/silicon phononic crystal a particularly attractive platform for manipulating thermal phonons. Phononic crystal makes use of the fundamental properties of waves to create band gap over which there can be no propagation of acoustic waves in the crystal. This crystal can be applied to deterministically manipulate the phonon dispersion curve affected by different crystal structures and to modify the phonon thermal conductivity accordingly. We can expect this unique metamaterial is a promising route to creating unprecedented thermal properties for highly-efficient energy harvesting and thermoelectric cooling.

Hsu, Chung-Hao

166

Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

1997-03-01

167

Dynamics and Cooperative Object Manipulation Control of Suspended Mobile Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics and control of mobile manipulators is obviously a more challenging problem compared to fixed-base robots. Including\\u000a a suspension system for these mobile platforms increases their maneuverability, but considerably adds to their complexity.\\u000a In this paper, a suspended wheeled mobile platform with two 6-DOF Puma-type manipulators is used to manipulate an object along\\u000a a given path. To apply a model-based

Mahdy Eslamy; S. Ali A. Moosavian

2010-01-01

168

A History of Manipulative Therapy  

PubMed Central

Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice. PMID:19066664

Pettman, Erland

2007-01-01

169

Control System of Loading Manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a control system of a loading manipulator in the filling and boxing line of a vinegar-producing factory. The system is composed of S7-300 PLC, S7-200, TD200 panel, servo amplifier, servomotor and manipulator. S7-300 PLC is used as the central controller which controls servo amplifier and field actuator via Profibus control network. The manipulator can do accurate speed

Xingqiao Liu; Zhenwei Shi; Yanchun Yao; Guohai Liu; Hong Zheng; Fengxiang Li

2005-01-01

170

Manipulation hardware for microgravity research  

SciTech Connect

The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rohn, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (USA))

1990-01-01

171

Torque-Limiting Manipulation Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for manipulating a workpiece in space includes a fixture, a stanchion assembly, a manipulation mechanism, an actuation mechanism, and a reaction mechanism. The fixture has an end onto which the workpiece affixes. The stanchion assembly has an upper and a lower end. The manipulation mechanism connects the fixture and the upper end of the stanchion assembly. The lower end of the stanchion assembly mounts, via probe and a socket, to a structure. The actuation mechanism operably connects to the manipulation mechanism, and moves the fixture in space. The reaction mechanism provides a point through which force inputs into the actuation mechanism may react.

Moetteli, John B. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

172

Interactive protein manipulation  

SciTech Connect

We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

2003-07-01

173

Ion manipulation device  

DOEpatents

An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

2014-09-16

174

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

1993-01-01

175

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

Zollinger, W.T.

1993-11-23

176

Database Manipulation on Quantum Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulating a database system on a quantum computer is an essential aim to benefit from the promising speed-up of quantum computers over classical computers in areas that take a vast amount of storage and processing time such as in databases. In this paper, the basic operations for manipulating the data in a quantum database will be defined, e.g. INSERT, UPDATE,

Ahmed Younes

2007-01-01

177

Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

Dailey, Jason I.

2010-01-01

178

Improved genetic manipulation of human  

E-print Network

Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells Stefan R Braam1,2, Chris Denning3 efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (h­supplemented basal media. To develop a generic method for ectopic gene expression in hESCs, we investigated whether

Cai, Long

179

Information Manipulation Through the Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article models media manipulation in which a sender or senders manipulate information through the media to influence receivers. This article shows that if there is only 1 sender who has a conditional preference for maintaining its credibility in reporting accurate information and if the receivers face a coordination situation without information about their opponents' types, the sender could influence

Hanjoon Michael Jung

2009-01-01

180

Optimal Manipulation of Voting Rules Svetlana Obraztsova  

E-print Network

Optimal Manipulation of Voting Rules Svetlana Obraztsova School of Physical and Mathematical of voting manipulation is a prominent research topic in computational social choice. In this paper, we study the com- plexity of optimal manipulation, i.e., finding a manipulative vote that achieves the manipulator

Elkind, Edith

181

STM Manipulation of Nanoscale Biomolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fascinating advances in single molecule manipulations with the scanning-tunneling-microscope (STM)-tip allow scientists to fabricate artificial atomic scale structures, to study local quantum phenomena or to investigate and control properties of molecules at an atomic limit. The STM manipulation is facilitated by a precise control of tip-molecule interactions, or tunneling electrons, or the electric field between the tip and sample. By combining STM manipulation with imaging and tunneling spectroscopy, powerful experimental schemes can be developed, which opens novel routes to investigate or induce molecular conformation changes with atomic level control. In this talk, various cutting-edge STM manipulation techniques relevant to the biological systems will be introduced and our recent results on manipulation of nanoscale biological molecules including chlorophyll-a, ?-carotene and amyloid ?/A4 precursor protein on a Au(111) substrate will be presented.

Hla, Saw-Wai

2006-03-01

182

The changes produced by presurgical orthopedic treatment of bilateral cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

A serial cephalometric analysis (with the aid of metallic implants) and an analysis of the models of 10 children with complete bilateral clefts, who received presurgical orthopedic treatment, was done. It revealed that such therapy can successfully reduce the protrusive deformity of the premaxilla, when forward growth of this structure is restrained so as to allow the remainder of the face to "catch up." Our other observations include the accentuation of the columella during treatment, but an absence of growth at the cleft margins. Orthopedic treatment which fails to achieve the desired aims in 12 weeks of active therapy should be discontinued then in favor of such surgical setback as may be necessary to allow a satisfactory lip repair. PMID:831244

Robertson, N; Shaw, W; Volp, C

1977-01-01

183

The Medical Education and Best Practice in Orthopedic Patient Care in Poland.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leadership organization focuses on education, teamwork, customer relationship and developing strategy which help in building added value, in managing activities, time and quality. Everyday orthopedic experience shows that medical education is a mixture of: specific knowledge, skills and attitudes of people working together, and that creates effective teamwork in a hospital environment. Apart from the main reason of medical education, teaching about disease treatment and health problem solving, medical education should also concentrate on human factors and behavioral aspects of patient treatment in hospital.Assessment of an organization and medical education process by cultural and teamwork criteria, offers a powerful new way to think about performance at the frontlines of healthcare and in the future it could be gold standard for assessing the success of an organization, and standards in medical education, not only in orthopedics.

Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

2012-07-01

184

Recent advances in the design of titanium alloys for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

To increase an orthopedic implant's lifetime, research trends have included the development of new titanium alloys made of nontoxic elements with suitable mechanical properties (low Young's modulus - high fatigue strength), good workability and corrosion resistance. In accordance with the background on titanium and metallic biomaterials, recent interesting developments in titanium-based biomaterials are reported in this review, with a special emphasis on the design of new metastable beta-titanium alloys for orthopedic applications. In addition, as the concept of titanium alloys can now be regarded as relatively old, having emerged at the beginning of the 1980s, the author suggests some future directions that would permit the emergence of a new generation of titanium implants. PMID:16293101

Guillemot, Fabien

2005-11-01

185

Societal impacts of regenerative medicine: reflections on the views of orthopedic professionals.  

PubMed

As the amount of clinical studies in orthopedic regenerative medicine (RM) is increasing, it is time to take into account its impact on society. A total of 36 biomedical professionals working at the front row of orthopedic RM were interviewed to explore their attitudes, opinions and expectations regarding the societal impacts of RM. Professionals mainly recognized the societal impacts of counteraction of aging, prevention of disease and social justice. The 'soft' sides of these impacts were hardly mentioned. Whereas they did not perceive themselves in the position to mitigate these impacts, professionals should take up their role as actor and become involved in the societal debate. This is important as they can co-shape the societal impacts during the developmental process of technologies and thereby stimulate responsible innovation. PMID:25562349

Niemansburg, Sophie L; Tempels, Tjidde H; Dhert, Wouter Ja; van Delden, Johannes Jm; Bredenoord, Annelien L

2015-01-01

186

Efficacy of CT scanning in a group of 174 patients with orthopedic and musculoskeletal problems  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and seventy-four patients with orthopedic and musculoskeletal problems received computed tomography (CT) scans between January 1979 and July 1980. There were 34 trauma patients, 35 patients with known or suspected primary tumors, 20 patients with metastases, 18 patients with suspected spinal stenosis, 25 patients with disc problems, five patients with infections, 13 children with congenital anomalies, and 24 patients with miscellaneous problems. The CT scans proved useful in all the pediatric cases, 97% of the trauma patients, and in the majority of patients with tumors. It appears that absolute indications for CT scanning in orthopedic patients include acute trauma to the spine, pelvis, hip, and shoulder girdles as well as in children with congenital spinal anomalies. Relative indications include determining the extent of the tumor and also aiding in the correct approach for biopsying a lesion.

Griffiths, H.J.; Hamlin, D.J.; Kiss, S.; Lovelock, J.

1981-11-01

187

Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins  

SciTech Connect

ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates the entire process, so that more and larger problems can be attempted. Currently, the program designers are working to make ProteinShop more applicable and adaptable to different protein folding methodologies. If users could manipulate structures from a biological point of view, and then put them back in the queue for more optimization, the process of experimentation and discovery in protein research could be greatly enhanced. The group is also investigating the use of stereoscopic rendering and three-dimensional input devices to remove the limitations of a two-dimensional interface. Clearly, protein-folding research will have far-reaching ramifications. It could lead to new insights about diseases ranging from Alzheimer's to Cystic fibrosis, which scientists believe are caused by protein folding gone wrong. A better understanding of protein structures could also lead to the engineering of altogether new proteins, and shed light on how drugs bind proteins to alter their structure and function. Above all, ProteinShop is an important tool that will help scientists unravel one of the most challenging problems that theoretical and computational chemistry has to offer.

Simon, Horst D.

2003-12-05

188

In vitro and in vivo characterization of novel plasma treated nickel titanium shape memory alloy for orthopedic implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys are potentially very useful in orthopedic and dental implantation, since the materials possess super-elasticity and shape memory effects that other current medical metallic materials do not have. Possible nickel ion release, however, hampers their medical applications, particularly in orthopedic implants where fretting is always expected at the articulating surface. We have utilized plasma immersion ion

K. W. K. Yeung; R. Y. L. Chan; K. O. Lam; S. L. Wu; X. M. Liu; C. Y. Chung; Paul K. Chu; W. W. Lu; D. Chan; K. D. K. Luk; K. M. C. Cheung

2007-01-01

189

Adaptive functioning following traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injury: A controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study adaptive functioning after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).Design: Case-control study.Setting: A university hospital and three regional and four community hospitals.Subjects: A consecutive series (n = 24) of children age 5 through 14 years who suffered severe TBI were individually matched to subjects who sustained a mild TBI and to a second group who sustained an orthopedic injury

Jeffrey E. Max; Sharon L. Koele; Scott D. Lindgren; Donald A. Robin; Wilbur L. Smith; Yutaka Sato; Stephan Arndt

1998-01-01

190

Small-Dose Intrathecal Clonidine and Isobaric Bupivacaine for Orthopedic Surgery: A Dose-Response Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the dose-response relationship of intrathe- cal clonidine at small doses (150g) with respect to pro- longing bupivacaine spinal anesthesia. We aimed for es- tablishing doses of intrathecal clonidine that would produce clinically relevant prolongation of spinal anes- thesia and pain relief without significant side effects. Eighty orthopedic patients were randomly assigned to in- trathecally receive isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine,

Stephan Strebel; Markus C. Schneider; Armin Aeschbach; Christoph H. Kindler

2004-01-01

191

A survey of recently published papers on orthopedics in the Brazilian scientific press  

PubMed Central

This paper is a review of articles published in Brazilian scientific periodicals in recent years. Its main purpose is to bring to the attention of the readership of Acta Ortopedica Brasileira original contributions to the field published in non-specialized journals. We hope that this will serve as a general scientific update for readers. The review includes works published in six ISI indexed non-orthopedic journals, following a literature search conducted in fourteen such journals. PMID:24453633

Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Gomes, Ariane Maris

2012-01-01

192

Risk Factors for Postoperative Ileus Following Orthopedic Surgery: The Role of Chronic Constipation  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Distinction is vague between severe constipation and postoperative ileus (POI) in terms of pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment options. However, no data are available regarding their associations. Methods After retrospective review of data from patients who underwent orthopedic surgery during the first 6 months of 2011, a total of 612 patients were included. Severe constipation was defined as symptoms of constipation requiring treatment using at least 2 laxatives from different classes for at least 6 months. POI was defined as paralytic ileus lasting more than 3 days post-surgery and associated with 2 or more of the following: (1) nausea/vomiting, (2) inability to tolerate an oral diet over a 24-hour period, and (3) absence of flatus over a 24-hour period. The subjects were divided into non-POI and POI groups, and we compared patient-, surgery-, and pharmaceutical-related factors. Results Thirteen (2.1%) out of 612 experienced POI. In comparisons between the non-POI and POI groups, univariate analysis showed significant differences in the mean age (51.4 vs 71.6 years), mean body mass index (24.1 vs 21.8 kg/m2), severe constipation (5.8% vs 76.9%), co-morbidities (33.2% vs 84.6%), type of orthopedic surgery (spine/hip/limb: 19.4/11.0/65.6% vs 23.1/61.5/15.4%), and estimated blood loss (50 vs 300 mL). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age, body mass index, co-morbidities, type of orthopedic surgery, and estimated blood loss, showed that severe constipation was an independent risk factor for POI (OR, 35.23; 95% CI, 7.72–160.82; P < 0.001). Conclusions Severe constipation is associated with POI after orthopedic surgery. PMID:25537675

Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Joon Seong; Hong, Su Jin; Jang, Jae Young; Jeon, Seong Ran; Byun, Dong Won; Park, Won Young; Kim, Soon Im; Choi, Hyung Suk; Lee, Jae Chul; Lee, Ji Sung

2015-01-01

193

Intramuscular tramadol versus ketorolac in patients with orthopedic and traumatologic postoperative pain: a comparative multicenter trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 3-day, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial was undertaken to assess the postoperative analgesic effect and therapeutic safety of intramuscular tramadol compared with intramuscular ketorolac in 48 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery and having postoperative pain assessed as 75 mm or more on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Tramadol (100 mg\\/2 mL ampules) was administered as needed to a maximum of

Albino Lanzetta; Mariella Vizzardi; Giuseppe Letizia; Umberto Martorana; Antonio Sanfilippo; Leonardo Osti; Carlo Cervelli; Renato Coluccia

1998-01-01

194

Which Outcomes Related to Regional Anesthesia Are Most Important for Orthopedic Surgery Patients?  

PubMed

An increasing body of evidence supports the benefits of regional anesthesia in orthopedic surgery. Compared with systemic anesthetic and analgesic approaches, these benefits include more focused and sustained pain control, less systemic side effects, improved patient comfort, earlier mobilization and hospital discharge, lower rates of advanced service requirements, and lower perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, there is discussion about the various outcomes as judged by patients and heath care practitioners. This article recapitulates the literature and presents an overview of endpoints. PMID:25453663

Stundner, Ottokar; Ortmaier, Rainhold; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

2014-12-01

195

ZK30-bioactive glass composites for orthopedic applications: A comparative study on fabrication method and characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopedic implant applications showed the need to improve early-stage bioactivity. Introducing bioactive particles into a magnesium alloy to form a metal matrix composite (MMC) represents an effective way to enhance the bioactivity of the alloy. In this study, composites with the ZK30 alloy as the matrix and the 45S5 bioactive glass

Z. G. Huan; M. A. Leeflang; J. Zhou; J. Duszczyk

2011-01-01

196

Use of carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implants in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone implants offer several benefits over traditional metal implants. Their radiolucent property permits improved, artifact-free radiographic imaging. Their lower modulus of elasticity better matches that of bone. Their fatigue strength is greater than most metal implants. This article reviews the use of these implants in orthopedic surgery, including treatment of conditions involving the spine, trauma, tumor, and infection. PMID:25437074

Hak, David J; Mauffrey, Cyril; Seligson, David; Lindeque, Bennie

2014-12-01

197

Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

2002-01-01

198

Orthopedic Lesions in Tethered Cord Syndrome: The Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment on Patient Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Many of the patients with tethered cord syndrome (TCS) are admitted because of neurological symptoms, while some are admitted because of their orthopedic, urologic, anorectal, and dermatologic manifestations. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of tethered cord syndrome on patient outcome. Methods: Fourty-three patients who underwent surgery because of tethered cord syndrome from 2006 to 2010 were studied. Many of these cases were referred by orthopedic surgeons. All of the findings were recorded and follow up was done twice (1 and 3 years after surgery). Results: Thirty-seven patients were less than 7 years old and 6 were between 17 to 33 years old. According to clinical and neurological exams, satisfactory results were achieved in both groups. Those with early surgical intervention, especially in their early follow up assessment, had the best results. Seventeen cases were referred by an orthopedic surgeon because of manifestations such as leg weakness and numbness, leg pain and spasticity, pes cavus, claw toes, and leg or foot length discrepancy. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 3 cases after surgery and 1 showed pseudomeningocele formation. Conclusions: After one year of follow up, initially the results of the treatment were better in early operated cases, but in later follow up assessment (after 3 years) the results were almost the same in both of the groups. PMID:25207325

Gharedaghi, Mohammad; Samini, Fariborz; Mashhadinejad, Hosein; Khajavi, Mahdi; Samini, Mohammad

2014-01-01

199

A touch probe method of operating an implantable RFID tag for orthopedic implant identification.  

PubMed

The major problem in operating an implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag embedded on an orthopedic implant is low efficiency because of metallic interference. To improve the efficiency, this paper proposes a method of operating an implantable passive RFID tag using a touch probe at 13.56 MHz. This technology relies on the electric field interaction between two pairs of electrodes, one being a part of the touch probe placed on the surface of tissue and the other being a part of the tag installed under the tissue. Compared with using a conventional RFID antenna such as a loop antenna, this method has a better performance in the near field operation range to reduce interference with the orthopedic implant. Properly matching the touch probe and the tag to the tissue and the implant reduces signal attenuation and increases the overall system efficiency. The experiments have shown that this method has a great performance in the near field transcutaneous operation and can be used for orthopedic implant identification. PMID:23853323

Liu, Xiaoyu; Berger, J Lee; Ogirala, Ajay; Mickle, Marlin H

2013-06-01

200

Endovascular Treatment in Emergency Setting of Acute Arterial Injuries After Orthopedic Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency endovascular treatment of acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (mean age 68.3 years) with acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery were observed, in particular, 5 patients with pseudoaneurysm, 9 patients with active bleeding, and 1 patient with arterial dissection. Transarterial embolization (TAE) and positioning of covered and noncovered stents were the treatments performed. Follow-up after stent implantation (mean 36 months) was performed with color Doppler US (CDU) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Plain X-ray was performed to evidence dislodgment or fracture of the graft. A minimum of 12 months' follow-up is available after TAE. Results: Immediate technical success was obtained in all cases. No major complications occurred. Overall clinical success rate was 100%. During mean follow-up, stent-graft occlusions did not occurred. No recurrence and/or consequence of TAE was registered during a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Conclusions: Percutaneous treatment is a feasible and safe tool for treating arterial injuries because it can provide fast and definitive resolution of the damage. This low-invasiveness approach can be proposed as first-line treatment in patients with acute injuries after orthopedic surgery.

Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Fontana, Federico, E-mail: fede.fontana@libero.it; Mangini, Monica, E-mail: monica.mangini@tin.it; Ierardi, Anna Maria, E-mail: amierardi@yahoo.it; Lagana, Domenico; Piacentino, Filippo, E-mail: f.piacentino@live.it; Vizzari, Francesco Alberto, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Spano, Emanuela, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Fugazzola, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.fugazzola@ospedale.varese.it [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy)

2012-06-15

201

DYNAMIC MANIPULATION SCHEMES OF GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTIONS  

E-print Network

DYNAMIC MANIPULATION SCHEMES OF GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTIONS: INSTRUMENTAL GENESIS AS AN ABSTRACTION: Dynamic manipulation of geometrical constructions enabled by a specially designed computational tool abstraction. The Dynamic Manipulation Schemes (DMS) developed by 13-year-old students based on the use

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

RESEARCH PAPER Optothermal sample preconcentration and manipulation  

E-print Network

RESEARCH PAPER Optothermal sample preconcentration and manipulation with temperature gradient provided by a digital projector as established for particle manipulation, to achieve analogous Preconcentration Á Analyte manipulation Á Microfluidics 1 Introduction Widespread application of point-of-care (POC

Bahrami, Majid

203

Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

Bryson, Steve

2003-01-01

204

Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

Vuskovic, Marko I.

1989-01-01

205

Manipulator control by exact linearization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comments on the application to rigid link manipulators of geometric control theory, resolved acceleration control, operational space control, and nonlinear decoupling theory are given, and the essential unity of these techniques for externally linearizing and decoupling end effector dynamics is discussed. Exploiting the fact that the mass matrix of a rigid link manipulator is positive definite, a consequence of rigid link manipulators belonging to the class of natural physical systems, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a locally externally linearizing and output decoupling feedback law to exist is that the end effector Jacobian matrix be nonsingular. Furthermore, this linearizing feedback is easy to produce.

Kruetz, K.

1987-01-01

206

Primary Payer Status is Associated with the Use of Nerve Block Placement for Ambulatory Orthopedic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although more than 30 million patients in the United States undergo ambulatory surgery each year, it remains unclear what percentage of these patients receive a perioperative nerve block. We reviewed data from the 2006 National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS) to determine the demographic, socioeconomic, geographic, and clinical factors associated with the likelihood of nerve block placement for ambulatory orthopedic surgery. The primary outcome of interest was the association between primary method of payment and likelihood of nerve block placement. Additionally, we examined the association between type of surgical procedures, patient demographics, and hospital characteristics with the likelihood of receiving a nerve block. Methods This cross-sectional study reviewed 6,000 orthopedic anesthetics from the 2006 NSAS dataset, which accounted for over 3.9 million orthopedic anesthetics when weighted. The primary outcome of this study addressed the likelihood of receiving a nerve block for orthopedic ambulatory surgery according to the patient’s primary method of payment. Secondary endpoints included differences in demographics, surgical procedures, side effects, complications, recovery profile, anesthesia staffing model, and total perioperative charges in those with and without nerve block. Results Overall, 14.9% of anesthetics in this sample involved a peripheral nerve block. Length of time in postoperative recovery, total perioperative time, and total charges were less for those receiving nerve blocks. Patients were more likely to receive a nerve block if their procedures were performed in metropolitan service areas (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.19-2.91, p=0.007) or freestanding surgical facilities (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.74-2.96, p<0.0001), and if payment for their surgery was supported by government programs (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.01-6.21, p=0.048) or private insurance (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.12-6.13, p=0.03) versus self-pay or charity care. Conclusion For patients receiving ambulatory orthopedic surgery in the United States, our results suggest that geographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with different likelihoods of perioperative peripheral nerve block placement. PMID:22430024

Tighe, Patrick J.; Brennan, Meghan; Moser, M.; Boezaart, Andre P.; Bihorac, Azra

2012-01-01

207

Magnitude and meaningfulness of change in SF-36 scores in four types of orthopedic surgery  

PubMed Central

Background The Medical Outcomes General Health Survey (SF-36) is a widely used health status measure; however, limited evidence is available for its performance in orthopedic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and meaningfulness of change and sensitivity of SF-36 subscales following orthopedic surgery. Methods Longitudinal data on outcomes of total hip replacement (THR, n = 255), total knee replacement (TKR, n = 103), arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM, n = 74) and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL, n = 62) were used to estimate the effect sizes (ES, magnitude of change) and minimal detectable change (sensitivity) at the group and individual level. To provide context for interpreting the magnitude of changes in SF-36 scores, we also compared patients' scores with age and sex-matched population norms. The studies were conducted in Sweden. Follow-up was five years in THR and TKR studies, two years in ACL, and three months in APM. Results On average, large effect sizes (ES?0.80) were found after orthopedic surgery in SF-36 subscales measuring physical aspects (physical functioning, role physical, and bodily pain). Small (0.20–0.49) to moderate (0.50–0.79) effect sizes were found in subscales measuring mental and social aspects (role emotional, vitality, social functioning, and mental health). General health scores remained relatively unchanged during the follow-up. Despite improvements, post-surgery mean scores of patients were still below the age and sex matched population norms on physical subscales. Patients' scores on mental and social subscales approached population norms following the surgery. At the individual level, scores of a large proportion of patients were affected by floor or ceiling effects on several subscales and the sensitivity to individual change was very low. Conclusion Large to moderate meaningful changes in group scores were observed in all SF-36 subscales except General Health across the intervention groups. Therefore, in orthopedic settings, the SF-36 can be used to show changes for groups in physical, mental, and social dimensions and in comparison with population norms. However, SF-36 subscales have low sensitivity to individual change and so we caution against using SF-36 to monitor the health status of individual patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. PMID:18667085

Busija, Lucy; Osborne, Richard H; Nilsdotter, Anna; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Roos, Ewa M

2008-01-01

208

Manipulative assessment and treatment of the shoulder complex: case reports  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe a unique method of evaluation and a conservative management plan for patients with shoulder dysfunction of mechanical origin. Possible causes for this clinical presentation and a brief review of the literature are offered. Clinical Features In the 3 cases described here, symptoms included acute shoulder pain, limitation of movement, positive orthopedic tests, palpable tenderness, muscle spasm and muscle weakness. The 3 cases all resulted in differing diagnoses. Intervention and Outcome Following the use of a proposed joint dysfunction isolation test, thrusting forms of manual adjusting procedures, electrical modalities and soft tissue therapy were applied. Three cases representing different common shoulder problems (an acute episode of a chronic problem, a progressive problem resulting in capsulitis, and a occult problem associated with a motor vehicle accident) responded favorably to treatment. Conclusions There is the need for a non-surgical, conservative approach to treatment of shoulder problems before considering the more aggressive treatment approaches that carry greater iatrogenic risks. The patients’ signs and symptoms responded to a unique method of evaluation and manipulative therapy when other approaches had failed. The risk/benefit ratio suggests that conservative care be considered a potential option for similar conditions. PMID:19674612

Donahue, Thomas; Bergmann, Thomas; Donahue, Sara; Dody, Michael

2003-01-01

209

Building Fractal Models with Manipulatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses manipulative materials to build and examine geometric models that simulate the self-similarity properties of fractals. Examples are discussed in two dimensions, three dimensions, and the fractal dimension. Discusses how models can be misleading. (Contains 10 references.) (MDH)

Coes, Loring

1993-01-01

210

Robot Manipulation in Human Environments  

E-print Network

Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

Edsinger, Aaron

2007-01-16

211

Robot manipulation in human environments  

E-print Network

Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

Edsinger, Aaron Ladd, 1972-

2007-01-01

212

Next-generation space manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1977, the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) was designed and built. It is one of two space qualified manipulators. A new conceptual design for the next generation manipulator of space applications is presented. The next generation manipulator and the PFMA are described in detail. Their differences could have a major influence on the construction, testing, and performance of a space arm. Assessed in detail are these technologies and their effect on the design. Servicing is an important goal of robotics in space. Parameters such as environment, type of task, time sequence, and dexterity will affect the arm and its ability to accomplish its mission. Requirements such as these are important considerations in the design of the next generation space arm.

Brunson, P.; Chun, W.; Cogeos, P.

1988-01-01

213

Interactive Animation of Dynamic Manipulation  

E-print Network

Lifelike animation of manipulation must account for the dynamicinteraction between animated characters, objects, and their environment. Failing to do so would ignore the often significant effects objectshave on the motion ...

