Science.gov

Sample records for manipulation orthopedic

  1. Nanobiomaterial applications in orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Elizabeth M; Anseth, Kristi S; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Chan, Casey K; Ercan, Batur; Jansen, John A; Laurencin, Cato T; Li, Wan-Ju; Murugan, Ramalingam; Nair, Lakshmi S; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Tuan, Rocky S; Webster, Thomas J; Mikos, Antonios G

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in nanobiotechnology are revolutionizing our capability to understand biological intricacies and resolve biological and medical problems by developing subtle biomimetic techniques. Nanocomposites and nanostructured materials are believed to play a pivotal role in orthopedic research since bone itself is a typical example of a nanocomposite. This article reviews current strategies using nanobiomaterials to improve current orthopedic materials and examines their applications in bone tissue engineering. Preliminary investigations support the potential of nanobiomaterials in orthopedic applications; however, significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use. Overall, current trends in nanobiotechnology foreshadow a bright future through the use of nanobiomaterials in the orthopedic domain. PMID:17048259

  2. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery.

    E-print Network

    1/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Simon;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation #12;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic motion with a near critical drift towards an absorbing barrier at the origin. #12;3/ 17 Spines, backbones

  3. Orthopedic complications in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gehling, Daniel J; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with a number of lower extremity orthopedic conditions and complications including fractures, Charcot neuroarthropathy, plantar ulcers, and infection. These complications are of significant clinical concern in terms of morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic costs. A review of each condition is discussed, with particular emphasis on the clinical importance, diagnostic considerations, and orthopedic treatment recommendations. The goal of the article is to provide a clinical picture of the challenges that orthopedic surgeons confront, and highlight the need for specific clinical guidelines in diabetic patients. PMID:26211990

  4. Advances in regenerative orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Evans, Christopher H

    2013-11-01

    Orthopedic injuries are common and a source of much misery and economic stress. Several relevant tissues, such as cartilage, meniscus, and intra-articular ligaments, do not heal. And even bone, which normally regenerates spontaneously, can fail to mend. The regeneration of orthopedic tissues requires 4 key components: cells, morphogenetic signals, scaffolds, and an appropriate mechanical environment. Although differentiated cells from the tissue in question can be used, most cellular research focuses on the use of mesenchymal stem cells. These can be retrieved from many different tissues, and one unresolved question is the degree to which the origin of the cells matters. Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are also under investigation. Morphogenetic signals are most frequently supplied by individual recombinant growth factors or native mixtures provided by, for example, platelet-rich plasma; mesenchymal stem cells are also a rich source of trophic factors. Obstacles to the sustained delivery of individual growth factors can be addressed by gene transfer or smart scaffolds, but we still lack detailed, necessary information on which delivery profiles are needed. Scaffolds may be based on natural products, synthetic materials, or devitalized extracellular matrix. Strategies to combine these components to regenerate tissue can follow traditional tissue engineering practices, but these are costly, cumbersome, and not well suited to treating large numbers of individuals. More expeditious approaches make full use of intrinsic biological processes in vivo to avoid the need for ex vivo expansion of autologous cells and multiple procedures. Clinical translation remains a bottleneck. PMID:24182709

  5. Client counseling in orthopedic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Brackenridge, S S; Kirby, B M; Johnson, S W

    1995-09-01

    Important client communication issues associated with most orthopedic emergencies are addressed. Information on client communication and support, providing a prognosis, discussing economic concerns, discharge planning, euthanasia, and client grief is presented. The issue of animal abuse as a cause of orthopedic emergencies also is examined. PMID:8578625

  6. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  7. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-12-01

    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1133-e1138.]. PMID:26652336

  8. Plasma Biomedicine in Orthopedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Satsohi

    2012-10-01

    Various effects of plasmas irradiation on cells, tissues, and biomaterials relevant for orthopedic applications have been examined. For direct application of plasmas to living cells or tissues, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with helium flows into ambient air were used. For biomaterial processing, on the other hand, either helium DBDs mentioned above or low-pressure discharges generated in a chamber were used. In this presentation, plasma effects on cell proliferation and plasma treatment for artificial bones will be discussed. First, the conditions for enhanced cell proliferation in vitro by plasma applications have been examined. The discharge conditions for cell proliferation depend sensitively on cell types. Since cell proliferation can be enhanced even when the cells are cultured in a plasma pre-treated medium, long-life reactive species generated in the medium by plasma application or large molecules (such as proteins) in the medium modified by the plasma are likely to be the cause of cell proliferation. It has been found that there is strong correlation between (organic) hydroperoxide generation and cell proliferation. Second, effects of plasma-treated artificial bones made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined in vitro and vivo. It has been found that plasma treatment increases hydrophilicity of the surfaces of microscopic inner pores, which directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells introduced into the pores and therefore causes faster bone growth. The work has been performed in collaboration with Prof. H. Yoshikawa and his group members at the School of Medicine, Osaka University.

  9. Greening of orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rushyuan J; Mears, Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Every year, 4 billion pounds of waste are produced by health care facilities, and the amount continues to increase annually. In response, a movement toward greening health care has been building, with a particular focus on the operating room. Between 20% and 70% of health care waste originates from a hospital's operating room, and up to 90% of operating room waste is improperly sorted and sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. Recent successful changes include segregation of hospital waste, substitution of the ubiquitous polypropylene plastic wrap used for the sterilization and handling of surgical equipment with metal cases, and the reintroduction of reusable surgical gowns. Orthopedic-related changes include the successful reprocessing and reuse of external fixators, shavers, blades, burs, and tourniquets. These changes have been shown to be environmentally and economically beneficial. Early review indicates that these changes are feasible, but a need exists for further evaluation of the effect on the operating room and flow of the surgical procedure and of the risks to the surgeons and operating room staff. Other key considerations are the effects of reprocessed and reused equipment on patient care and outcome and the role of surgeons in helping patients make informed decisions regarding surgical care. The goals of this study were to summarize the amount and types of waste produced in hospitals and operating rooms, highlight the methods of disposal used, review disposal methods that have been developed to reduce waste and improve recycling, and explore future developments in greening health care. PMID:22691671

  10. Training safer orthopedic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Sugand, Kapil; Sperrin, Matthew; Cobb, Justin; Standfield, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Virtual-reality (VR) simulation in orthopedic training is still in its infancy, and much of the work has been focused on arthroscopy. We evaluated the construct validity of a new VR trauma simulator for performing dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation of a trochanteric femoral fracture. Patients and methods 30 volunteers were divided into 3 groups according to the number of postgraduate (PG) years and the amount of clinical experience: novice (1–4 PG years; less than 10 DHS procedures); intermediate (5–12 PG years; 10–100 procedures); expert (> 12 PG years; > 100 procedures). Each participant performed a DHS procedure and objective performance metrics were recorded. These data were analyzed with each performance metric taken as the dependent variable in 3 regression models. Results There were statistically significant differences in performance between groups for (1) number of attempts at guide-wire insertion, (2) total fluoroscopy time, (3) tip-apex distance, (4) probability of screw cutout, and (5) overall simulator score. The intermediate group performed the procedure most quickly, with the lowest fluoroscopy time, the lowest tip-apex distance, the lowest probability of cutout, and the highest simulator score, which correlated with their frequency of exposure to running the trauma lists for hip fracture surgery. Interpretation This study demonstrates the construct validity of a haptic VR trauma simulator with surgeons undertaking the procedure most frequently performing best on the simulator. VR simulation may be a means of addressing restrictions on working hours and allows trainees to practice technical tasks without putting patients at risk. The VR DHS simulator evaluated in this study may provide valid assessment of technical skill. PMID:25885171

  11. Growth factors in orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zaharia, C; Despa, N; Simionescu, M; Jinga, V; Fleseriu, I

    2010-01-01

    Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions. PMID:20302195

  12. Growth factors in orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, Comeliu; Niculescu, Marius; Despa, Nicoleta; Simionescu, Maya; Jinga, Victor; Fleseriu, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Growth factors have represented an essential issue of interest for the researchers and clinicians in orthopedics and trauma over the last 40 years. In the last 10 to 15 years, the advances registered in this field have permitted the identification of the most active cellular and humoral factors as well as the improvement of their use in the orthopedic and trauma surgery. Their domain of application has been continuously enlarged and the results have been visible from the beginning. The authors present their appreciation on the actual state of this subject as well as their experience with results and related conclusions. PMID:20302195

  13. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. PMID:24534658

  14. Porous metal for orthopedics implants

    PubMed Central

    Matassi, Fabrizio; Botti, Alessandra; Sirleo, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Porous metal has been introduced to obtain biological fixation and improve longevity of orthopedic implants. The new generation of porous metal has intriguing characteristics that allows bone healing and high osteointegration of the metallic implants. This article gives an overview about biomaterials properties of the contemporary class of highly porous metals and about the clinical use in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24133527

  15. Orthopedic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jeffrey D.; Segal, Lee S.

    2010-01-01

    The management of orthopedic problems in spina bifida has seen a dramatic change over the past 10 years. The negative effects of spasticity, poor balance, and the tethered cord syndrome on ambulatory function are better appreciated. There is less emphasis on the hip radiograph and more emphasis on the function of the knee and the prevention of…

  16. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, J. I.; Epps, C. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An orthopedic brace locking mechanism is described which under standing or walking conditions cannot be unlocked, however under sitting conditions the mechanism can be simply unlocked so as to permit bending of the patient's knee. Other features of the device include: (1) the mechanism is rendered operable, and inoperable, dependent upon the relative inclination of the brace with respect to the ground; (2) the mechanism is automatically locked under standing or walking conditions and is manually unlocked under sitting conditions; and (3) the mechanism is light in weight and is relatively small in size.

  17. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    I-Lechao, J.; Epps, C. H., Jr. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A locking mechanism for orthopedic braces is described which automatically prevents or permits the relative pivotable movement between a lower brace member and an upper brace member. The upper and lower brace members are provided with drilled bores within which a slidable pin is disposed, and depending upon the inclination of the brace members with respect to a vertical plane, the slidable pin will be interposed between both brace members. The secondary or auxiliary latching device includes a spring biased, manually operable lever bar arrangement which is manually unlatched and automatically latched under the influence of the spring.

  18. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  19. Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

  20. [Perioperative pain therapy in orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Fikentscher, T; Grifka, J; Benditz, A

    2015-09-01

    A sufficient pain management forms the foundation for a successful operative treatment of orthopedic patients. Clinical guideline standards must be provided to ensure safe and immediate pain therapy. Training in these guidelines should be held for clinical personnel on a regular basis. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the numerical rating scale (NRS) are valid instruments used for assessment of pain intensity. A sufficient pain management includes basic analgesics, analgesics on demand as well as special features, such as regional nerve blocks and patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA). The basic analgesics are primarily the groups of classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors as well as stand by analgesics, such as metamizole. If there is further need for pain therapy, medium strong and strong opioids can be used but adverse events must be taken into consideration. PMID:26318345

  1. Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

  2. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(11):684-687.]. PMID:26558661

  3. [Psychopathologic reactions in orthopedic patients].

    PubMed

    Lesi?, Aleksandar; Opali?, Petar

    2003-01-01

    The idea to monitor and research psychopathological responses of physically injured persons in a more systematic manner has come from our observation of huge differences in patient behavior, whose psychological responses were noticeably changed and often inappropriate. The behavior aberrations were all the more striking because we treated war-time injuries in addition to peacetime ones. Our sample had 175 patient subjects, of both sexes, different ages, marital status and professions. A group of 70 patients treated in the Institute for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology were divided into two subgroups. The first experimental subgroup (E1) consisted of 26 (37.1%) patients physically injured in combat. The second subgroup (E2) had 44 (62.9%) patients physically injured in peacetime circumstances (car accidents, work accidents, etc). The physical injuries encompassed injuries to spinal column and extremities. The control (K) consisted of 105 subjects without physical injuries. The clinical picture and psychological reactions of the patients were examined by means of 4 instruments--PTSD-10 scale or posttraumatic symptoms scale [1], Family Homogeneity Index/FHI/with 19 variables, applied to measure the relation between the family system homogeneity and accident effects [2], Short Eysenck's Personality Inventory applied to investigate neuroticism and extroversion and introversion traits [3], Late Effects of Accidental Injury Questionnaire [4]. Our observations of psychological responses of patients in our ward (insomnia, sedatives intake) were mostly confirmed by tests conducted with the above instruments. In the group of the wartime injured (E1), as well as in the control (K), Eysenck's scale proved a significantly higher degree of neuroticism in comparison to the peacetime injured. Such results indicated that the wartime injured would most probably develop the picture of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Such a conclusion was related not only to the seriousness of injuries but also to the circumstances of their occurrence. The proneness to develop PTSD symptoms was not in correlation with the preparedness for accident, it being much poorer in peace-time injuries, as opposed to wartime patients, who had been prepared to the possibility of injury occurrence. The highest value of family homogeneity (FHI) was established in the wartime injured, which led us to conclude that the injury contributed to the cohesion of the family from which the patient came. By extracting some questions related to psychopathological entities such as insomnia, depression, somatization, anxiety, and cognitive disorders, the following results were obtained. Depression was the most frequent in both groups of injuries. Anxiety was also present in the control group; and insomnia and somatization, that is, conversion symptoms, were present in both groups of the injured. By examining narrower psychological characteristics of the wartime injured revealed dissociation problems--derangement to be the most frequent. Then follow the symptoms of depression, which occur significantly more frequently in the wartime injured in comparison to the peacetime injured. The phenomenological symptoms of derangement and depression proved to be reliable parameters of physical trauma. It is also significant that the three characteristics showed correlation to psychopathological responses: severity of surgery, paralysis, and acute injury. PMID:14692144

  4. Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences BANDO N. 1 of the Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences Given the art. Law 24 of 30 of the Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences on the 27.07.2011 sitting

  5. Emotional intelligence in orthopedic surgery residents

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kevin; Petrisor, Brad; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    Background Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage emotions in oneself and others. It was originally popularized in the business literature as a key attribute for success that was distinct from cognitive intelligence. Increasing focus is being placed on EI in medicine to improve clinical and academic performance. Despite the proposed benefits, to our knowledge, there have been no previous studies on the role of EI in orthopedic surgery. We evaluated baseline data on EI in a cohort of orthopedic surgery residents. Methods We asked all orthopedic surgery residents at a single institution to complete an electronic version of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We used completed questionnaires to calculate total EI scores and 4 branch scores. Data were analyzed according to a priori cutoff values to determine the proportion of residents who were considered competent on the test. Data were also analyzed for possible associations with age, sex, race and level of training. Results Thirty-nine residents (100%) completed the MSCEIT. The mean total EI score was 86 (maximum score 145). Only 4 (10%) respondents demonstrated competence in EI. Junior residents (p = 0.026), Caucasian residents (p = 0.009) and those younger than 30 years (p = 0.008) had significantly higher EI scores. Conclusion Our findings suggest that orthopedic residents score low on EI based on the MSCEIT. Optimizing resident competency in noncognitive skills may be enhanced by dedicated EI education, training and testing. PMID:24666445

  6. Sensitive Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo

    2007-03-02

    This thesis presents an effective alternative to the traditionalapproach to robotic manipulation. In our approach, manipulation ismainly guided by tactile feedback as opposed to vision. Themotivation comes from the fact ...