Abe, Yeuhi

2006-02-28

214

Automatic manipulators for spray painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

with frequency control of the angular velocity. The nominal power is i0 kW and the overall dimensions of the unit equipped with manipulators is 8 x 4 x 2.5 m. The manipulator are of modular design and include (see Fig. i) a powered carriage 4, elevator 2, rod 5 with the tracking mechanism (mechanical arm module) 7. The drive 3

A. N. Chernyavskii; V. V. Serik; L. S. Zinchenko

1985-01-01

215

Staphylococcus epidermidis in Orthopedic Device Infections: The Role of Bacterial Internalization in Human Osteoblasts and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus epidermidis orthopedic device infections are caused by direct inoculation of commensal flora during surgery and remain rare, although S. epidermidis carriage is likely universal. We wondered whether S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection strains might constitute a sub-population of commensal isolates with specific virulence ability. Biofilm formation and invasion of osteoblasts by S. aureus contribute to bone and joint infection recurrence by protecting bacteria from the host-immune system and most antibiotics. We aimed to determine whether S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection isolates could be distinguished from commensal strains by their ability to invade osteoblasts and form biofilms. Materials and Methods Orthopedic device infection S. epidermidis strains (n?=?15) were compared to nasal carriage isolates (n?=?22). Osteoblast invasion was evaluated in an ex vivo infection model using MG63 osteoblastic cells co-cultured for 2 hours with bacteria. Adhesion of S. epidermidis to osteoblasts was explored by a flow cytometric approach, and internalized bacteria were quantified by plating cell lysates after selective killing of extra-cellular bacteria with gentamicin. Early and mature biofilm formations were evaluated by a crystal violet microtitration plate assay and the Biofilm Ring Test method. Results No difference was observed between commensal and infective strains in their ability to invade osteoblasts (internalization rate 308+/?631 and 347+/?431 CFU/well, respectively). This low internalization rate correlated with a low ability to adhere to osteoblasts. No difference was observed for biofilm formation between the two groups. Conclusion Osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation levels failed to distinguish S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection strains from commensal isolates. This study provides the first assessment of the interaction between S. epidermidis strains isolated from orthopedic device infections and osteoblasts, and suggests that bone cell invasion is not a major pathophysiological mechanism in S. epidermidis orthopedic device infections, contrary to what is observed for S. aureus. PMID:23840636

Valour, Florent; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lustig, Sébastien; Chanard, Emmanuel; Meugnier, Hélène; Tigaud, Sylvestre; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jérome; Ferry, Tristan; Laurent, Frédéric

2013-01-01

216

Dexterous grasp and manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses some of the fundamental issues in multifingered cooperative manipulation. The problems investigated were stimulated by the need to devise a motion and force allocation planner for the four fingered DIGITS system. In motion planning, the emphasis has been on determining finger trajectories that generate smooth object motion in free space. A screw motion has been prescribed to be followed between two configurations of the object, in order to obtain simultaneous rotary and translatory motion. The effect of the joint motion limits on the path following capability of the fingers has been analyzed. It has been shown that knowledge of the direction of the surface normal at the contact point, coupled with the use of a spherical fingertip can be used to circumvent some contact uncertainty problems. The geometry of the force system in the multi-point contact situation has been investigated using crew theory. Conditions for which the system is underspecified have been identified. An efficient solution to the minimum norm solution, the equilibrating forces, has been presented. It has been shown that the pairs of equal and opposite forces acting along the lines joining points of contact can be used to span the space of the homogeneous solutions of the underconstrained problem. Techniques to selectively superpose the interaction forces to orient the net contact forces in desired directions have been developed. This leads to the development of a closed form solution to the optimum grasp problem in three dimensions. It has been shown that the local minimum of the maximum friction angle is characterized by a polynomial which can be symbolically enumerated. Solutions to the minimum friction angle problem can be obtained from the roots of the polynomial. The DIGITS system is instrumented to obtain six axis contact force data from the fingertip. Efficient, stable closed form algorithms have been developed to compute the location of the contact point based on the six axis force data for cylindrical and spherical fingertip geometry. It has been shown that for fingertip surfaces made of piecewise ellipsoids, as opposed to a single ellipsoid, the solution may be non-unique. The conditions for such non-uniqueness to occur have been identified.

217

Iterative inverse kinematics with manipulator configuration control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method, termed the offset modification method (OM method), for solving the manipulator inverse kinematics problem is presented. The OM method works by modifying the link offset values of a manipulator until it is possible to derive closed-form inverse kinematics equations for the resulting manipulator (termed the model manipulator). This procedure allows one to derive a set of three

G. Z. Grudic; Peter D. Lawrence

1993-01-01

218

Manipulation of Ideals 1 Radical ideals  

E-print Network

Manipulation of Ideals 1 Radical ideals the radical ideal membership problem 2 Independence Computation (MCS 563) Manipulation of Ideals L-33 7 April 2014 1 / 30 #12;Manipulation of Ideals 1 Radical) Manipulation of Ideals L-33 7 April 2014 2 / 30 #12;polynomial ideals An ideal I generated by N polynomials fi

Verschelde, Jan

219

Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Motion planning and control for the joints of flexible manipulators are discussed. Specific topics covered include control of a flexible braced manipulator, control of a small working robot on a large flexible manipulator to suppress vibrations, control strategies for ensuring cooperation among disparate manipulators, and motion planning for robots in free-fall.

Book, Wayne J.

1991-01-01

220

Locus of pain control associated with medication adherence behaviors among patients after an orthopedic procedure  

PubMed Central

Background Locus of pain control (LPC) is characterized by the behavior of people coping with their health problems, as a result of their own actions (internal control) or external factors or other people (external control). This parameter can be associated with medication adherence, in addition to other psychosocial factors that may also influence this behavior. This study was performed to investigate the influence of the LPC on medication adherence in patients undergoing an orthopedic procedure. Subjects and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study on patients who attended an orthopedic clinic for arthroscopy treatment. The patients’ LPC and pain intensity data were obtained on the day of admission through the use of the LPC scale and the visual analog scale (VAS), respectively, both being validated tools. After arthroscopic surgery, the patients received drug prescriptions and were reassessed after 15 days regarding treatment adherence, using the Morisky test. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We assessed 79 individuals from both the internal LPC group (n=35) and external LPC group (n=44) and found that there were no group differences in sex, affected limb, cause of injury, repetitive strain injury, duration of pain, or pain intensity. However, there was a higher proportion of patients in the external LPC group that adhered to the prescribed medication compared with the internal LPC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The results showed that among patients who underwent an orthopedic procedure, there was a higher adherence rate to prescribed medication in the external LPC group compared with the internal LPC group. PMID:25075178

Porto, Thaisy Mendes; Machado, Daniele Caferatti; Martins, Rafael Olívio; Galato, Dayani; Piovezan, Anna Paula

2014-01-01

221

Concurrent orthopedic and neurosurgical procedures in pediatric patients with spinal deformity.  

PubMed

The management of pediatric patients with complex spinal deformity often requires both an orthopedic and a neurosurgical intervention. The reasons for multiple subspecialty involvement include, but are not limited to, the presence of a tethered cord requiring release or a syrinx requiring decompression. It has been common practice to perform these procedures in a staged manner, although there is little evidence in the literature to support separate interventions. We reviewed a series of consecutive patients who underwent spinal deformity correction and a neurosurgical intervention concurrently in an attempt to assess the safety, efficacy, and possible complications associated with such an approach. Eleven patients were reviewed who underwent concurrent orthopedic and neurosurgical procedures. Data were collected for patient demographics, preoperative diagnosis, procedures performed, intraoperative and perioperative complications, as well as any unexpected return to the operating room for any reason. Operative notes and anesthesia records were reviewed to determine estimated blood loss, surgical time, and the use of intraoperative neurological monitoring. Patient diagnoses included myelodysplasia (N=6), congenital scoliosis and/or kyphosis (N=4), and scoliosis associated with Noonan syndrome (N=1). Age at the time of surgery averaged 9 years 2 months (range=14 months to 17 years 2 months). Estimated blood loss averaged 605 ml (range=50-3000 ml). The operative time averaged 313 min (range=157-477 min). There were no intraoperative complications, including incidental dural tears or deterioration in preoperative neurological status. One patient developed a sore associated with postoperative cast immobilization that led to a deep wound infection. It appears that concurrent orthopedic and neurosurgical procedures in pediatric patients with significant spinal deformities can be performed safely and with minimal intraoperative and postoperative complications when utilizing modern surgical and neuromonitoring techniques. Level of evidence=Level IV. PMID:22863686

Mooney, James F; Glazier, Stephen S; Barfield, William R

2012-11-01

222

The Evidence-Based Principles of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Trauma & Orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Negative pressure wound therapy is a popular treatment for the management of both acute and chronic wounds. Its use in trauma and orthopedics is diverse and includes the acute traumatic setting as well as chronic troublesome wounds associated with pressure sores and diabetic foot surgery. Efforts have been made to provide an evidence base to guide its use however this has been limited by a lack of good quality evidence. The following review article explores the available evidence and describes future developments for its use in trauma and orthopaedic practice. PMID:25067971

A, Novak; Khan, Wasim S; J, Palmer

2014-01-01

223

Apixaban versus enoxaparin in elective major orthopedic surgery: a clinical review.  

PubMed

Despite current guidelines recommendations about anticoagulant prophylaxis, many studies have shown an high venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence in patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty. A number of anticoagulants are currently available, but they have some limitations that affect their applicability and consequently their effectiveness. Several new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been developed in an attempt to overcome these limitations. Apixaban is a NOAC that selectively inhibits the coagulation factor Xa; it is approved for the prevention of VTE after total hip replacement and total knee replacement surgery. This review examines the results of main trials designed to test efficacy and safety of apixaban in major elective orthopedic surgery. PMID:25125051

Maniscalco, Pietro; Caforio, Marco; Imberti, Davide; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Benedetti, Raffaella

2015-03-01

224

Non-Osteotomy and Osteotomy Large Animal Fracture Models in Orthopedic Trauma Research  

PubMed Central

Large animal fracture models are important in the field of orthopedic trauma research. New implants are tested in animals before being implanted into humans. Large animals like sheep or swine often are more properly to simulate conditions in humans, e.g. biomechanical demands, compared to rodents. Cited articles mainly analyze shock or fracture healing. Both osteotomy and non-osteotomy fracture models have been used in the past. However, comparative studies are rare and clear recommendation when to use which model are missing. This review will summarize large animal fracture models putting special emphasis on non-osteotomy fracture models. PMID:25568730

Decker, Sebastian; Reifenrath, Janin; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W.

2014-01-01

225

High precision redundant robotic manipulator  

DOEpatents

A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

Young, K.K.D.

1998-09-22

226

High precision redundant robotic manipulator  

DOEpatents

A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

Young, Kar-Keung David (Mountain View, CA)

1998-01-01

227

Mobile camera-space manipulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a method of using computer vision to control systems consisting of a combination of holonomic and nonholonomic degrees of freedom such as a wheeled rover equipped with a robotic arm, a forklift, and earth-moving equipment such as a backhoe or a front-loader. Using vision sensors mounted on the mobile system and the manipulator, the system establishes a relationship between the internal joint configuration of the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator and the appearance of features on the manipulator in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Then, the system, perhaps with the assistance of an operator, identifies the locations of the target object in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Using this target information, along with the relationship described above, the system determines a suitable trajectory for the nonholonomic degrees of freedom of the base to follow towards the target object. The system also determines a suitable pose or series of poses for the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator. With additional visual samples, the system automatically updates the trajectory and final pose of the manipulator so as to allow for greater precision in the overall final position of the system.

Seelinger, Michael J. (Inventor); Yoder, John-David S. (Inventor); Skaar, Steven B. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

228

Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for “engineering” space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to “engineer” light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing. PMID:24084836

Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

2013-01-01

229

A grid quality manipulation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A grid quality manipulation system is described. The elements of the system are the measures by which quality is assessed, the computer graphic display of those measures, and the local grid manipulation to provide a response to the viewed quality indication. The display is an overlaid composite where the region is first covered with colors to reflect the values of the quality indicator, the grid is then placed on top of those colors, and finally a control net is placed on top of everything. The net represents the grid in terms of the control point form of algebraic grid generation. As a control point is moved, both the grid and the colored quality measures also move. This is a real time dynamic action so that the consequences of the manipulation are continuously seen.

Lu, Ning; Eiseman, Peter R.

1991-01-01

230

Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

2005-01-01

231

Orthopedic services  

MedlinePLUS

... procedures include minimally invasive surgery techniques, advanced external fixation, and the use of bone graft substitutes and ... who have a primary specialty in family practice, internal medicine, emergency medicine, pediatrics, or physical medicine and ...

232

Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Orthopedic Biodegradable Implants  

PubMed Central

Presently, orthopedic and oral/maxillofacial implants represent a combined $2.8 billion market, a figure expected to experience significant and continued growth. Although traditional permanent implants have been proved clinically efficacious, they are also associated with several drawbacks, including secondary revision and removal surgeries. Non-permanent, biodegradable implants offer a promising alternative for patients, as they provide temporary support and degrade at a rate matching tissue formation, and thus, eliminate the need for secondary surgeries. These implants have been in clinical use for nearly 25 years, competing directly with, or maybe even exceeding, the performance of permanent implants. The initial implantation of biodegradable materials, as with permanent materials, mounts an acute host inflammatory response. Over time, the implant degradation profile and possible degradation product toxicity mediate long-term biodegradable implant-induced inflammation. However, unlike permanent implants, this inflammation is likely to cease once the material disappears. Implant-mediated inflammation is a critical determinant for implant success. Thus, for the development of a proactive biodegradable implant that has the ability to promote optimal bone regeneration and minimal detrimental inflammation, a thorough understanding of short- and long-term inflammatory events is required. Here, we discuss an array of biodegradable orthopedic implants, their associated short- and long- term inflammatory effects, and methods to mediate these inflammatory events. PMID:22043969

Amini, Ami R.; Wallace, James S.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

2012-01-01

233

The Chop and Lift Reconsidered: Integrating Neuromuscular Principles into Orthopedic and Sports Rehabilitation.  

PubMed Central

The upper extremity bilateral PNF patterns, better known as the “chop and lift” are well known to physical therapists. These patterns which utilize spiral and diagonal motions of the upper extremity can be used for both assessment and treatment of sports and orthopedic injuries. Half kneeling and tall kneeling postures fall between low-level postures such as rolling and 4-point, and high-level postures of standing and walking. Half kneeling and tall kneeling can be considered transitional postures. When the chop and lift patterns are used in conjunction with the half and tall kneeling developmental postures, the techniques are an excellent assessment of core stability/instability. Combinations of the upper extremity patterns and the developmental postures can be powerful corrective training techniques. The combined experience of the three authors is used to describe techniques for equipment setup, testing, assessment, and treatment of athletic imbalances. These techniques require and promote instantaneous local muscular activity as developmental postures and balance reactions are incorporated. The therapeutic use of both PNF and developmental patterns has been a hallmark of rehabilitation of patients with neurologic dysfunction, but can be equally and effectively applied in the sports and orthopedic rehabilitation setting. PMID:21509127

Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Cook, Gray

2008-01-01

234

Application of Orthopedic Dual Sliding Compression Plate (ODSCP) in High Medial Tibial Open Wedge Osteotomies  

PubMed Central

Background Angular deformities about the knee are one of the common disorders. High Tibial osteotomy is a way of correcting the deformity. Although the general agreement is focused toward the open wedge technique, discussion about the type of device is a subject to debate. Objectives This current study has attempted to evaluate the results of Orthopedic Dual Sliding Compression Plate (ODSCP) in high medial open wedge osteotomies of the tibia. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 16 patients with genuvarum undergone high medial tibial open wedge osteotomy and fixed by Orthopedic Dual Sliding Compression Plate. At the time of the last follow up visit, Lysholm score was gathered. Results The mean follow-up time was 9.33 ± 1.87 month. The average age was 45.13 ± 7.25 years. Three patients were male and 13 patients were female. The lysholm score showed a significant difference before and after surgery. Conclusions The ODSCP has many advantages over the other type of plates. It can help the surgeon to operate with a relaxed mind and it is advisable for high tibial medial open wedge osteotomies. PMID:24083009

Samani, Seyed Salman; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Omidi Kashani, Farzad; Mahdavian Naghashzargar, Reza; Razi, Shiva

2013-01-01

235

Influence of preoperative emotional state on postoperative pain following orthopedic and trauma surgery  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the relationship between preoperative emotional state and the prevalence and intensity of postoperative pain and to explore predictors of postoperative pain. METHOD: observational retrospective study undertaken among 127 adult patients of orthopedic and trauma surgery. Postoperative pain was assessed with the verbal numeric scale and with five variables of emotional state: anxiety, sweating, stress, fear, and crying. The Chi-squared test, Student's t test or ANOVA and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: the prevalence of immediate postoperative pain was 28%. Anxiety was the most common emotional factor (72%) and a predictive risk factor for moderate to severe postoperative pain (OR: 4.60, 95% CI 1.38 to 15.3, p<0.05, AUC: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.83). Age exerted a protective effect (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: preoperative anxiety and age are predictors of postoperative pain in patients undergoing orthopedic and trauma surgery. PMID:25493674

Robleda, Gemma; Sillero-Sillero, Amalia; Puig, Teresa; Gich, Ignasi; Baños, Josep-E

2014-01-01

236

Patient-focused measures of functional health status and health-related quality of life in pediatric orthopedics: A case study in measurement selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this report are to review the assessment of patient-focused outcomes in pediatric orthopedic surgery, to describe a framework for identifying appropriate sets of measures, and to illustrate an application of the framework to a challenging orthopedic problem. A detailed framework of study design and measurement factors is described. The factors are important for selecting appropriate instruments to

William Furlong; Ronald D Barr; David Feeny; Suzanne Yandow

2005-01-01

237

4D optical multibeam manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method enables virtually loss free conversion of spatial phase patterns to highly efficient light intensity distributions. The GPC-method has been used in a number of applications requiring parallel light-beam encoding such as in advanced user-controlled optical micro-manipulation, wavefront sensing and generation for common-path interferometry and adaptive optics, optical phase-only encryption and integrated micro-optical implementations. In this work, we will outline the concept for a GPC-platform for advanced and user-interactive manipulation of fluid-borne colloidal structures with state-of-the-art controllability and versatility. Real-time reconfigurable light patterns with sub-micron accuracy are obtained from a direct map of phase patterns addressed on a programmable phase-only spatial light modulator device. A graphical user interface enables real-time, interactive and arbitrary control over the dynamics and geometry of synthesized light patterns. Arrays of GPC-generated counterpropagating light fields provides for multi-particle trapping and manipulation in three dimensions by incorporating a spatially-addressable polarization modulator where individual relative strengths of orthogonally-polarized beam-pairs are independently adjustable. The result is a system with fully independent control of a plurality of particles throughout all spatial dimensions and in real time, hence 4D optical multi-beam manipulation.

Gluckstad, Jesper

2005-03-01

238

Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

1998-01-01

239

Mobile Manipulation using NASA's Robonaut  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Johnson Space Center has developed a new mobile manipulation system with the combination of a Robonaut upper body mounted onto a Segway mobile base. The objective is to study a fluid and coordinated control of dexterous limbs on a mobile robot. The system has been demonstrated interacting with people, tools, and urban interfaces built for humans. Human interactions have

Robert O. Ambrose; Robert T. Savely; S. M. Goza; Philip Strawser; Myron A. Diftler; I. M. Spain; N. Radford

2004-01-01

240

Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

2014-01-01

241

DATACUBE: A datacube manipulation package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DATACUBE is a command-line package for manipulating and visualizing data cubes. It was designed for integral field spectroscopy but has been extended to be a generic data cube tool, used in particular for sub-millimeter data cubes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. It is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

Allan, Alasdair; Currie, Malcolm J.

2014-05-01

242

ISL - A String Manipulating Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Information Search Language (ISL), described in this report, is a problem-oriented language designed to facilitate the manipulation of real character strings with the Control Data 1604 computer. The report gives instructions for the language; these may be classified as Pseudo-ops, Word-Oriented instructions, Character-string instructions,…

Kelley, K.C.; And Others.

243

Indicator tensor manipulation on MACSYMA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new computational tool for physical calculations is described. It is the first computer system capable of performing indicial tensor calculus (as opposed to component tensor calculus). It is now operational on the symbolic manipulation system MACSYMA. The capabilities of the system are outlined.

Bogen, R. A.; Pavelle, R.

1977-01-01

244

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

245

Data manipulation in heterogeneous databases  

SciTech Connect

Many important information systems applications require access to data stored in multiple heterogeneous databases. This paper examines a problem in inter-database data manipulation within a heterogeneous environment, where conventional techniques are no longer useful. To solve the problem, a broader definition for join operator is proposed. Also, a method to probabilistically estimate the accuracy of the join is discussed.

Chatterjee, A.; Segev, A.

1991-10-01

246

MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

2001-07-31

247

A cohort study on the incidence and outcome of pulmonary embolism in trauma and orthopedic patients  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to determine the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in trauma and orthopedic patients within a regional tertiary referral center and its association with the pattern of injury, type of treatment, co-morbidities, thromboprophylaxis and mortality. Methods All patients admitted to our institution between January 2010 and December 2011, for acute trauma or elective orthopedic procedures, were eligible to participate in this study. Our cohort was formed by identifying all patients with clinical features of PE who underwent Computed Tomography-Pulmonary Angiogram (CT-PA) to confirm or exclude the clinical suspicion of PE, within six months after the injury or the surgical procedure. Case notes and electronic databases were reviewed retrospectively to identify each patient’s venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors, type of treatment, thromboprophylaxis and mortality. Results Out of 18,151 patients admitted during the study period only 85 (0.47%) patients developed PE (positive CT-PA) (24 underwent elective surgery and 61 sustained acute trauma). Of these, only 76% of the patients received thromboprophylaxis. Hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease were the most commonly identifiable risk factors. In 39% of the cases, PE was diagnosed during the in-hospital stay. The median time of PE diagnosis, from the date of injury or the surgical intervention was 23 days (range 1 to 312). The overall mortality rate was 0.07% (13/18,151), but for those who developed PE it was 15.29% (13/85). Concomitant deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was identified in 33.3% of patients. The presence of two or more co-morbidities was significantly associated with the incidence of mortality (unadjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?3.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.34, 18.99), P?=?0.034). Although there was also a similar clinical effect size for polytrauma injury on mortality (unadjusted OR?=?1.90 (0.38, 9.54), P?=?0.218), evidence was not statistically significant for this factor. Conclusions The incidence of VTE was comparable to previously reported rates, whereas the mortality rate was lower. Our local protocols that comply with the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines in the UK appear to be effective in preventing VTE and reducing mortality in trauma and orthopedic patients. PMID:24589368

2014-01-01

248

Can parents rate their children's quality of life? Perspectives on pediatric orthopedic outcomes.  

PubMed

The ultimate goal of treatment for children with orthopedic problems is to improve their health-related quality of life. Because children may lack the abilities to effectively interpret and answer the questions used to assess a patient's health-related quality of life, parent proxies have been used in such pediatric cases. Unfortunately, previous studies exploring the efficacy of these parent proxies have been inconsistent. It is therefore important to determine the level of agreement between child-parent dyads and whether agreement is mediated by variables such as disease type, demographics, instrument, and the domain being assessed. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of agreement between children and their parents' ratings in the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and the Pediatric Orthopaedic Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), two instruments commonly used to assess health-related quality of life in children. The CHQ, PODCI, and standard demographic and clinical data were collected from parents and children between the ages of 5 and 18 years with a wide range of musculoskeletal problems. There was a strong level of agreement between child and parent responses for most of the domains in both instruments. Exceptions included Physical Functioning (PF), General Health (GH), and Mental Health (MH) in the CHQ, and Expectations in the PODCI. All four of these domains exhibited significant differences between the two respondent groups and had medium effect sizes. Children reported a higher level of PF and lower levels of both GH and MH than their parents. Additionally, parents reported significantly higher expectations for treatment than children did. None of the regressions yielded significant ? values for child age, parent sex, match/no match between parent-child sex, and scoliosis/nonscoliosis diagnosis. These significant discrepancies were not driven by specific subsamples; therefore, we concluded that these discrepancies can be generalized to the pediatric orthopedic population. Our results also indicate that the CHQ is more sensitive than the PODCI to the rating differences between children and parents. The results of this study can serve clinicians in pediatric orthopedic surgery as a guide for not only selecting the most appropriate instruments for assessment but also for interpreting treatment outcomes most meaningfully. Level of Evidence is the Level II Prognostic Study. PMID:21317814

Matsumoto, Hiroko; Vitale, Michael G; Hyman, Joshua E; Roye, David P

2011-05-01

249

Seasonal variation in orthopedic health services utilization in Switzerland: The impact of winter sport tourism  

PubMed Central

Background Climate- or holiday-related seasonality in hospital admission rates is well known for many diseases. However, little research has addressed the impact of tourism on seasonality in admission rates. We therefore investigated the influence of tourism on emergency admission rates in Switzerland, where winter and summer leisure sport activities in large mountain regions can generate orthopedic injuries. Methods Using small area analysis, orthopedic hospital service areas (HSAo) were evaluated for seasonality in emergency admission rates. Winter sport areas were defined using guest bed accommodation rate patterns of guest houses and hotels located above 1000 meters altitude that show clear winter and summer peak seasons. Emergency admissions (years 2000–2002, n = 135'460) of local and nonlocal HSAo residents were evaluated. HSAo were grouped according to their area type (regular or winter sport area) and monthly analyses of admission rates were performed. Results Of HSAo within the defined winter sport areas 70.8% show a seasonal, summer-winter peak hospital admission rate pattern and only 1 HSAo outside the defined winter sport areas shows such a pattern. Seasonal hospital admission rates in HSAo in winter sport areas can be up to 4 times higher in winter than the intermediate seasons, and they are almost entirely due to admissions of nonlocal residents. These nonlocal residents are in general -and especially in winter- younger than local residents, and nonlocal residents have a shorter length of stay in winter sport than in regular areas. The overall geographic distribution of nonlocal residents admitted for emergencies shows highest rates during the winter as well as the summer in the winter sport areas. Conclusion Small area analysis using orthopedic hospital service areas is a reliable method for the evaluation of seasonality in hospital admission rates. In Switzerland, HSAo defined as winter sport areas show a clear seasonal fluctuation in admission rates of only nonlocal residents, whereas HSAo defined as regular, non-winter sport areas do not show such seasonality. We conclude that leisure sport, and especially ski/snowboard tourism demands great flexibility in hospital beds, staff and resource planning in these areas. PMID:16512923

Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Widmer, Marcel; Busato, André

2006-01-01

250

Oral rifampin plus ofloxacin for treatment of Staphylococcus-infected orthopedic implants.  