  7. Sensitive manipulation

    E-print Network

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo R. (Eduardo Rafael), 1972-

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents an effective alternative to the traditional approach to robotic manipulation. In our approach, manipulation is mainly guided by tactile feedback as opposed to vision. The motivation comes from the fact ...

  8. Between psychology and pedagogy: "moral orthopedics" and case studies of children in fin-de-siècle French medicine.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anna Christina

    2011-02-01

    In the latter decades of the 19th century, European physicians debated a controversial practice that mixed placebos with suggestion therapy to treat children diagnosed with neurotic disorders and behavioral problems. Designed to optimize suggestibility in juvenile patients, this "moral orthopedics" offered parents and therapists the message that children could be saved from becoming victims of their own personalities, of familial neuroses, or even of public health problems. Case studies, published in medical journals and books, circulated accounts of innovative strategies to treat childhood hysteria and to change habits that were considered destructive. Moral orthopedics actualized the insight that suggestibility could be therapeutically productive for juvenile subjects. However, because its adherents sought to manipulate patients' behavior and health by influencing unconscious thought, moral orthopedics provoked questions of expertise and disciplinary propriety among domains of medicine, law, and philosophy. This article reconstructs the controversy surrounding moral orthopedics by examining case studies. I argue that adherents of moral orthopedics did overcome philosophical objections raised against the method, and that they did so through what physician Edgar B6rillon referred to as "education of the will." PMID:21688751

  9. Redefining the Economics of Geriatric Orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    Nacca, Christopher; Paller, David; Daniels, Alan H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The heath care system in the United States is in the midst of a transition, in large part to help accommodate an older and more medically complex population. Central to the current evolution is the reassessment of value based on the cost utility of a particular procedure compared to alternatives. The existing contribution of geriatric orthopedics to the societal burden of disease is substantial, and literature focusing on the economic value of treating elderly populations with musculoskeletal injuries is growing. Materials and Methods: A literature review of peer-reviewed publications and abstracts related to the cost-effectiveness of treating geriatric patients with orthopedic injuries was carried out. Results: In our review, we demonstrate that while cost-utility studies generally demonstrate net society savings for most orthopedic procedures, geriatric populations often contribute to negative net society savings due to decreased working years and lower salaries while in the workforce. However, the incremental cost-effective ratio for operative intervention has been shown to be below the financial willingness to treat threshold for common procedures including joint replacement surgery of the knee (ICER US$8551), hip (ICER US$17 115), and shoulder (CE US$957) as well as for spinal procedures and repair of torn rotator cuffs (ICER US$12 024). We also discuss the current trends directed toward improving institutional value and highlight important complementary next steps to help overcome the growing demands of an older, more active society. Conclusion: The geriatric population places a significant burden on the health care system. However, studies have shown that treating this demographic for orthopedic-related injuries is cost effective and profitable for providers under certain scenarios. PMID:26246943

  10. Orthopedic injuries during Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Lin, David L; Kirk, Kevin L; Murphy, Kevin P; McHale, Kathleen A; Doukas, William C

    2004-10-01

    Orthopedic injuries comprise a majority of combat injuries seen in recent U.S. military conflicts. Interventions in the forward deployed area have played an important role in improving mortality rates of soldiers as well as outcome at a medical center level. A retrospective review was conducted on orthopedic injuries from Operation Enduring Freedom evaluated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC). Patients were grouped into one of five injury categories (open fracture, amputation, arterial injuries, neurological injuries, and soft tissue injury) with evacuation time (days from time of injury to arrival at WRAMC) and procedures performed before arrival at WRAMC evaluated. The average evacuation time for all orthopedic casualties was 7.9 days. There was an average of 2.6 procedures performed per patient before arrival at WRAMC. There was no difference in evacuation time among the injury groups. Those with only soft tissue injuries underwent fewer procedures than the other injury groups; however, there was no difference among the injury groups in terms of procedures performed. The number of procedures performed did not affect the evacuation time. Fifty-six percent of casualties required operative intervention after arrival at WRAMC. With the unavoidable evacuation time that all casualties must endure regardless of severity of the injury, early operative intervention in forward deployed medical assets, such as the forward surgical team and combat support hospital, remains a necessity for rehabilitative and reconstructive efforts of the soldiers at the medical center level. PMID:15532345

  11. Prevention of infection in the orthopedic surgery patient.

    PubMed

    DeBaun, B J

    1998-12-01

    A surgical site infection in an orthopedic surgery is a dreaded and often catastrophic complication. This article provides an overview of the incidence, pathogenesis, financial impact, as well as a discussion of patient and operation-related risk factors for orthopedic surgical site infections. The reader is provided insight into infection control interventions intended to minimize surgical site infections in orthopedic patients. Some of these practices are evidence-based and others exist only because of theoretical benefit. PMID:9769358

  12. Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course: A Collaboration between Anatomists and Orthopedic Surgeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFriez, Curtis B.; Morton, David A.; Horwitz, Daniel S.; Eckel, Christine M.; Foreman, K. Bo; Albertine, Kurt H.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge for new residents and senior residents preparing for board examinations is refreshing their knowledge of basic science disciplines, such as human gross anatomy. The Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Utah School of Medicine has for many years held an annual Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course during the summer months…

  13. Orthopedic resident anatomy review course: a collaboration between anatomists and orthopedic surgeons.

    PubMed

    DeFriez, Curtis B; Morton, David A; Horwitz, Daniel S; Eckel, Christine M; Foreman, K Bo; Albertine, Kurt H

    2011-01-01

    A challenge for new residents and senior residents preparing for board examinations is refreshing their knowledge of basic science disciplines, such as human gross anatomy. The Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Utah School of Medicine has for many years held an annual Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course during the summer months for all of its residents. The primary purpose of the course is to renew competencies in basic science disciplines so that incoming residents more quickly reach a level of functional proficiency and to afford senior residents a platform to teach their junior colleagues. Before 2005, this course was conducted with minimal participation from anyone outside of the Department of Orthopaedics. Many of the residents voiced concerns that the educational benefits were not proportionate to the time invested. To improve the teaching of orthopedic-related anatomy, an educational collaboration between the Departments of Neurobiology and Anatomy and Orthopaedics was established in 2004 and continues to the present time. The major objectives of refining the course pedagogy, developing a Course Manual and Dissection Guide, and evaluating the results by administering a course survey questionnaire are described in this article. Implementation of all facets of the revised course has resulted in better participation by orthopedic faculty and more favorable reviews by the participating residents. Based on current levels of interest and positive comments from course participants, the Anatomy and Orthopedic faculty course directors plan to continue to develop course materials and pedagogy. PMID:21786430

  14. Legal issues affecting ancillaries and orthopedic practice.

    PubMed

    Glaser, David M

    2008-01-01

    The federal and state governments have imposed significant regulations on health care generally and on ancillary services in particular. This article focuses on how state and federal laws shape the ability of an orthopedic physician to offer ancillary services, whether as an individual, through a group practice, or as part of a joint venture. It focuses on how the Stark law, the Medicare anti-kickback statute, state anti-kickback, fee-splitting provisions, certificate of need laws, and various Medicare billing and supervision requirements impact the provision of ancillary services. It also briefly discusses how physicians should prepare for and respond to government investigations. PMID:18061773

  15. Imaging of orthopedic trauma and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on imaging techniques for diagnosis of trauma of bones. A comparative evaluation is presented for planning of proper diagnosis and treatment. Various techniques discussed are routine radiography; computerized tomography, NMR imaging, angiography, ultrasonography; and use of radioisotopes. The mechanism of injury of bone joints of upper and lower limbs and spine is discussed after discussing the anatomy of each in the beginning of each paper. Topics titled are healing of fractures; fractures of pelvis; knee; shoulder; foot and ankle; fractures of humerus; stress fractures; and orthopedic radiology. Prosthesis use and plastic surgery of joints is also discussed.

  16. The potential of tissue engineering in orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Landis, William J; Jacquet, Robin; Hillyer, Jennifer; Zhang, Jean; Siperko, Lorraine; Chubinskaya, Susan; Asamura, Shinichi; Isogai, Noritaka

    2005-01-01

    This article presents models of human phalanges and small joints developed by tissue engineering. Biodegradable polymer scaffolds support growth of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and tenocytes after implantation of the models in athymic mice. The cell-polymer constructs are vascularized by the host mice, form new bone, cartilage, and tendon with characteristic gene expression and protein synthesis and secretion, and maintain the shape of human phalanges with joints. The study demonstrates critical progress in the design and fabrication of bone, cartilage, and tendon by tissue engineering and the potential of this field for human clinical orthopedic applications. PMID:15542128

  17. 78 FR 17940 - Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof; Notice of...Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof, DN 2945...orthopedic surgical devices, software, implants, and components thereof. The...

  18. Computer assisted 3D pre-operative planning tool for femur fracture orthopedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, Pavan; Xie, Sheng Quan; Delmas, Patrice; Xu, Wei Liang

    2010-02-01

    Femur shaft fractures are caused by high impact injuries and can affect gait functionality if not treated correctly. Until recently, the pre-operative planning for femur fractures has relied on two-dimensional (2D) radiographs, light boxes, tracing paper, and transparent bone templates. The recent availability of digital radiographic equipment has to some extent improved the workflow for preoperative planning. Nevertheless, imaging is still in 2D X-rays and planning/simulation tools to support fragment manipulation and implant selection are still not available. Direct three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT) are also still restricted to a minority of complex orthopedic procedures. This paper proposes a software tool which allows orthopedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose, plan and simulate femur shaft fracture reduction procedures in 3D. The tool utilizes frontal and lateral 2D radiographs to model the fracture surface, separate a generic bone into the two fractured fragments, identify the pose of each fragment, and automatically customize the shape of the bone. The use of 3D imaging allows full spatial inspection of the fracture providing different views through the manipulation of the interactively reconstructed 3D model, and ultimately better pre-operative planning.

  19. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  20. Analysis of NHSLA claims in orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Irfan H; Jamil, Wiqqas; Lynn, Sam Mathew; Khan, Osman H; Markland, Kate; Giddins, Grey

    2012-05-01

    National Health Service (NHS) statistics in the United Kingdom demonstrate an increase in clinical negligence claims over the past 30 years. Reasons for this include elements of a cultural shift in attitudes toward the medical profession and the growth of the legal services industry. This issue affects medical and surgical health providers worldwide.The authors analyzed 2117 NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) orthopedic surgery claims between 1995 and 2001 with respect to these clinical areas: emergency department, outpatient care, surgery (elective or trauma operations), and inpatient care. The authors focused on the costs of settling and defending claims, costs attributable to clinical areas, common causes of claims, and claims relating to elective or trauma surgery. Numbers of claims and legal costs increased most notably in surgery (elective and trauma) and in the emergency department. However, claims are being defended more robustly. The annual cost for a successful defense has remained relatively stable, showing a slight decline. The common causes of claims are postoperative complication; wrong, delayed, or failure of diagnosis; inadequate consent; and wrong-site surgery. Certain surgical specialties (eg, spine and lower-limb surgery) have the most claims made during elective surgery, whereas upper-limb surgery has the most claims made during trauma surgery.The authors recommend that individual trusts liaise with orthopedic surgeons to devise strategies to address areas highlighted in our study. Despite differences in health care systems worldwide, the underlying issues are common. With improved understanding, physicians can deliver the service they promise their patients. PMID:22588416

  1. Disparities in internet use among orthopedic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth P; Rehman, Saqib; Goldhirsh, Jessie

    2014-02-01

    Internet access has lagged behind for patients with lower incomes and from certain ethnic groups. This study investigated the possible improvement of access to health-related information on the Internet for all patients in an urban outpatient setting, regardless of socioeconomic background. A 28-question survey was completed by 100 orthopedic outpatients evaluating associations between their age, ethnicity, income, or education level and their access to the Internet. The survey also examined how patients used the Internet to obtain information about their medical condition, their privacy concerns when conducting online research, and their use of mobile phones as a primary means of Internet access. The Internet was used by 57% of orthopedic outpatients in this urban setting. Internet access decreased with advancing age but increased with increasing income and education, findings consistent with similar studies. Despite the inability to identify an association between ethnicity and Internet access in this patient population, fewer Latinos (33%) than whites (67%) or African Americans (77%) sought information about their medical condition. Among patients who used a mobile phone as the primary method for online access, 74% were African American or Latino and 26% were white. This difference in mobile phone use for online access suggests that mobile phones have provided ethnic minorities with greater Internet access and thus may have narrowed the digital divide among the races. PMID:24679198

  2. Improving Response Rates among Students with Orthopedic and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Christian P.; Kuntzler, Patrice M.; Cardenas, Shaun; O'Malley, Eileen; Phillips, Carolyn; Singer, Jacqueline; Stoeger, Alex; Kindler, Keith

    2014-01-01

    One challenge teachers of students with orthopedic and multiple disabilities face is providing sufficient time and opportunity to communicate. This challenge is universal across countries, schools, and settings: teachers want students to communicate because communication lies at the core of what makes us human. Yet students with orthopedic and…

  3. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  4. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, Phillip B. (Clairton, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  5. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  6. Co-Management Arrangements in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-06-01

    A co-management arrangement (CMA) is a contractual relationship between physicians and a hospital that results in a shared-responsibility management structure for a specific service line. In orthopedic surgery, CMAs are becoming increasingly popular as stakeholders in the health care market seek increased value (ie, higher-quality care at lower costs). A CMA can significantly improve the efficiency and the outcomes of a musculoskeletal service line if it adheres to the basic principles of a focus on the patient, evidence-based decision-making, physician leadership, appropriate physician compensation, transparency, reasonable and modifiable goals, and accountability. While the specifics of each CMA will vary, all CMAs have common operational elements that include the arrangement's legal structure, legal compliance, leadership and reporting structure, facilities management, personnel management, clinical data management, financial data management, and quality and effectiveness reporting. PMID:26047000

  7. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  8. Orthopedic surgical analyzer for percutaneous vertebroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, Gye Rae; Choi, Hyung Guen; Lim, Do H.; Lee, Sung J.

    2001-05-01

    Since the spine is one of the most complex joint structures in the human body, its surgical treatment requires careful planning and high degree of precision to avoid any unwanted neurological compromises. In addition, comprehensive biomechanical analysis can be very helpful because the spine is subject to a variety of load. In case for the osteoporotic spine in which the structural integrity has been compromised, it brings out the double challenges for a surgeon both clinically and biomechanically. Thus, we have been developing an integrated medical image system that is capable of doing the both. This system is called orthopedic surgical analyzer and it combines the clinical results from image-guided examination and the biomechanical data from finite element analysis. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, this system was applied to percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a surgical procedure that has been recently introduced for the treatment of compression fracture of the osteoporotic vertebrae. It involves puncturing vertebrae and filling with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Recent studies have shown that the procedure could provide structural reinforcement for the osteoporotic vertebrae while being minimally invasive and safe with immediate pain relief. However, treatment failures due to excessive PMMA volume injection have been reported as one of complications. It is believed that control of PMMA volume is one of the most critical factors that can reduce the incidence of complications. Since the degree of the osteoporosis can influence the porosity of the cancellous bone in the vertebral body, the injection volume can be different from patient to patient. In this study, the optimal volume of PMMA injection for vertebroplasty was predicted based on the image analysis of a given patient. In addition, biomechanical effects due to the changes in PMMA volume and bone mineral density (BMD) level were investigated by constructing clinically relevant finite element models. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate the feasibility of our orthopedic surgical analyzer in a case for percutaneous vertebroplasty.

  9. Insights into Avicenna's knowledge of the science of orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Meibodi, Mohammad Kalantari

    2014-01-18

    The art of orthopedics traces its history back to ancient civilizations like those of the Egyptians. The evolution of this branch of medicine is indebted to investigations of many scientists, including Greek, Roman and Persian scholars. The Persian physician Avicenna (980-1037 AD) is one such scientist who investigated different aspects of orthopedics. It is possible to analyze Avicenna's knowledge of orthopedics and his contributions to this branch of medicine by an examination of his epic encyclopedia of medicine, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). PMID:24649417

  10. Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jennings, John D; Solarz, Mark K; Haydel, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has gained recent interest in orthopedics and trauma surgery because of its demonstrated benefit in several clinical trials. It is inexpensive and effective at reducing blood loss and blood transfusion requirements without a significant increase in morbidity or mortality. The optimal timing, dosing, and route of administration in orthopedics are yet to be elucidated. Significant investigation of tranexamic acid use in joint replacement and spine surgery has promoted its incorporation into the everyday practice of many of these surgeons. The paucity of studies regarding its use in orthopedic trauma has limited its integration into a field that may stand to benefit most from the drug. PMID:26614928

  11. [Orthopedics in orthodontics: fiction or reality? Literature review].

    PubMed

    Aelbers, C; Dermaut, L

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the orthopedic effect of functional appliances as activators. Herbst appliances and extraoral traction appliances. The matter on correction of skeletal Class II discrepancies in growing children remains controversial despite extensive research. However most authors agree on the fact that major contributions derive from dento-alveolar changes rather than from skeletal ones. Nevertheless, the authors of this review want to emphasize that the discussed Class II orthopedic appliances have an important value in clinical orthodontics. Due to scientific evidence, their orthopedic effect however, must be questioned so far. PMID:7899618

  12. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  13. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  14. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  15. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  16. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  17. Orthopedic Health: Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past ... Exercise helps bone density, improves muscle strength and joint flexibility, and enhances your balance. Take part in ...

  18. Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    SPAR Aerospace Limited's "Canadarm," Canada's contribution to the space shuttle. It is a crane which can operate as a 50 foot extension of an astronaut's arm. It can lift 65,000 pounds in space and retrieve satellites for repair, etc. Redesigned versions have energy and mining applications. Some of its hardware has been redeveloped for use as a Hydro manipulator in a nuclear reactor where it is expected to be extremely cost effective.

  19. Orthopedic Rehabilitation of the Stroke Patient

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Richard; Mooney, Vert; Nickel, Vernon L.; Roper, Brian

    1971-01-01

    Rehabilitation of hemiplegic patients begins with setting reasonable functional goals and a treatment plan to reach them. During the initial illness an effort is made to begin range of motion exercising and positioning to prevent contractures. Transfer from bed to chair is recommended as soon as the patient's general condition permits. Upper extremity function depends on sensory and motor function as well as visual and central cerebral impairment. Spastic symptomatic contracture of the shoulder must be prevented by adequate orthopedic management of any musculoskeletal problems such as arthritis or tendinitis and the initiation of an active exercise program. Surgical release of contractures is occasionally indicated in refractory cases. Elbow flexion and pronation flexion deformity of the forearm and hand have also required surgical release on occasion. The goal of lower extremity function is ambulation. A double upright short leg brace aids stability in gait. Long leg braces are not used but a cane may be necessary for balance assistance. Contractures must be prevented by an exercise program or surgically released. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:5117593

  20. Feeling manipulated: cytomegalovirus immune manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Kittrell, Mindy; Sparer, Tim E

    2009-01-01

    No one likes to feel like they have been manipulated, but in the case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune manipulation, we do not really have much choice. Whether you call it CMV immune modulation, manipulation, or evasion, the bottom line is that CMV alters the immune response in such a way to allow the establishment of latency with lifelong shedding. With millions of years of coevolution within their hosts, CMVs, like other herpesviruses, encode numerous proteins that can broadly influence the magnitude and quality of both innate and adaptive immune responses. These viral proteins include both homologues of host proteins, such as MHC class I or chemokine homologues, and proteins with little similarity to any other known proteins, such as the chemokine binding protein. Although a strong immune response is launched against CMV, these virally encoded proteins can interfere with the host's ability to efficiently recognize and clear virus, while others induce or alter specific immune responses to benefit viral replication or spread within the host. Modulation of host immunity allows survival of both the virus and the host. One way of describing it would be a kind of "mutually assured survival" (as opposed to MAD, Mutually Assured Destruction). Evaluation of this relationship provides important insights into the life cycle of CMV as well as a greater understanding of the complexity of the immune response to pathogens in general. PMID:19134204

  1. The Quality of Cost-Utility Analyses in Orthopedic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Schairer, William W; O'Dea, Evan; McCormick, Frank; Lane, Joseph M

    2015-08-01

    As health care in the United States transitions toward a value-based model, there is increasing interest in applying cost-effectiveness analysis within orthopedic surgery. Orthopedic trauma care has traditionally underemphasized economic analysis. The goals of this review were to identify US-based cost-utility analysis in orthopedic trauma, to assess the quality of the available evidence, and to identify cost-effective strategies within orthopedic trauma. Based on a review of 971 abstracts, 8 US-based cost-utility analyses evaluating operative strategies in orthopedic trauma were identified. Study findings were recorded, and the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument was used to grade the overall quality. Of the 8 studies included in this review, 4 studies evaluated hip and femur fractures, 3 studies analyzed upper extremity fractures, and 1 study assessed open tibial fracture management. Cost-effective interventions identified in this review include total hip arthroplasty (over hemiarthroplasty) for femoral neck fractures in the active elderly, open reduction and internal fixation (over nonoperative management) for distal radius and scaphoid fractures, limb salvage (over amputation) for complex open tibial fractures, and systems-based interventions to prevent delay in hip fracture surgery. The mean QHES score of the studies was 79.25 (range, 67-89). Overall, there is a paucity of cost-utility analyses in orthopedic trauma; however, the available evidence suggests that certain operative interventions can be cost-effective. The quality of these studies, however, is fair, based on QHES grading. More attention should be paid to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of operative intervention in orthopedic trauma. PMID:26270752

  2. Nanomedicine applications in orthopedic medicine: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Mozhdeh; Eslahi, Niloofar; Ordikhani, Farideh; Tamjid, Elnaz; Simchi, Abdolreza

    2015-01-01

    The technological and clinical need for orthopedic replacement materials has led to significant advances in the field of nanomedicine, which embraces the breadth of nanotechnology from pharmacological agents and surface modification through to regulation and toxicology. A variety of nanostructures with unique chemical, physical, and biological properties have been engineered to improve the functionality and reliability of implantable medical devices. However, mimicking living bone tissue is still a challenge. The scope of this review is to highlight the most recent accomplishments and trends in designing nanomaterials and their applications in orthopedics with an outline on future directions and challenges. PMID:26451110

  3. Novel applications of osseointegration in orthopedic limb salvage surgery.

    PubMed

    Monument, Michael J; Lerman, Daniel M; Randall, R Lor

    2015-01-01

    Osseointegration is a biologic process vital to modern endoprosthetic fixation in orthopedic surgery. Numerous engineering advancements have improved the utilization of this technology in orthopedics; however, issues such as stress shielding, aseptic loosening, and bone loss remain an ongoing challenge. These host responses are especially problematic in limb salvage surgery. Novel applications of osseointegration have been developed to address some of these fixation issues with massive tumor endoprostheses. This articles reviews osseointegration and emerging novel applications of this technology in limb salvage surgery and future prosthetics for amputees. PMID:25435037

  4. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  5. Higher Education and Students with Orthopedic Disabilities: A Survey Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    A survey instrument is presented that was used in a national survey of 160 colleges and universities to explore facilities and services to students with orthopedic disabilities. The survey contains 33 items that focus on the following areas: structural accessibility, academic accessibility, dorm-living, and recreational opportunities. The total…

  6. The Special Orthopedic Hospital—Past and Present

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Harry

    1964-01-01

    Pioneer orthopedic institutions established in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and in the U.S.A. in the second half of the 19th and the first decade of the 20th century, can trace their ancestry in ideas back to the practice and teachings of Hippocrates. Experience in treatment of great numbers of injured soldiers in the First World War opened a new era in reconstructive surgery of the locomotor system. After the Second World War, in advanced nations the pattern of crippling diseases showed a spectacular change. Problems that justify the existence of large special orthopedic hospitals are, in children, the more complex congenital deformities, cerebral palsies, and the increasing number of injuries due to hazards of modern life; in the adult, the reconstructive surgery of trauma and of arthritis. In modern orthopedic hospitals physicians have joined orthopedic surgeons in the study of the natural history of the various forms of arthritis. These centres provide facilities for biomechanical research and postgraduate training which acute general hospitals cannot offer. PMID:14228224

  7. Therapists, Trainers, and Acupuncturists: Focused Review for the Orthopedic Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Domes, Christopher M; Kruger, Cori L

    2015-12-01

    Effective treatment of orthopedic injuries requires a multidisciplinary team, including physical and occupational therapists, athletic trainers, massage therapists, and acupuncturists. Orthopedic surgeons commonly encounter these practitioners but may not be familiar with the training, credentialing, and most importantly, the appropriate use of members of this team. There are general similarities in practice locations as well as types of symptoms addressed by the providers discussed, which include the treatment of physical pain, evaluation and treatment of physical impairment, and some facilitation of adaptation to the limitations caused by injuries. Across the 5 types of providers discussed there are widely varying training and licensing requirements, specializations, and continuing education requirements to maintain licensure. This article provides a focused review of these members of the multidisciplinary team and highlights the current American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons recommendations for the use of occupational and physical therapists for orthopedic conditions, including hip fractures, total hip arthroplasty, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1121-e1126.]. PMID:26652334

  8. Survey of 2582 Cases of Acute Orthopedic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Soleymanha, Mehran; Mobayen, Mohammadreza; Asadi, Kamran; Adeli, Alborz; Haghparast-Ghadim-Limudahi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Orthopedic injuries are among the most common causes of mortality, morbidity, hospitalization, and economic burden in societies. Objectives: In this research, we study the prevalence of different types of trauma requiring orthopedic surgery. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 2582 patients with acute orthopedic injuries admitted to the orthopedic emergency ward at the Poursina Hospital (a referral center in Guilan province (northern Iran), during December 2010 through September 2011. Patients were examined and the data collection form was filled for each patient. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 19 and were listed in tables. Results: Of 2582 included cases, 1940 were male and 642 were female, with a mean age of 34.5 years. Most injuries were seen in the 25 to 44 year age group from rural areas. The highest frequency of trauma related to falls. On the other hand, bicycling and shooting had the lowest frequencies. There were 18 cases with limb amputation. Overall, 66.5% of patients had fractures, 5% had soft tissue lacerations, and 10% had dislocations. Conclusions: Identification of risk factors and methods of prevention is one of the most important duties of healthcare systems. Devising plans to minimize these risk factors and familiarizing people with them is prudent. PMID:25717444

  9. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1990-01-23

    The patent describes in a manipulator system for use in hazardous environments including a manipulator adapted for reciprocal movement upon a guide device, a transfer platform. It comprises: a bed frame defining a generally horizontal bed projecting outwardly from the manipulator; and frame mounting means securing the bed frame to the manipulator in a generally cantilevered fashion, thereby essentially minimizing the structure necessary to support the platform outwardly of the manipulator while enhancing operator visibility of the platform and the manipulator during use of the manipulator system.