PubMed Central

We examined the effectiveness and safety of the combination of rifampin plus ofloxacin given orally for treating prosthetic orthopedic implants infected with staphylococci. The prospective cohort study was conducted in a referral public hospital with ambulatory care services between 1985 and 1991. Consecutive patients from whom Staphylococcus organisms susceptible to the study drugs were isolated from their orthopedic implants and who had no contraindication to the treatment were eligible for the study. All patients were treated orally with rifampin, 900 mg/day, plus ofloxacin, 600 mg/day. Patients with hip prosthesis infection were treated for 6 months, with removal of any unstable prostheses after 5 months of treatment; patients with knee prosthesis infection were treated for 9 months, with removal of the prosthesis after 6 months of treatment; and patients with infected bone plates were treated for 6 months, with removal of the plate after 3 months of treatment, if necessary. Monthly clinical evaluations were conducted until the completion of the treatment and follow-up or telephone interviews were conducted at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months thereafter. Treatment failures were documented by clinical evaluation, sampling of the infected site for culture and antibiotic activity measurement, and fistulography, if possible. Cure was defined as the absence of clinical, biological, and radiological evidence of infection 6 months after the completion of treatment, treatment failure was defined as the absence of cure, and relapse was defined as the reappearance of infection caused by the same Staphylococcus isolate that caused the original infection, regardless of the timing of this secondary infection. Among 51 patients included in the study and evaluable for safety, 4 patients had side effects and were not evaluable for treatment effectiveness; the overall success rate was 74% among 47 patients, with a success rate of 81% for the hip prosthesis group, 69% for the knee prosthesis group, and 69% for the osteosynthesis device group. Eight treatment failures were relaxed to the isolation of a resistant bacterium. The combination of rifampin administered orally plus ofloxacin is a suitable alternative to the conventional long-term intravenous therapy for treatment of orthopedic implants infected with staphylococci. PMID:8328772

Drancourt, M; Stein, A; Argenson, J N; Zannier, A; Curvale, G; Raoult, D

1993-01-01

251

ORTHODONTICS AND DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS Registration of Cone-Beam CT and 3dMD Maxillodental Data  

E-print Network

ORTHODONTICS AND DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS Registration of Cone-Beam CT and 3dMD Maxillodental Data that occur during orthodontic (craniofacial) treatment. Registered images obtained from Cone-Beam Computed as well as clinical evaluation of orthodontic treatments. Methods Six consecutive patients with adequate

Alberta, University of

252

OmniBrace: A Fast Acting Expanding Foam Splint for Orthopedic Injuries Anisha Bapna, Margaret Lees, William Littlefield, Harrison Rose  

E-print Network

utilizes expanding polyurethane foam technology to provide immediate temporary immobilization to orthopedic. These numbers alone suggest large market potential. Novelty of Concept · Uses quick-curing polyurethane foam The OmniBrace is comprised of the following components: · Spandex bag · Chemical pack · Polyurethane film

McGaughey, Alan

253

Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Bemiparin in a Large Population of Orthopedic Patients in a Normal Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted a prospective, open, multicenter, observational study to audit the utilization patterns of bemiparin in orthopedic patients in daily clinical practice. They analyzed rates of documented symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) confirmed by objective methods, major bleeding, death, thrombocytopenia, and other adverse events. It was also intended to analyze the influence of concomitant

Rafael Otero-Fernández; Antonio Gómez-Outes; Javier Martínez-González; Eduardo Rocha; Jordi Fontcuberta

2008-01-01

254

Trajectory planning of cooperative multiple mobile manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the trajectory planning method of multiple mobile manipulators which carry a common object in cooperation. We derive a dynamic equation considering dynamic characteristics of mobile manipulators and the object. The dynamic equation consists of equations of motion of mobile manipulators and the object, nonholonomic constraints of mobile platforms, and geometrical constraints between end-effectors and the

Seiji Furuno; Motoji Yamamoto; Akira Mohri

2003-01-01

255

Developing skilled performance of lumbar spine manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantify elements of spinal manipulation therapy performance and to test the strategy of combined rehearsal and quantitative feedback as a means of enhancing student skill development. Design: Randomized, controlled study. Setting: Chiropractic college. Subjects: Thirty-nine chiropractic student volunteers entering the manipulation technique training course participated after providing informed consent. Methods: Student performance of lumbar spinal manipulation therapy was

John J. Triano; Carolyn M. Rogers; Sarah Combs; David Potts; Kenneth Sorrels

2002-01-01

256

Cartesian control of a hydraulic redundant manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controller for redundant manipulators with a small, fast manipulator mounted on a positioning part has been developed. The controller distributes the fast motion to the small, fast manipulator and the slow, gross motion to the positioning part. A position reference is generated on-line to the positioning part to avoid singularities and the loss of degrees of freedom. The task

Olav Egeland

1987-01-01

257

An evolutionary resolution of manipulation conflict.  

PubMed

Individuals can manipulate the behavior of social partners. However, manipulation may conflict with the fitness interests of the manipulated individuals. Manipulated individuals can then be favored to resist manipulation, possibly reducing or eliminating the manipulated behavior in the long run. I use a mathematical model to show that conflicts where manipulation and resistance coevolve can disappear as a result of the coevolutionary process. I find that while manipulated individuals are selected to resist, they can simultaneously be favored to express the manipulated behavior at higher efficiency (i.e., providing increasing fitness effects to recipients of the manipulated behavior). Efficiency can increase to a point at which selection for resistance disappears. This process yields an efficient social behavior that is induced by social partners, and over which the inducing and induced individuals are no longer in conflict. A necessary factor is costly inefficiency. I develop the model to address the evolution of advanced eusociality via maternal manipulation (AEMM). The model predicts AEMM to be particularly likely in taxa with ancestrally imperfect resistance to maternal manipulation. Costly inefficiency occurs if the cost of delayed dispersal is larger than the benefit of exploiting the maternal patch. I discuss broader implications of the process. PMID:24725252

González-Forero, Mauricio

2014-07-01

258

Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chips for Dielectric Manipulation  

E-print Network

Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chips for Dielectric Manipulation A THESIS PRESENTED BY THOMAS Manipulation Thomas Peter Hunt Advisor: Robert M. Westervelt This thesis describes the development the surrounding medium can be manipulated with DEP. #12;iv We initially fabricated an array of microscale post

Heller, Eric

259

Is Computational Complexity a Barrier to Manipulation?  

E-print Network

Is Computational Complexity a Barrier to Manipulation? Toby Walsh NICTA and University of NSW, agents may try to manipulate such an election by mis- reporting their preferences. Fortunately, it has been shown that it is NP-hard to compute how to manipulate a number of different voting rules. However

Walsh, Toby

260

Database Manipulation on Quantum Computers  

E-print Network

Manipulating a database system on a quantum computer is an essential aim to benefit from the promising speed-up of quantum computers over classical computers in areas that take a vast amount of storage and processing time such as in databases. In this paper, the basic operations for manipulating the data in a quantum database will be defined, e.g. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, backing up and restoring a database file. This gives the ability to perform the data processing that usually takes a long processing time on a classical database system, in a simultaneous way on a quantum computer. Defining a quantum version of more advanced concepts used in database systems, e.g. the referential integrity and the relational algebra, is a normal extension to this work

Ahmed Younes

2007-05-29

261

Adaptive hybrid control of manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple methods for the design of adaptive force and position controllers for robot manipulators within the hybrid control architecuture is presented. The force controller is composed of an adaptive PID feedback controller, an auxiliary signal and a force feedforward term, and it achieves tracking of desired force setpoints in the constraint directions. The position controller consists of adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers and an auxiliary signal, and it accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories in the free directions. The controllers are capable of compensating for dynamic cross-couplings that exist between the position and force control loops in the hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controllers do not require knowledge of the complex dynamic model or parameter values of the manipulator or the environment. The proposed control schemes are computationally fast and suitable for implementation in on-line control with high sampling rates.

Seraji, H.

1987-01-01

262

Genetic Manipulation of Francisella Tularensis  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease tularemia. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes the most severe disease in humans and has been classified as a Category A select agent and potential bioweapon. There is currently no vaccine approved for human use, making genetic manipulation of this organism critical to unraveling the genetic basis of pathogenesis and developing countermeasures against tularemia. The development of genetic techniques applicable to F. tularensis have lagged behind those routinely used for other bacteria, primarily due to lack of research and the restricted nature of the biocontainment required for studying this pathogen. However, in recent years, genetic techniques, such as transposon mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption, have been developed, that have had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of F. tularensis virulence. In this review, we describe some of the methods developed for genetic manipulation of F. tularensis. PMID:21607086

Zogaj, Xhavit; Klose, Karl E.

2011-01-01

263

The laboratory telerobotic manipulator program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the NASA Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program is performed to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research.

Herndon, J. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Butler, P. L.; Costello, H. M.; Glassell, R. L.; Kress, R. L.; Kuban, D. P.; Rowe, J. C.; Williams, D. M.

1989-01-01

264

Ion beam sputter etching of orthopedic implanted alloy MP35N and resulting effects on fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of two types of argon ion sputter etched surface structures on the tensile stress fatigue properties of orthopedic implant alloy MP35N were investigated. One surface structure was a natural texture resulting from direct bombardment by 1 keV argon ions. The other structure was a pattern of square holes milled into the surface by a 1 keV argon ion beam through a Ni screen mask. The etched surfaces were subjected to tensile stress only in fatigue tests designed to simulate the cyclic load conditions experienced by the stems of artificial hip joint implants. Both types of sputter etched surface structures were found to reduce the fatigue strength below that of smooth surface MP35N.

Wintucky, E. G.; Christopher, M.; Bahnuik, E.; Wang, S.

1981-01-01

265

A novel composite porous coating approach for bioactive titanium-based orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

Surface modification of titanium-based implants is considered a highly effective solution to enhance osseointegration. This study describes a novel Ti/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite porous coating produced using a cold spraying technique. Experimental results indicate desirable open-cell structure with 50-150 ?m pore size and 60-65% macroporosity. In particular, the reinforced HA particles are exposed to the surface of the coating resulting in enhanced mineralization ability in simulated body fluid. None of the coatings displayed a cytotoxic response in SaOS-2 cells cultured in vitro for up to 48 h. The bond strength between the porous coating and the Ti substrate was found to be 20 MPa. These properties are comparative to or better than products currently on the market and thus this novel coating has potential use in orthopedics. PMID:22968836

Qiu, Dong; Zhang, Mingxing; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

2013-03-01

266

Fabrication aspects of PLA-CaP/PLGA-CaP composites for orthopedic applications: a review.  

PubMed

For several decades, composites made of polylactic acid-calcium phosphates (PLA-CaP) and polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid-calcium phosphates (PLGA-CaP) have seen widespread uses in orthopedic applications. This paper reviews the fabrication aspects of these composites, following the ubiquitous materials science approach by studying "processing-structure-property" correlations. Various fabrication processes such as microencapsulation, phase separation, electrospinning, supercritical gas foaming, etc., are reviewed, with specific examples of their applications in fabricating these composites. The effect of the incorporation of CaP materials on the mechanical and biological performance of PLA/PLGA is addressed. In addition, this paper describes the state of the art on challenges and innovations concerning CaP dispersion, incorporation of biomolecules/stem cells and long-term degradation of the composites. PMID:22342596

Zhou, Huan; Lawrence, Joseph G; Bhaduri, Sarit B

2012-07-01

267

Prosthesis Infections after Orthopedic Joint Replacement: The Possible Role of Bacterial Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore, important to understand the comprehensive interaction between the microbiological situation and the host immune responses that lead to prosthesis infections. Evidence indicates that prosthesis infections are actually biofilm-correlated infections that are highly resistant to antibiotic treatment and the host immune responses. The authors reviewed the related literature in the context of their clinical experience, and discussed the possible etiology and mechanism leading to the infections, especially problems related to bacterial biofilm, and prophylaxis and treatment of infection, including both microbiological and surgical measures. Recent progress in research into bacterial biofilm and possible future treatment options of prosthesis-related infections are discussed. PMID:23888204

Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels; Wu, Hong; Sørensen, Torben Sandberg; Borgwardt, Arne

2013-01-01

268

Wear Properties of Porous NiTi Orthopedic Shape Memory Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds have great potential to be used as orthopedic implants because of their porous structure and superior physical properties. Its metallic nature provides it with better mechanical properties and Young's modulus close to that of natural bones. Besides allowing tissue ingrowth and transfer of nutrients, porous SMA possesses unique pseudoelastic properties compatible to natural hard tissues like bones and tendons, thus expediting in vivo osseointegration. However, the nickel release from debris and the metal surface may cause osteocytic osteolysis at the interface between the artificial implants and bone tissues. Subsequent mobilization may finally lead to implant failure. In this study, the wear properties of porous NiTi with different porosities processed at different treatment temperatures are determined. The results of the study show that the porosity, phase transformation temperature, and annealing temperature are major factors influencing the wear characteristics of porous NiTi SMA.

Wu, Shuilin; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, K. W. K.; Xu, Z. S.; Chung, C. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

2012-12-01

269

[Characteristics of anesthesia in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures].  

PubMed

The aim is to show our experience in anesthesia of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) who have undergone orthopedic surgical procedures. This is a retrospective analysis of OI patients treated at our Department from 1980 to 2012. We analyzed demographics, comorbidities, preoperative characteristics, anesthesia types, anesthetics and intraoperative and postoperative complications. In the given period, 26 OI patients were treated, using 103 surgeries, and 103 anesthesia procedures. Most procedures, a total of 68, were used in children aged 0-10 years. According to the diagnosis, OI type III was mostly encountered. The rating of the American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status was II in most cases, a total of 99. General anesthesia was used in 89 cases, and regional anesthesia in 14. Fourteen intraoperative complications were seen, mostly difficult intubation, and six postoperative cardiovascular instability cases. With careful preparation, and knowledge of pitfalls, anesthesia in these patients should be a safe procedure. PMID:25632774

Tripkovi?, Branko; Anti?evi?, Darko; Buljan, Melita; Jakovina-Blažekovi?, Sanja; Oreškovi?, Zrinka; Kubat, Ozren

2014-01-01

270

Quaternized Chitosan as an Antimicrobial Agent: Antimicrobial Activity, Mechanism of Action and Biomedical Applications in Orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Chitosan (CS) is a linear polysaccharide with good biodegradability, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, which makes it potentially useful for biomedical applications, including an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other polymers. However, the poor solubility of CS in most solvents at neutral or high pH substantially limits its use. Quaternary ammonium CS, which was prepared by introducing a quaternary ammonium group on a dissociative hydroxyl group or amino group of the CS, exhibited improved water solubility and stronger antibacterial activity relative to CS over an entire range of pH values; thus, this quaternary modification increases the potential biomedical applications of CS in the field of anti-infection. This review discusses the current findings on the antimicrobial properties of quaternized CS synthesized using different methods and the mechanisms of its antimicrobial actions. The potential antimicrobial applications in the orthopedic field and perspectives regarding future studies in this field are also considered. PMID:23325051

Tan, Honglue; Ma, Rui; Lin, Chucheng; Liu, Ziwei; Tang, Tingting

2013-01-01

271

3D finite element modeling and analysis of dynamic force in bone drilling for orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional finite element modeling and analysis are made to simulate the dynamic process of bone drilling during the orthopedic surgery. This study is proposed to evaluate the performance of various surgical tools and the possible pre-operative biohazard. In the simulation, the strain-stress curve of the bone is divided into linear elastic region and nonlinear plastic region according to the strain range. Rigid-plasticity and elasto-plasticity are used as bone material. The performances of twist drill bit and hollow drill bit are evaluated. The results of finite element analysis give different patterns of stress distribution on the two types of bone models and drill bits. The FE simulations show dynamic drilling process that the drill bit penetrates through the bone model. In vitro drilling experiment on porcine femur is conducted to measure the drilling force for the validation of the FEM. PMID:24550166

Qi, Lin; Wang, Xiaona; Meng, Max Q

2014-09-01

272

From biological inspiration towards next-generation manipulators: manipulator control focussed on human tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our approach to extending the niche of behaviour-based robotics towards manipulation. We use results from neuroscience to derive some qualitative design rules for the mechanics of the manipulator, resulting in a next-generation manipulator, the 'soft arm'. By defining the basic behaviours of the manipulator as trajectory producing behaviours (which is also biologically plausible), we have designed a

B. J. W. Waarsing; M. Nuttin; H. Van Brussel; B. Corteville

2004-01-01

273

Micro-manipulation using rotational fluid flows induced by remote magnetic micro-manipulators  

E-print Network

Micro-manipulation using rotational fluid flows induced by remote magnetic micro-manipulators Zhou prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. #12;Micro-manipulation using rotational fluid flows induced by remote magnetic micro-manipulators Zhou Ye,a) Eric Diller,b) and Metin

Sitti, Metin

274

Manipulation of a Mobile Modular Manipulator Interacting with the Environment with the Assistance of  

E-print Network

Manipulation of a Mobile Modular Manipulator Interacting with the Environment with the Assistance-DOF manipulator. A tactile sensor, which is installed at the tip of the end-e«ector of the mobile manipulator, is to detect the feedback information from the environment. The dynamic equations are formulated

Li, Yangmin

275

Where are the really hard manipulation problems? The manipulation phase transition  

E-print Network

Where are the really hard manipulation problems? The manipulation phase transition Toby Walsh NICTA the pref- erences of agents. Many voting rules have been shown to be NP-hard to manipulate. However-case and manipulation may be easy in practice. In this paper, we show that empirical studies are useful in improving our

Walsh, Toby

276

A Study of File Manipulation by Novices Using Commands vs. Direct Manipulation  

E-print Network

immediate and direct. 1.1 Direct Manipulation Many people form pictures or patterns of tasks in their mind. In direct manipulation the visual representation should match the way people think about the problem. DirectA Study of File Manipulation by Novices Using Commands vs. Direct Manipulation Sepeedeh Margono

Shneiderman, Ben

277

Viruses manipulate the marine environment.  

PubMed

Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world. PMID:19444207

Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

2009-05-14

278

Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats  

PubMed Central

Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD. PMID:22281125

2012-01-01

279

A novel experimental model of orthopedic trauma with acute kidney injury in obese Zucker rats  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after blunt traumatic injury in humans. Because limitations exist in studying trauma in human patients, animal models are necessary to elucidate mechanisms of remote organ injury after trauma. We developed a model of severe orthopedic trauma in lean (LZ) and obese (OZ) Zucker rats, in which OZ develop greater kidney dysfunction after trauma than LZ. Orthopedic trauma was inflicted via bilateral hindlimb soft tissue injury, fibula fracture, and injection of homogenized bone components. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured for 6 h after trauma, and again at 24 h after trauma. Urine was collected for 24 h before and after trauma to measure urine albumin excretion. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and renal macrophage infiltration (ED-1 [CD68 Antibody] immunostaining) were measured in animals with and without trauma. MAP and HR were similar between LZ and OZ throughout the study, with the exception that OZ had a 18 mmHg lower pressure 24 h posttrauma. GFR and RPF were decreased significantly (?50%), while urine albumin excretion, plasma IL-6, and renal ED-1-positive cells were increased in OZ 24 h after trauma compared to both OZ without trauma and LZ after trauma. In conclusion, these data are consistent with studies in humans that show that AKI develops more frequently in obese than in lean individuals. This model will be an important experimental tool to better understand the underlying mechanisms of poor outcomes after trauma in obese patients. PMID:24303169

Mittwede, Peter N; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L

2013-01-01

280

High-strength, surface-porous polyether-ether-ketone for load-bearing orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

Despite its widespread clinical use in load-bearing orthopedic implants, polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is often associated with poor osseointegration. In this study, a surface-porous PEEK material (PEEK-SP) was created using a melt extrusion technique. The porous layer was 399.6±63.3?m thick and possessed a mean pore size of 279.9±31.6?m, strut spacing of 186.8±55.5?m, porosity of 67.3±3.1% and interconnectivity of 99.9±0.1%. Monotonic tensile tests showed that PEEK-SP preserved 73.9% of the strength (71.06±2.17MPa) and 73.4% of the elastic modulus (2.45±0.31GPa) of as-received, injection-molded PEEK. PEEK-SP further demonstrated a fatigue strength of 60.0MPa at one million cycles, preserving 73.4% of the fatigue resistance of injection-molded PEEK. Interfacial shear testing showed the pore layer shear strength to be 23.96±2.26MPa. An osseointegration model in the rat revealed substantial bone formation within the pore layer at 6 and 12weeks via microcomputed tomography and histological evaluation. Ingrown bone was more closely apposed to the pore wall and fibrous tissue growth was reduced in PEEK-SP when compared to non-porous PEEK controls. These results indicate that PEEK-SP could provide improved osseointegration while maintaining the structural integrity necessary for load-bearing orthopedic applications. PMID:25463499

Evans, Nathan T; Torstrick, F Brennan; Lee, Christopher S D; Dupont, Kenneth M; Safranski, David L; Chang, W Allen; Macedo, Annie E; Lin, Angela S P; Boothby, Jennifer M; Whittingslow, Daniel C; Carson, Robert A; Guldberg, Robert E; Gall, Ken

2015-02-01

281

Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology  

SciTech Connect

The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

1998-08-15

282

Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operator's ability to perform five manipulator tip movements while using monoptic and stereoptic video systems was assessed. Test data obtained were compared with previous results to determine the impact of camera placement and stereoptic viewing on manipulator system performance. The tests were performed using the NASA MSFC extendible stiff arm Manipulator and an analog joystick controller. Two basic manipulator tasks were utilized. The minimum position change test required the operator to move the manipulator arm to touch a target contract. The dexterity test required removal and replacement of pegs.

Brye, R. G.; Frederick, P. N.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.

1977-01-01

283

Failure tolerant operation of kinematically redundant manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Redundant manipulators may compensate for failed joints with their additional degrees of freedom. In this paper such a manipulator is considered fault tolerant if it can guarantee completion of a task after any one of its joints has failed. This fault tolerance of kinematically redundant manipulators is insured here. Methods to analyze the manipulator's work space find regions inherently suitable for critical tasks because of their high level of failure tolerance. Constraints are then placed on the manipulator's range of motion to guarantee completion of a task.

Lewis, Christopher L.; Maciejewski, Anthony A.

1994-01-01

284

Models of remote manipulation in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robots involved in high value manipulation must be effectively coupled to a human operator either at the work-site or remotely connected via communication links. In order to make use of experimental performance evaluation data, models must be developed. Powerful models of remote manipulation by humans can be used to predict manipulation performance in future systems based on today's laboratory systems. In this paradigm, the models are developed from experimental data, and then used to predict performance in slightly different situations. Second, accurate telemanipulation will allow design of manipulation systems which extend manipulation capability beyond its current bounds.

Hannaford, Blake

1991-01-01

285

Determination of the Workspace of a Complex Manipulation System  

E-print Network

3 Determination of the Workspace of a Complex Manipulation System Tanio Tanev Central Laboratory chains and they arebased on serial connections of links. These manipulators have large workspace and good manipulators. Parallel manipulators have some advantages such as higher stiffnessandgreaterpayload

Borissova, Daniela

286

The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, Dongliang

2009-12-01

287

The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, DongLiang

2010-01-01

288

Technology for concrete pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pipe manipulator is a developing mechatronic system to enhance productivity and protects workers from cave-ins in the trench while excavating and laying pipe. The pipe manipulator is for installing concrete pipe into the trench. It is an optical-electro-mechanical system. The mechanism is make up of two parts, the upside and underside. The upside is for lifting the equipment by backhoe and rotating the underside mechanism. It includes rigidity lift beams, holding pad, four-bar linkages, hydraulic cylinder, rotating support, and rotating mechanism. Holding pad will press the bucket back to keep the bucket hooking the pipe man safely and stably. The underside mechanism is for lifting, holding and adjusting the pipe section's stance. The underside mechanism includes support trolley, and lift fork. The support trolley is driven by hydraulic cylinder for moving the fork forward or backward while laying a pipe into trench. The fork is with a self-lock mechanism for preventing the pipe from slide out of the prongs. A new photoelectric locating system is developed for auto-measuring the installing pipe section's stance within the work area. The laser target has been developed as a key part in the photoelectric locating systems. The photoelectric target is a rotating polar coordinate. Photodiodes are used for making the polar radius. There is an angular displacement sensor sitting on the heart-axis of the target for measuring angle of the target rotating. The pipe manipulator can be located by the system, and the locating methods have been presented at last of the paper.

Li, Bin; Wang, Dan; Lin, Renzhi

2010-01-01

289

Technology for concrete pipe manipulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pipe manipulator is a developing mechatronic system to enhance productivity and protects workers from cave-ins in the trench while excavating and laying pipe. The pipe manipulator is for installing concrete pipe into the trench. It is an optical-electro-mechanical system. The mechanism is make up of two parts, the upside and underside. The upside is for lifting the equipment by backhoe and rotating the underside mechanism. It includes rigidity lift beams, holding pad, four-bar linkages, hydraulic cylinder, rotating support, and rotating mechanism. Holding pad will press the bucket back to keep the bucket hooking the pipe man safely and stably. The underside mechanism is for lifting, holding and adjusting the pipe section's stance. The underside mechanism includes support trolley, and lift fork. The support trolley is driven by hydraulic cylinder for moving the fork forward or backward while laying a pipe into trench. The fork is with a self-lock mechanism for preventing the pipe from slide out of the prongs. A new photoelectric locating system is developed for auto-measuring the installing pipe section's stance within the work area. The laser target has been developed as a key part in the photoelectric locating systems. The photoelectric target is a rotating polar coordinate. Photodiodes are used for making the polar radius. There is an angular displacement sensor sitting on the heart-axis of the target for measuring angle of the target rotating. The pipe manipulator can be located by the system, and the locating methods have been presented at last of the paper.

Li, Bin; Wang, Dan; Lin, Renzhi

2009-12-01

290

Spin-manipulating polarized deuterons  

SciTech Connect

Spin dynamics of polarized deuteron beams near depolarization resonances, including a new polarization preservation concept based on specially-designed multiple resonance crossings, has been tested in a series of experiments in the COSY synchrotron. Intricate spin dynamics with sophisticated pre-programmed patterns as well as effects of multiple crossings of a resonance were studied both theoretically and experimentally with excellent agreement. Possible applications of these results to preserve, manipulate and spin-flip polarized beams in synchrotrons and storage rings are discussed.

Morozov, V S; Krisch, A D; Leonova, M A; Raymond, R S; Sivers, D W; Wong, V K; Hinterberger, F; Kondratenko, A M

2011-03-01

291

Intuitive control of robotic manipulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Modular Intelligent Manipulation system with Intuitive Control program, industry is working with the U.S. Army to explore technologies that will allow a user to intuitively control multiple degree of freedom robotic arms and maintain better awareness of the operating environment through haptic feedback. In addition to reporting resistance, haptic feedback can help make operators feel like they are actually there with the robot, opening doors, unscrewing blast caps, cutting wires, or removing batteries. Coupled with intuitive controls and advanced video feedback, the goal of this project is to provide users with the sensation that the robot is an extension of their body, all from a safe distance.

Rusbarsky, David; Gray, Jeremy; Peters, Douglas

2011-01-01

292

The Immediate Effects of Thoracic Spine and Rib Manipulation on Subjects with Primary Complaints of Shoulder Pain  

PubMed Central

Shoulder pain is a common orthopedic condition seen by physical therapists, with many potential contributing factors and proposed treatments. Although manual physical therapy interventions for the cervicothoracic spine and ribs have been investigated for this patient population, the specific effects of these treatments have not been reported. The purpose of this investigational study is to report the immediate effects of thoracic spine and rib manipulation in patients with primary complaints of shoulder pain. Using a test-retest design, 21 subjects with shoulder pain were treated during a single treatment session with high-velocity thrust manipulation to the thoracic spine or upper ribs. Post-treatment effects demonstrated a 51% (32mm) reduction in shoulder pain, a corresponding increase in shoulder range of motion (30°-38°), and a mean patient-perceived global rating of change of 4.2 (median 5). These immediate post-treatment results suggest that thoracic and rib manipulative therapy is associated with improved shoulder pain and motion in patients with shoulder pain, and further these interventions support the concept of a regional interdependence between the thoracic spine, upper ribs, and shoulder. PMID:20140154

Strunce, Joseph B.; Walker, Michael J.; Boyles, Robert E.; Young, Brian A.

2009-01-01

293

Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.  

PubMed Central

The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments. PMID:22837755

Kohler, Petra R. A.; Metcalf, William W.

2012-01-01

294

Actuators for a space manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The robotic manipulator can be decomposed into distinct subsytems. One particular area of interest of mechanical subsystems is electromechanical actuators (or drives). A drive is defined as a motor with an appropriate transmission. An overview is given of existing, as well as state-of-the-art drive systems. The scope is limited to space applications. A design philosophy and adequate requirements are the initial steps in designing a space-qualified actuator. The focus is on the d-c motor in conjunction with several types of transmissions (harmonic, tendon, traction, and gear systems). The various transmissions will be evaluated and key performance parameters will be addressed in detail. Included in the assessment is a shuttle RMS joint and a MSFC drive of the Prototype Manipulator Arm. Compound joints are also investigated. Space imposes a set of requirements for designing a high-performance drive assembly. Its inaccessibility and cryogenic conditions warrant special considerations. Some guidelines concerning these conditions are present. The goal is to gain a better understanding in designing a space actuator.

Chun, W.; Brunson, P.