  10. Learning blood management in orthopedic surgery through gameplay.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jing; Chui, Yim-Pan; Pang, Wai-Man; Choi, Kup-Sze; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Orthopedic surgery treats the musculoskeletal system, in which bleeding is common and can be fatal. To help train future surgeons in this complex practice, researchers designed and implemented a serious game for learning orthopedic surgery. The game focuses on teaching trainees blood management skills, which are critical for safe operations. Using state-of-the-art graphics technologies, the game provides an interactive and realistic virtual environment. It also integrates game elements, including task-oriented and time-attack scenarios, bonuses, game levels, and performance evaluation tools. To study the system's effect, the researchers conducted experiments on player completion time and off-target contacts to test their learning of psychomotor skills in blood management. PMID:20650710

  11. Clinical conundrums and challenges during geriatric orthopedic emergency surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Despite so many advancements and innovations in anesthetic techniques, expectations and challenges have also grown in plenty. Cardiac, pediatric, obstetric and neuro-anesthesia have perfectly developed to fulfill the desired needs of respective patient population. However, geriatric anesthesia has been shown a lesser interest in teaching and clinical practices over the years as compared with other anesthetic sub-specialties. The large growing geriatric population globally is also associated with an increase number of elderly patients presenting for orthopedic emergency surgeries. Orthopedic emergency surgery in geriatric population is not only a daunting clinical challenge but also has numerous socio-behavioral and economic ramifications. Decision making in anesthesia is largely influenced by the presence of co-morbidities, neuro-cognitive functions and the current socio-behavioral status. Pre-anesthetic evaluation and optimization are extremely important for a better surgical outcome but is limited by time constraints during emergency surgery. The current review aims to highlight comprehensively the various clinical, social, behavioral and psychological aspects during pre-anesthetic evaluation associated with emergency orthopedic surgery in geriatric population. PMID:25810963

  12. Postoperative constipation risk assessment in Turkish orthopedic patients.

    PubMed

    ?endir, Merdiye; Büyük?ylmaz, Funda; A?t?, Türkinaz; Gürp?nar, ?engül; Yazgan, ?lknur

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive, correlational study was conducted to describe constipation risk assessment and the affecting factors of constipation risk of patients who have undergone major orthopedic surgery. Data were collected using a patient information form and the Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS) on the second postoperative day. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. The mean age of the 83 patients studied was 53.75 ± 21.29 years. Subjects were hospitalized in the orthopedic wards for 14.39 ± 15.17 days, and their current bowel habit was 2.18 ± 1.80 stools per week. Of the sample, 63.9% were female, 69.9% of the patients had a history of previous surgery, 45.8% had hip/knee arthroplasty surgery, and 55.4% had bowel problems during the hospitalization period. Patients had a medium risk for constipation according to the CRAS subscale (gender, mobility, and pharmacological agents). Total CRAS score was 12.73 ± 4.75 (medium risk) on the second postoperative day. In addition, age, marital status, educational level, having a history of surgery, and bowel elimination problems did have a significant effect on constipation risk. On the basis of the findings from this study, nurses must learn the postoperative constipation risk of orthopedic patients to implement safe and effective interventions. PMID:22472670

  13. Orthopedic cellular therapy: An overview with focus on clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Moon Jong; Lee, Kwan Hee

    2015-01-01

    In this editorial, the authors tried to evaluate the present state of cellular therapy in orthopedic field. The topics the authors try to cover include not only the clinical trials but the various research areas as well. Both the target diseases for cellular therapy and the target cells were reviewed. New methods to activate the cells were interesting to review. Most advanced clinical trials were also included because several of them have advanced to phase III clinical trials. In the orthopedic field, there are many diseases with a definite treatment gap at this time. Because cellular therapies can regenerate damaged tissues, there is a possibility for cellular therapies to become disease modifying drugs. It is not clear whether cellular therapies will become the standard of care in any of the orthopedic disorders, however the amount of research being performed and the number of clinical trials that are on-going make the authors believe that cellular therapies will become important treatment modalities within several years. PMID:26601056

  14. Manipulation with diverse actions

    E-print Network

    Barry, Jennifer L. (Jennifer Lynn)

    2013-01-01

    We define the Diverse Action Manipulation (DAMA) problem in which we are given a mobile robot, a set of movable objects, and a set of diverse, possibly non-prehensile manipulation actions, and the objective is to find a ...

  15. Mobile Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coryell, S.; Olsen, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Turret, roll arm, and trolley enhance manipulator dexterity. Remote manipulator moves on trolley base along structure. Roll-axis arm positions manipulator arm so it can extend end effector under structure. Yaw-axis rotation gives added reach to arm above structure. Designed for handling, inspecting, and maintaining modules of space station. Manipulators having such capabilities useful on Earth; robots in manufacturing, erection of large structures, or performing complicated tasks in hazardous locations.

  16. The Insignificance of Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    The Insignificance of Manipulation David Papineau Summary I want to show that Jim Woodward's account of causation is not a manipulability theory, whatever its other virtues. (Of course,we can all agree that causation is needed for manipulation--ie an action producing a desired result. But so

  17. Noise Resistant Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Vallette, Bruno

    Noise Resistant Manipulation of Protected Qubits Thomas Coudreau Laboratoire Matériaux et;Context Qubits are useful Qubits are hard to keep & manipulate Qubits are fun #12;Interacting Spins experimentally for qubits. #12;Manipulation: Principle & Problems Method: use a time-varying Hamiltonian

  18. Management of open wounds: lessons from orthopedic oncology.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Herrick J

    2014-01-01

    The management of complex wounds remains a challenge, and although there have been many promising advances, patients often undergo a morbid and lengthy process to obtain sufficient, satisfactory healing. Sarcoma patients are especially vulnerable to soft tissue wound-healing complications. These patients are often treated with neoadjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy and have compromised local vascularity to healing tissue. The advent and refinement of wound vacuum-assisted closure technology have been shown to have a tremendous impact. This article reviews the benefits of some novel technologies currently undergoing investigation in orthopedic oncology that will likely have applications in wound management from other causes. PMID:24267211

  19. The Early Years of Organized Chiropractic Orthopedics, 1954–1973: A Social History

    PubMed Central

    Green, Bart N.; Johnson, Claire D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the origins and development of the organized chiropractic orthopedics movement in the United States from 1954–1973. Methods: Hand searches of early periodicals were performed and information was organized chronologically to create a timeline. Context for the timeline was provided by extracting pertinent information from audio recordings of interviews. Relevant background information was located using the cumulative index of the journal Chiropractic History and searching the MANTIS database. Historical Features: After World War I, The advent of third party reimbursement for health care created a new environment for health care practitioners. For doctors of chiropractic, this event provided the impetus to begin the postgraduate chiropractic orthopedics program over 50 years ago. In 1954, Alvin A. Hancock, DC and F. Maynard Lipe, DC successfully launched an active orthopedics movement after several earlier attempts failed during the 1940s and early 1950s. The movement generated from the desire to train and certify chiropractors to manage personal injury and workers’ compensation low back injuries. In addition to developing interdisciplinary educational programs, the chiropractic orthopedics group was responsible for producing a research agenda, some of the profession’s early orthopedic-focused research, and for starting the National Council on Chiropractic Orthopedics of the National Chiropractic Association, which later became the American Chiropractic Association Council on Orthopedics. These organizations produced thousands of specialists in chiropractic orthopedics, later known as Diplomates of the American Board of Chiropractic Orthopedists. Conclusion: Several orthopedics interest groups were formed and credentialing processes were created to qualify doctors as recognized chiropractic orthopedics specialists. The popularity of this movement resulted in the inclusion of orthopedics into core chiropractic college curricula and the production of various research studies before the development of the modern science of chiropractic. PMID:19488411

  20. Restructuring the Orthopedic Resident Research Curriculum to Increase Scholarly Activity

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Laura; Bostrom, Mathias; Marx, Robert; Roberts, Timothy; Sculco, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited time and funding are challenges to meeting the research requirement of the orthopedic residency curriculum. Objective We report a reorganized research curriculum that increases research quality and productivity at our academic orthopedic medical center. Methods Changes made to the curriculum, which began in 2006 and were fully phased in by 2008, included research milestones for each training year, a built-in support structure, use of an accredited bio-skills laboratory, mentoring by National Institutes of Health–funded scientists, and protected time to engage in required research and prepare scholarly peer-reviewed publications. Results Total grant funding of resident research increased substantially, from $15,000 in 2007 (8 graduates) to $380,000 in 2010 (9 graduates), and the number of publications also increased. The 12 residents who graduated in 2005 published 16 papers from 2000 to 2006, compared to 84 papers published by the 9 residents who graduated in 2010. The approximate costs per year included $19,000 (0.3 full-time equivalent) for an academic research coordinator; $16,000 for resident travel to professional meetings; reimbursement for 213 faculty hours; and funding for resident salaries while on the research rotation, paid through the general hospital budget. Conclusions The number of grants and peer-reviewed publications increased considerably after our residency research curriculum was reorganized to allow dedicated research time and improved mentoring and infrastructure. PMID:24455016

  1. Citrate-based Biodegradable Injectable hydrogel Composites for Orthopedic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gyawali, Dipendra; Nair, Parvathi; Kim, Harry K.W.; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that natural bone apatite crystals are bound with citrate-rich molecules. Citrates on apatite crystals impact bone development and its load-bearing function. However, such understanding has never been translated into bone biomaterials design. Herein, a first citrate-based injectable composite material for orthopedic applications is developed based on our recently developed biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) maleate citrate (PEGMC) and hydroxyapatite (HA). PEGMC contains rich carboxylic groups that could chelate with calcium-containing HA thus facilitating polymer/HA interactions, similar to natural citrate-bound apatite crystal. The crosslinking of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) with PEGMC/HA composites allows an addition control over degradation and mechanical properties of the crosslinked PEGMC/HA (CPEGMC/HA) composites. CPEGMC/HA composite can serve as an ideal injectable cell carrier as confirmed by the enhanced DNA content, ALP activity, and calcium production through a human fetal osteoblast encapsulation study. Ex vivo study on porcine femoral head demonstrated that PEGMC/HA is a potentially promising injectable biodegradable bone material for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Development of biodegradable citrate-based injectable PEGMC/HA composite is an initial step for the development of the next generation of bone tissue engineering and orthopedic biomaterials. PMID:23977427

  2. Angiogenesis and osteogenesis in an orthopedically expanded suture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H. N.; Garetto, L. P.; Potter, R. H.; Katona, T. R.; Lee, C. H.; Roberts, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the angiogenic and the subsequent osteogenic responses during a 96-hour time-course after sutural expansion. Fifty rats were divided into: (1) a control group that received only angiogenic induction through injection of 5 ng/gm recombinant human endothelial cell growth factor (rhECGF); (2) an experimental group that received orthopedic expansion and rhECGF; (3) a sham group that received expansion and sodium chloride (NaCl) injection; and (4) a baseline group that received no expansion or injection. All rats were injected with 3H-thymidine (1.0 microCi/gm) 1 hour before death to label the DNA of S-phase cells. Demineralized sections (4 microm thick) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Angiogenesis and cell migration were analyzed with a previously established cell kinetics model. Analysis of variance was used to test the hypothesis that enhancement of angiogenesis stimulates reestablishment of osteogenic capability. Blood vessel number, area, and endothelial cell-labeled index significantly increased in experimental groups, but no difference was found between control and baseline groups. Labeled-pericyte index and activated pericyte numbers in the experimental group were also higher than in the sham groups. These results show that supplemental rhECGF enhances angiogenesis in expanded sutures but not in nonexpanded sutures. Data also suggest that pericytes are the source of osteoblasts in an orthopedically expanded suture.

  3. Hemolysis as a clinical marker for propionibacterium acnes orthopedic infection.

    PubMed

    Nodzo, Scott R; Hohman, Donald W; Crane, John K; Duquin, Thomas R

    2014-05-01

    Determining if a Propionibacterium acnes culture is a true infection or a contaminant remains a challenge. We conducted a study to distinguish between a true infection and a contaminated culture based on the P acnes hemolytic phenotype and clinical presentation. All P acnes strains were from orthopedic patients who had undergone arthroplasty or nonarthroplasty shoulder procedures. Hemolysis was determined according to P acnes growth on brucella blood agar plates after 48 to 72 hours. Each patient record that corresponded to the obtained P acnes strains was retrospectively reviewed for clinical data. An orthopedic surgeon involved in the care of the patients, but blinded to the hemolytic status of the bacteria, classified these infections as definite, likely, or unlikely. Of the 22 P acnes strains, 13 were hemolytic, and 9 were nonhemolytic. Of the 13 hemolytic strains, 10 were definite infections; only 3 of the 9 nonhemolytic strains were definite infections. Mean (SD) C-reactive protein level was significantly higher (P = .03) in the hemolytic group, 16 (11) mg/mL, than in the nonhemolytic group, 7.9 (10) mg/mL. A hemolytic phenotype of P acnes may represent a more pathogenic strain of bacteria, and may be more likely to be found in patients with a definite infection with P acnes rather than a contaminated culture. PMID:24839635

  4. Sedation-assisted Orthopedic Reduction in Emergency Medicine: The Safety and Success of a One Physician/One Nurse Model

    E-print Network

    Vinson, David R; Hoehn, Casey

    2013-01-01

    assisted orthopedic reductions has been undertaken with two physicians—physician (or nurse anesthetist) to administer medications for all sedation- assistedAssisted Orthopedic Reduction CI, 96.7 - 99.3%), a single emergency physician

  5. Manipulators in teleoperation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulators represent a mature technology which has evolved over nearly 40 years of applications experience. The wide range of manipulator concepts developed thus far reflect differing applications, priorities, and philosophies. The technology of teleoperated manipulators is in a rapid state of change (just as are industrial robotics) fueled by microelectronics and materials advances. Large strides in performance and dexterity are now practical and advantageous. Even though improved controls and sensory feedback will increase functionality, overall costs should be reduced as manipulator fabrication and assembly labor costs are reduced through improved manufacturing technology. As these advances begin to materialize, broader applications in nonnuclear areas should occur.

  6. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, James C.; Hoover, Mark A.; May, Kay W.; Ross, Maurice J.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  7. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1988-10-12

    This invention is comprised of a transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed fame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control. 5 figs.

  8. Factors affecting interest in orthopedics among female medical students: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Keith; Namdari, Surena; Bowers, Andrea; Keenan, Mary Ann; Levin, L Scott; Ahn, Jaimo

    2011-12-01

    The field of orthopedics has a limited ability to recruit high-quality female applicants. The purpose of this study was to determine whether early exposure to the field affects a woman's decision to pursue orthopedics. We performed a prospective, nonrandomized cohort study between academic years 2005 and 2009 and compared interest in orthopedic surgery among female (n=271) and male (n=71) medical students at 2 urban teaching institutions. Elective lectures and orthopedic literature were distributed via e-mail to the study participants. These materials included articles published in the medical literature, materials produced and distributed by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, and Web sites providing educational materials. The primary outcome was the likelihood of application for orthopedic residency. We studied the influence of demographics, exposure, and attitudes on interest in pursuing an orthopedic career. Men had a significantly higher baseline level of interest in orthopedic surgery than women (P=.005). Younger age (P<.001) and personal (P<.001), independent (P<.001), and school (P=.023) exposures to orthopedics were significantly related to interest among women. At final follow-up, total personal exposures (P=.003) and total independent exposures (P<.001) in the form of our literature and lectures were correlated with final interest in women. Female interest was decreased by the long hours, physical demands, and predominantly male nature of the field. Early exposure to orthopedic educational resources may be useful in generating female interest. Perceptions and attitudes regarding orthopedic surgery must to be changed to attract the best and brightest minds, regardless of sex. PMID:22146211

  9. Validity of subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Daniel; Haubruck, Patrick; Boxriker, Sonja; Korff, Sebastian; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Moghaddam, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this level 1 diagnostic study, we analyzed the validity of subjective smoking status and, as secondary research question, the smoking cessation adherence in orthopedic patients during a routine hospital stay of nonunion patients by measuring serum cotinine. Methods We included patients undergoing revision surgery due to nonunion of long bones. Patients were interviewed about their smoking status. Blood samples were taken from all the patients prior to surgery and for an additional 6 weeks following surgery. Serum levels of cotinine were measured, and coherence between subjective smoking status and objective cotinine analysis was evaluated. Results Between March 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 136 patients. Six of the 26 “previous smokers” (23%) and four of the 65 “nonsmokers” (6%) had serum cotinine above cutoff levels. In self-labeled smokers, serum cotinine levels averaged at 2,367.4±14,885.9 ng/mL (with a median of 100 ng/mL), whereas in previous smokers the levels averaged at 4,270±19,619.4 ng/mL (with a median of 0 ng/mL) and in the nonsmokers group the levels averaged at 12±53.9 ng/mL (with a median of 0.03 ng/mL). Overall, the subjective smoking status matched serum cotinine testing in 88% of the cases. Sensitivity was 79.6% and specificity was 93.1%. Ninety-one percent of the patients with preoperative positive serum values were still positive at follow-up. Conclusion In this study, we could show that subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients is predominantly reliable as validated by objective cotinine measurements; however, patients who declare themselves as “previous smokers” are at elevated risk for underreporting continued smoking and patients who smoked preoperatively are at high risk for continuing their habit. In the future, caregivers should consider introducing effective treatments for smoking cessation to smokers and furthermore offer effective treatments to maintain smoking cessation in previous smokers during their routine consultation prior to orthopedic and trauma surgery. PMID:26345646

  10. Barriers to the clinical translation of orthopedic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Evans, Christopher H

    2011-12-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been the subject of increasingly intensive research for over 20 years, and there is concern in some quarters over the lack of clinically useful products despite the large sums of money invested. This review provides one perspective on orthopedic applications from a biologist working in academia. It is suggested that the delay in clinical application is not atypical of new, biologically based technologies. Some barriers to progress are acknowledged and discussed, but it is also noted that preclinical studies have identified several promising types of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenetic signals, which, although not optimal, are worth advancing toward human trials to establish a bridgehead in the clinic. Although this transitional technology will be replaced by more sophisticated, subsequent systems, it will perform valuable pioneering functions and facilitate the clinical development of the field. Some strategies for achieving this are suggested. PMID:21682607

  11. Cultural Nuance in Orthopedic Foreign Aid: Differences in Patient Concerns.

    PubMed

    Kavolus, Joseph J; Ritter, Merrill A; Claverie, J Guillermo; Salas, Marcos D; Kavolus, Christopher H; Trousdale, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic aid to developing nations is expanding and becoming a unique facet of the specialty. This investigation seeks to compare patient impressions and concerns regarding the care patients receive as part of an itinerant surgical aid trip in 2 nations. In 2013 and 2014, patients from 2 separate nations completed a Likert scale survey assessing impressions of the care they received at the hands of a surgical team from abroad. Mean response scores were calculated and compared using a t test. This is the first investigation to compare patient concerns across 2 nations in a surgical aid trip setting. The results highlight the importance of culture in understanding patients and the impressions of the care they receive. PMID:26350258

  12. Evaluation of occupational and patient radiation doses in orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, A; Alzimami, K; Habeeballa, B; Osman, H; Abdelaziz, I; Sassi, S A; Sam, A K

    2015-06-01

    This study intends to measure the radiation dose to patients and staff during (i) Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) and (ii) Dynamic Cannula Screw (DCS) and to evaluate entrance surface Air kerma (ESAK) dose and organ doses and effective doses. Calibrated Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-GR200A) were used. The mean patients' doses were 0.46mGy and 0.07mGy for DHS and DCS procedures, respectively. The mean staff doses at the thyroid and chest were 4.69mGy and 1.21mGy per procedure. The mean organ and effective dose for patients and staff were higher in DHS compared to DCS. Orthopedic surgeons were exposed to unnecessary radiation doses due to the lack of protection measures. The radiation dose per hip procedure is within the safety limit and less than the previous studies. PMID:25557979

  13. Power harvesting using PZT ceramics embedded in orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Liu, Ming; Jia, Chen; Wang, Zihua

    2009-09-01

    Battery lifetime has been the stumbling block for many power-critical or maintenance-free real-time embedded applications, such as wireless sensors and orthopedic implants. Thus a piezoelectric material that could convert human motion into electrical energy provides a very attractive solution for clinical implants. In this work, we analyze the power generation characteristics of stiff lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics and the equivalent circuit through extensive experiments. Our experimental framework allows us to explore many important design considerations of such a PZT-based power generator. Overall we can achieve a PZT element volume of 0.5 x 0.5 x 1.8 cm, which is considerably smaller than the results reported so far. Finally, we outline the application of our PZT elements in a total knee replacement (TKR) implant. PMID:19812004

  14. Orthopedic Correction of Growing Hyperdivergent, Retrognathic, Patients with Miniscrew Implants

    PubMed Central

    Buschang, Peter H.; Carrillo, Roberto; Rossouw, P. Emile

    2010-01-01

    Traditional orthodontic treatments do not adequately address the skeletal problems of retrognathic, hyperdivergent, Class II adolescents; the few approaches that do require long-term patient compliance. This paper introduces a novel approach using miniscrew implants (MSIa) and growth to treat retrognathic hyperdivergent adolescents. Nine consecutive patients were evaluated at the start of treatment (13.2 ±1.1 years of age) and again at the end of the orthopedic phase (after 1.9 ±0.3 years). Each patient had two MSIs placed in either side of the palate. Coil springs (150 g) extended from the MSIs to a RPE, which served as a rigid segment for intruding the maxillary premolar and molars. Two additional MSIs were placed between the first mandibular molars and second premolars; coil spring (150 g) extended from the MSIs to hold or intrude the mandibular molars. Prior to treatment, the patients exhibited substantial and significant mandibular retrusion (Z-score=?1.0), facial convexity (Z-score=0.7), and hyperdivergence (Z-score=1.6). Treatment produced consistent and substantial orthopedic effects. The chin was advanced an average of 2.4 mm, the SNB angle increased by 2.1°, the mandibular plane angle decreased 3.9°, and facial convexity decreased by approximately 3.2°. Questionnaires showed that this treatment approach was not painful or uncomfortable; the majority of the patients indicated that they were very likely to recommend the treatment to others. Treatment was accomplished by titrating the amount of orthodontic intrusion performed based on the individuals’ growth potential. PMID:21236539

  15. Epidural nalbuphine for postoperative analgesia in orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chatrath, Veena; Attri, Joginder Pal; Bala, Anju; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Ahuja, Deepti; Kaur, Sawinder

    2015-01-01

    Background: The challenging task of postoperative pain relief comes within the realm of the anesthesiologist. Combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia can be used as the sole technique for carrying out surgical procedures and managing postoperative pain using various drug regimes. Epidural administration of opioids in combination with local anesthetic agents in low dose offers new dimensions in the management of postoperative pain. Aims: Comparative evaluation of bupivacaine hydrochloride with nalbuphine versus bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative analgesia in lower limb orthopedic surgeries under CSE anesthesia to know the quality of analgesia, incidence of side effects, surgical outcome and level of patient satisfaction. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized and double-blind study was conducted involving 80 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II coming for elective lower limb orthopedic surgeries carried under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Anesthesia was given with 0.5% of 2.5 ml bupivacaine intrathecally in both the groups. Epidurally 0.25% bupivacaine along with 10 mg nalbuphine (group A) or tramadol 100 mg (group B) diluted to 2 ml to make a total volume of 10 ml was administered at sensory regression to T10. Statistical Analysis: The data were collected, compiled and statistically analyzed with the help of MS Excel, EPI Info 6 and SPSS to draw the relative conclusions. Results and Conclusions: The mean duration of analgesia in group A was 380 ± 11.49 min and in group B was 380 ± 9.8 min. The mean sedation score was found to be more in group B than group A. The mean patient satisfaction score in group A was 4.40 ± 0.871 and in group B was 3.90 ± 1.150 which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). We concluded that the addition of nalbuphine with bupivacaine was effective for postoperative analgesia in terms of quality of analgesia and patient satisfaction score as compared to tramadol. PMID:26712968

  16. Hydroxyapatite-nanotube composites and coatings for orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Debrupa

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has received wide attention in orthopedics, due to its biocompatibility and osseointegration ability. Despite these advantages, the brittle nature and low fracture toughness of HA often results in rapid wear and premature fracture of implant. Hence, there is a need to improve the fracture toughness and wear resistance of HA without compromising its biocompatibility. The aim of the current research is to explore the potential of nanotubes as reinforcement to HA for orthopedic implants. HA- 4 wt.% carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and coatings are synthesized by spark plasma sintering and plasma spraying respectively, and investigated for their mechanical, tribological and biological behavior. CNT reinforcement improves the fracture toughness (>90%) and wear resistance (>66%) of HA for coating and free standing composites. CNTs have demonstrated a positive influence on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization activities of osteoblasts, during in-vitro biocompatibility studies. In-vivo exposure of HA-CNT coated titanium implant in animal model (rat) shows excellent histocompatibility and neobone integration on the implant surface. The improved osseointegration due to presence of CNTs in HA is quantified by the adhesion strength measurement of single osteoblast using nano-scratch technique. Considering the ongoing debate about cytotoxicity of CNTs in the literature, the present study also suggests boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) as an alternative reinforcement. BNNT with the similar elastic modulus and strength as CNT, were added to HA. The resulting composite having 4 wt.% BNNTs improved the fracture toughness (˜85%) and wear resistance (˜75%) of HA in the similar range as HA-CNT composites. BNNTs were found to be non-cytotoxic for osteoblasts and macrophages. In-vitro evaluation shows positive role of BNNT in osteoblast proliferation and viability. Apatite formability of BNNT surface in ˜4 days establishes its osseointegration ability.

  17. Controlled release of antibiotics from coated orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Price, J S; Tencer, A F; Arm, D M; Bohach, G A

    1996-03-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is one of the most serious complications of orthopedic open fracture treatment. The objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable implant coating with impregnated antibiotics as an adjunct to current therapy. We used a polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) as the biodegradable carrier and gentamicin as the antibiotic. Our objectives were to establish elution characteristics of the antibiotic from the polymer, and determine if the coated orthopedic implants would inhibit bacterial growth in vitro. In the elution study, coated implants were incubated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 degrees C and sampled daily for gentamicin levels. The in vitro model consisted of test tubes containing Mueller-Hinton culture broth inoculated with 5 x 10(6) cfu of Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 37 degrees C. The implants were switched to a new set of inoculated tubes each day. Tubes were sampled for colony counting to determine bactericidal effects. Implant coatings consisted of 40 mg of gentamicin as a 20% mixture with PLGA. The elution curve showed an average level of 138 micrograms/mL over 15 days. This local concentration would be more than adequate to kill susceptible organisms. The in vitro study showed a significant reduction in bacterial growth in the test tubes containing coated implants. Control tubes averaged 2.5 x 10(8) cfu/mL of S.aureus over 24 days. Coated implant tubes averaged 0.9 cfu/mL. This was a reduction of greater than 99.999% (p < 0.0001). This study showed that a thin biodegradable implant coating can be developed with bactericidal activity against the organisms frequently associated with osteomyelitis in cases of open fractures. PMID:8698690

  18. Insights into Avicenna’s knowledge of the science of orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Meibodi, Mohammad Kalantari

    2014-01-01

    The art of orthopedics traces its history back to ancient civilizations like those of the Egyptians. The evolution of this branch of medicine is indebted to investigations of many scientists, including Greek, Roman and Persian scholars. The Persian physician Avicenna (980-1037 AD) is one such scientist who investigated different aspects of orthopedics. It is possible to analyze Avicenna’s knowledge of orthopedics and his contributions to this branch of medicine by an examination of his epic encyclopedia of medicine, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). PMID:24649417

  19. Dielectrophoresis for Bioparticle Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Cheng; Huang, Haibo; Chen, Liguo; Li, Xiangpeng; Ge, Zunbiao; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Lining

    2014-01-01

    As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presented, in which the applications are classified into five fields: capturing bioparticles to specific regions, focusing bioparticles in the sample, characterizing biomolecular interaction and detecting microorganism, pairing cells for electrofusion and separating different kinds of bioparticles; Thirdly, the effect of DEP on bioparticle viability is analyzed; Finally, the DEP techniques are summarized and future trends in bioparticle manipulation are suggested. PMID:25310652

  20. Manipulation of Thermal Phonons 

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Chung-Hao

    2013-03-28

    in silicon nanofabrication techniques, this makes tungsten/silicon phononic crystal a particularly attractive platform for manipulating thermal phonons. Phononic crystal makes use of the fundamental properties of waves to create band gap over which there can...