1987-01-01

295

Magnesium Sulfate and Sufentanil for Patient-Controlled Analgesia in Orthopedic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Postoperative analgesia is one of the concerns of anesthesiologists and patients. Systemic opioid administration is the gold standard in reducing the severe pain after the surgery but some side effects prevent the use of adequate dosage of opioids. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the result of adding magnesium sulphate to sufentanil in patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) system. Patients and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 60 patients candidate for lower limb orthopedic surgery were recruited in Poursina Medical Center for six months. They were randomly classified in two group of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia for postoperative pain control, one was group S [(sufentanil) (n = 30)] and the other was group S + M [(magnesium sulphate/sufentanil) (n = 30)]. The drug infusion rate was 5 mL/h. Each mL of solution in group S contained 1 mcg of sufentanil and in group M + S, 1 mcg of sufentanil and 200 mcg magnesium sulphate, respectively. Pain score, sedation score, satisfaction score, nausea and vomiting score were evaluated 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after surgery. Results: The demographic data between two groups were not significantly different. The pain scores after 6, 12 and 24 hours in S and S + M groups were significantly different. But the comparison of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores after 36 and 48 hours didn’t show significant differences (P < 0.001). Comparison of the sedation, nausea and vomiting scores between two groups did not show any difference. But the number of patient’s satisfaction in S + M group was more than S group which suggests significant differences (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed that magnesium sulphate added to sufentanil through PCIA is an effective method to alleviate pain in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery. Moreover, we found fewer side effects on magnesium-sufentanil regimen in terms of in nausea, vomiting, and sedation; and patients’ satisfaction in this regimen was more rather than that in the regiment of sufentanil alone. PMID:24660152

Sedighinejad, Abass; Haghighi, Mohammad; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Nekufard, Majid; Biazar, Gelareh

2014-01-01

296

Research on a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System  

SciTech Connect

Research has been conducted on developing the theoretical basis and the technology for a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulation System (RMMS). Unlike a conventional manipulator which has a fixed configuration, the RMMS consists of a set of interchangeable modules that can be rapidly assembled into a system of manipulators with appropriate configurations depending on the specific task requirement. For effective development and use of such a versatile and flexible system a program of theoretical and experimental research has been pursued aimed at developing the basis for next generation of autonomous manipulator systems. The RMMS concept extends the idea of autonomy from sensor-based to configuration based autonomy. One of the important components is the development of design methodologies for mapping tasks into manipulator configurations and for automatic generation of manipulator specific algorithms (e.g., kinematics and dynamics) in order to make the hardware transparent to the user.(JDB)

Khosla, P.K.; Kanade, T.

1992-01-01

297

Improvement of corrosion resistance and antibacterial effect of NiTi orthopedic materials by chitosan and gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocomposite consists of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a natural polymer as Chitosan (CS) was electrodeposited over NiTi alloy to improve biocompatibility, biostability, surface corrosion resistance and antibacterial effect for orthopedic implantation. The forming process and surface morphology of this biocomposite coats over NiTi alloy were studied. The results showed that the nm-scale gold particles were embedded in the composite forming compact, thick and smooth coat. Elemental analysis revealed significant less Ni ion release from the coated NiTi alloy compared with the uncoated one by 20 fold. Furthermore, the electrochemical corrosion measurements indicated that AuNPs/CS composite coat was effective for improving corrosion resistance in different immersion times and at all pH values, which suggests that the coated NiTi alloys have potential for orthopedic applications. Additionally, the efficiencies of the biocomposite coats for inhibiting bacterial growth indicate high antibacterial effect.

Ahmed, Rasha A.; Fadl-allah, Sahar A.; El-Bagoury, Nader; El-Rab, Sanaa M. F. Gad

2014-02-01

298

Better with Byzantine: Manipulation-Optimal Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanism is manipulable if it is in some agents’ best interest to misrepresent their private information. The revelation principle establishes that, roughly, anything that can be accomplished by a manipulable mechanism can also be accomplished with a truthful\\u000a mechanism. Yet agents often fail to play their optimal manipulations due to computational limitations or various flavors of\\u000a incompetence and cognitive

Abraham Othman; Tuomas Sandholm

2009-01-01

299

Inchworm robot grippers for clothes manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulating deformable objects like clothes, plastic, and paper by a robot is very challenging. This paper focuses on clothes\\u000a manipulation as an example. A tracing manipulation method is used here to find a corner of the clothes. In this paper, tracing\\u000a refers to tracing the clothes’ edge, with the robot’s movement based on feedback from sensors. One difficulty during this

Khairul Salleh; Hiroaki Seki; Yoshitsugu Kamiya; Masatoshi Hikizu

2008-01-01

300

Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.

Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.

1991-01-01

301

Simplified Dynamic Control Of Redundant Manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simplified scheme proposed for dynamic control of robotic manipulator having redundant joints; that is, extra degrees of freedom beyond needed to perform task, to position and orient end effector at specified position and/or move it along specified trajectory. Extra degrees of freedom used to perform simultaneous subtask. Scheme adaptive and based on observed performance of manipulator. Involves neither complicated mathematical model of dynamics of manipulator nor time-consuming inverse kinematic transformation.

Seraji, Homayoun

1990-01-01

302

Culture and Manipulation of Embryonic Cells  

PubMed Central

The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

Edgar, Lois G.; Goldstein, Bob

2012-01-01

303

Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of an orbital teleoperator system which includes small dextrous servicing manipulators to be used in satellite servicing was examined. System/operator performance testing was implemented and the results of a fine positioning control test using two different manipulator systems varying widely in manipulator configuration and control systems are presented. Fine position control is viewed as representing a fundamental requirement placed on manipulator control. The relationship of position control to more complex tasks which directly represent on-orbit servicing operations are also presented.

Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Frederick, P. N.; Brye, R.; Malone, T. B.

1975-01-01

304

Progress and outlook of inorganic nanoparticles for delivery of nucleic acid sequences related to orthopedic pathologies: a review.  

PubMed

The anticipated growth in the aging population will drastically increase medical needs of society; of which, one of the largest components will undoubtedly be from orthopedic-related pathologies. There are several proposed solutions being investigated to cost-effectively prepare for the future--pharmaceuticals, implant devices, cell and gene therapies, or some combination thereof. Gene therapy is one of the more promising possibilities because it seeks to correct the root of the problem, thereby minimizing treatment duration and cost. Currently, viral vectors have shown the highest efficacies, but immunological concerns remain. Nonviral methods show reduced immune responses but are regarded as less efficient. The nonviral paradigms consist of mechanical and chemical approaches. While organic-based materials have been used more frequently in particle-based methods, inorganic materials capable of delivery have distinct advantages, especially advantageous in orthopedic applications. The inorganic gene therapy field is highly interdisciplinary in nature, and requires assimilation of knowledge across the broad fields of cell biology, biochemistry, molecular genetics, materials science, and clinical medicine. This review provides an overview of the role each area plays in orthopedic gene therapy as well as possible future directions for the field. PMID:21707439

Wagner, Darcy E; Bhaduri, Sarit B

2012-02-01

305

Porous orthopedic steel implant as an antibiotic eluting device: prevention of post-surgical infection on an ovine model.  

PubMed

Traumatology and orthopedic surgery can benefit from the use of efficient local antibiotic-eluting systems to avoid bacterial contamination of implanted materials. In this work a new percutaneous porous-wall hollow implant was successfully used as a local antibiotic-eluting device both in vitro and in vivo. The implant is a macroporous 316 L stainless steel filter tube with a nominal filtration cut-off size of 200 nm with one open end which was used to load the synthetic antibiotic linezolid and an opposite blind end. The antibiotic release kinetics from the device on a simulated biological fluid under in vitro conditions demonstrated an increased concentration during the first five days that subsequently was sustained for at least seven days, showing a kinetic close to a zero order release. Antibiotic-loaded implants were placed in the tibia of four sheep which were trans-surgically experimentally infected with a biofilm forming strain of Staphylococcus aureus. After 7 and 9 days post infection, sheep did not show any evidence of infection as demonstrated by clinical, pathological and microbiological findings. These results demonstrate the capability of such an antibiotic-loaded implant to prevent infection in orthopedic devices in vivo. Further research is needed to assess its possible use in traumatology and orthopedic surgery. PMID:23651643

Gimeno, Marina; Pinczowski, Pedro; Vázquez, Francisco J; Pérez, Marta; Santamaría, Jesús; Arruebo, Manuel; Luján, Lluís

2013-08-16

306

On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator  

SciTech Connect

A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator`s slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator`s stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator`s wrist.

Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P. [North Carolina A& T State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-02-01

307

Use of commercial manipulator to handle a nuclear weapon component  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a manipulator workcell to load and unload nuclear weapon pit assemblies from a cart. To develop this workcell, PNL procured a commercially available manipulator, equipped it with force-sensing and vision equipment, and developed manipulator control software. Manipulator workcell development demonstrated that commercially available manipulator systems can successfully perform this task if the appropriate manipulator is selected and the manipulator workcell tooling and software are carefully designed.

Baker, C.P.

1994-08-01

308

Laser deposition and deformation behavior of Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys for orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser deposited complex quaternary Ti-34Nb-7Zr-7Ta (all wt%), an orthopedic load-bearing implant alloy, has been investigated in detail in both as-deposited as well as heat-treated (?-solutionized and quenched) conditions. The difference in stress-strain behavior of this alloy in the above conditions has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM™) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared to the sample in heat-treated condition, the as-deposited sample showed evidence of strong growth related texture. Again in the as-deposited post tensile-tested condition formation of a high density of shear bands, possibly arising from slip localization due to shearing of ? precipitates in the ? matrix is observed. TEM investigations also show the presence of lenticular shaped deformation induced ? phase within the shear bands. In contrast, in case of the ?-solutionized sample, twinning and the formation of stress-induced plates appears to be the primary mode of deformation. The change in deformation mechanism and thus the tensile property of this alloy could be attributed to the crystallographic texture along the growth direction as well as diffusion mediated isothermal ? precipitates, that cause an enrichment of Nb and Ta in the ? matrix, during the laser-deposition process. This is no longer present after the solutionizing treatment. PMID:23137619

Nag, S; Banerjee, R

2012-12-01

309

Development of nanofluorapatite polymer-based composite for bioactive orthopedic implants and prostheses  

PubMed Central

Fluorapatite with low solubility is a promising biomaterial due to its structure, which is similar to hydroxyapatite. In this study a bioactive composite of nanofluorapatite (n-FA) and polyamide 12 (PA12) was fabricated. The results revealed that the mechanical properties (such as compressive strength and elastic modulus), hydrophilicity, and antibacterial properties of n-FA/PA12 composite were obviously improved by adding n-FA into PA12 as compared with PA12. In addition, cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on n-FA/PA12 composite was significantly higher than with PA12, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on the n-FA/PA12 composite was expressed at obviously higher levels as compared with PA12. The results suggest that n-FA/PA12 composite could support cell proliferation and differentiation, showing good cytocompatibility. Histological evaluation indicates that n-FA/PA12 composite enhances the efficiency of new bone formation with the introduction of n-FA into PA12, and the quantity of the newly formed bone for n-FA/PA12 composite is significantly higher than with PA12. In conclusion, n-FA/PA12 composite exhibits good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, which might be used for various orthopedic prostheses and dental implants. PMID:25143735

Hu, Gangfeng; Wang, Hui; Yao, Xiaocong; Bi, Dawei; Zhu, Gang; Tang, Songchao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Lili; Tong, Peijian; Xiao, Luwei

2014-01-01

310

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in orthopedics, basic research, and clinical implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular events following shock wave treatment of bone are widely unknown. Nevertheless patients with osteonecrosis and non unions are already treated partly successful with shock waves. Concerning the first indication, the question of the permeation of the shock wave into the bone was addressed. Therefore shockwaves were applied to porcine femoral heads and the intraosseous pressure was measured. A linear correlation of the pressure to the intraosseous distance was found. Approximately 50% of the pressure are still measurable 10 mm inside the femoral head. These findings should encourage continued shock wave research on this indication. Concerning the second indication (non union), osteoblasts were subjected to 250 or 500 shock waves at 25 kV. After 24, 48, and 72 h the levels of the bone and vascular growth factors bFGF, TGFbeta1, and VEGF were examined. After 24 h there was a significant increase in bFGF levels (p<0.05) with significant correlation (p<0.05) to the number of impulses. TGFbeta1, and VEGF showed no significant changes. This may be one piece in the cascade of new bone formation following shock wave treatment and may lead to a more specific application of shock waves in orthopedic surgery.

Hausdorf, Joerg; Jansson, Volkmar; Maier, Markus; Delius, Michael

2005-04-01

311

Orthopedic interface tissue engineering for the biological fixation of soft tissue grafts.  

PubMed

Interface tissue engineering is a promising new strategy aimed at the regeneration of tissue interfaces and ultimately enabling the biological fixation of soft tissue grafts used in orthopedic repair and sports medicine. Many ligaments and tendons with direct insertions into subchondral bone exhibit a complex enthesis consisting of several distinct yet continuous regions of soft tissue, noncalcified fibrocartilage, calcified fibrocartilage, and bone. Regeneration of this multi-tissue interface will be critical for functional graft integration and improving long-term clinical outcome. This review highlights current knowledge of the structure-function relationship at the interface, the mechanism of interface regeneration, and the strategic biomimicry implemented in stratified scaffold design for interface tissue engineering and multi-tissue regeneration. Potential challenges and future directions in this emerging field are also discussed. It is anticipated that interface tissue engineering will lead to the design of a new generation of integrative fixation devices for soft tissue repair, and it will be instrumental for the development of integrated musculoskeletal tissue systems with biomimetic complexity and functionality. PMID:19064172

Moffat, Kristen L; Wang, I-Ning Elaine; Rodeo, Scott A; Lu, Helen H

2009-01-01

312

Perioperative considerations in major orthopedic trauma: pelvic and long bone fractures.  

PubMed

Although pelvic fractures constitute a small percentage of total orthopedic injuries, they are associated with highest mortality rate. Pelvic fractures, along with long bone fractures, frequently are the result of significant blunt trauma often encountered in high-speed motor vehicle accidents. However, other types of trauma can cause these devastating injuries. Early recognition and a high index of suspicion are necessary to ensure that effective and aggressive resuscitation is instituted immediately. Expeditious assessment in the emergency department and care of the patient with pelvic and long bone fractures will greatly enhance the ongoing resuscitation in the operating room. Potentially life-threatening associated injuries in these patients make resuscitation even more challenging. Therefore, a basic knowledge of the mechanisms of injury, early treatment in the emergency department, and the factors that affect intraoperative management will help optimize the outcome for patients with these injuries. This course describes the perioperative concerns and the evaluation and treatment of a patient with a pelvic or a long bone fracture. PMID:11969064

Rose, David D; Rowen, David W

2002-04-01

313

The use of novel oral anticoagulants for thromboprophylaxis after elective major orthopedic surgery  

PubMed Central

Venous thromboembolism is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. Due to the high incidence of venous thromboembolism in this setting, perioperative anticoagulation is the recommended approach for thromboprophylaxis. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux and warfarin are the agents commonly used for thromboprophylaxis. The well-recognized limitations of warfarin and the inconvenience and discomfort associated with the subcutaneous administration of low molecular weight heparin and fondaparinux inspired intense investigation to develop novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with more predictable pharmacokinetics, fewer drug interactions and no need for regular laboratory monitoring. Three NOACs have been demonstrated to be effective for thromboprophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in large randomized controlled trials. Here we review the pharmacology of rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban, summarize the major clinical trials of these agents in thromboprophylaxis after THA and TKA, and discuss the clinical factors to be considered by providers when selecting a NOAC for their patients. PMID:24219550

Rachidi, Saleh; Aldin, Ehab Saad; Greenberg, Charles; Sachs, Barton; Streiff, Michael; Zeidan, Amer M

2014-01-01

314

Novel Approaches for Treating Musculoskeletal Diseases: Molecular Orthopedics and Systems Medicine  

PubMed Central

Molecular medicine uses knowledge about cell structure and function for disease, diagnostics, stage characterisation and treatment. The advent of genomic technologies is considerably leading to developments in the field of molecular medicine. The accumulation of detailed information about gene expression, epigenetic variability, protein transcription and functional modulation is contributing to a new era in medicine. Rapid and early diagnostic procedures, molecular characterisation of degenerative and proliferative diseases and personalized therapies are predicted to lead to advancements in health prevention and treatment of disease. Diagnostic tools and therapies based on local and /or general modulation of cellular processes for traumatic or degenerative musculoskeletal conditions are becoming available. A logical consequence of the information derived from extensive data gathering, systems biology and systemic medicine has lead to significant improvements in understanding biological structure and function in a simultaneous bottom top and integrative, holistic manner. The description of disease mechanism at an intimate, subcellular level has a dual benefit. A thorough understanding of the crosstalk involved in molecular pathways both in the normal and the diseased state are expanding scientific knowledge and simultaneously are enabling design cell-targeted and individualized therapies. This paper presents a brief overview of current molecular based treatments available to the orthopedic surgeon and introduces the concept of systemic medicine from the perspective of musculoskeletal pathology. PMID:23798982

Mashayekhi, Kaveh; O’Brien, Margaret; Zugun-Eloae, Florin; Labusca, Luminita

2013-01-01

315

Effect of Porosity on the Properties of Open Cell Titanium Foams Intended for Orthopedic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous metals have been used in various orthopedic applications as coating to promote implant fixation or as scaffolds for bone reconstruction. Since these materials were up to recently only used as thin coating (i.e. sintered beads or mesh) and not available into shapes adequate for detailed characterization, the effect of the structure on the static and dynamic properties of these materials has not been widely reported in the literature. This paper presents the effect of the porosity (49.3-66.7%) on the static and dynamic properties of titanium foams produced with a powder metallurgy process. All materials exhibited compression curves with three stages, typical of ductile porous materials. When the porosity level increases, the materials become more brittle. The compression yield strength increases while the modulus is more or less unaffected when the porosity increases from 49.3 to 66.7% and does not follow the power law model accepted for porous medium. The shear strength/adhesion with dense substrates increases with density and is proportional to the compression yield strength. The fatigue limit is not directly link with the porosity. The discrepancies observed are attributed to differences in the structure as the porosity increases.

Lefebvre, L. P.; Baril, E.

2010-05-01

316

Cyclodextrin-erythromycin complexes as a drug delivery device for orthopedic application  

PubMed Central

Background Erythromycin, a hydrophobic antibiotic used to treat infectious diseases, is now gaining attention because of its anti-inflammatory effects and ability to inhibit osteoclasts formation. The aim of this study was to explore a cyclodextrin-erythromycin (CD-EM) complex for sustained treatment of orthopedic inflammation. Methods and results Erythromycin was reacted with ?-cyclodextrin to form a nonhost-guest CD-EM complex using both kneading and stirring approaches. Physiochemical measurement data indicated that erythromycin and cyclodextrin formed a packing complex driven by intermolecular forces instead of a host-guest structure due to the limited space in the inner cavity of ?-cyclodextrin. The CD-EM complex improved the stability of erythromycin in aqueous solution and had a longer duration of bactericidal activity than free erythromycin. Cytotoxicity and cell differentiation were evaluated in both murine MC3T3 preosteoblast cells and RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The CD-EM complex was noncytotoxic and showed significant inhibition of osteoclast formation but had little effect on osteoblast viability and differentiation. Conclusion These attributes are especially important for the delivery of an adequate amount of erythromycin to the site of periprosthetic inflammation and reducing local inflammation in a sustained manner. PMID:22228990

Song, Wei; Yu, Xiaowei; Wang, Sunxi; Blasier, Ralph; Markel, David C; Mao, Guangzhao; Shi, Tong; Ren, Weiping

2011-01-01

317

An overview of recent advances in designing orthopedic and craniofacial implants.  

PubMed

Great deal of research is still going on in the field of orthopedic and craniofacial implant development to resolve various issues being faced by the industry today. Despite several disadvantages of the metallic implants, they continue to be used, primarily because of their superior mechanical properties. In order to minimize the harmful effects of the metallic implants and its by-products, several modifications are being made to these materials, for instance nickel-free stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys are being introduced to eliminate the toxic effects of nickel being released from the alloys, introduce metallic implants with lower modulus, reduce the cost of these alloys by replacing rare elements with less expensive elements etc. New alloys like tantalum, niobium, zirconium, and magnesium are receiving attention given their satisfying mechanical and biological properties. Non-oxide ceramics like silicon nitride and silicon carbide are being currently developed as a promising implant material possessing a combination of properties such as good wear and corrosion resistance, increased ductility, good fracture and creep resistance, and relatively high hardness in comparison to alumina. Polymer/magnesium composites are being developed to improve mechanical properties as well as retain polymer's property of degradation. Recent advances in orthobiologics are proving interesting as well. This paper thus deals with the latest improvements being made to the existing implant materials and includes new materials being introduced in the field of biomaterials. PMID:23766134

Mantripragada, Venkata P; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

2013-11-01

318

Effects of microstructure on the corrosion behavior of CoCr porous coatings on orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

Cobalt-chromium alloy porous coatings have become increasingly popular as a means of achieving a stable, longer lasting fixation on orthopedic implants. However, sintering heat treatments cause changes in the microstructure that result in changes in the corrosion behavior of the porous coatings. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of microstructure on the corrosion of CoCr porous coatings. Four distinct microstructures were characterized. Light microscopy revealed microstructures A and B had relatively fewer carbides and a large-grain structure, microstructures C and D displayed a finer grain size with significant carbide formation, predominantly within grains and fusion zones. Accelerated anodic corrosion experiments were conducted to study the localized attack of each microstructure. Experiments were conducted using metallographically polished porous-coated disks for durations of 1, 4, 16, 24, and 72 h. The disks were examined with SEM and EDS to observe preferential attack and element depletion. Results showed a progressive dissolution of the matrix, with preferential attack of the grain boundaries and regions adjacent to the carbides due to sensitization. A precipitation layer was found to be Cr-rich and possibly composed of chromium hydroxide or a chromium orthophosphate. In addition, the solution became yellow in color with longer exposure times, possibly due to the presence of chromate ions, as indicated by an increased chromium level detected by AAS. PMID:9457560

Placko, H E; Brown, S A; Payer, J H

1998-02-01

319

Isocyanate exposure assessment combining industrial hygiene methods with biomonitoring for end users of orthopedic casting products.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a 'dry' and 'wet' application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat. PMID:23680587

Pearson, Ronald L; Logan, Perry W; Kore, Anita M; Strom, Constance M; Brosseau, Lisa M; Kingston, Richard L

2013-07-01

320

Orthopedics nursing patients' profile of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. RESULTS: The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. CONCLUSION: The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453666

de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonça; Jaques, Bruno Dórea

2013-01-01

321

[Application of the hydrogen washout technique to orthopedic research (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Since the first description by Aukland and co-authors in 1964, the hydrogen washout has been shown to be an accurate method in determining regional tissue blood flow. The presence of hydrogen molecules within the tissue is detected with a platinum electrode where a small amount of current is generated by oxidation of molecular hydrogen to hydrogen ions. Therefore, construction of the suitable electrode for the tissue to be measured is essential. The author applied the hydrogen washout technique to the blood flow measurement of bone, muscle, skin, digit and peripheral nerve, and found that the technique was valuable in basic and clinical studies in orthopedics. As a typical experimental study using the hydrogen washout technique, the study on the effect of adrenaline on bone blood flow was presented and the experimental method was explained in detail. Although the hydrogen washout technique has been developed to measure the blood flow, the technique has been found useful in detecting the pathways of microcirculation between different tissues. As an example, the study on nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disk was described. Since the hydrogen gas is harmless, it is possible to apply the technique to the clinical studies including the blood flow measurement of replanted digits, diagnosis of the compartment syndrome and the blood flow measurement of skin flaps. Furthermore, several problems in the hydrogen washout technique were discussed. PMID:7310209

Ogata, K

1981-08-01

322

Imaging bacteria and biofilms on hardware and periprosthetic tissue in orthopedic infections.  

PubMed

Infection is a major complication of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surgery, and even though it is now as low as 1 % in some hospitals, the increasing number of primary surgeries translates to tens of thousands of revisions due to prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In many cases the only solution is revision surgery in which the hardware is removed. This process is extremely long and painful for patients and is a considerable financial burden for the health-care system. A significant proportion of the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of PJI are associated with biofilm formation where bacteria attach to the surface of the prosthesis and periprosthetic tissue and build a 3-D biofilm community encased in an extracellular polymeric slime (EPS) matrix. Bacteria in biofilms have a low metabolic rate which is thought to be a major contributor to their recalcitrance to antibiotic treatment. The diagnosis of biofilm infections is difficult due to the fact that bacteria in biofilms are not readily cultured with standard clinical microbiology techniques. To identify and visualize in situ biofilm bacteria in orthopedic samples, we have developed protocols for the collection of samples in the operating room, for molecular fluorescent staining with 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and for imaging of samples using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Direct imaging is the only method which can definitively identify biofilms on implants and complements both culture and culture-independent diagnostic methods. PMID:24664829

Nistico, Laura; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Stoodley, Paul

2014-01-01

323

Orthopedic pathology of the lower extremities: scintigraphic evaluation in the thigh, knee, and leg.  

PubMed

Radionuclide imaging (RI) of the osseous and nonosseous structures of the thigh, knee, and leg provide important diagnostic and prognostic information upon which the orthopedic surgeon can base treatment planning and management decisions. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy is essential in overuse injuries such as stress fractures and shin splints. RI is important in assessing complications of trauma. It is the only imaging modality able to assess the magnitude of physeal stimulus caused by femoral fractures and to predict a favorable or unfavorable outcome of leg length by semiquantitative analysis; SPECT imaging can detect and locate decreased metabolism associated with posttraumatic closure of the physeal plate to predict growth arrest and deformities. Three-phase bone imaging (TPBI) is essential to differentiate hypervascular from avascular nonunions and follow delayed union. In osteonecrosis of the knee, bone scintigraphy precedes radiography changes even in stage l of the disease. 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-HIG imaging are powerful tools in determining the outcomes of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively. Bone scintigraphy can also detect chronic ligament and acute and chronic meniscal lesions. The combined use of TPBI, gallium-67 citrate imaging, and indium-111 or 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocytes is important to diagnose and differentiate acute from chronic osteomyelitis, and to detect infected knee prostheses. Thallium-201 chloride imaging and 99mTc-sestamibi imaging have an important role in the assessment of tumor response to chemotherapy and in the quantification of tumor viability. PMID:9467192

Etchebehere, E C; Etchebehere, M; Gamba, R; Belangero, W; Camargo, E E

1998-01-01

324

Awareness of diagnostic and clinical features of fibromyalgia among orthopedic surgeons.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. The current study was designed to evaluate the awareness and skills of orthopedic surgeons (OS) regarding FMS diagnosis and treatment. For the examination of awareness and familiarity of OS in Israel to Fibromyalgia, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted. Two hundred and nineteen OS, residents and specialists, were asked anonymously about awareness, knowledge, and treatment of FM. Multivariable statistical analysis was performed. 91 % (199) of responders reported that they recognized the disease. Notwithstanding, the mean knowledge score was 7.6 out of 17. In addition, OS who were trained in the south of Israel were found to have a better degree of knowledge about FM (9.7 vs. 7.4; p < 0.03). The awareness and knowledge among OS regarding FM needs to be improved. OS who were trained in the south of Israel were found to have better degree of knowledge regarding FM. PMID:22821335

Bloom, Shlomo; Ablin, Jacob N; Lebel, David; Rath, Ehud; Faran, Yifat; Daphna-Tekoah, Shir; Buskila, Dan

2013-04-01

325

FACILITATING UNEQUIVOCAL AND DURABLE DECISIONS IN WORKERS’ COMPENSATION PATIENTS ELIGIBLE FOR ELECTIVE ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY  

PubMed Central

Timely intervention and recovery is beneficial to patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMD). Therefore a Surgical Option Process (SOP) was developed for use in a functional restoration program (FRP) to allow CDOMD patients who were undecided about elective orthopedic surgery to participate in interdisciplinary rehabilitation, rather than suspending treatment, until the surgical option could be resolved. A consecutive cohort of 295 CDOMD patients with an unresolved surgical option was admitted to a FRP, and determined their surgical preference at FRP midpoint. The majority of patients declined surgery (DS, N=164) and were invited to complete the FRP. The remainder elected to pursue surgery and either underwent surgery (US, N=43) or had their surgical request denied (RSD, N=38). In the post-FRP year, only 0.8% of patients reversed their original decision and underwent surgery. Patients whose surgical preferences were accommodated (i.e., the DS/US groups) demonstrated significant psychosocial improvement and excellent socioeconomic outcomes; which were similar to those of FRP patients without a surgical option. RSD patients had poorer outcomes than the other groups, but still outperformed FRP dropouts. This suggests that the addition of a formal SOP to an interdisciplinary FRP facilitated the surgical decision-making process and helped prevent delayed recovery. PMID:24373569

Brede, Emily; Mayer, Tom G.; Shea, Margareta; Garcia, Cristina; Gatchel, Robert J.