  1. Microfluidics for manipulating cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xuan; Zheng, Wenfu; Sun, Jiashu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-01-14

    Microfluidics, a toolbox comprising methods for precise manipulation of fluids at small length scales (micrometers to millimeters), has become useful for manipulating cells. Its uses range from dynamic management of cellular interactions to high-throughput screening of cells, and to precise analysis of chemical contents in single cells. Microfluidics demonstrates a completely new perspective and an excellent practical way to manipulate cells for solving various needs in biology and medicine. This review introduces and comments on recent achievements and challenges of using microfluidics to manipulate and analyze cells. It is believed that microfluidics will assume an even greater role in the mechanistic understanding of cell biology and, eventually, in clinical applications. PMID:22933509

  2. Coupler for remote manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudmann, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    Reliable, low-cost coupler alines and grasps moving and rotating objects. Coupling mechanism may be used in handling of radio-active materials or in underwater explorations and other remote manipulators.

  3. Biomechanical and bioactivity concepts of polyetheretherketone composites for use in orthopedic implants-a review.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohamed Ruslan; Goharian, Amirhossein; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Wahit, Mat Uzir

    2015-11-01

    The use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites in the trauma plating system, total replacement implants, and tissue scaffolds has found great interest among researchers. In recent years (2008 afterward), this type of composites has been examined for suitability as substitute material over stainless steel, titanium alloys, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, or even biodegradable materials in orthopedic implant applications. Biomechanical and bioactivity concepts were contemplated for the development of PEEK orthopedic implants and a few primary clinical studies reported the clinical outcomes of PEEK-based orthopedic implants. This study aims to review and discuss the recent concepts and contribute further concepts in terms of biomechanical and bioactivity challenges for the development of PEEK and PEEK composites in orthopedic implants. PMID:25856801

  4. SAPIENZA UNIVERSITY OF ROME DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMICAL, HISTOLOGICAL, FORENSIC MEDICINE AND ORTHOPEDIC

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    1 SAPIENZA ­ UNIVERSITY OF ROME DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMICAL, HISTOLOGICAL, FORENSIC MEDICINE of the Department Council of the Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic position ("assegno di ricerca") at the Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine

  5. Orthopedic Health: Healthy Joints for a Lifetime / Keep Your Moving Parts Moving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Healthy Joints for a Lifetime Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... healthy life. Most people take their bones and joints for granted—until something goes wrong with one ...

  6. Rational design of nanofiber scaffolds for orthopedic tissue repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing; Xie, Jingwei; Jiang, Jiang; Shuler, Franklin D; Bartlett, David E

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews recent significant advances in the design of nanofiber scaffolds for orthopedic tissue repair and regeneration. It begins with a brief introduction on the limitations of current approaches for orthopedic tissue repair and regeneration. It then illustrates that rationally designed scaffolds made up of electrospun nanofibers could be a promising solution to overcome the problems that current approaches encounter. The article also discusses the intriguing properties of electrospun nanofibers, including control of composition, structures, orders, alignments and mechanical properties, use as carriers for topical drug and/or gene sustained delivery, and serving as substrates for the regulation of cell behaviors, which could benefit musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration. It further highlights a few of the many recent applications of electrospun nanofiber scaffolds in repairing and regenerating various orthopedic tissues. Finally, the article concludes with perspectives on the challenges and future directions for better design, fabrication and utilization of nanofiber scaffolds for orthopedic tissue engineering. PMID:23987110

  7. Global research coaching in orthopedic surgery: seeding for an international network

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Paula Bonilauri; Rajgor, Dimple; Shah, Jatin; Shah, Anand; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of delivering evidence-based health care, orthopedic surgeons have directed fewer efforts towards the generation of such evidence. Even when present, published evidence lacks methodological rigor and is known to be inaccurate. One of the main reasons for the lack of generation of quality evidence, and the low involvement in research among orthopedic surgeons, is the lack of structured research coaching environments where they can learn concepts and hone their research skills. There is a palpable need for a pragmatic and outcome-oriented approach that can equip orthopedic surgeons with effective ways of communicating their research in writing. We describe a pragmatic research coaching program, designed and developed by the Research on Research group, which aims to build a global network of orthopedic researchers trained in streamlined and standardized research methods. We also provide a brief overview of the course principles and tools, and the platforms used in this program. PMID:24453591

  8. Improved performance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for orthopedic applications 

    E-print Network

    Plumlee, Kevin Grant

    2009-05-15

    polymer composites for orthopedic applications and may provide a viable alternative to the property tradeoffs encountered with irradiation crosslinking. Apart from UHMWPE, novel materials including hydrogels and bio-derived polymers show great potential...

  9. Micro manipulator motion control to counteract macro manipulator structural vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Evans, M.S.; Bennett, D.W.

    1995-02-01

    Inertial force damping control by micro manipulator modulation is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a micro/macro manipulator system. The proposed controller, developed using classical control theory, is added to the existing control system. The proposed controller uses real-time measurements of macro manipulator flexibility to adjust the motion of the micro manipulator to counteract structural vibrations. Experimental studies using an existing micro/macro flexible link manipulator testbed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to suppression of vibrations in the macro/micro manipulator system using micro-manipulator-based inertial active damping control.

  10. Do Astronauts Havbe a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions Than a Cohort of Working Professionals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Young, M.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Tarver, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated [1], but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  11. Academic Characteristics of Orthopedic Team Physicians Affiliated With High School, Collegiate, and Professional Teams.

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine the academic involvement and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians at high school, college, and professional levels of sport. Through Internet and telephone queries, we identified 1054 team physicians from 362 institutions, including 120 randomly selected high schools and colleges and 122 professional teams (baseball, basketball, football, hockey). For all physicians included in the study, we performed a comprehensive search of the Internet and of a citation database to determine academic affiliations, number of publications, and h-index values. Of the 1054 physicians, 678 (64%) were orthopedic surgeons. Percentage of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with an academic medical center was highest in professional sports (64%; 173/270) followed by collegiate sports (36%; 98/275) and high school sports (20%; 27/133). Median number of publications per orthopedic team physician was significantly higher in professional sports (30.6) than in collegiate sports (10.7) or high school sports (6). Median number of publications by orthopedic physicians also varied by sport, with the highest number in Major League Baseball (37.9; range, 0-225) followed by the National Basketball Association (32.0; range, 0-227) and the National Football League (30.4; range, 0-460), with the lowest number within the National Hockey League (20.7; range, 0-144). Academic affiliation and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians vary by competition level and professional sporting league. PMID:26566551

  12. Biofilm Disrupting Technology for Orthopedic Implants: What’s on the Horizon?

    PubMed Central

    Connaughton, Alexander; Childs, Abby; Dylewski, Stefan; Sabesan, Vani J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of orthopedic implants in joints has revolutionized the treatment of patients with many debilitating chronic musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoarthritis. However, the introduction of foreign material into the human body predisposes the body to infection. The treatment of these infections has become very complicated since the orthopedic implants serve as a surface for multiple species of bacteria to grow at a time into a resistant biofilm layer. This biofilm layer serves as a protectant for the bacterial colonies on the implant making them more resistant and difficult to eradicate when using standard antibiotic treatment. In some cases, the use of antibiotics alone has even made the bacteria more resistant to treatment. Thus, there has been surge in the creation of non-antibiotic anti-biofilm agents to help disrupt the biofilms on the orthopedic implants to help eliminate the infections. In this study, we discuss infections of orthopedic implants in the shoulder then we review the main categories of anti-biofilm agents that have been used for the treatment of infections on orthopedic implants. Then, we introduce some of the newer biofilm disrupting technology that has been studied in the past few years that may advance the treatment options for orthopedic implants in the future. PMID:25705632

  13. Preventing Manipulation by Restricting Information

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    6 Preventing Manipulation by Restricting Information It was shown in the last chapter that computational complexity does not seem to be a very strong barrier against manipulation. Consequently, we need for the cases where there is one manipulator, by restricting the manipulator's information about the other

  14. Parametric Analysis of Orthopedic Screws in Relation to Bone Density

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Elisabetta M; Salaorno, Massimiliano; Grasso, Giovanni; Audenino, Alberto L

    2009-01-01

    A global study of geometry and material properties of orthopedic screws was performed, considering not only the effect of each single factor (screw pitch, number of threads, fillet angle, etc.) but also their interactions with respect to bone density. The stress patterns resulting from different screw geometries and bone densities were analyzed using finite element techniques, taking into account different levels of osseointegration between the screw and the bone. These numerical models where validated through experimental pull-out tests, where a pull out force of 120 N produced localized failure of the last thread (stresses above 0.42 MPa). The results of the numerical simulations were then summarised using a multi-factorial parametric analysis. This demonstrated the great relevance of the interaction between bone density and screw pitch, showing that the optimal screw pitch can vary by more than 25% for different densities (0.35 g/cm3 and 0.47 g/cm3, respectively). The parameters calculated by means of the multi-factorial analysis allow the pull out force to be estimated for different osseointegration levels, different screw geometries and material properties, and for different bone densities. The final objective is to determine the best choice of implant for each individual patient. PMID:19587807

  15. PEEK Biomaterials in Trauma, Orthopedic, and Spinal Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, S. M.; Devine, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, polyaryletherketones (PAEKs) have been increasingly employed as biomaterials for trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants. We have synthesized the extensive polymer science literature as it relates to structure, mechanical properties, and chemical resistance of PAEK biomaterials. With this foundation, one can more readily appreciate why this family of polymers will be inherently strong, inert, and biocompatible. Due to its relative inertness, PEEK biomaterials are an attractive platform upon which to develop novel bioactive materials, and some steps have already been taken in that direction, with the blending of HA and TCP into sintered PEEK. However, to date, blended HA-PEEK composites have involved a trade-off in mechanical properties in exchange for their increased bioactivity. PEEK has had the greatest clinical impact in the field of spine implant design, and PEEK is now broadly accepted as a radiolucent alternative to metallic biomaterials in the spine community. For mature fields, such as total joint replacements and fracture fixation implants, radiolucency is an attractive but not necessarily critical material feature. PMID:17686513

  16. Why medical students choose orthopedic surgery as a specialty?

    PubMed Central

    Erraji, Moncef; Kharraji, Abdessamad; Abbasi, Najib; Najib, Abdeljawad; Yacoubi, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    Before the crisis announced the Moroccan surgery, the objectives of this study were to analyze the choice of specialties newly appointed to the internal review and the guidance of medical students and to determine the factors influencing this choice. Data on specialty choice students were analyzed and a questionnaire was offered to students of Morocco at the beginning of academic year 2013-20014 The form consisted of questions on the year of study. sex, professional guidelines and reasons for choice. candidates were male, the average age of our residents was 28 years. We also noted the importance of the passage as well as external service trauma. Care provided to patients, lifestyle and income reported by 85% of respondents to be the most important factors to pursue orthopedics as a career. The TR-Orth is now a specialty that responds to a positive choice. The choice of TR-Orth by students at the end of medical school curriculum is reinforced by teaching and practicing the specialty during the internship. The overall training is unsatisfactory overall. Students would deepen in some areas. This study confirms that there is currently a shift in trauma surgery, mostly induced by an a priori negative for particular workloads. PMID:26185556

  17. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Termsuksawad, Preecha

    2014-08-01

    Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH4F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO2 nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH4F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (-4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO2 nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO2 nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO2 nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that growing on titanium plate surface.

  18. Snow Catastrophe Conditions: What is its Impact on Orthopedic Injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Karimi-Mobarakeh, Mahmoud; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Saheb-Ekhtiari, Khashayar; Hashemi-Motlagh, Keyvan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iran places sixth amongst high risk natural disaster countries and Guilan province of Iran shoulders a large amount of socio-economic burden due to snow catastrophes. The more knowledge of circumstances we have, the more efficient our future encounters will be. Methods: In this retrospective study, of all of the patients admitted to Poursina Hospital due to snow and ice related trauma in the first two weeks of February 2014, 306 cases were found eligible for entry into the present study. Results: Of the 306 eligible patients (383 injuries), there were 175 men (57.2%) and 131 women (42.8%). Most patients suffered from orthopedic injuries (81%) and the most common fractures were distal radius fractures in the upper extremities and hip fractures in the lower extremities. Slipping was the most common and motor vehicle accidents had the rarest injury mechanisms. It was shown that the frequency of injuries were higher on icy days (67.6%) than snowy days (32.4%). Conclusions: Snow crises may lead to increased risk of slipping and falling situations, especially on icy days. The peak of injury rates is a few days after snowfall with the most common injury being distal radius fracture. Providing essential instructions and supporting resource allocation to better handle such catastrophes may improve outcomes. PMID:25207329

  19. Intravenous parecoxib sodium foracute pain after orthopedic knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, G Lynn; Steckner, Karen; Hogue, Charles; Torri, Sarah; Hubbard, Richard C

    2002-06-01

    Our objective in a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo- and active-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the analgesic effectiveness of single intravenous (IV) doses of parecoxib sodium 20 and 40 mg, morphine 4 mg, and ketorolac 30 mg in the postsurgical orthopedic pain model. After undergoing unilateral total knee replacement surgery, 208 healthy adult patients were randomized to receive placebo or a study drug within 6 hours of discontinuation of patient-controlled analgesia on postoperative day 1. Onset of analgesia was similarly rapid with IV parecoxib sodium 40 mg, morphine, and ketorolac. Level and duration of analgesia were significantly superior with parecoxib sodium than with morphine and were similar for parecoxib sodium and ketorolac. Parecoxib sodium was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, IV parecoxib sodium 40 mg is as effective as ketorolac 30 mg and is more effective than morphine 4 mg and therefore has potential widespread utility in acute postoperative pain management. PMID:12083587