2014-01-01

326

Synthesis of spherical calcium phosphate particles for dental and orthopedic applications  

PubMed Central

Calcium phosphate materials have been used increasingly in the past 40 years as bone graft substitutes in the dental and orthopedic fields. Accordingly, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and used. However, the controlled production of spherical calcium phosphate particles remains a challenge. Since such particles are essential for the synthesis of pastes and cements delivered into the host bone by minimally-invasive approaches, the aim of the present document is to review their synthesis and applications. For that purpose, production methods were classified according to the used reagents (solutions, slurries, pastes, powders), dispersion media (gas, liquid, solid), dispersion tools (nozzle, propeller, sieve, mold), particle diameters of the end product (from 10 nm to 10 mm), and calcium phosphate phases. Low-temperature calcium phosphates such as monetite, brushite or octacalcium phosphate, as well as high-temperature calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite, ?-tricalcium phosphate or tetracalcium phosphate, were considered. More than a dozen production methods and over hundred scientific publications were discussed. PMID:23719177

Bohner, Marc; Tadier, Solène; van Garderen, Noémie; de Gasparo, Alex; Döbelin, Nicola; Baroud, Gamal

2013-01-01

327

Efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with apixaban in major orthopedic surgery  

PubMed Central

Over the last 15 years, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been accepted as the “gold standard” for pharmaceutical thromboprophylaxis in patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in most countries around the world. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS) represent a population with high risk of VTE, which may remain asymptomatic or become symptomatic as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Numerous trials have investigated LMWH thromboprophylaxis in this population and demonstrated high efficacy and safety of these substances. However, LMWHs have a number of disadvantages, which limit the acceptance of patients and physicians, especially in prolonged prophylaxis up to 35 days after MOS. Consequently, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were developed that are of synthetic origin and act as direct and very specific inhibitors of different factors in the coagulation cascade. The most developed NOACs are dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, all of which are approved for thromboprophylaxis in MOS in a number of countries around the world. This review is focused on the pharmacological characteristics of apixaban in comparison with other NOACs, on the impact of NOAC on VTE prophylaxis in daily care, and on the management of specific situations such as bleeding complications during NOAC therapy. PMID:22547932

Werth, Sebastian; Halbritter, Kai; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan

2012-01-01

328

Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) coatings on magnesium alloys for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

Polymeric film coatings were applied by dip coating on two magnesium alloy systems, AZ31 and Mg4Y, in an attempt to slow the degradation of these alloys under in vitro conditions. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer in solution was explored at various concentrations, yielding coatings of varying thicknesses on the alloy substrates. Electrochemical corrosion studies indicate that the coatings initially provide some corrosion protection. Degradation studies showed reduced degradation over 3 days, but beyond this time point however, do not maintain a reduction in corrosion rate. Scanning electron microscopy indicates inhomogeneous coating durability, with gas pocket formation in the polymer coating, resulting in eventual detachment from the alloy surface. In vitro studies of cell viability utilizing mouse osteoblast cells showed improved biocompatibility of polymer coated substrates over the bare AZ31 and Mg4Y substrates. Results demonstrate that while challenges remain for long term degradation control, the developed polymeric coatings nevertheless provide short term corrosion protection and improved biocompatibility of magnesium alloys for possible use in orthopedic applications. PMID:23053803

Ostrowski, Nicole J; Lee, Boeun; Roy, Abhijit; Ramanathan, Madhumati; Kumta, Prashant N

2013-01-01

329

In vitro degradation behavior and bioactivity of magnesium-Bioglass(®) composites for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

To improve the bioactivity and degradation behavior of biodegradable magnesium, biodegradable metal matrix composites with the ZK30 magnesium alloy as the matrix and bioactive glass (BG, 45S5) as the reinforcement were prepared. The microstructures of the ZK30-BG composites showed homogeneous dispersion of BG particles throughout the matrix. XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of the morphological characteristics and composition of BG particles in the composites. Immersion tests in the minimum essential medium with Earle's balanced salts at 37°C showed that the composites with 5 and 10% BG had lower rates of degradation and hydrogen evolution than the matrix alloy. In addition, the tests confirmed that the composites possessed an enhanced ability to induce calcium and phosphate ion deposition on sample surfaces during degradation, suggesting accelerated surface mineralization that would lead to improved bioactivity when compared with the matrix alloy. In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed that the ionic products of the composites formed during degradation possessed a superior ability to support the survival, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells to those of the ZK30 alloy. The ZK30-BG composites with enhanced bioactivity and reduced degradation rate could be promising biodegradable materials for orthopedic implants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 100B: 437-446, 2012. PMID:22121143

Huan, Zhiguang; Leeflang, Sander; Zhou, Jie; Zhai, Wanyin; Chang, Jiang; Duszczyk, Jurek

2012-02-01

330

Bisphosphonate-Based Strategies for Bone Tissue Engineering and Orthopedic Implants  

PubMed Central

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a group of well-established drugs that are applied in the development of metabolic bone disorder-related therapies. There is increasing interest also in the application of BPs in the context of bone tissue engineering, which is the topic of this review, in which an extensive overview of published studies on the development and applications of BPs-based strategies for bone regeneration is provided with special focus on the rationale for the use of different BPs in three-dimensional (3D) bone tissue scaffolds. The different alternatives that are investigated to address the delivery and sustained release of these therapeutic drugs in the nearby tissues are comprehensively discussed, and the most significant published approaches on bisphosphonate-conjugated drugs in multifunctional 3D scaffolds as well as the role of BPs within coatings for the improved fixation of orthopedic implants are presented and critically evaluated. Finally, the authors' views regarding the remaining challenges in the fields and directions for future research efforts are highlighted. PMID:22440082

Cattalini, Juan Pablo; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Lucangioli, Silvia

2012-01-01

331

Analysis of Orthopedic Screws for Bone Fracture Fixations with Finite Element Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the influence of the orthopedic screws engineering design such as profile shape and geometrical parameters on its biomechanical compatibility in terms of load sharing with adjacent bone tissue was investigated. The study was conducted on a set of three-dimensional finite element design models. A dimension less Stress Transfer Parameter (STP) was utilized for gauging the performances of the different screws according to its load sharing capabilities. Stress-transfer behavior was found to be linear for varying load magnitudes. The geometric properties investigated; pitch, thread length, width, major diameter and thread angle showed different influences on the three different profiles studied (triangular, trapezoidal and rectangular). The results indicated that 13 out of 32 screw designs produced were to achieve STP values greater than 0.3 of these, 6 were the rectangular profile. The best design was of the rectangular profile (Design no. 24) with an STP value of 0.4344. It was concluded that the best biomechanical properties were found in rectangular screw profiles. However, due to mix trends for the different properties, the careful combination and consideration towards pullout strength was necessary to obtain a design with the highest biocompatibility.

Shuib, Solehuddin; Ridzwan, M. I. Z.; Mohamad Ibrahim, M. N.; Tan, C. J.

332

Genetic Manipulation of Borrelia burgdorferi  

PubMed Central

The development of robust genetic tools to manipulate Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, now allows investigators to assess the role(s) of individual genes in the context of experimental Lyme borreliosis. This unit is devoted to the description of experimental approaches that are available for the molecular genetic analysis of B. burgdorferi with an emphasis placed on the cultivation, electrotransformation, the selection of desired mutants, and the genetic complementation of the mutants acquired. The intent here is to provide a consensus protocol that encapsulates the methodologies currently employed by the B. burgdorferi research community and describe pertinent issues that must be accounted for when working with these pathogenic spirochetal bacteria. PMID:21400675

Hyde, Jenny A.; Weening, Eric H.; Skare, Jon T.

2011-01-01

333

Stanford University: Dextrous Manipulation Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dextrous Manipulation Laboratory is a project within the Design Division of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University. The website describes some of the lab's past and current projects on robotic hands and tactile sensors, as well as teleoperated hands using haptic information. The two current projects highlighted include work on "a new class of biologically inspired robots" and progress made in developing "a telemanipulation system that allows a person to control a dexterous robotic hand in an intuitive manner." Various conference papers and theses from the Lab are posted online. Project pages provide overviews of the lab's research and development in hardware and software as well as video footage displaying some of its accomplishments. Research methods and system designs are further detailed in the Research sections of the project websites. Links to related course pages, research labs, and images make this a dynamic resource for anyone interested in robotics research.

334

A new index for the performance evaluation of parallel manipulators: A study on planar parallel manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the issue of performance evaluation of parallel manipulators. In the analysis and design process of parallel manipulators, the performance evaluation is the most important problem. The developed index will be fundamentally involved in the process, especially in that of optimum design. Although parallel manipulators have been extensively studied for more than twenty years, unfortunately, the concepts of

Xin-Jun Liu; Chao Wu; Jinsong Wang

2008-01-01

335

Enhanced bimanual manipulation assistance with the Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance (PerMMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the enhanced ability of manipulation with the newly developed Personal Mobility and Manipulation Appliance (PerMMA). PerMMA is a new assistive device that integrates bimanual manipulation with smart mobility to assist people with severe physical disabilities and enhance their quality of lives. Different from the fixed mounting method used in most existing systems, a novel mounting

Jijie Xu; Garrett G. Grindle; Ben Salatin; Juan J. Vazquez; Hongwu Wang; Dan Ding; R. A. Cooper

2010-01-01

336

From biological inspiration toward next-generation manipulators: manipulator control focused on human tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our approach to extend the niche of behavior-based robotics toward manipulation. We use results from neuroscience to derive some qualitative design rules for the mechanics of the manipulator, resulting in a next-generation manipulator, the \\

Berend J. W. Waarsing; Marnix Nuttin; Hendrik Van Brussel; Brecht Corteville

2005-01-01

337

Responses of Hyporheic Meiofauna to Habitat Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between interstitial meiofauna and physicochemical parameters of the hyporheic zone were examined via an in situ experiment on the Speed River, Ontario. The manipulation comprised reversing upwelling and downwelling zones at the riffle scale, and was maintained for 1 month. Significant differences in physicochemical parameters were detected between zones and between treatments (control vs. manipulated). Depth-related variables, such as sediment

Lucie Sliva; D. Dudley Williams

2005-01-01

338

Passivity analysis for flexible multilink space manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important input-output property of passivity is explored for a general flexible space manipulator with chain topology. The manipulator is assumed to consist of rigid and\\/or flexible links interconnected via revolute joints, and a free rigid spacecraft and cantilevered payload are modeled at the base and tip, respectively. Actuation on the spacecraft and torques at the joints serve as control

Christopher J. Damaren

1995-01-01

339

On the Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new adaptive robot control algorithm is derived, which consists of a PD feedback part and a full dynamics feedfor ward compensation part, with the unknown manipulator and payload parameters being estimated online. The algorithm is computationally simple, because of an effective exploitation of the structure of manipulator dynamics. In particular, it requires neither feedback of joint accelerations nor inversion

Jean-Jacques E. Slotine; Weiping Li

1987-01-01

340

Virtual Object Manipulation using a Mobile Phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmented Reality (AR) on mobile phones has reached a level of maturity where it can be used as a tool for 3D object manipulation. In this paper we look at user interface issues where an AR enabled mobile phone acts as an interaction device. We discuss how traditional 3D manipulation techniques apply to this new platform. The high tangibility of

Anders Henrysson; Mark Billinghurst; Mark Ollila

2005-01-01

341

Robot hands and the mechanics of manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abridged contents include: Kinematic and force analysis of articulated hands: contact - freedom and constraint; contacts in groups; force application and velocity analysis; force error analysis. Manipulator grasping and pushing operations: theory of pushing; application; conclusion. Index. This book, based on the doctoral dissertations of the two authors, examines several aspects of manipulating objects. At present, the authors believe

M. T. Mason; J. K. Jr. Salisbury

1985-01-01

342

ADAPTIVE FUZZY CONTROL FOR UNDERWATER HYDRAULIC MANIPULATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater hydraulic manipulators are usually systems hard to be modeled and present strong non-linearities in its dynamics behavior. These types of manipulators are operated, nowadays, in a master-slave configuration with simple control algorithms performing tasks in hazardous and unstructured environments. In such conditions only low accuracy simple tasks can be performed. This paper presents the application of a special fuzzy

Leonardo Bittencourt Testi; Bruno Cardozo dos Santos; Max Suell Dutra

2004-01-01

343

Technology and control for hydraulic manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic manipulators are candidate for fusion reactor maintenance. Their main advantages are their large payload with respect to volume and mass, their reliability and their robustness. However, due to their force control limitations, they are disqualified for precise manipulation and are dangerous for the environment and themselves in case of unexpected collision. CEA, in collaboration with CYBERNETIX and IFREMER has

Y. Measson; O. David; F. Louveau; J. P. Friconneau

2003-01-01

344

Dexterous Manipulations of the Humanoid Robot Saika  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the development of a humanoid robot named Saika and skillful manipulations performed by Saika. The developed humanoid robot Saika has a two-DOF neck, dual five-DOF upper arms, a torso and a head which consists of two eyes and two ears. Saika has humansize dimension and weighs eight kilograms. This article also presents three kinds of manipulations performed

Atsushi Konno; Koichi Nishiwaki; Ryo Furukawa; Mitsunori Tada; Koichi Nagashima; Masayuki Inaba; Hirochika Inoue

1997-01-01

345

Actuation Redundancy of A Closed Link Manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a closed link mechanism for kinematically redundant direct-drive manipulators and discuss its redundant actuation. The mechanism is kinematically equivalent to four joints of the shoulder through the elbow of an anthropomorphic 7 DOF manipulator. The mechanism uses five direct-drive motors to control 3 DOF position of the end effector. One DOF exhibits kinematical redundancy and

Yoshibiko Nakamura; Timo Ropponen

1990-01-01

346

Adaptive Robust Fuzzy Control for Robot Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an adaptive robust fuzzy control architecture for robot manipulators motion. The control objective is to adaptively compensate for the unknown nonlinearity of robot manipulators, which is represented as a fuzzy rule-base consisting of a collection of if-then rules. The algorithm embedded in the proposed architecture can automatically update fuzzy rules and, consequently, it is guaranteed to be

Feng-yih Hsu; Li-Chen Full

1994-01-01

347

Dynamics analysis of the Star parallel manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix relations in kinematics and dynamics of the Star parallel manipulator are established in this paper. The prototype of the manipulator is a three-degree-of-freedom mechanism, which consists of a system of parallel kinematical chains connecting to a moving platform. Knowing the translation motion of the platform, we develop first the inverse kinematics problem and determine the position, velocity and acceleration

Stefan Staicu

2009-01-01

348

Zliding: Fluid Zooming and Sliding for High Precision Parameter Manipulation  

E-print Network

Zliding: Fluid Zooming and Sliding for High Precision Parameter Manipulation Gonzalo Ramos, Ravin precision parameter manipulation tasks typically require adjustment of the scale of manipulation in addition manipulation of scale (zooming) via pressure input while parameter manipulation within that scale is achieved

Balakrishnan, Ravin

349

Damping control of a large flexible manipulator through inertial forces of a small manipulator  

SciTech Connect

Damping control is applied to a detailed computer model of a long- reach flexible manipulator test bed. The test bed consists of a long slender link with a dexterous manipulator mounted at its tip. The movement of the dexterous manipulator is controlled to create inertial damping forces on the long link. Parameter identification and sequential loop-closure are used to design a controller that feeds back relative tip position and velocity of the long link to control the azimuth angle of the dexterous manipulator. The controller is designed to be robust to varying manipulator loading conditions and reliable under sensor failures.

Trudnowski, D.J.; Baker, C.P.; Evans, M.S.

1993-06-01

350

Nanoparticulate zinc oxide as a coating material for orthopedic and dental implants.  

PubMed

Orthopedic and dental implants are prone to infection. In this study, we describe a novel system using zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) as a coating material to inhibit bacterial adhesion and promote osteoblast growth. Electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) was employed to deposit mixtures of nZnO and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) onto the surface of glass substrates. Nano-coated substrates were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus suspended in buffered saline or bovine serum to determine antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that 100% nZnO and 75% nZnO/25% nHA composite-coated substrates have significant antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, osteoblast function was explored by exposing cells to nZnO. UMR-106 cells exposed to nZnO supernatants showed minimal toxicity. Similarly, MG-63 cells cultured on nZnO substrates did not show release of TNF-? and IL-6 cytokines. These results were reinforced by both proliferation and differentiation studies which revealed that a substrate coated with exclusively nZnO is more efficient than composite surface coatings. Finally, electron and light microscopy, together with immunofluorescence staining, revealed that all cell types tested, including human mesenchymal cell (hMSC), were able to maintain normal cell morphology when adhered onto the surface of the nano-coated substrates. Collectively, these findings indicate that nZnO can, on its own, provide an optimal coating for future bone implants that are both antimicrobial and biocompatible. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 981-989, 2015. PMID:24862288

Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Sharili, Amir S; Huang, Jie; Rawlinson, Simon C F; Allaker, Robert P

2015-03-01

351

Preliminary results of a survey of the use of antimicrobial agents as prophylaxis in orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

An epidemiological survey of the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in Italian hospitals was carried out under the auspices of the Journal of Chemotherapy. Out of 500 Italian orthopedic centers queried, 225 agreed to participate in this study. A total of 136,321 surgical procedures were reported in the 166 centers reporting complete answers on type of surgery. They comprised hip and knee prosthesis (13.9%), spine surgery (4%), hip endoprosthesis (5.2%), osteosynthesis (26.9%), arthroscopy (24.4%), and others (25.5%). Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis was used in 75% of operations (ranging from 57.1% to 99.4% in arthroscopy and joint prosthesis, respectively). Short term (<24 h) antimicrobial prophylaxis was performed in 38.4% of the 206 centers answering this question correctly. 61.1% of centers employed single agent prophylaxis and 70.8% of these prescriptions were betalactam antibiotics. Bacteriological analysis revealed gram-positive isolates in 73.3% of cases. Methicillin resistance was present in 45% of 915 tested strains. Out of 4221 patients with high risk of infectious complications (joint prosthesis surgery) given antimicrobial prophylaxis in 46 centers, the percentage of surgical wound infections was overall 2.1%, while that of non-surgical wound infections was 3.6%. The total infection rate was decreased by about half in association with long-term (>24 h) as compared to short-term (<24 h) antibiotic treatment (3.7% vs 7.6%, respectively), and with use of antibiotic drug combinations vs single antibiotic drugs (3.9 vs 6.6%, respectively). The incidence of surgical-site infection was not decreased by extending the chemoprophylaxis for more than the first 24 h after surgery, while it was reduced from 2.5 to 1.4% by use of combination antibiotic therapy. PMID:11936384

Mini, E; Grassi, F; Cherubino, P; Nobili, S; Periti, P

2001-11-01

352

Methyl methacrylate levels in orthopedic surgery: comparison of two conventional vacuum mixing systems.  

PubMed

Poly-methyl methacrylate bone cements contain methyl methacrylate (MMA), which is known for its sensitizing and toxic properties. Therefore, in most European countries and in the USA, guidelines or regulations exist for occupational exposures. The use of vacuum mixing systems can significantly reduce airborne MMA concentrations during bone setting. Our goal was to test two commonly used vacuum mixing systems (Palamix(®) and Optivac(®)) using Palacos(®) R bone cement for their effectiveness at preventing MMA vapor release in a series of standardized trials in a laboratory as well as in an operating theatre. MMA was quantified every second over a period of 3 min using a photoionization detector (MiniRAE(®) 3000) device positioned in the breathing area of the user. Significant differences in MMA mean vapor concentrations over 180 s were observed in the two experimental spaces, with the highest mean concentrations (7.61 and 7.98 ppm for Palamix(®) and Optivac(®), respectively) observed in a laboratory with nine air changes per hour and the lowest average concentrations (1.06 and 1.12 ppm for Palamix(®) and Optivac(®), respectively) in an operating theatre with laminar flow ventilation and 22 air changes per hour. No significant differences in overall MMA concentrations were found between the two vacuum mixing systems in either location. Though, differences were found between both systems during single mixing phases. Thus, typical handling of MMA in orthopedic procedures must be seen as not harmful as concentrations do not reach the short-term exposure limit of 100 ppm. Additionally, laminar airflow seems to have an influence on lowering MMA concentrations in operation theatres. PMID:24567286

Jelecevic, Jasmin; Maidanjuk, Stanislaw; Leithner, Andreas; Loewe, Kai; Kuehn, Klaus-Dieter

2014-05-01

353

Biocompatibility Issues with Modern Implants in Bone - A Review for Clinical Orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Skeletal defects may result from traumatic, infectious, congenital or neoplastic processes and are considered to be a challenge for reconstructive surgery. Although the autologous bone graft is still the “gold standard”, there is continuing demand for bone substitutes because of associated disadvantages, such as limited supply and potential donor side morbidity [1]. This is not only true for indications in orthopedic and craniomaxillofacial surgeries, but also in repairing endodontic defects and in dental implantology. Before clinical use all new bone substitute materials have to be validated for their osseoconductive and - depending on the composition of the material also –inductive ability, as well as for their long-term biocompatibility in bone. Serving this purpose various bone healing models to test osteocompatibility and inflammatory potential of a novel material on one hand and, on the other hand, non-healing osseous defects to assess the healing potential of a bone substitute material have been developed. Sometimes the use of more than one implantation site can be helpful to provide a wide range of information about a new material [2]. Important markers for biocompatibility and inflammatory responses are the cell types appearing after the implantation of foreign material. There, especially the role of foreign body giant cells (FBGC) is discussed controversial in the pertinent literature, such that it is not clear whether their presence marks an incompatibility of the biomaterial, or whether it belongs to a normal degradation behavior of modern, resorbable biomaterials. This publication is highlighting the different views currently existing about the function of FBGC that appear in response to biomaterials at the implantation sites. A short overview of the general classes of biomaterials, where FBGC may appear as cellular response, is added for clarity, but may not be complete. PMID:19506701

Nuss, Katja M.R; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

2008-01-01

354

Postmarketing safety experience with edoxaban in Japan for thromboprophylaxis following major orthopedic surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Edoxaban is an oral, once-daily, selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor approved in Japan for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following major orthopedic surgery. Currently, edoxaban is in Phase III clinical development for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation, and for the treatment and prevention of recurrences of venous thromboembolism. This report describes the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported during early postmarketing phase vigilance from the time of its commercial launch in Japan. Materials and methods All spontaneously reported ADRs following edoxaban use received by Daiichi Sankyo during early postmarketing phase vigilance from July 19, 2011, to January 18, 2012, were entered into the safety database and included in this review. Approximately 20,000 patients were estimated to have been treated with edoxaban. Results The mean age of patients was 74.2 years, their mean weight was 59.4 kg, and approximately 70% were female. A total of 67 ADRs were reported in 56 patients, of which the majority included bleeding events (51 ADRs in 42 patients). Of these, 15 ADRs (in 14 patients) were serious, including cerebral hemorrhage (n = 1), gastric hemorrhage (n = 2; gastric hemorrhage [n = 1] and gastric ulcer hemorrhage [n = 1]), and surgical-site hemorrhage (n = 12; hemorrhage [n = 6], subcutaneous hemorrhage [n = 3], wound hemorrhage [n = 2], and wound hematoma [n = 1]). Most ADRs occurred within the first week of treatment and there were no fatalities. Nonserious ADRs associated with bleeding that occurred in >1 patient included subcutaneous hemorrhage (n = 9), wound hemorrhage (n = 5), postprocedural hematoma (n = 4), anemia (n = 4), and hemarthrosis (n = 3). Other nonserious ADRs not associated with bleeding and occurring in >1 patient included abnormal hepatic function (n = 4) and diarrhea (n = 2). Conclusion Safety data from the first 6 months of postmarketing experience with edoxaban did not identify any unforeseen safety signals, consistent with the known safety profile of edoxaban. PMID:24124376

Kuroda, Yasufumi; Hirayama, Chie; Hotoda, Hitoshi; Nishikawa, Yasuhiro; Nishiwaki, Akinori

2013-01-01

355

Postspinal hypotension in elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, prophylactic ephedrine versus polygeline 3.5%  

PubMed Central

Context: Perioperative fluid management in elderly poses considerable challenge to the anesthesiologist. The conventional crystalloid loading may not be a preferred regime in this subgroup of patients since an exaggerated hemodynamic response is expected due to blunted sympathetic response and compromised cardiorespiratory system. Aims: This study was designed in the elderly patient for comparing efficacy, side-effects and limitations of prophylactic ephedrine 30 mg (intramuscular [i.m.]) versus polygeline 3.5% 500 ml (intravenous [i.v.]) for the maintenance of blood pressure after subarachnoid block (SAB). Settings and Design: The sample size of 100 elderly (age > 50 years) patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries was administered SAB using bupivacaine 0.5% heavy. The primary outcome of this study was the attenuation of hypotension due to SAB using ephedrine or polygeline 3.5%. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were randomly allocated to receive ephedrine 30 mg i.m. 10 min before the institution of SAB in Group I and preloading with 500 ml of polygeline 3.5% i.v. over 10 min prior to SAB in Group II. Patients in both groups were closely monitored for pulse rate, systolic blood pressure; any hypotension, requirement of rescue therapy and adverse effects. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were interpreted using Student's t-test for parametric and Chi-square tests for nonparametric data. Results: The incidence of hypotension and requirement for rescue therapy was statistically less in Group I compared with Group II (P < 0.05). Heart rates were better maintained in Group I than Group II, with few hemodynamic adverse effects in both groups. Conclusions: Ephedrine 30 mg i.m. given as pretreatment before SAB in elderly patients was more effective for the prevention of post-SAB hypotension.

Singh, Saru; Shah, Trupti D.; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Preetween; Walia, Chiteshwar S.; Sehrawat, Saroj

2014-01-01

356

Oxidative stress contributes to orthopedic trauma-induced acute kidney injury in obese rats.  