  20. Functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) III--modus operandi.

    PubMed

    Vardimon, A D; Graber, T M; Voss, L R; Muller, T P

    1990-02-01

    An intraoral intermaxillary appliance has been developed for the treatment of Class III malocclusions that exhibit midface sagittal deficiency with or without mandibular excess. The functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) III consists of upper and lower acrylic plates with a permanent magnet incorporated into each plate. The upper magnet is linked to a retraction screw. The upper magnet is retracted periodically (e.g., monthly) to stimulate maxillary advancement and mandibular retardation. The attractive mode neodymium magnets used in this study produced a horizontal force of 98 gm and a vertical force of 371 gm. Six female Macaca fascicularis monkeys were treated with FOMA IIIs. An additional three animals were treated with sham appliances. After 4 months of treatment, the following results were found: the growth pattern of the cranial base (saddle angle) was not altered; midfacial protraction did occur along a recumbent hyperbolic curve with a horizontal maxillary displacement and an anterosuperior premaxillary rotation; the cumulative protraction of the maxillary complex was initiated at the pterygomaxillary fissure with an additional contribution provided by other circummaxillary sutures (zygomaticomaxillary s., transverse s., premaxillary s.); and inhibition of mandibular length was minimal, but a tendency toward a vertical condylar growth pattern was observed. The interaction between sutural and condylar growth sites appeared biphasic, characterized by an immediate and rapid excitation of the circummaxillary sutures followed by a delayed and slow suppression of the condylar cartilage. Long-term animal and clinical FOMA III studies are recommended. PMID:2301300

  1. Studies of host response to orthopedic implants and biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Santavirta, S; Takagi, M; Gómez-Barrena, E; Nevalainen, J; Lassus, J; Salo, J; Konttinen, Y T

    1999-01-01

    The use of implanted biomaterials in orthopedic surgery has increased rapidly during the past two decades. Total joint replacement of the hip or knee joint has become common treatment; at the same time, an increasing number of fractures are treated with osteosynthesis. The original Charnley low-friction arthroplasty of the hip is still widely used and gives in large series excellent results. Aseptic loosening of this arthroplasty has been thought to be due to wear debris of the methylmethacrylate used for fixation of the implants, or to debris generated from wear of the polyethylene socket. To date, many different materials have been tried in order to reduce wear and generation of macrophage irritating submicron sized particles, or to provide more biocompatible components. However, trials to improve the methylmethacrylate cement or to invent better polyethylenes have often failed. Diamond coating of the metallic components seems promising: there is less wear and diamond is very biocompatible in bulk and small particulate form. Biodegradable implants have also been found useful in treating fractures. Bioactive bioabsorbable materials may also make possible a tissue engineering approach and can be used as carriers for selected drugs and cytokines. Because many promising materials and designs have failed in clinical use, extensive theoretical and experimental testing is mandatory before introducing new materials and implants in a clinical setting. PMID:10537589

  2. Manipulator comparative testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maida, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program compared performance of selected manipulator systems under typical remote handling conditions. The site of testing was the Remote Operations and Maintenance Demonstration Facility operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Three experiment examined differences among manipulator systems from the US and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, Central Research Laboratories' (CRL's) Model M-2, and GCA PaR systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (a) the BILARM in master-slave mode without force reflection; (b) the BILARM in master-slave mode with force reflection; (c) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode without force reflection; (d) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode with force reflection; (e) the BILARM with switchbox controls; and (f) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments also examined differences between master-slave systems with and without force reflections, and differences between master-slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems.

  3. Simulation of robot manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories` Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment.

  4. Manipulating biphotonic qutrits

    E-print Network

    B. P. Lanyon; T. J. Weinhold; N. K. Langford; J. L. O'Brien; K. J. Resch; A. Gilchrist; A. G. White

    2007-10-16

    Quantum information carriers with higher dimension than the canonical qubit offer significant advantages. However, manipulating such systems is extremely difficult. We show how measurement induced non-linearities can be employed to dramatically extend the range of possible transforms on biphotonic qutrits; the three level quantum systems formed by the polarisation of two photons in the same spatio-temporal mode. We fully characterise the biphoton-photon entanglement that underpins our technique, thereby realising the first instance of qubit-qutrit entanglement. We discuss an extension of our technique to generate qutrit-qutrit entanglement and to manipulate any bosonic encoding of quantum information.

  5. Model based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

  6. Tethered Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Thomas C.

    1989-01-01

    Remote-manipulator concept for retrieval or inspection of objects in outer space applied to underwater or in tanks of hazardous chemicals. System includes tether head on outer end of tether cable wound on motor-driven takeup reel. Head includes mounting plate with four canted thrustors facing rearward, solid-state camera with patterned sources of light facing forward, and pneumatic inflatable end effector. Also includes device to cut head loose in emergency. Intended for use in places beyond reach of jointed rigid-arm manipulator and where unsafe or impractical to send humans.

  7. Low-Back Pain: An Orthopedic Medicine Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Jean-Paul

    1987-01-01

    Many patients suffering from low-back pain present to a family physician. This paper will deal specifically with the moving parts of the lumbar spine as the source of low-back pain: muscles, discs, ligaments, apophysial (facet) joints. A detailed systematic approach is suggested to facilitate the identification of the particular tissues involved. Various modes of treatment—manipulations, tractions, epidural injections and sclerotherapy—are discussed. PMID:21263859

  8. R + C Factors and Sacro Occipital Technique Orthopedic Blocking: a pilot study using pre and post VAS assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of a systematic or predictive relationship between distant vertebral levels distinct from accumulative functional compensatory mechanisms, such as in scoliosis, has been perpetuated within chiropractic technique systems based on clinical observation and experience. This study seeks to investigate this relationship between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. Methods: Patients (experimental group n=26 and control group n=12) were selected from the patient base of one office, and were limited to patients that had sensitivity at specific cervical reflex points. Using a pre and post outcome measurement and sacro occipital technique R + C protocols, the related lumbar vertebra was adjusted in the direction indicated by the cervical vertebral sensitivity. Results: Statistical analysis revealed there was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-VAS measurements and found that the notable difference in mean change in VAS scores were statistically significantly different between the experimental and control groups (p < .001). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that further research into cervical and lumbar vertebra interrelationships, and the efficacy of orthopedic block treatment, may be warranted. Further studies are needed to confirm whether a causal relationship exists between lumbar manipulation and decreased cervical spine sensitivity. PMID:26136605

  9. Orthopedic manifestations in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bianca; de Camargo Pinto, Louise Lapagesse; Giugliani, Roberto; Wraith, James Edmond; Guffon, Nathalie; Eich, Elke; Beck, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a rare, inherited disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. As a result of this deficiency, glycosaminoglycans accumulate in lysosomes in many tissues, leading to progressive multisystemic disease. The cardiopulmonary and neurological problems associated with MPS II have received considerable attention. Orthopedic manifestations are common but not as well characterized. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and severity of orthopedic manifestations of MPS II and to determine the relationship of these signs and symptoms with cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement. Orthopedic manifestations of MPS II were studied using cross-sectional data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS). The HOS is a global, physician-led, multicenter observational database that collects information on the natural history of MPS II and the long-term safety and effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy. As of January 2009, the HOS contained baseline data on joint range of motion in 124 males with MPS II. In total, 79% of patients had skeletal manifestations (median onset, 3.5 years) and 25% had abnormal gait (median onset, 5.4 years). Joint range of motion was restricted for all joints assessed (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle). Extension was the most severely affected movement: the exception to this was the shoulder. Surgery for orthopedic problems was rare. The presence of orthopedic manifestations was associated with the presence of central nervous system and pulmonary involvement, but not so clearly with cardiovascular involvement. Orthopedic interventions should be considered on an individual-patient basis. Although some orthopedic manifestations associated with MPS II may be managed routinely, a good knowledge of other concurrent organ system involvement is essential. A multidisciplinary approach is required. PMID:21808707

  10. Chitosan for gene delivery and orthopedic tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Rosanne; O'Brien, Fergal J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy involves the introduction of foreign genetic material into cells in order exert a therapeutic effect. The application of gene therapy to the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is extremely promising as the controlled release of therapeutic proteins such as bone morphogenetic proteins have been shown to stimulate bone repair. However, there are a number of drawbacks associated with viral and synthetic non-viral gene delivery approaches. One natural polymer which has generated interest as a gene delivery vector is chitosan. Chitosan is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic. Much of the appeal of chitosan is due to the presence of primary amine groups in its repeating units which become protonated in acidic conditions. This property makes it a promising candidate for non-viral gene delivery. Chitosan-based vectors have been shown to transfect a number of cell types including human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Aside from its use in gene delivery, chitosan possesses a range of properties that show promise in tissue engineering applications; it is biodegradable, biocompatible, has anti-bacterial activity, and, its cationic nature allows for electrostatic interaction with glycosaminoglycans and other proteoglycans. It can be used to make nano- and microparticles, sponges, gels, membranes and porous scaffolds. Chitosan has also been shown to enhance mineral deposition during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the use of chitosan as a gene delivery vector with emphasis on its application in orthopedic tissue engineering. PMID:23676471

  11. Corrosion behavior of a welded stainless-steel orthopedic implant.

    PubMed

    Reclaru, L; Lerf, R; Eschler, P Y; Meyer, J M

    2001-02-01

    The corrosion behavior of combinations of materials used in an orthopedic implant: the spherical part (forged or forged and annealed) constituting the head, the weld (tungsten inert gas (TIG) or electron beam (EB) techniques), and the cylindrical part (annealed) constituting the shaft of a femoral prosthesis - has been investigated. Open-circuit potentials, potentiodynamic curves, Tafel slope, mixed potential theory and susceptibility to intergranular attack are electrochemical and chemical procedures selected for this work. Electrochemical measurements using a microelectrode have been made in the following zones: spherical part, cylindrical part, weld, and weld/sphere, and weld/shaft interfaces. To detect intergranular attack, the Strauss test has been used. At the interfaces, corrosion currents, measured (Icorr) and predicted (Icouple) are low, in the order of the pico- to nanoampere. The electrochemical behavior of the electron beam (EB) weld is better than that of the tungsten inert gas (TIG). Welds at interfaces can behave either anodically or cathodically. It is better if welds, which are sensitive parts of the femoral prosthesis, behave cathodically. In this way, the risk of starting localized corrosion (pitting, crevice or intergranular corrosion) from a galvanic couple, remains low. From this point of view, the sample with the EB weld offers the best behavior. All the other samples containing a TIG type of weld exhibit a less favorable behavior. The mechanical treatments (forged, and forged and annealed) of the steel sphere did not show any difference in the corrosion behavior. No intergranular corrosion has been observed at the weld/steel interface for unsensitized samples. With sensitized samples, however, a TIG sample has exhibited some localized intergranular corrosion at a distance of 500 microm along the weld/stainless steel (sphere) interface. PMID:11197502

  12. Kinematically redundant robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baillieul, J.; Hollerbach, J.; Brockett, R.; Martin, D.; Percy, R.; Thomas, R.

    1987-01-01

    Research on control, design and programming of kinematically redundant robot manipulators (KRRM) is discussed. These are devices in which there are more joint space degrees of freedom than are required to achieve every position and orientation of the end-effector necessary for a given task in a given workspace. The technological developments described here deal with: kinematic programming techniques for automatically generating joint-space trajectories to execute prescribed tasks; control of redundant manipulators to optimize dynamic criteria (e.g., applications of forces and moments at the end-effector that optimally distribute the loading of actuators); and design of KRRMs to optimize functionality in congested work environments or to achieve other goals unattainable with non-redundant manipulators. Kinematic programming techniques are discussed, which show that some pseudo-inverse techniques that have been proposed for redundant manipulator control fail to achieve the goals of avoiding kinematic singularities and also generating closed joint-space paths corresponding to close paths of the end effector in the workspace. The extended Jacobian is proposed as an alternative to pseudo-inverse techniques.

  13. Manipulating the Gradient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  14. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice UW Biostatistics Seattle, June 2008 #12;Merging in a format SNP sample al1 al2 000095 D001 C T 000095 D002 T T 000095 D003 T T so that data for a singleSNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  15. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice UW Biostatistics Seattle, June 2009 #12;Merging in a format SNP sample al1 al2 000095 D001 C T 000095 D002 T T 000095 D003 T T so that data for a singleSNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  16. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  17. Specific Distribution within the Enterobacter cloacae Complex of Strains Isolated from Infected Orthopedic Implants?