PubMed

After trauma, obese patients have an increased risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). We have demonstrated that obese Zucker (OZ) rats, but not lean Zucker (LZ) rats, develop AKI 24 h after orthopedic trauma. ROS have been implicated in the pathophysiology of AKI in models of critical illness. However, the contribution of ROS to trauma-induced AKI in the setting of obesity has not been determined. We hypothesized that AKI in OZ rats after trauma is mediated by increased oxidative stress. Male LZ and OZ rats were divided into control and trauma groups, with a subset receiving treatment after trauma with the antioxidant apocynin (50 mg/kg ip, 2 mM in drinking water). The day after trauma, glomerular filtration rate, plasma creatinine, urine kidney injury molecule-1, and albumin excretion as well as renal oxidant and antioxidant activity were measured. After trauma, compared with LZ rats, OZ rats exhibited a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate along with significant increases in plasma creatinine and urine kidney injury molecule-1 and albumin excretion. Additionally, oxidative stress was significantly increased in OZ rats, as evidenced by increased renal NADPH oxidase activity and urine lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), and OZ rats also had suppressed renal superoxide dismutase activity. Apocynin treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress and AKI in OZ rats but had minimal effects in LZ rats. These results suggest that ROS play an important role in AKI in OZ rats after traumatic injury and that ROS may be a potential future therapeutic target in the obese after trauma. PMID:25428128

Mittwede, Peter N; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L

2015-01-15

357

Elastomeric high-mineral content hydrogel-hydroxyapatite composites for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

The design of synthetic bone grafts that mimic the structure and composition of bone and possess good surgical handling characteristics remains a major challenge. We report the development of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites termed "FlexBone" that possess osteoconductive mineral content approximating that of human bone yet exhibit elastomeric properties enabling the press-fitting into a defect site. The approach involves crosslinking pHEMA hydrogel in the presence of HA using viscous ethylene glycol as a solvent. The composites exhibit excellent structural integration between the apatite mineral component and the hydroxylated hydrogel matrix. The stiffness of the composite and the ability to withstand compressive stress correlate with the microstructure and content of the mineral component. The incorporation of porous aggregates of HA nanocrystals rather than compact micrometer-sized calcined HA effectively improved the resistance of the composite to crack propagation under compression. Freeze-dried FlexBone containing 50 wt % porous HA nanocrystals could withstand hundreds-of-megapascals compressive stress and >80% compressive strain without exhibiting brittle fractures. Upon equilibration with water, FlexBone retained good structural integration and withstood repetitive moderate (megapascals) compressive stress at body temperature. When subcutaneously implanted in rats, FlexBone supported osteoblastic differentiation of the bone marrow stromal cells pre-seeded on FlexBone. Taken together, the combination of high osteoconductive mineral content, excellent organic-inorganic structural integration, elasticity, and the ability to support osteoblastic differentiation in vivo makes FlexBone a promising candidate for orthopedic applications. PMID:18546185

Song, Jie; Xu, Jianwen; Filion, Tera; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S; Ayers, David C; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

2009-06-15

358

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about various branches of mathematics can be tough at any age, and this fine set of resources created by staff members who are primarily based at the Utah State University is designed to make this process just a bit easier. With substantial funding from the National Science Foundation, they have successfully developed a large set of interactive online learning units that deal with topics such as geometry, arithmetic, and trigonometry. First-time visitors may want to begin by looking over the "About" section, which includes a tutorial designed for educators who wish to use the materials as well as another tutorial that will teach educators how to create lessons and activities. Delving into the learning materials at the site, visitors can browse through the learning modules by subject or grade level. Visitors can also browse teacher published lessons, all of which have been vetted by staff members at the National Library. Finally, visitors will want to definitely look over the virtual manipulatives library, which includes instructional materials that students will find quite engaging.

359

Manipulating duckweed through genome duplication.  

PubMed

Significant inter- and intraspecific genetic variation exists in duckweed, thus the potential for genome plasticity and manipulation is high. Polyploidy is recognised as a major mechanism of adaptation and speciation in plants. We produced several genome-duplicated lines of Landoltia punctata (Spirodela oligorrhiza) from both whole plants and regenerating explants using a colchicine-based cocktail. These lines stably maintained an enlarged frond and root morphology. DNA ploidy levels determined by florescence-activated cell sorting indicated genome duplication. Line A4 was analysed after 75 biomass doublings. Frond area, fresh and dry weights, rhizoid number and length were significantly increased versus wild type, while the growth rate was unchanged. This resulted in accumulation of biomass 17-20% faster in the A4 plants. We sought to determine if specific differences in gene products are found in the genome duplicated lines. Non-targeted ultra performance LC-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to compare some of the lines and the wild type to seek identification of up-regulated metabolites. We putatively identified differential metabolites in Line A65 as caffeoyl hexoses. The combination of directed genome duplication and metabolic profiling might offer a path for producing stable gene expression, leading to altered production of secondary metabolites. PMID:25040392

Vunsh, R; Heinig, U; Malitsky, S; Aharoni, A; Avidov, A; Lerner, A; Edelman, M

2015-01-01

360

Dielectrophoretic manipulation of ribosomal RNA  

PubMed Central

The manipulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) extracted from E. coli cells by dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been demonstrated over the range of 3 kHz–50 MHz using interdigitated microelectrodes. Quantitative measurement using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of the time dependent collection indicated a positive DEP response characterized by a plateau between 3 kHz and 1 MHz followed by a decrease in response at higher frequencies. Negative DEP was observed above 9 MHz. The positive DEP response below 1 MHz is described by the Clausius–Mossotti model and corresponds to an induced dipole moment of 3300 D with a polarizability of 7.8×10?32 F m2. The negative DEP response above 9 MHz indicates that the rRNA molecules exhibit a net moment of ?250 D, to give an effective permittivity value of 78.5 ?0, close to that of the aqueous suspending medium, and a relatively small surface conductance value of ?0.1 nS. This suggests that our rRNA samples have a fairly open structure accessible to the surrounding water molecules, with counterions strongly bound to the charged phosphate groups in the rRNA backbone. These results are the first demonstration of DEP for fast capture and release of rRNA units, opening new opportunities for rRNA-based biosensing devices. PMID:21799722

Giraud, Gerard; Pethig, Ronald; Schulze, Holger; Henihan, Grace; Terry, Jonathan G.; Menachery, Anoop; Ciani, Ilenia; Corrigan, Damion; Campbell, Colin J.; Mount, Andrew R.; Ghazal, Peter; Walton, Anthony J.; Crain, Jason; Bachmann, Till T.

2011-01-01

361

Manipulation of Semiclassical Photon States  

E-print Network

Gabriel F. Calvo and Antonio Picon defined a class of operators, for use in quantum communication, that allows arbitrary manipulations of the three lowest two-dimensional Hermite-Gaussian modes {|0,0>,|1,0>,|0,1>}. Our paper continues the study of those operators, and our results fall into two categories. For one, we show that the generators of the operators have infinite deficiency indices, and we explicitly describe all self-adjoint realizations. And secondly we investigate semiclassical approximations of the propagators. The basic method is to start from a semiclassical Fourier integral operator ansatz and then construct approximate solutions of the corresponding evolution equations. In doing so, we give a complete description of the Hamilton flow, which in most cases is given by elliptic functions. We find that the semiclassical approximation behaves well when acting on sufficiently localized initial conditions, for example, finite sums of semiclassical Hermite-Gaussian modes, since near the origin the Hamilton trajectories trace out the bounded components of elliptic curves.

Michael VanValkenburgh

2008-10-04

362

Sensitivity Analysis of Parallel Manipulators using an Interval Linearization Method  

E-print Network

Sensitivity Analysis of Parallel Manipulators using an Interval Linearization Method Mikhael linearization method for the sensitivity analysis of manipulators to variations in their geometric param- eters linearization method automatically detects such situations. Keywords: parallel manipulators, sensitivity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Design of Experiments for Calibration of Planar Anthropomorphic Manipulators  

E-print Network

Design of Experiments for Calibration of Planar Anthropomorphic Manipulators Alexandr Klimchik1 of optimal calibration experiments for a planar anthropomorphic manipulator with n degrees of freedom that deal with typical anthropomorphic manipulators. Keywords: calibration, design of experiments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

Manipulation in Human Environments Aaron Edsinger and Charles C. Kemp  

E-print Network

Manipulation in Human Environments Aaron Edsinger and Charles C. Kemp Computer Science to successfully perform manipulation tasks within human environments. Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation since they are complex, dynamic, uncontrolled, and difficult to perceive

Kemp, Charlie

365

17 CFR 180.2 - Prohibition on price manipulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Prohibition on price manipulation. 180.2 Section 180.2 Commodity...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PROHIBITION AGAINST MANIPULATION § 180.2 Prohibition on price manipulation. It shall be unlawful for any...

2014-04-01

366

UNIX/LINUX REFERENCE CARD Basic File and Directory Manipulation  

E-print Network

UNIX/LINUX REFERENCE CARD Basic File and Directory Manipulation ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prints file in octal and other formats File Text Manipulation grep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Estimate disk usage file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manipulate file attributes touch

367

Manipulation of Natural Enemies in Agroecosystems: Habitat and Semiochemicals  

E-print Network

5 Manipulation of Natural Enemies in Agroecosystems: Habitat and Semiochemicals for Sustainable the suitability of the crop landscape for natural enemies by manipulating the resources available recent studies exploring the potential for manipulating the behavior of natural enemies through

Isaacs, Rufus

368

17 CFR 180.2 - Prohibition on price manipulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Prohibition on price manipulation. 180.2 Section 180.2 Commodity...TRADING COMMISSION PROHIBITION AGAINST MANIPULATION § 180.2 Prohibition on price manipulation. It shall be unlawful for any...

2012-04-01

369

Controlled Manipulation and in Situ Mechanical Measurement of Single Co  

E-print Network

Controlled Manipulation and in Situ Mechanical Measurement of Single Co Nanowire with a Laser bubble is used to manipulate individual Co nanowires. The short- lived ( manipulation, nanowire bending, Young's modulus, cavitation bubble A pplications of nanowires in many

Ohl, Claus-Dieter

370

17 CFR 180.2 - Prohibition on price manipulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Prohibition on price manipulation. 180.2 Section 180.2 Commodity...TRADING COMMISSION PROHIBITION AGAINST MANIPULATION § 180.2 Prohibition on price manipulation. It shall be unlawful for any...

2013-04-01

371

Manipulating Music: Multimodal Interaction for DJs Timothy Beamish1  

E-print Network

domain of digital audio manipulation. Author Keywords Tangible & physical interfaces, manual media, public and personal. Applications involving media browsing, manipulation and in particular, creativeManipulating Music: Multimodal Interaction for DJs Timothy Beamish1 , Karon Maclean1 , Sidney Fels2

British Columbia, University of

372

Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.

Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok

1992-01-01

373

Dynamic whole-arm dexterous manipulation in the plane  

E-print Network

Physical pendulum method of determining moment of inertia :31 . 3 ) 10 Irregular heptagon: manipulation plan 1 :35) Hexagon manipulation plan 12 13 14 Pentagon manipulation plan . Irregular heptagon: manipulation plan 2 Torque trajectories... for irregular heptagon :36 15 Torque trajectories for hexagon 16 17 Torque trajectories for pentagou Video frames of irregular heptagon: manipulation sequence 1 Video frames of irregular heptagon: manipulation sequence 2 -14 45 FIGURE Page 19 20...

Yeap, Soon Lin

1994-01-01

374

Issues in advanced automation for manipulator control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides a brief description and analysis of the main issues in advanced autonomous control of manipulators as seen from a system point of view. The nature of manipulation is analyzed at some depth. A general multilevel structure is outlined for manipulator control organization which includes the human operator at the top level of the control structure. Different approaches to the development of advanced automation of mechanical arms are summarized. Recent work in the JPL teleoperator project is described, including control system, force/torque sensor, and control software development. Some results from control experiments are summarized.

Bejczy, A. K.

1976-01-01

375

Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities in the inertia matrix. Then a feeback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn; Juang, Jer-Nan

1988-01-01

376

W-026, acceptance test report manipulator system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the WRAP Manipulator System Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) is to verify that the 4 glovebox sets of WRAP manipulator components, including rail/carriage, slave arm, master controller and auxiliary equipment, meets the requirements of the functional segments of 14590 specification. The demonstration of performance elements of the ATP are performed as a part of the Assembly specifications. Manipulator integration is integrated in the performance testing of the gloveboxes. Each requirement of the Assembly specification will be carried out in conjunction with glovebox performance tests.

Watson, T.L.

1997-04-15

377

Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities within the inertia matrix. Then a feedback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

1988-01-01

378

Hemodynamic and oxidative mechanisms of tourniquet-induced muscle injury: near-infrared spectroscopy for the orthopedics setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During orthopedic procedures, the tourniquets used to maintain bloodless surgical fields cause ischemia and then reperfusion (I/R), leading to oxidative muscle injury. Established methods exist neither for monitoring orthopedic I/R nor for predicting the extent of tourniquet-associated oxidative injury. To develop a predictive model for tourniquet-associated oxidative muscle injury, this study combined real-time near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring of I/R with Western blotting (WB) for oxidized proteins. We hypothesized strong correlations between NIRS-derived I/R indices and muscle protein oxidation. In 17 patients undergoing ankle fracture repair, a thigh tourniquet was inflated on the injured limb (300 mmHg). Using a continuous-wave (CW) NIRS setup, oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb), and total (tHb) hemoglobin were monitored bilaterally (tourniquet versus control) in leg muscles. Leg muscle biopsies were collected unilaterally (tourniquet side) immediately after tourniquet inflation (pre) and before deflation (post). Average ischemia duration was 43.2±14.6 min. In post-compared to pre-biopsies, muscle protein oxidation (quantified using WB) increased 172.3%±145.7% (P<0.0005). Changes in O2Hb and tHb were negatively correlated with protein oxidation (respectively: P=0.040, R2=0.25 and P=0.003, R2=0.58). Reoxygenation rate was positively correlated with protein oxidation (P=0.041, R2=0.25). These data indicate that using CW NIRS, it is possible to predict orthopedic tourniquet-associated muscle oxidative injury noninvasively.

Shadgan, Babak; Reid, W. Darlene; Harris, R. Luke; Jafari, Siavash; Powers, Scott K.; O'Brien, Peter J.

2012-08-01

379

Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis after Major Lower Limb Orthopedic Surgery: Analysis of a Nationwide Claim Registry  

PubMed Central

Purpose We aimed to evaluate the nationwide incidence and risk factors for symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after major lower limb orthopedic surgeries. Materials and Methods The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database was used to retrospectively identify International Classification of Disease-10 codes for DVT and operation codes representing hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, and hip fracture surgeries. The age- and gender-adjusted annual incidence of DVT, rates of major lower limb orthopedic surgeries, and the postoperative incidence of DVT according to the surgical procedure were assessed. Results The age- and gender-adjusted annual incidence of DVT was 70.67 per 100000 persons/year. Compared to patients aged <49 years, the relative risk of DVT was five times higher in patients aged 50-69 and 10 times higher in patients aged >70 years (p<0.001). Females showed a greater relative risk for DVT than males (1.08; p<0.001). The incidence of postoperative DVT, according to the type of surgery, was significantly greater for knee replacement arthroplasty than for other forms of surgery (p<0.002). The relative risk of postoperative DVT was higher in females in knee replacement arthroplasty (1.47) and hip fracture surgery (2.25) groups, although relatively lower in those who underwent hip replacement arthroplasty (0.97). Conclusion Among major lower limb surgeries, advanced age, female gender, and undergoing a knee replacement arthroplasty were found to be risk factors for developing postoperative DVT. These findings further emphasize the need for orthopedic surgeons to consider the development of DVT after surgery in high-risk patients. PMID:25510757

Lee, Seung Yeol; Ro, Du Hyun; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Sung, Ki Hyuk

2015-01-01

380

Allergy/hypersensitivity reactions as a predisposing factor to complex regional pain syndrome I in orthopedic patients.  

PubMed

Several predisposing conditions have been associated with complex regional pain syndrome I (CRPS I). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between a history of allergy/hypersensitivity reactions and CRPS I in orthopedic patients. Orthopedic patients with CRPS I (n=115) who experienced pain relief after a successful sympathetic nerve blockade were identified for study inclusion; a control group (n=115) matched to the CRPS I group by age, sex, and location of injury was also included. All patients in the study had an average age of 42 years. In the CRPS I group, all participants were Caucasian and the majority (80.8%) were women. The skin of patients with CRPS I was described as fair (57.7%), mottled (57.7%), or sensitive (80.8%). Of the patients with CRPS I, 78 (67.8%) reported a statistically significant history of allergies compared with the 39 (33.9%) patients in the control group (P<.0001). Patients with CRPS I who experienced complete pain relief for at least 1 month following a single sympathetic nerve block were asked to answer a questionnaire (n=35), and some then underwent immediate hypersensitivity testing using a skin puncture technique (n=26). Skin hypersensitivity testing yielded an 83.3% positive predictive value with an accuracy of 76.9%. Based on these results, a positive history for allergy/hypersensitivity reactions is a predisposing condition for CRPS I in this subset of orthopedic patients. These hypersensitivity reactions may prove important in gaining a better understanding in the pathophysiology of CRPS I as a regional pain syndrome. PMID:24762157

Li, Xinning; Kenter, Keith; Newman, Ashley; O'Brien, Stephen

2014-03-01

381

Dynamics and Manipulation of Nanomagnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents my work on the spin dynamics of nanomagnets and investigates the possibility of manipulating nanomagnets by various means. Most of the work has been published. Some has been submitted for publication. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In Chapter 1, I present the theory of manipulation of a nanomagnet by rotating ac fields whose frequency is time dependent. Theory has been developed that maps the problem onto Landau-Zener problem. For the linear frequency sweep the switching phase diagrams are obtained on the amplitude of the ac field and the frequency sweep rate. Switching conditions have been obtained numerically and analytically. For the nonlinear frequency sweep, the optimal time dependence of the frequency is obtained analytically with account of damping that gives the fastest controllable switching of the magnetization. In Chapter 2, interaction between a nanomagnet and a Josephson junction has been studied. The I-V curve of the Josephson junction in the proximity of a nanomagnet shows Shapiro-like steps due to the ac field generated by the precessing magnetic moment. Possibility of switching of the magnetic moment by a time-linear voltage in the Josephson junction is demonstrated. Realization of the optimal switching is suggested that employs two perpendicular Josephson junctions with time-dependent voltage signals. The result is shown to be robust against voltage noises. Quantum-mechanical coupling between the nanomagnet considered as a two-level system and a Josephson junction has been studied and quantum oscillations of the populations of the spin states have been computed. In Chapter 3, the switching dynamics of a nanomagnet embedded in a torsional oscillator that serves as a conducting wire for a spin current has been investigated. Generalized Slonczewski's equation is derived. The coupling of the nanomagnet, the torsional oscillator and the spin current generates a number of interesting phenomena. The mechanically-assisted magnetization switching is studied, in which the magnetization can be reversed by tilting the torsional oscillator. The effect of the torsional oscillator on the switching of the magnetization in the presence of spin-polarized current is computed. Combined effects of the spin current and a mechanical kick of the torsional oscillator have been studied. In Chapter 4, skyrmion dynamics and interaction of the skyrmion with an electron have been studied. Corrections to the spin texture of the skyrmion due to the crystal lattice have been computed. Due to the lattice effects the skyrmion collapses in clean ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic materials. The lifetime of the skyrmion has been computed numerically and compared with analytical theory. In doped anti-ferromagnetic materials the weak attraction between a skyrmion and an electron may generate a bound state. In Chapter 5, experimental results of the NIST group on magnetic multilayer microcantilevers have been analyzed. Theoretical framework has been suggested that explains the observed strong damping effect of the platinum layer on the mechanical oscillations of Py-Pt bilayer cantilevers. The strong spin-orbit coupling of platinum is shown to impede the motion of the domain wall in permalloy and to dramatically increase the damping of the cantilever motion.

Cai, Liufei

382

Arthropod Grasping and Manipulation A Literature Review  

E-print Network

of the refereed journal articles related to arthropod grasping and manipulation. Background The phylum Arthropoda to describe this hierarchy: Taxonomic Category Corresponding Suffix Kingdom Phylum (e.g. Arthropoda) Class (e

383

Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response  

SciTech Connect

The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

2000-06-06

384

Efficient, transparent, and comprehensive runtime code manipulation  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the challenges of building a software system for general-purpose runtime code manipulation. Modern applications, with dynamically-loaded modules and dynamically-generated code, are assembled at runtime. ...

Bruening, Derek L. (Derek Lane), 1976-

2004-01-01

385

What is morally new in genetic manipulation?  

PubMed

The investigation into the specific moral issues of genetic manipulation requires us to determine exactly the new moral issues of genetic manipulation. But even that determination requires us to consider whether the context in which we live and the method of moral reflection which we use is adequate enough to address genetic manipulation. Given the liberalist context in which we live, this paper argues that an act-oriented ethics is inadequate and that only a virtue-oriented ethics enables us to recognize and resolve the new problems ahead of us in genetic manipulation. Moreover, those problems have a common root, that is, that through genetics we will be in danger of objectifying the human subject. PMID:2081195

Keenan, J F

1990-01-01

386

Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 .mu.m or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or groups of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

387

Dynamic trading and manipulation in financial markets  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 studies how asset managers, due to reputation concerns, manipulate performance through taking latent risk dynamically. It is found that both skilled and unskilled managers load on excessive level of latent risk ...

Huang, Kan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

388

What is Delaying the Manipulator Revolution?  

E-print Network

Despite two decades of work on mechanical manipulators and their associated controls, we do not see wide-spread application of these devices to many of the tasks to which they seem so obviously suited. Somehow, a variety ...

Horn, Berthold K.P.

389

The Frankfurt School's Theory of Manipulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the critical sociology of communication of the Frankfurt School suggesting that theorists such as Lowenthal, Adorno, and Habermas have outlined both the political economics of manipulation and the social psychological interaction between the audience and the media. (MH)

Petryszak, Nicholas

1977-01-01

390

Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

Kwon, Dong-Soo

1991-01-01

391

Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position and orient the end-effector at the target with respect to the same kinematic model from the calibration step. As the end-effector/target distance decreases, the computed coordinates of the end-effector and target become more nearly affected by the same errors, so that the differences between their coordinates become increasingly precise. When the end-effector reaches the target, the remaining effective position error is the distance that corresponds to more than about one pixel in the stereoscopic images of the target.

Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

2004-01-01

392

On the manipulability of dual cooperative robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of manipulability ellipsoids for dual robot systems is given. A suitable kineto-static formulation for dual cooperative robots is adopted which allows for a global task space description of external and internal forces, and relative velocities. The well known concepts of force and velocity manipulability ellipsoids for a single robot are formally extended and the contributions of the two single robots to the cooperative system ellipsoids are illustrated. Duality properties are discussed. A practical case study is developed.

Chiacchio, P.; Chiaverini, S.; Sciavicco, L.; Siciliano, B.

1989-01-01

393

Optical trapping, cell manipulation and robotics  

SciTech Connect

A new type of analytical and preparative cytometric instrument was developed. The instrument combines image analysis and machine vision with single cell and chromosome manipulation by means of optical trapping. A proof-of-principle instrument, OCAM, has the ability to locate and analyze biological particles inside an enclosed manipulation chamber, as well as the ability to move and position particles according to preprogrammed protocols. Preliminary results and potential biological applications of such a microrobot are discussed. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Buican, T.N.; Neagley, D.L.; Morrison, W.C.; Upham, B.D.

1989-01-01

394

Manipulator Trajectory Planning Using Geodesic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel manipulator trajectory planning approach using geodesic is proposed in this paper. Geodesic is the necessary condition\\u000a of the shortest length between two points on the Riemannian surface in which the covariant derivative of the geodesic’s tangent\\u000a vector is zero. The geometric characteristic of geodesic is discussed and used to implement trajectory planning of the manipulator.\\u000a First, the Riemannian

Liandong Zhang; Changjiu Zhou; Delun Wang

395

Efficient Kinematic Computations For 7-DOF Manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient algorithms for forward kinematic mappings of seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) robotic manipulator having revolute joints developed on basis of representation of redundant DOF in terms of parameter called "arm angle." Continuing effort to exploit redundancy in manipulator according to concept of basic and additional tasks. Concept also discussed in "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556) and "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801).

Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark K.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth

1994-01-01

396

Satellite Simulator with a Hydraulic Manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system emulation that can be used for testing a spacecraft control system with all of its hardware in place, in a 1- g laboratory environment, is presented. The system is comprised of a manipulator whose end-effector rigidly grasps a functional spacecraft, a six-axis force\\/moment (F\\/M) sensor placed at the interface of the spacecraft and the manipulator, and a control

Farhad Aghili; Mehrzad Namvar; George Vukovich

2006-01-01

397

New control concept of anthropomorphic manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The control of active articulated mechanisms involves the construction of trajectories and corresponding forces (torques). Two procedures for developing mathematical models of manipulator dynamics are explored. The control task can be formulated as follows: define the dynamic control parameters of the basic manipulator configuration with three degrees of freedom, which should perform movements at N points of the working space. The task can be solved by forming programmed coordinated motion which have to realize the adopted tip trajectory.

Vukobratovic, M.; Stokic, D.; Hristic, D.

1975-01-01

398

Analyses and comparison of a novel, hybrid, multifunctional orthopedic composite and implant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the orthopedic/medical device industry, 2, 2' -bis-(4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)- and diurethanedimethacrylate (DUDMA)-based polymeric biomaterials have become well-known substitutes for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)- and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based biomaterials, respectively. The development of these polymeric biomaterials cannot continue without direct comparison studies against currently marketed materials. The initiative for this research stems wholly from developing analytical methodologies that assist in qualifying novel biomaterials under development, by evaluating their chemical properties, performance, and safety. The goals of this research were: (i) Characterize the assay/quality of every resin component and quantify elution of extractable monomers from novel, DUDMA-based RHAKOSS(TM) implant, (ii) Determine degree of conversion (alpha) and rate of polymerization (Rp) for novel, Bis-GMA-based CORTOSS(TM) composite, (iii) Assess risk for radical-induced post-surgical cytotoxicity for CORTOSS, (iv) Determine if surface radical chemistries occur for sterilized RHAKOSS and assess its oxidative stability, and (v) Quantify antibiotic elution from antibiotic-impregnated CORTOSS and identify factors that control elution. The phenomena studied necessitated the utilization of several analytical spectroscopic techniques; fluorometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), attenuated total reflectance---Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A battery of lateral chemical techniques were employed as well; including molecular derivatization/tagging, phase partitioning, spin-trapping, and thermal annealing. Results demonstrated that RHAKOSS monomer percent compositions were prepared according to formulations and monomer elution was virtually undetectable, serving as an empirical gauge to portend degree of polymerization (DOP). A high alpha was reported for CORTOSS and essentially all bifunctional monomers had at least one functional group polymerized, stressing low monomer elution potential. Regarding cytotoxicity, CORTOSS impeded further production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH), whereas RHAKOSS did not facilitate the Fenton reaction but displayed some chelating abilities. Residual radicals in RHAKOSS were easily terminated, thus not projected to form oxidative degradants. Additionally, significant antibiotic concentrations, over extended durations, eluted from CORTOSS in linear-type fashion, advocating a sustained therapeutic effect, and phase partitioning correlated antibiotic release to hydrophilicity. The incurred data comprehensively argues in favor of the excellent biocompatibility that CORTOSS and RHAKOSS inherently possess, and was definitive in rendering them as advanced biomaterials, possessing favorable chemical properties.

Dicicco, Michael

399

Dexterous manipulation planning for a planar whole-arm manipulation system  

E-print Network

. Joint control-mode partitioning 2. Computing effort bounds 32 34 3. Gravitational Wrenches on links and palms B, C-Functions in the System's Configuration Space 38 1. C-functions involved at a Sliding Contact 2. C-functions involved at a Rolling... workpieces. Contacts are allowed on all surfaces of the manipulator, both on fingers and palms. Henceforth we refer to this type of manipulation as whole-arm manipulation and to our planar as a whole-arm manipulation planner. More specifically, planning...

Son, Wookho

1996-01-01

400

Manipulating meat quality and composition.  

PubMed

Meat quality describes the attractiveness of meat to consumers. The present paper focuses on two major aspects of meat quality, tenderness and flavour. Both aspects of quality can be influenced by nutrition, principally through its effects on the amount and type of fat in meat. In several countries, high levels of intramuscular fat (marbling fat), i.e. above 30 g/kg muscle weight in longissimus, are deemed necessary for optimum tenderness, although poor relationships between fat content and tenderness have generally been found in European studies, where fat levels are often very low, e.g. below 10 g/kg in UK pigs. Muscle lipid may be a marker for red oxidative (type 1) muscle fibres which are found at higher concentrations in tender muscles and carcasses. Nutritional treatment can be used to manipulate the fatty acid content of muscle to improve nutritional balance, i.e. increase the polyunsaturated (PUFA): saturated fatty acid value and reduce the n-6:n-3 PUFA value. Increasing PUFA levels may also change flavour because of their greater susceptibility to oxidative breakdown and the generation of abnormal volatile compounds during cooking. This situation particularly applies to the n-3 PUFA which are the most unsaturated meat lipids. In pigs, a concentration of 3 mg alpha-linolenic acid (18:3)/100 mg in muscle and fat tissue fatty acids can easily be achieved by including whole linseed in the diet. This level has led to abnormal odours and flavours in some studies, but not in others. In cattle and sheep, feeding whole linseed raised 18:3 concentrations in muscle fatty acids from about 0.7 mg/100 mg to > 1 mg/100 mg. As with pigs, this diet also increased levels of long-chain n-3 PUFA formed from 18:3, including eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5). Although this increase led to greater oxidative breakdown of lipids during storage and the generation of large quantities of lipid-derived volatile compounds during cooking, there were no deleterious effects on odour or flavour. When 18:3 levels are raised in lamb and beef because of grass feeding, the intensity of the flavours increases in comparison with grain-fed animals which consume and deposit relatively more linoleic acid (18:2). In ruminants, very high levels of 18:2 produced by feeding protected oil supplements cause the cooked beef to be described as oily, bland or pork-like. PMID:10466178

Wood, J D; Enser, M; Fisher, A V; Nute, G R; Richardson, R I; Sheard, P R

1999-05-01

401

Patient-focused measures of functional health status and health-related quality of life in pediatric orthopedics: A case study in measurement selection  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this report are to review the assessment of patient-focused outcomes in pediatric orthopedic surgery, to describe a framework for identifying appropriate sets of measures, and to illustrate an application of the framework to a challenging orthopedic problem. A detailed framework of study design and measurement factors is described. The factors are important for selecting appropriate instruments to measure health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in a particular context. A study to evaluate treatment alternatives for patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and congenital tibial dysplasia (NF1-CTD) provides a rich illustration of the application of the framework. The application involves great variability in the instrument selection factors. Furthermore, these patients and their supportive caregivers face numerous complex health challenges with long-term implications for HRQL. Detailed summaries of important generic preference-based multi-attribute measurement systems, pediatric health profile instruments, and pediatric orthopedic-specific instruments are presented. Age-appropriate generic and specific measures are identified for study of NF1-CTD patients. Selected measures include the Activities Scale for Children, Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire Walking Scale, Health Utilities Index, and Pediatric Inventory of Quality of Life. Reliable and valid measures for application to pediatric orthopedics are available. There are important differences among measures. The selected measures complement each other. The framework in this report provides a guide for selecting appropriate measures. Application of appropriate sets of measures will enhance the ability to describe the morbidity of pediatric orthopedic patients and to assess the effectiveness of alternative clinical interventions. The framework for measurement of health status and HRQL from a patient perspective has relevance to many other areas of orthopedic practice. PMID:15647118

Furlong, William; Barr, Ronald D; Feeny, David; Yandow, Suzanne

2005-01-01

402

Blended learning approach improves teaching in a problem-based learning environment in orthopedics - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background While e-learning is enjoying increasing popularity as adjunct in modern teaching, studies on this topic should shift from mere evaluation of students’ satisfaction towards assessing its benefits on enhancement of knowledge and skills. This pilot study aimed to detect the teaching effects of a blended learning program on students of orthopedics and traumatology in the context of a problem-based learning environment. Methods The project NESTOR (network for students in traumatology and orthopedics) was offered to students in a problem-based learning course. Participants completed written tests before and directly after the course, followed by a final written test and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) as well as an evaluation questionnaire at the end of the semester. Results were compared within the group of NESTOR users and non-users and between these two groups. Results Participants (n?=?53) rated their experiences very positively. An enhancement in knowledge was found directly after the course and at the final written test for both groups (p?

2014-01-01

403

Bilateral Simultaneous Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: A Case Report and National Survey of Orthopedic Surgeon Management Preference  

PubMed Central

Unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common injury seen by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. However, a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury is extremely rare and has been reported only three times in the literature. We present a young female skier with simultaneous bilateral ACL tears that were managed with staged ACL reconstruction. We then conducted a nationwide survey (United States) to determine the prevalence of simultaneous bilateral ACL tear and preferred management strategies by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. Sports medicine fellowship directors were contacted and asked to send an 8-item survey to colleagues (sports medicine fellowship trained surgeons) asking about overall number of ACL reconstructions performed, number of bilateral simultaneous ACL injuries seen and optimal management strategies of such an injury. Out of 43 responses, only 22 (51.2%) surgeons had seen a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury. Of these, 16 (76.2%) preferred staged reconstruction. Graft choice was mixed between autograft and allograft, but a large majority preferred either patellar tendon autograft (58%) or hamstring autograft (41%) were the most common choice. Staged reconstruction is the treatment of choice by surgeons surveyed in our study. PMID:25568728

Saadat, Ehsan; Curry, Emily J.; Li, Xinning; Matzkin, Elizabeth G.

2014-01-01

404

Bilateral simultaneous anterior cruciate ligament injury: a case report and national survey of orthopedic surgeon management preference.  

PubMed

Unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common injury seen by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. However, a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury is extremely rare and has been reported only three times in the literature. We present a young female skier with simultaneous bilateral ACL tears that were managed with staged ACL reconstruction. We then conducted a nationwide survey (United States) to determine the prevalence of simultaneous bilateral ACL tear and preferred management strategies by sports medicine orthopedic surgeons. Sports medicine fellowship directors were contacted and asked to send an 8-item survey to colleagues (sports medicine fellowship trained surgeons) asking about overall number of ACL reconstructions performed, number of bilateral simultaneous ACL injuries seen and optimal management strategies of such an injury. Out of 43 responses, only 22 (51.2%) surgeons had seen a bilateral simultaneous ACL injury. Of these, 16 (76.2%) preferred staged reconstruction. Graft choice was mixed between autograft and allograft, but a large majority preferred either patellar tendon autograft (58%) or hamstring autograft (41%) were the most common choice. Staged reconstruction is the treatment of choice by surgeons surveyed in our study. PMID:25568728

Saadat, Ehsan; Curry, Emily J; Li, Xinning; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

2014-10-27

405

Differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacterial pathogens to 405-nm light highlighting potential for decontamination applications in orthopedic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Healthcare associated infections pose a major threat to patients admitted to hospitals and infection rates following orthopedic arthroplasty surgery are as high as 4%. A 405-nm high-intensity narrow spectrum light has been proven to reduce environmental contamination in hospital isolation rooms, and there is potential to develop this technology for application in arthroplasty surgery. Cultured rat osteoblasts were exposed to varying light intensities and it was found that exposures of up to a dose of 36 J/cm2 had no significant effect on cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay], function (alkaline phosphatase activity), and proliferation rate (BrdU cell proliferation assay). High irradiance exposures (54 J/cm2) significantly affected the cell viability indicating that the effects of 405-nm light on osteoblasts are dose dependent. Additionally, exposure of a variety of clinically related bacteria to a dose of 36 J/cm2 resulted in up to 100% kill. These results demonstrating the differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacteria to 405-nm light are an essential step toward developing the technique for decontamination in orthopedic surgery.

Ramakrishnan, Praveen; Maclean, Michelle; MacGregor, Scott J.; Anderson, John G.; Grant, M. Helen

2014-10-01

406

Chemical functionalization of graphene to augment stem cell osteogenesis and inhibit biofilm formation on polymer composites for orthopedic applications.  

PubMed

Toward designing the next generation of resorbable biomaterials for orthopedic applications, we studied poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) composites containing graphene. The role, if any, of the functionalization of graphene on mechanical properties, stem cell response, and biofilm formation was systematically evaluated. PCL composites of graphene oxide (GO), reduced GO (RGO), and amine-functionalized GO (AGO) were prepared at different filler contents (1%, 3%, and 5%). Although the addition of the nanoparticles to PCL markedly increased the storage modulus, this increase was largest for GO followed by AGO and RGO. In vitro cell studies revealed that the AGO and GO particles significantly increased human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation. AGO was most effective in augmenting stem cell osteogenesis leading to mineralization. Bacterial studies revealed that interaction with functionalized GO induced bacterial cell death because of membrane damage, which was further accentuated by amine groups in AGO. As a result, AGO composites were best at inhibiting biofilm formation. The synergistic effect of oxygen containing functional groups and amine groups on AGO imparts the optimal combination of improved modulus, favorable stem cell response, and biofilm inhibition in AGO-reinforced composites desired for orthopedic applications. This work elucidates the importance of chemical functionalization of graphene in polymer composites for biomedical applications. PMID:25584679

Kumar, Sachin; Raj, Shammy; Kolanthai, Elayaraja; Sood, A K; Sampath, S; Chatterjee, Kaushik

2015-02-11

407

A pilot study to determine the effects of a supine sacroiliac orthopedic blocking procedure on cervical spine extensor isometric strength?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if an orthopedic pelvic blocking procedure affects cervical spine extensor isometric strength. Methods Twenty-two participants were sequentially assigned into treatment and control groups. Treatment consisted of a 2-minute procedure using orthopedic blocks (padded wedges with a 45° incline) that were placed bilaterally under the ilia as determined by leg length assessment. Isometric strength measurements took place in 2 sessions with a day of rest between. The treatment group received therapy at the second session immediate to postisometric measures. Results Outcome measures were the pre- and posttreatment measurements of cervical isometric extension strength in pounds. The t tests showed no statistically significant difference between groups in isometric extension strength before treatment. One-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference between groups after treatment (F1,21 = 7.174, P = .014). The treatment group demonstrated an average increase of 6.35 (8.18) lb in extensor strength. Conclusions The current study showed a statistically significant change in cervical isometric extensor strength after sacroiliac joint blocking. PMID:19646387

Giggey, Kristan; Tepe, Rodger

2009-01-01

408

Predicting Postoperative Vomiting for Orthopedic Patients Receiving Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia with the Application of an Artificial Neural Network  

PubMed Central

Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) was used in many patients receiving orthopedic surgery to reduce postoperative pain but is accompanied with certain incidence of vomiting. Predictions of the vomiting event, however, were addressed by only a few authors using logistic regression (LR) models. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are pattern-recognition tools that can be used to detect complex patterns within data sets. The purpose of this study was to develop the ANN based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA used. From January to March 2007, the PCEA records of 195 patients receiving PCEA after orthopedic surgery were used to develop the two predicting models. The ANN model had a largest area under curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The areas under ROC curves of ANN and LR models were 0.900 and 0.761, respectively. The computer-based predictive model should be useful in increasing vigilance in those patients most at risk for vomiting while PCEA is used, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention, or even in suggesting the use of alternative methods of analgesia. PMID:25162027

Ting, Chien-Kun; Lin, Shih-Pin

2014-01-01

409

Collision detection of manipulator based on adaptive control law  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a collision detection method of a manipulator based on the nonlinear adaptive control law proposed by Slotine and Li (1988). The collision of a manipulator with its environment is detected by the difference between the actual input torques to the manipulator and the reference input torques calculated based on the manipulator dynamics. An adaptive control

T. Matsumoto; Kazuhiro Kosuge

2001-01-01

410

Force computation and continuous path tracking for hydraulic parallel manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine tools, robots and parallel manipulators are useful platforms in manufacturing. For parallel manipulators, developing contour tracking ability and clarifying the role of force computation are of significance.This work presents a novel contour tracking control with force computation for hydraulic parallel manipulators. Different trajectories are used to evaluate the tracking errors on an empirical hydraulic parallel manipulator. The proposed control

Jih-Hua Chin; Yen-His Sun; Yuan-Ming Cheng

2008-01-01

411

Detecting Manipulation in Cup and Round Robin Sports Competitions  

E-print Network

Detecting Manipulation in Cup and Round Robin Sports Competitions Tyrel Russell Cheriton School numerous cases where individual athletes and teams have thrown games and colluded to manipulate sports are computationally hard to manipulate and thus possibly resistant to manipulation. In contrast, in this paper we

van Beek, Peter

412

Function and Manipulation Knowledge of Tools 1 Supplementary Online Materials  

E-print Network

Function and Manipulation Knowledge of Tools 1 Supplementary Online Materials Experiment 1 Inverse): function decisions were significantly faster than manipulation decisions. There was a main effect as in the response time analysis in Experiment 1. Manipulation judgments with words were slower than manipulation

Mahon, Bradford Z.

413

On Manipulation of Objects in ThreeFingered Grasp  

E-print Network

On Manipulation of Objects in Three­Fingered Grasp Dominique P. Chevallier \\Lambda , Shahram, CANADA Abstract Manipulation of the grasped object is defined as the ability of the mechanical end reference frame). This class of manipulation is usually referred to as the fine manipulation whereas

Payandeh, Shahram

414

Giant Optical Manipulation Vladlen G. Shvedov,1,2,3  

E-print Network

optical manipulation of particles into a gas media and provides a full control over trapped particlesGiant Optical Manipulation Vladlen G. Shvedov,1,2,3 Andrei V. Rode,1 Yana V. Izdebskaya,2,3 Anton S trapping and manipulation increasing more than 1000 times the manipulation distance by harnessing strong

415

Kinematic Manipulability of General Constrained Rigid Multibody Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the kinematic manipulability concept commonly used for serial manipulators to general con- strained rigid multibody systems. Examples of such systems include multiple cooperating manipulators, multiple fingers hold- ing a payload, multileg walking robots, and variable geometry trusses. Explicit formulas for velocity and force manipulability ellipsoids are derived and their duality explained. Singularities are classified into two types:

John T. Wen; Lee S. Wilfinger

1998-01-01

416

Direct manipulation of virtual objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interacting with a Virtual Environment (VE) generally requires the user to correctly perceive the relative position and orientation of virtual objects. For applications requiring interaction in personal space, the user may also need to accurately judge the position of the virtual object relative to that of a real object, for example, a virtual button and the user's real hand. This is difficult since VEs generally only provide a subset of the cues experienced in the real world. Complicating matters further, VEs presented by currently available visual displays may be inaccurate or distorted due to technological limitations. Fundamental physiological and psychological aspects of vision as they pertain to the task of object manipulation were thoroughly reviewed. Other sensory modalities -- proprioception, haptics, and audition -- and their cross-interactions with each other and with vision are briefly discussed. Visual display technologies, the primary component of any VE, were canvassed and compared. Current applications and research were gathered and categorized by different VE types and object interaction techniques. While object interaction research abounds in the literature, pockets of research gaps remain. Direct, dexterous, manual interaction with virtual objects in Mixed Reality (MR), where the real, seen hand accurately and effectively interacts with virtual objects, has not yet been fully quantified. An experimental test bed was designed to provide the highest accuracy attainable for salient visual cues in personal space. Optical alignment and user calibration were carefully performed. The test bed accommodated the full continuum of VE types and sensory modalities for comprehensive comparison studies. Experimental designs included two sets, each measuring depth perception and object interaction. The first set addressed the extreme end points of the Reality-Virtuality (R-V) continuum -- Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and Reality Environment (RE). This validated, linked, and extended several previous research findings, using one common test bed and participant pool. The results provided a proven method and solid reference points for further research. The second set of experiments leveraged the first to explore the full R-V spectrum and included additional, relevant sensory modalities. It consisted of two full-factorial experiments providing for rich data and key insights into the effect of each type of environment and each modality on accuracy and timeliness of virtual object interaction. The empirical results clearly showed that mean depth perception error in personal space was less than four millimeters whether the stimuli presented were real, virtual, or mixed. Likewise, mean error for the simple task of pushing a button was less than four millimeters whether the button was real or virtual. Mean task completion time was less than one second. Key to the high accuracy and quick task performance time observed was the correct presentation of the visual cues, including occlusion, stereoscopy, accommodation, and convergence. With performance results already near optimal level with accurate visual cues presented, adding proprioception, audio, and haptic cues did not significantly improve performance. Recommendations for future research include enhancement of the visual display and further experiments with more complex tasks and additional control variables.

Nguyen, Long K.

417

Chapter 45. Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom Interaction Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom Interaction  

E-print Network

Chapter 45. Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom Interaction 45-1 Quantum Manipulation Using Light-Atom atomic clock operating below the standard quantum limit Sponsors DARPA National Science Foundation to a single measurement using N/Tc atoms. For a given total measurement time the stability improves

418

Micro-manipulation using rotational fluid flows induced by remote magnetic micro-manipulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a non-contact manipulation method for micron scale objects using locally induced rotational fluid flows created by groups of untethered magnetic micro-manipulators. The magnetic micro-manipulators are rotated in a viscous fluid by an externally generated magnetic field to create rotational flows, which act to move micro-objects in the flow region. One single spherical micro-manipulator is used to manipulate one object at a time, while an array of micro-manipulators spin in synchrony on a surface patterned with magnetic micro-docks to create reconfigurable fluidic channels for simultaneous transportation of multiple objects. The induced rotational flow field and the resulting hydrodynamic forces on the micro-objects are studied using both finite element solutions and analytical models from previous studies. These results are compared with experiment to determine manipulation characteristics for the complex flows. Due to its untethered and non-contact operation, this micro-manipulation method could be used to quickly move fragile or non-fragile micro-objects in inaccessible or enclosed spaces such as in lab-on-a-chip devices.

Ye, Zhou; Diller, Eric; Sitti, Metin

2012-09-01

419

ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees  

E-print Network

ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees 8/10/01 1 ATV: display and manipulation of annotated phylogenetic trees Christian M. Zmasek and Sean R. Eddy Howard Hughes Medical: {zmasek,eddy}@genetics.wustl.edu Key words: tree display, tree viewer, phylogenetic tree, java

Eddy, Sean

420

A Molecular Analysis of Training Multiple versus Single Manipulations to Establish a Generalized Manipulative Imitation Repertoire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the necessity of training multiple versus single manipulative-imitations per object in order to establish generalized manipulative-imitation. Training took place in Croyden Avenue School's Early Childhood Developmental Delay preschool classroom in Kalamazoo, MI. Two groups of 3 children each were trained to imitate in order to…

Hartley, Breanne K.

2009-01-01

421

Precision manipulation with a dextrous robot hand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we discuss a framework for describing and synthesizing precision manipulation tasks with a robot hand. Precision manipulations are those in which the motions of grasped objects are caused by finger motions alone (as distinct from arm or wrist motion). Experiments demonstrating the capabilities of the Utah-MIT hand are presented. This work begins by examining current research on biological motor control to raise a number of questions. For example, is the control centralized and organized by a central processor? Or is the control distributed throughout the nervous system? Motor control research on manipulation has focused on developing classifications of hand motions, concentrating solely on finger motions, while neglecting grasp stability and interaction forces that occur in manipulation. In addition, these taxonomies have not been explicitly functional. This thesis defines and analyzes a basic set of manipulation strategies that includes both position and force trajectories. The fundamental purposes of the manipulations are: (1) rectilinear and rotational motion of grasped objects of different geometries; and (2) the application of forces and moments against the environment by the grasped objects. First, task partitioning is described to allocate the fingers their roles in the task. Second, for each strategy, the mechanics and workspace of the tasks are analyzed geometrically to determine the gross finger trajectories required to achieve the tasks. Techniques illustrating the combination of simple manipulations into complex, multiple degree-of-freedom tasks are presented. There is a discussion of several tasks that use multiple elementary strategies. The tasks described are removing the top of a childproof medicine bottle, putting the top back on, rotating and regrasping a block and a cylinder within the grasp. Finally, experimental results are presented. The experimental setup at Columbia University's Center for Research in Intelligent Systems and experiments with a Utah-MIT hand is discussed. First, the overall system design is described. Two hybrid position/force controllers were designed and built. After a discussion of the entire system, experimental results are presented describing each of the basic manipulation and complex manipulation strategies.

Michelman, Paul

1994-01-01

422

Singularity of a novel five-DOF parallel manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the singularity of a five-degree-of-freedom 3-RRUR parallel manipulator, presents singularity equations and the geometry conditions of singularity of the 3-RRUR parallel manipulator. The input plan is optimized based on the analysis on singularity of the manipulator. The special characteristics in singularity of the parallel manipulator is given. This parallel manipulator can be used to build industrial robots

Lumin Wang; Yanwen Li

2010-01-01

423

Dynamic whole-body robotic manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation of dynamic manipulation behaviors for high degree of freedom, mobile robots will allow them to accomplish increasingly difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating how the coordinated use of the body, legs, and integrated manipulator, on a mobile robot, can improve the strength, velocity, and workspace when handling heavy objects. We envision that such a capability would aid in a search and rescue scenario when clearing obstacles from a path or searching a rubble pile quickly. Manipulating heavy objects is especially challenging because the dynamic forces are high and a legged system must coordinate all its degrees of freedom to accomplish tasks while maintaining balance. To accomplish these types of manipulation tasks, we use trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. We apply the Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) algorithm to solve for trajectories that optimize task performance while also obeying important constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate desired feed-forward body forces and foot step locations, which enable tracking on the robot. Some hardware results for cinderblock throwing are demonstrated on the BigDog quadruped platform augmented with a human-arm-like manipulator. The results are analogous to how a human athlete maximizes distance in the discus event by performing a precise sequence of choreographed steps.

Abe, Yeuhi; Stephens, Benjamin; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.

2013-05-01

424

Clinical evaluation of a commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction tool for CT simulations in radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Severe artifacts in kilovoltage-CT simulation images caused by large metallic implants can significantly degrade the conspicuity and apparent CT Hounsfield number of targets and anatomic structures, jeopardize the confidence of anatomical segmentation, and introduce inaccuracies into the radiation therapy treatment planning process. This study evaluated the performance of the first commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction function (O-MAR) for radiation therapy, and investigated its clinical applications in treatment planning. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for the evaluation. The CIRS electron density phantom with known physical (and electron) density plugs and removable titanium implants was scanned on a Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16-slice CT simulator. The CT Hounsfield numbers of density plugs on both uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images were compared. Treatment planning accuracy was evaluated by comparing simulated dose distributions computed using the true density images, uncorrected images, and O-MAR corrected images. Ten CT image sets of patients with large hip implants were processed with the O-MAR function and evaluated by two radiation oncologists using a five-point score for overall image quality, anatomical conspicuity, and CT Hounsfield number accuracy. By utilizing the same structure contours delineated from the O-MAR corrected images, clinical IMRT treatment plans for five patients were computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images, respectively, and compared. Results: Results of the phantom study indicated that CT Hounsfield number accuracy and noise were improved on the O-MAR corrected images, especially for images with bilateral metal implants. The ? pass rates of the simulated dose distributions computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images referenced to those of the true densities were higher than 99.9% (even when using 1% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criterion), suggesting that dose distributions were clinically identical. In all patient cases, radiation oncologists rated O-MAR corrected images as higher quality. Formerly obscured critical structures were able to be visualized. The overall image quality and the conspicuity in critical organs were significantly improved compared with the uncorrected images: overall quality score (1.35 vs 3.25, P = 0.0022); bladder (2.15 vs 3.7, P = 0.0023); prostate and seminal vesicles/vagina (1.3 vs 3.275, P = 0.0020); rectum (2.8 vs 3.9, P = 0.0021). The noise levels of the selected ROIs were reduced from 93.7 to 38.2 HU. On most cases (8/10), the average CT Hounsfield numbers of the prostate/vagina on the O-MAR corrected images were closer to the referenced value (41.2 HU, an average measured from patients without metal implants) than those on the uncorrected images. High ? pass rates of the five IMRT dose distribution pairs indicated that the dose distributions were not significantly affected by the CT image improvements. Conclusions: Overall, this study indicated that the O-MAR function can remarkably reduce metal artifacts and improve both CT Hounsfield number accuracy and target and critical structure visualization. Although there was no significant impact of the O-MAR algorithm on the calculated dose distributions, we suggest that O-MAR corrected images are more suitable for the entire treatment planning process by offering better anatomical structure visualization, improving radiation oncologists’ confidence in target delineation, and by avoiding subjective density overrides of artifact regions on uncorrected images. PMID:23231300

Li, Hua; Noel, Camille; Chen, Haijian; Harold Li, H.; Low, Daniel; Moore, Kevin; Klahr, Paul; Michalski, Jeff; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa

2012-01-01

425

Clinical evaluation of a commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction tool for CT simulations in radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Severe artifacts in kilovoltage-CT simulation images caused by large metallic implants can significantly degrade the conspicuity and apparent CT Hounsfield number of targets and anatomic structures, jeopardize the confidence of anatomical segmentation, and introduce inaccuracies into the radiation therapy treatment planning process. This study evaluated the performance of the first commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction function (O-MAR) for radiation therapy, and investigated its clinical applications in treatment planning. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for the evaluation. The CIRS electron density phantom with known physical (and electron) density plugs and removable titanium implants was scanned on a Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16-slice CT simulator. The CT Hounsfield numbers of density plugs on both uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images were compared. Treatment planning accuracy was evaluated by comparing simulated dose distributions computed using the true density images, uncorrected images, and O-MAR corrected images. Ten CT image sets of patients with large hip implants were processed with the O-MAR function and evaluated by two radiation oncologists using a five-point score for overall image quality, anatomical conspicuity, and CT Hounsfield number accuracy. By utilizing the same structure contours delineated from the O-MAR corrected images, clinical IMRT treatment plans for five patients were computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images, respectively, and compared. Results: Results of the phantom study indicated that CT Hounsfield number accuracy and noise were improved on the O-MAR corrected images, especially for images with bilateral metal implants. The {gamma} pass rates of the simulated dose distributions computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images referenced to those of the true densities were higher than 99.9% (even when using 1% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criterion), suggesting that dose distributions were clinically identical. In all patient cases, radiation oncologists rated O-MAR corrected images as higher quality. Formerly obscured critical structures were able to be visualized. The overall image quality and the conspicuity in critical organs were significantly improved compared with the uncorrected images: overall quality score (1.35 vs 3.25, P= 0.0022); bladder (2.15 vs 3.7, P= 0.0023); prostate and seminal vesicles/vagina (1.3 vs 3.275, P= 0.0020); rectum (2.8 vs 3.9, P= 0.0021). The noise levels of the selected ROIs were reduced from 93.7 to 38.2 HU. On most cases (8/10), the average CT Hounsfield numbers of the prostate/vagina on the O-MAR corrected images were closer to the referenced value (41.2 HU, an average measured from patients without metal implants) than those on the uncorrected images. High {gamma} pass rates of the five IMRT dose distribution pairs indicated that the dose distributions were not significantly affected by the CT image improvements. Conclusions: Overall, this study indicated that the O-MAR function can remarkably reduce metal artifacts and improve both CT Hounsfield number accuracy and target and critical structure visualization. Although there was no significant impact of the O-MAR algorithm on the calculated dose distributions, we suggest that O-MAR corrected images are more suitable for the entire treatment planning process by offering better anatomical structure visualization, improving radiation oncologists' confidence in target delineation, and by avoiding subjective density overrides of artifact regions on uncorrected images.

Li Hua; Noel, Camille; Chen, Haijian; Harold Li, H.; Low, Daniel; Moore, Kevin; Klahr, Paul; Michalski, Jeff; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Philips Healthcare System, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2012-12-15

426

Dynamics and control of coordinated multiple manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is presented for controlling multiple manipulators which are holding a single object and therefore form a closed kinematic chain. The object, which may or may not be in contact with a rigid environment, is assumed to be held rigidly by robot end-effectors. The derivation is based on setting up constraint equations which reduce the 6 x n degrees of freedom of a manipulators each having six joints. Additional constraint equations are considered when one or more of the degrees of freedom of the object is reduced due to external constraints. Utilizing the operational space dynamics equations, a decoupling controller is designed to control both the position and the interaction forces of the object with the environment. Finally, simulation results for the control of a pair of two-link manipulators are presented.

Hayati, S. A.

1987-01-01

427

Design of multivariable controllers for robot manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a simple method for the design of linear multivariable controllers for multi-link robot manipulators. The control scheme consists of multivariable feedforward and feedback controllers. The feedforward controller is the minimal inverse of the linearized model of robot dynamics and contains only proportional-double-derivative (PD2) terms. This controller ensures that the manipulator joint angles track any reference trajectories. The feedback controller is of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type and achieves pole placement. This controller reduces any initial tracking error to zero as desired and also ensures that robust steady-state tracking of step-plus-exponential trajectories is achieved by the joint angles. The two controllers are independent of each other and are designed separately based on the linearized robot model and then integrated in the overall control scheme. The proposed scheme is simple and can be implemented for real-time control of robot manipulators.

Seraji, H.

1986-01-01

428

Ultrasonic resonator for manipulation of bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic manipulation is a contactless and gentle method to manipulate a large number of particles. The method presented here exploits the advantage to simultaneously move bacteria away from a surface by means of acoustic radiation forces. The device for the manipulation consists of five layers (transducer, epoxy adhesive layer, carrier, fluid, reflector), stacked like a conventional planar resonator. The resonator behavior was simulated using the transfer matrix method (TMM). Validation of the model was realized with admittance measurements performed over a wide frequency range (100 kHz - 16 MHz). The TMM-model was used to optimize frequency, layer thickness and material of the resonator in order to find a combination with a high force potential gradient pointing away from the reflector surface into the fluid. The resonator has been experimentally tested with polystyrene particles (1 ?m in diameter) which revealed a good matching with the TMM-model. First preliminary tests with Salmonella Thyphimurium have been done.

Schwarz, T.; Dual, J.

2012-05-01

429

Force reflecting hand controller for manipulator teleoperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A force reflecting hand controller based upon a six degree of freedom fully parallel mechanism, often termed a Stewart Platform, has been designed, constructed, and tested as an integrated system with a slave robot manipulator test bed. A force reflecting hand controller comprises a kinesthetic device capable of transmitting position and orientation commands to a slave robot manipulator while simultaneously representing the environmental interaction forces of the slave manipulator back to the operator through actuators driving the hand controller mechanism. The Stewart Platform was chosen as a novel approach to improve force reflecting teleoperation because of its inherently high ratio of load generation capability to system mass content and the correspondingly high dynamic bandwidth. An additional novelty of the program was to implement closed loop force and torque control about the hand controller mechanism by equipping the handgrip with a six degree of freedom force and torque measuring cell. The mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems are discussed and system tests are presented.

Bryfogle, Mark D.

1991-01-01

430

Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

1989-01-01

431

Optical trapping and manipulation of nanostructures.  

PubMed

Optical trapping and manipulation of micrometre-sized particles was first reported in 1970. Since then, it has been successfully implemented in two size ranges: the subnanometre scale, where light-matter mechanical coupling enables cooling of atoms, ions and molecules, and the micrometre scale, where the momentum transfer resulting from light scattering allows manipulation of microscopic objects such as cells. But it has been difficult to apply these techniques to the intermediate - nanoscale - range that includes structures such as quantum dots, nanowires, nanotubes, graphene and two-dimensional crystals, all of crucial importance for nanomaterials-based applications. Recently, however, several new approaches have been developed and demonstrated for trapping plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanostructures. Here we review the state-of-the-art in optical trapping at the nanoscale, with an emphasis on some of the most promising advances, such as controlled manipulation and assembly of individual and multiple nanostructures, force measurement with femtonewton resolution, and biosensors. PMID:24202536

Maragò, Onofrio M; Jones, Philip H; Gucciardi, Pietro G; Volpe, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea C

2013-11-01

432

Coordinated Control Of Mobile Robotic Manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computationally efficient scheme developed for on-line coordinated control of both manipulation and mobility of robots that include manipulator arms mounted on mobile bases. Applicable to variety of mobile robotic manipulators, including robots that move along tracks (typically, painting and welding robots), robots mounted on gantries and capable of moving in all three dimensions, wheeled robots, and compound robots (consisting of robots mounted on other robots). Theoretical basis discussed in several prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, including "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801), "Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles" (NPO-17852), "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556), "More Uses for Configuration Control of Robots" (NPO-18607/NPO-18608).

Seraji, Homayoun

1995-01-01

433

Animal genetic manipulation--a utilitarian response.  

PubMed

I examine the process and outcomes of animal genetic manipulation ('transgenesis') with reference to its morally salient features. I consider several objections to transgenesis. I examine and reject the alleged intrinsic wrongness of 'deliberate genetic sequence alteration,' as I do the notion that transgenesis may lead to human genetic manipulation. I examine the alleged wrongness of killing inherent in transgenesis, and suggest that the concept of 'replaceability' successfully justifies such killing, although not for entities deemed to possess 'personhood.' I examine 'significant suffering' associated with transgenesis and propose the radical conclusion that, although it would be wrong to prohibit animal genetic manipulation per se, utilitarians ought to support a 'default prohibition' on transgenic experiments that entail significant suffering. PMID:12061384

Smith, Kevin R

2002-02-01

434

Electrochemical Processes Enhanced by Acoustic Liquid Manipulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic liquid manipulation is a family of techniques that employ the nonlinear acoustic effects of acoustic radiation pressure and acoustic streaming to manipulate the behavior of liquids. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are exploring new methods of manipulating liquids for a variety of space applications, and we have found that acoustic techniques may also be used in the normal Earth gravity environment to enhance the performance of existing fluid processes. Working in concert with the NASA Commercial Technology Office, the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center, and Alchemitron Corporation (Elgin, IL), researchers at Glenn have applied nonlinear acoustic principles to industrial applications. Collaborating with Alchemitron Corporation, we have adapted the devices to create acoustic streaming in a conventional electroplating process.

Oeftering, Richard C.

2004-01-01

435

Design of a reconfigurable modular manipulator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using manipulators with a fixed configuration for specific tasks is appropriate when the task requirements are known beforehand. However, in less predictable situations, such as an outdoor construction site or aboard a space station, a manipulator system requires a wide range of capabilities, probably beyond the limitations of a single, fixed-configuration manipulator. To fulfill this need, researchers have been working on a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System (RMMS). Researchers have designed and are constructing a prototype RMMS. The prototype currently consists of two joint modules and four link modules. The joints utilize a conventional harmonic drive and torque motor actuator, with a small servo amplifier included in the assembly. A brushless resolver is used to sense the joint position and velocity. For coupling the modules together, a standard electrical connector and V-band clamps for mechanical connection are used, although more sophisticated designs are under way for future versions. The joint design yields an output torque to 50 ft-lbf at joint speeds up to 1 radian/second. The resolver and associated electronics have resolutions of 0.0001 radians, and absolute accuracies of plus or minus 0.001 radians. Manipulators configured from these prototype modules will have maximum reaches in the 0.5 to 2 meter range. The real-time RMMS controller consists of a Motorola 68020 single-board computer which will perform real time servo control and path planning of the manipulator. This single board computer communicates via shared memory with a SUN3 workstation, which serves as a software development system and robot programming environment. Researchers have designed a bus communication network to provide multiplexed communication between the joint modules and the computer controller. The bus supports identification of modules, sensing of joint states, and commands to the joint actuator. This network has sufficient bandwidth to allow servo sampling rates in excess of 500 Hz.

Schmitz, D.; Kanade, T.

1987-01-01

436

Hybrid position/force control of manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new conceptually simple approach to controlling compliant motions of a robot manipulator is presented. The 'hybrid' technique described combines force and torque information with positional data to satisfy simultaneous position and force trajectory constraints specified in a convenient task related coordinate system. Analysis, simulation, and experiments are used to evaluate the controller's ability to execute trajectories using feedback from a force sensing wrist and from position sensors found in the manipulator joints. The results show that the method achieves stable, accurate control of force and position trajectories for a variety of test conditions.

Raibert, M. H.; Craig, J. J.

1980-01-01

437

Self-Motion Manifolds Of Redundant Manipulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New perspective on redundancy yields alternative control strategies. Self-motion manifolds introduced to characterization of self-motions of robotic manipulator having redundant degrees of freedom. Kinematics of robot reformulated via manifold mapping stressing global, rather than local, kinematic analysis. Approach useful in study of redundant manipulator kinematics. In addition, problem of resolution of redundancy posed equivalently as problem of control of self-motions, and self-motion manifolds useful in investigating, interpreting, and formulating both local and global techniques for resolution of redundancy.

Burdick, Joel W.; Seraji, Homayoun

1991-01-01

438

TV requirements for manipulation in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four tasks (docking, coupling, manipulation, and transportation), stressing work volume and element relationships, are outlined to test a video system for remote manipulation in space. A 4 degree of freedom motion frame was used to evaluate operating parameters, which grouped the visual dimensions into major areas of influence, e.g., depth precision, object differentiation, reference, dynamics, and resolution. Four video systems were included in the simulation testing: a black and white and a color monoscopic system, a stereoscopic system, and a black and white two-view system. The two-view system was found best suited for the operations described.

Freedman, L. A.; Crooks, W. H.; Coan, P. P.

1977-01-01

439

CAT -- Catalogue and Table Manipulation Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CAT is the Starlink Fortran subroutine library for manipulating astronomical catalogues and similar tabular datasets. This manual is intended for programmers who plan to write applications which use the CAT library to manipulate such datasets. It is introductory in the sense that it contains sufficient information to enable a programmer new to the CAT library to write applications which use it. The version of the library intended for use in conjunction with the Starlink ADAM programming environment is described. All the subroutines in the interface to the library are covered. However, the principles underlying the library, and their justification, are described only insofar as they affect its use.

Davenhall, A. C.; Berry, D. S.

440

Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres  

DOEpatents

A manipulator is disclosed which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern. 8 figs.

Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

1980-02-12

441

Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres  

DOEpatents

A manipulator which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern.

Weinstein, Berthold W. [Livermore, CA; Willenborg, David L. [Livermore, CA

1980-02-12

442

Manipulation of Nonclassical Atomic Spin States  

SciTech Connect

We report successful manipulation of nonclassical atomic spin states. We apply an off-resonant noncircularly-polarized light pulse to a measurement-induced squeezed spin state of a cold atomic ensemble. By changing the pulse duration, we clearly observe a rotation of the anisotropic quantum-noise distribution in good contrast with the case of manipulation of a coherent spin state where the quantum-noise distribution is always isotropic. This is an important step for quantum state tomography, quantum swapping, and precision spectroscopic measurement.

Takano, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Shin-Ichi-Ro; Namiki, Ryo [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshiro [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); CREST, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

2010-01-08

443

Exploration of unknown mechanical assemblies through manipulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If robots must function in unstructured environments, they must also possess the ability to acquire information and construct appropriate models of the unknown environment. This paper addresses the automatic generation of kinematic models of unknown objects with movable parts in the environment. If the relative motion between moving parts must be observed and characterized, vision alone cannot suffice. An approach in which manipulation is used with vision for sensing is better suited to the task of determining kinematic properties. In this paper, algorithms for constructing models of unknown mechanical assemblies and characterizing the relative motion are developed. Results of a simulation are described to demonstrate the role of manipulation in such an endeavor.

Kumar, Vijay R.; Yun, Xiaoping; Bajcsy, Ruzena

1990-01-01

444

The Application of Telemedicine in Orthopedic Surgery in Singapore: A Pilot Study on a Secure, Mobile Telehealth Application and Messaging Platform  

PubMed Central

Background The application of telemedicine has been described for its use in medical training and education, management of stroke patients, urologic surgeries, pediatric laparoscopic surgeries, clinical outreach, and the field of orthopedics. However, the usefulness of a secure, mobile telehealth application, and messaging platform has not been well described. Objective A pilot study was conducted to implement a health insurance portability and accountability act (HIPAA) compliant form of communication between doctors in an orthopedic clinical setting and determine their reactions to MyDoc, a secure, mobile telehealth application, and messaging platform. Methods By replacing current methods of communication through various mobile applications and text messaging services with MyDoc over a six week period, we gained feedback and determined user satisfaction with this innovative system from questionnaires handed to the program director, program coordinator, one trauma consultant, all orthopedic residents, and six non-orthopedic residents at the National University Hospital in Singapore. Results Almost everyone who completed the questionnaire strongly agreed that MyDoc should replace current systems of peer to peer communication in the hospital. The majority also felt that the quality of images, videos, and sound were excellent. Almost everyone agreed that they could communicate easily with each other and would feel comfortable doing so routinely. The majority felt that virtual consults through MyDoc should be made available to inpatients as well as outpatients to potentially lessen clinic loads and provide a secure manner in which patients can communicate with their primary teams any time convenient to both. It was also agreed by most that the potential of telerounding had advantages, especially on weekends as a supplement to normal rounds. Conclusions Potential uses of MyDoc in an orthopedic clinical setting include HIPAA-compliant peer to peer communication, clinical outreach in the setting of trauma, supervision in the operating room or watching procedures being performed remotely, providing both patient and parent reassurance in pediatric orthopedic patients, and finally in the setting of outpatient clinics. With our pilot study having excellent results in terms of acceptance and satisfaction, the integration of a secure, mobile telehealth application, and messaging platform, not only in the orthopedic department but also the hospital in general, has an exciting and limitless potential. More so in this era where downsizing hospital costs is beneficial, doing so may also be mandatory in order to comply with the soon to be introduced personal data protection act. PMID:25100283

Wong, Keng Lin; Thambiah, Joseph

2014-01-01

445

Atomic Manipulation on an Insulator Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manipulation of atomic and molecular species on metal surfaces with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operated at low temperature is a well established method for bottom-up nanofabrication [G. Meyer et al., Single Mol. 1, 79 (2000); N. Lorente, R. Rurali, H. Tang, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, S1049 (2005)], but is limited in its understanding and applications by restrictions inherent to the STM technique. These limitations can be overcome by using a dynamic scanning force microscope (SFM) for atomic manipulation that offers three major advantages compared to STM. First, the force microscope allows a quantification of the forces applied during the manipulation process (see Chap. 9), second, it facilitates manipulation at room temperature (see Chaps. 8 and 11) and, third, the technique allows manipulation on electrically insulating surfaces. However, examples for force controlled manipulation of atomic size species on an insulator surface are still scarce regarding experimental evidence [S. Hirth, F. Ostendorf, M. Reichling, Nanotechnology 17, S148 (2006); R. Nishi et al., Nanotechnology 17, S142 (2006)] as well as theoretical explanation [T. Trevethan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028101 (2007); T. Trevethan et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 085414 (2007)]. Here we demonstrate the force controlled manipulation of water related defects on a CaF2 (111) surface by a raster scanning motion of the tip over a specific surface region. Manipulation is facilitated by repulsive forces exerted by approaching the tip very closely to the detects. We focus mainly on the presentation of manipulation results and discuss the circumstances that allow a control of the manipulation process. The CaF2 (111) surface is specifically well suited for such studies as this surface has been very well characterized by NC-AFM in previous studies [M. Reichling, C. Barth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 768 (1999); C. Barth, M. Reichling, Surf. Sci. 470, L99 (2000); F.J. Giessibl, M. Reichling, Nanotechnology 16, S118 (2005); R. Hoffmann et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17863 (2005)] and contrast formation is understood on a quantitative level [A.S. Foster et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2373 (2001); C. Barth et al., J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 2061 (2001); A.S. Foster et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 235417 (2002)]. Furthermore, the geometric and electronic structures of this surface is well understood from a variety of theoretical simulations [A.V. Puchina et al., Solid State Commun. 106, 285 (1998); V.E. Puchin et al., J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 2081 (2001); Y. Ma, M. Rohlfing, Phys. Rev. B 75, 205114 (2007); Y. Ma, M. Rohlfing, Phys. Rev. B 77, 115118 (2008)]. Therefore, it can be expected that the experimental evidence of force controlled manipulation presented here will finally be fully explained by further theoretical modeling.

Hirth, Sabine; Ostendorf, Frank; Reichling, Michael

446

Effect of the Mandibular Orthopedic Repositioning Appliance (MORA) on Forearm Muscle Activation and Grasping Power during Pinch and Hook Grip  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study verified the changes in muscle activities and grasping power during maximal isometric exercise of the forearm and masseter muscle with and without a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance (MORA). It also offers basic data for defining the correlation of function of hand with mouth. [Methods] EMG was used to measure masticatory muscle, flexor bundle and extensor bundle activities with or without MORA while subjects performed the hook grip and pinch grip. The measuring tool used for measuring grip strength was the same as that used for measuring pinch and hook strength. The subjects were 28 healthy young adults. [Result] Muscle activity and grasping power significantly increased when wearing the MORA. [Conclusion] The result indicates that wearing MORA can increase muscle activity and grasping power of forearm and masseter muscle. We think wearing MORA might help improve the function of the forearm because it activates the function of the masseter. PMID:24648630

Lee, Sang-Yeol; Park, Yi-Jeong; Park, Hye-Min; Bae, Hae-Jin; Yu, Min-Ji; Choi, Hee-Won; Hwang, Na-Young

2014-01-01

447

Cluster analysis of ribotyping profiles of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates recovered from foreign body-associated orthopedic infections.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen of major clinical interest for its high prevalence in implant-associated infections. However, only little information is available on the phylogeny of its major clonal entities and their virulence and resistance markers. Therefore, purpose of this study was to characterize four clusters identified by automated ribotyping of 70 isolates derived from orthopedic, mostly foreign body-related infections. The ica locus, encoding the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, the IS256 insertion element as well as the resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin were all traits uniquely observed in two of these clusters. The phylogenetic analysis of the S. epidermidis clusters offered a detailed insight into the clonal origin of exopolysaccharide- producing and multiresistant strains with transposons appearing to be actively involved in genetic exchanges. PMID:18496868

Campoccia, Davide; Montanaro, Lucio; von Eiff, Christof; Pirini, Valter; Ravaioli, Stefano; Becker, Karsten; Arciola, Carla Renata

2009-03-01

448

Office-based rapid prototyping in orthopedic surgery: a novel planning technique and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3-D) prototyping, based on high-quality axial images, may allow for more accurate and extensive preoperative planning and may even allow surgeons to perform procedures as part of preoperative preparation. In this article, we describe 7 cases of complex orthopedic disorders that were surgically treated after preoperative planning that was based on both industry-provided models and use of our in-house 3-D printer. Commercially available 3-D printers allow for rapid in-office production of a high-quality realistic prototype at relatively low per-case cost. Using this technique, surgeons can assess the accuracy of their original surgical plans and, if necessary, correct them preoperatively. The ability to "perform surgery preoperatively" adds another element to surgeons' perceptions of the potential issues that may arise. PMID:25566552

Schwartz, Adam; Money, Kyle; Spangehl, Mark; Hattrup, Steven; Claridge, Richard J; Beauchamp, Christopher

2015-01-01

449

Microwave assisted preparation of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) for orthopedic applications: a novel solution to the exothermicity problem.  

PubMed

There are two interesting features of this paper. First, we report herein a novel microwave assisted technique to prepare phosphate based orthopedic cements, which do not generate any exothermicity during setting. The exothermic reactions during the setting of phosphate cements can cause tissue damage during the administration of injectable compositions and hence a solution to the problem is sought via microwave processing. This solution through microwave exposure is based on a phenomenon that microwave irradiation can remove all water molecules from the alkaline earth phosphate cement paste to temporarily stop the setting reaction while preserving the active precursor phase in the formulation. The setting reaction can be initiated a second time by adding aqueous medium, but without any exothermicity. Second, a special emphasis is placed on using this technique to synthesize magnesium phosphate cements for orthopedic applications with their enhanced mechanical properties and possible uses as drug and protein delivery vehicles. The as-synthesized cements were evaluated for the occurrences of exothermic reactions, setting times, presence of Mg-phosphate phases, compressive strength levels, microstructural features before and after soaking in (simulated body fluid) SBF, and in vitro cytocompatibility responses. The major results show that exposure to microwaves solves the exothermicity problem, while simultaneously improving the mechanical performance of hardened cements and reducing the setting times. As expected, the cements are also found to be cytocompatible. Finally, it is observed that this process can be applied to calcium phosphate cements system (CPCs) as well. Based on the results, this microwave exposure provides a novel technique for the processing of injectable phosphate bone cement compositions. PMID:23910345

Zhou, Huan; Agarwal, Anand K; Goel, Vijay K; Bhaduri, Sarit B

2013-10-01

450

Mutant MCP-1 protein delivery from layer-by-layer coatings on orthopedic implants to modulate inflammatory response.  

PubMed

Total joint replacement (TJR) is a common and effective surgical procedure for hip or knee joint reconstruction. However, the production of wear particles is inevitable for all TJRs, which activates macrophages and initiates an inflammatory cascade often resulting in bone loss, prosthetic loosening and eventual TJR failure. Macrophage Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) is one of the most potent cytokines responsible for macrophage cell recruitment, and previous studies suggest that mutant MCP-1 proteins such as 7ND may be used as a decoy drug to block the receptor and reduce inflammatory cell recruitment. Here we report the development of a biodegradable, layer-by-layer (LBL) coating platform that allows efficient loading and controlled release of 7ND proteins from the surface of orthopedic implants using as few as 14 layers. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence imaging confirmed effective coating using the LBL procedure on titanium rods. 7ND protein loading concentration and release kinetics can be modulated by varying the polyelectrolytes of choice, the polymer chemistry, the pH of the polyelectrolyte solution, and the degradation rate of the LBL assembly. The released 7ND from LBL coating retained its bioactivity and effectively reduced macrophage migration towards MCP-1. Finally, the LBL coating remained intact following a femoral rod implantation procedure as determined by immunostaining of the 7ND coating. The LBL platform reported herein may be applied for in situ controlled release of 7ND protein from orthopedic implants, to reduce wear particle-induced inflammatory responses in an effort to prolong the lifetime of implants. PMID:24075408

Keeney, Michael; Waters, Heather; Barcay, Katherine; Jiang, Xinyi; Yao, Zhenyu; Pajarinen, Jukka; Egashira, Kensuke; Goodman, Stuart B; Yang, Fan

2013-12-01

451

Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of bemiparin in a large population of orthopedic patients in a normal clinical practice.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a prospective, open, multicenter, observational study to audit the utilization patterns of bemiparin in orthopedic patients in daily clinical practice. They analyzed rates of documented symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) confirmed by objective methods, major bleeding, death, thrombocytopenia, and other adverse events. It was also intended to analyze the influence of concomitant factors (bemiparin dose, concomitant medications, age, and obesity) on VTE and bleeding rates. A total of 7959 patients were included and received bemiparin for 28 days (median). Bemiparin 3500 IU/d was used in 84.9% of patients, whereas bemiparin 2500 IU/d was administered to 15.1% of patients. Reason for prophylaxis (number of cases [%]) included cast immobilization of the leg (2052 [25.8%]), knee replacement (1082 [13.6%]), hip replacement (876 [11.0%]), hip fracture surgery (437 [5.5%]), other lower limb surgery (1569 [19.7%]), knee arthroscopy (769 [9.7%]), and spine surgery (231 [2.9%]). A total of 943 patients with insufficient data on reason for prophylaxis and 560 patients with no outcome assessment were excluded from the analysis of clinical outcomes. Among 6456 assessable patients, the authors found a low rate of documented symptomatic VTE (0.91%), major bleeding (0.17%), deaths (0.37%), and mild to moderate thrombocytopenia (0.51%). None of the major bleedings was fatal or occurred in a critical organ. There were 3 deaths in which fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) could not be ruled out. There were no cases of severe type-II thrombocytopenia. VTE rates were not increased in obese patients, and major bleeding rates were not increased in elderly patients or in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In conclusion, bemiparin prophylaxis, given for 3 to 4 weeks in cast immobilization of the leg and other orthopedic procedures, was associated with low rates of VTE, bleeding, and other adverse events in normal clinical practice. PMID:17895506

Otero-Fernández, Rafael; Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Martínez-González, Javier; Rocha, Eduardo; Fontcuberta, Jordi

2008-01-01

452

Quantum manipulation on the Barium quadrupolar transition  

E-print Network

Quantum manipulation on the Barium quadrupolar transition A diploma thesis in physics submitted and stabilization of a new fiber laser system to ma- nipulate the Barium quadrupolar transition, with the aim with a single Barium ion trapped in a linear Paul trap and Doppler cooled to the Lamb Dicke regime. The narrow

Blatt, Rainer

453

Sensing Local Geometry for Dexterous Manipulation  

E-print Network

inevitably be made among spatial resolution, robustness, pressure sensitivity and the ability to comply of pressure or pressure and shear-sensing elements. The compliance of these sensors can be tailored but://www-cdr.stanford.edu/telemanip Abstract: We describe a new tactile sensor for use in dexterous manipulation and telemanipulation

Stanford University

454

Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... that spinal manipulation is as effective as other interventions for reducing pain and improving function. A 2010 review that looked ... Haldeman S. Synthesis of recommendations for the assessment and management of low back pain from recent clinical practice guidelines. Spine Journal . 2010; ...

455

Flexible manipulator control experiments and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling and control design for flexible manipulators, both from an experimental and analytical viewpoint, are described. From the application perspective, an ongoing effort within the laboratory environment at the Ohio State University, where experimentation on a single link flexible arm is underway is described. Several unique features of this study are described here. First, the manipulator arm is slewed by a direct drive dc motor and has a rigid counterbalance appendage. Current experimentation is from two viewpoints: (1) rigid body slewing and vibration control via actuation with the hub motor, and (2) vibration suppression through the use of structure-mounted proof-mass actuation at the tip. Such an application to manipulator control is of interest particularly in design of space-based telerobotic control systems, but has received little attention to date. From an analytical viewpoint, parameter estimation techniques within the closed-loop for self-tuning adaptive control approaches are discussed. Also introduced is a control approach based on output feedback and frequency weighting to counteract effects of spillover in reduced-order model design. A model of the flexible manipulator based on experimental measurements is evaluated for such estimation and control approaches.

Yurkovich, S.; Ozguner, U.; Tzes, A.; Kotnik, P. T.

1987-01-01

456

Visualizing and Manipulating Complex Calendar Scheduling Information  

E-print Network

Visualizing and Manipulating Complex Calendar Scheduling Information Andrew Faulring* and Brad A a task is under-specified, has ambiguous instructions, deviates from the normal, or when the task has the "availability bar," an interaction and visualization technique for complex, multi-dimensional calendar

Myers, Brad A.

457

IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

2015-01-01

458

On the Forward Kinematics of Parallel Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present a novel procedure for the system atic analysis of the forward kinematics of a class of parallel manipulators that generalize the well-known Stewart plat form. The designs comprise a movable platform connected to a fixed base by a set of legs, the lengths of which can be con trolled. The legs are connected to the

R. Nair; J. H. Maddocks

1994-01-01

459

Manipulating Natural Product Biosynthetic Pathways via DNA  

E-print Network

Manipulating Natural Product Biosynthetic Pathways via DNA Assembler Zengyi Shao1,4 and Huimin Zhao University, Ames, Iowa ABSTRACT DNA assembler is an efficient synthetic biology method for constructing and the corresponding pathways. By taking advantage of yeast in vivo homologous recombination, DNA assembler syn

Zhao, Huimin

460

Motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen holder with sub-micron resolution parallel to a y-z plane and rotating the specimen holder in the y-z plane, the manipulator comprising a base (2), and attachment means (30) for attaching the specimen holder to the manipulator, characterized in that the manipulator further comprises at least three nano-actuators (3.sup.a, 3.sup.b, 3.sup.c) mounted on the base, each nano-actuator showing a tip (4.sup.a, 4.sup.b, 4.sup.c), the at least three tips defining the y-z plane, each tip capable of moving with respect to the base in the y-z plane; a platform (5) in contact with the tips of the nano-actuators; and clamping means (6) for pressing the platform against the tips of the nano-actuators; as a result of which the nano-actuators can rotate the platform with respect to the base in the y-z plane and translate the platform parallel to the y-z plane.

Schmid, Andreas Karl (Berkeley, CA); Andresen, Nord (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14

461

Dynamics And Control Of Flexible Manipulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear equations solved with linear approximations applicable during small increments of time. Report presents theoretical study of selected aspects of dynamics and control of robotic manipulator that includes multiple flexible links. Addresses problem of control primarily from perspective of inverse-dynamics problem.

Gawronski, Wodek K.; Ih, Che-Hang C.; Wang, Shyh J.

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