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Philippe C.; Billoet, Annick; Rottman, Martin; Sivadon-Tardy, Valérie; Eyrolle, Luc; Jeanne, Luc; Tazi, Asmaa; Anract, Philippe; Courpied, Jean-Pierre; Poyart, Claire; Dumaine, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacter genus are frequently isolated from clinical samples but are unusual causative agents of orthopedic implant infections. Twelve genetic clusters (clusters I to XII) and one sequence crowd (sequence crowd xiii) can be distinguished within the Enterobacter cloacae nomenspecies on the basis of hsp60 sequence analysis, and until now, none of these clusters could be specifically associated with a disease. In order to investigate if specific genetic clusters would be involved in infections of orthopedic material, two series of bacterial clinical isolates identified as E. cloacae by routine phenotypic identification methods were collected either from infected orthopedic implants (n = 21) or from randomly selected samples of diverse anatomical origins (control; n = 52). Analysis of the hsp60 gene showed that genetic clusters III, VI, and VIII were the most frequent genetic clusters detected in the control group, whereas cluster III was poorly represented among the orthopedic implant isolates (P = 0.006). On the other hand, E. hormaechei (clusters VI and VIII), but not cluster III, is predominantly associated with infections of orthopedic implants and, more specifically, with infected material in the hip (P = 0.019). These results support the hypothesis that, among the isolates within the E. cloacae complex, E. hormaechei and hsp60 gene sequencing-based cluster III are involved in pathogenesis in different ways and highlight the need for more accurate routine Enterobacter identification methods. PMID:19515837

  18. Collaborative multicenter trials in Latin America: challenges and opportunities in orthopedic and trauma surgery.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Vinicius Ynoe de; Belloti, Joao Carlos; Faloppa, Flavio; Bhandari, Mohit

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Orthopedic research agendas should be considered from a worldwide perspective. Efforts should be planned as the means for obtaining evidence that is valid for health promotion with global outreach. DESIGN AND SETTING Exploratory study conducted at Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, Brazil, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. METHODS We identified and analyzed collaborative and multicenter research in Latin America, taking into account American and Canadian efforts as the reference points. We explored aspects of the data available from official sources and used data from traffic accidents as a model for discussing collaborative research in these countries. RESULTS The evaluation showed that the proportion of collaborative and multicenter studies in our setting is small. A brief analysis showed that the death rate due to traffic accidents is very high. Thus, it seems clear to us that initiatives involving collaborative studies are important for defining and better understanding the patterns of injuries resulting from orthopedic trauma and the forms of treatment. Orthopedic research may be an important tool for bringing together orthopedic surgeons, researchers and medical societies for joint action. CONCLUSIONS We have indicated some practical guidelines for initiatives in collaborative research and have proposed some solutions with a summarized plan of action for conducting evidence-based research involving orthopedic trauma. PMID:23903268

  19. Opioid use for Chronic Pain Management in Italy: Results from the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey Project.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Guido; Cherubino, Paolo; Compagnone, Christian

    2014-04-22

    Pain is a common symptom in orthopedic patients, but is managed sub-optimally, partly due to scarce opioid use in severe cases. The aim of the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey (POIS) was to evaluate changes in pain management in Italian orthopedic practice 2 years after a legislative change (Law 38/2010) simplifying opioid access for pain control. A web-based survey on the knowledge of this law and trends observed in clinical practice for severe pain treatment was administered to 143 Italian orthopedic specialists. In total, 101 (70%) respondents showed a high level of knowledge. Nevertheless, 54.5% stated that they do not use opioids for severe osteo-articular pain management. Main barriers to opioid use are fear of adverse events (61.4%), especially nausea/vomiting and constipation, and patient resistance (29.7%). A modest knowledge of pain classification was also demonstrated. Opioid use remains very limited in Italian orthopedic practice. Physicians' fear of side effects showed poor knowledge of strategies for effective management of opioid-related adverse events, such as combined oral prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone. Continuing educational programs could improve delivery of evidence-based pain management. PMID:25002934

  20. Opioid use for Chronic Pain Management in Italy: Results from the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey Project

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Guido; Cherubino, Paolo; Compagnone, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a common symptom in orthopedic patients, but is managed sub-optimally, partly due to scarce opioid use in severe cases. The aim of the Orthopedic Instant Pain Survey (POIS) was to evaluate changes in pain management in Italian orthopedic practice 2 years after a legislative change (Law 38/2010) simplifying opioid access for pain control. A web-based survey on the knowledge of this law and trends observed in clinical practice for severe pain treatment was administered to 143 Italian orthopedic specialists. In total, 101 (70%) respondents showed a high level of knowledge. Nevertheless, 54.5% stated that they do not use opioids for severe osteo-articular pain management. Main barriers to opioid use are fear of adverse events (61.4%), especially nausea/vomiting and constipation, and patient resistance (29.7%). A modest knowledge of pain classification was also demonstrated. Opioid use remains very limited in Italian orthopedic practice. Physicians’ fear of side effects showed poor knowledge of strategies for effective management of opioid-related adverse events, such as combined oral prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone. Continuing educational programs could improve delivery of evidence-based pain management. PMID:25002934

  1. [Hopes for future practice of junior orthopedic surgeons in France: a sociological study].

    PubMed

    Grégory, T; Gaillard, R; Grenier, A

    2007-09-01

    Medical demographics have become a major public health issue in France since the publication of the Berlan report in 2002 which announced an upcoming shortage in the next 20 years. But demographic projections cannot be limited to an accounting of training and retirement figures. Other factors such as demographic distribution, changing societal aspirations (free time), modes and sites of occupational activities, the influence of feminization, and initial training and its effects on professional practice must be taken into consideration. The purpose of this work was to study these parameters in orthopedic and traumatology surgery. This was a sociological study designed to ascertain the aspirations of junior orthopedic surgeons. Forty-seven interns in orthopedic surgery in the Paris area were invited to complete a questionnaire in March 2003. Forty-two responded. The choice of orthopedics was an intellectual choice. The attractiveness of the specialty was particularly important during the final years of medical school. Fewer junior surgeons would rather practice in a university hospital setting, more preferring a mixed setting with a private (fees) and a public (salary) component. The desire for "free time" was particularly important. Fewer juniors wanted to practice in general hospitals. For orthopedic surgeons, private practice and payment by fees are the cornerstones of medical practice. PMID:17878833

  2. LASER Additive Manufacturing of Titanium-Tantalum Alloy Structured Interfaces for Modular Orthopedic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Jacob; Medlin, Dana; Carter, Michael; Sears, James; Vander Voort, George

    2015-04-01

    Tantalum is recognized to have better biocompatibility and osseointegrative properties than other more commonly used orthopedic grade alloys. There are several novel methods that tantalum or tantalum-titanium could be used to augment orthopedic implants. A tantalum or tantalum-titanium alloy at the bone/implant or modular component interfaces would substantially increase the longevity and performance of modular devices. Bonding a functional tantalum coating to a titanium orthopedic device is inherently difficult because of the small difference between the melting temperature of tantalum, 3017°C, and the boiling point of titanium, 3287°C. LASER powder deposition (LPD) is a fusion operation using an Nd:YAG to melt a small volume of substrate into which metal powder is sprayed achieving high temperature with a high solidification rate. LPD of Ti-Ta onto a Ti-6Al-4V substrate produced both a solid surface and structured coating with a pore size in the optimal 350-500 ?m range.

  3. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Russell M. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  4. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  5. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (inventor); Gutow, David A. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  6. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  7. The TROJAN Project: Creating a Customized International Orthopedic Training Program for Junior Doctors.

    PubMed

    Kalraiya, Ashish; Buddhdev, Pranai

    2015-03-01

    Musculoskeletal problems account for a vast proportion of presentations encountered by doctors globally, with figures ranging from 15-36%. However, the time medical schools allocate to learning orthopedics is by no means proportional to this. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing an international orthopedic teaching program tailored to the specific knowledge and skills required by junior doctors in different countries. This prospective study asked fifty junior doctors, who had recently completed an orthopedics job, what three orthopedic teaching topics taught retrospectively would have benefitted their clinical practice. The most requested topics were used to design educational workshops for junior doctors and these consequently comprised the TROJAN (Teaching Requested by Orthopaedic Juniors And Novices) training program. Data was collected from twenty-five junior doctors in KwaZulu-Natale State, South Africa, and twenty-five in London, UK. It is therefore in these two countries that the TROJAN program was subsequently made available. Participants who selected topics were within two years of graduating medical school and had worked an orthopedic or Accident and Emergency job within the last year. 49% of topics chosen by SA doctors were practical skills such as wrist and ankle fracture reduction techniques, and management of open fractures. The most requested topic by UK doctors (11 out of 25) was management of neck of femur fractures. This is rationalized by the fact South African doctors require more hands-on responsibility in their daily practice whereas in the UK greater emphasis is placed on optimizing patients for theatre and making sound management plans. TROJAN currently develops orthopedic skills and knowledge in junior doctors in South Africa and United Kingdom with teaching customized based upon location. Feedback has been exceptionally positive with every candidate thus far rating the usefulness of TROJAN as the highest option, very useful. PMID:25874064

  8. The TROJAN Project: Creating a Customized International Orthopedic Training Program for Junior Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Kalraiya, Ashish; Buddhdev, Pranai

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems account for a vast proportion of presentations encountered by doctors globally, with figures ranging from 15-36%. However, the time medical schools allocate to learning orthopedics is by no means proportional to this. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing an international orthopedic teaching program tailored to the specific knowledge and skills required by junior doctors in different countries. This prospective study asked fifty junior doctors, who had recently completed an orthopedics job, what three orthopedic teaching topics taught retrospectively would have benefitted their clinical practice. The most requested topics were used to design educational workshops for junior doctors and these consequently comprised the TROJAN (Teaching Requested by Orthopaedic Juniors And Novices) training program. Data was collected from twenty-five junior doctors in KwaZulu-Natale State, South Africa, and twenty-five in London, UK. It is therefore in these two countries that the TROJAN program was subsequently made available. Participants who selected topics were within two years of graduating medical school and had worked an orthopedic or Accident and Emergency job within the last year. 49% of topics chosen by SA doctors were practical skills such as wrist and ankle fracture reduction techniques, and management of open fractures. The most requested topic by UK doctors (11 out of 25) was management of neck of femur fractures. This is rationalized by the fact South African doctors require more hands-on responsibility in their daily practice whereas in the UK greater emphasis is placed on optimizing patients for theatre and making sound management plans. TROJAN currently develops orthopedic skills and knowledge in junior doctors in South Africa and United Kingdom with teaching customized based upon location. Feedback has been exceptionally positive with every candidate thus far rating the usefulness of TROJAN as the highest option, very useful. PMID:25874064

  9. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  10. Selective laser sintering of calcium phosphate materials for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Goonhee

    Two technologies, Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) and bioceramics are combined in this work to prepare bone replacement implants with complex geometry. SFF has emerged as a crucial technique for rapid prototyping in the last decade. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is one of the established SFF manufacturing processes that can build three-dimensional objects directly from computer models without part-specific tooling or human intervention. Meanwhile, there have been great efforts to develop implantable materials that can assist in regeneration of bone defects and injuries. However, little attention has been focused in shaping bones from these materials. The main thrust of this research was to develop a process that can combine those two separate efforts. The specific objective of this research is to develop a process that can construct bone replacement material of complex geometry from synthetic calcium phosphate materials by using the SLS process. The achievement of this goal can have a significant impact on the quality of health care in the sense that complete custom-fit bone and tooth structures suitable for implantation can be prepared within 24--48 hours of receipt of geometric information obtained either from patient Computed Tomographic (CT) data, from Computer Aided Design (CAD) software or from other imaging systems such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Holographic Laser Range Imaging (HLRI). In this research, two different processes have been developed. First is the SLS fabrication of porous bone implants. In this effort, systematic procedures have been established and calcium phosphate implants were successfully fabricated from various sources of geometric information. These efforts include material selection and preparation, SLS process parameter optimization, and development of post-processing techniques within the 48-hour time frame. Post-processing allows accurate control of geometry and of the chemistry of calcium phosphate, as well as control of micro and macro pore structure, to maximize bone healing and provide sufficient mechanical strength. It also permits the complete removal of the polymeric binders that are resided in the SLS process. In collaboration with the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and BioMedical Enterprises, Inc., porous implants based on anatomical geometry have been successfully implanted in rabbits and dogs. These histologic animal studies reveal excellent biocompatibility and show its great potential for commercial custom-fit implant manufacture. The second research effort involves fabrication of fully dense bone for application in dental restoration and load-bearing orthopedic functions. Calcium phosphate glass melts, proven to be biocompatible in the first effort, were cast into carbon molds. Processes were developed for preparing the molds. These carbon molds of anatomic shape can be prepared from either Computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling of slab stock or SLS processing of thermoset-coated graphite powder. The CNC milling method provides accurate dimension of the molds in a short period of time, however, the capable geometries are limited; generally two pieces of molds are required for complex shapes. The SLS method provides very complex shape green molds. However, they need to go through pyrolysis of thermoset binder to provide the high temperature capability reached at calcium phosphate melt temperatures (1100°C) and noticeable shrinkage was observed during pyrolysis. The cast glass was annealed to develop polycrystalline calcium phosphate. This process also exhibits great potential.

  11. Letter to the Editor and Reply: Sedation-assisted Orthopedic Reduction in Emergency Medicine: The Safety and Success of a One Physician/ One Nurse Model

    E-print Network

    Vinson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    assisted Orthopedic Reduction in Emergency Medicine: The Safety and Success of a One Physician/assisted Orthopedic Reduction in Emergency Medicine: The Safety and Success of a One Physician/assisted orthopedic reduction in emergency medicine: The safety and success of a one physician/

  12. Manipulation of thermal phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chung-Hao

    Developing materials that can conduct electricity easily, but block the motion of phonons is necessary in the applications of thermoelectric devices, which can generate electricity from temperature differences. In converse, a key requirement as chips get faster is to obtain better ways to dissipate heat. Controlling heat transfer in these crystalline materials devices --- such as silicon --- is important. The heat is actually the motion or vibration of atoms known as phonons. Finding ways to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials --- phononic crystals --- might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many fields of physical sciences and engineering, acoustic wave propagation in solids attracts many researchers. Wave propagation phenomena can be analyzed by mathematically solving the acoustic wave equation. However, wave propagation in inhomogeneous media with various geometric structures is too complex to find an exact solution. Hence, the Finite Difference Time Domain method is developed to investigate these complicated problems. In this work, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain formula is derived from acoustic wave equations based on the Taylor's expansion. The numerical dispersion and stability problems are analyzed. In addition, the convergence conditions of numerical acoustic wave are stated. Based on the periodicity of phononic crystal, the Bloch's theorem is applied to fulfill the periodic boundary condition of the FDTD method. Then a wide-band input signal is used to excite various acoustic waves with different frequencies. In the beginning of the calculation process, the wave vector is chosen and fixed. By means of recording the displacement field and taking the Fourier transformation, we can obtain the eigenmodes from the resonance peaks of the spectrum and draw the dispersion relation curve of acoustic waves. With the large investment in silicon nanofabrication techniques, this makes tungsten/silicon phononic crystal a particularly attractive platform for manipulating thermal phonons. Phononic crystal makes use of the fundamental properties of waves to create band gap over which there can be no propagation of acoustic waves in the crystal. This crystal can be applied to deterministically manipulate the phonon dispersion curve affected by different crystal structures and to modify the phonon thermal conductivity accordingly. We can expect this unique metamaterial is a promising route to creating unprecedented thermal properties for highly-efficient energy harvesting and thermoelectric cooling.

  13. Spatial Manipulation with Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Benjamin; Levchenko, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well-controlled environments at cellular length scales. This review will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology. PMID:25905100

  14. Single Molecule Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2011-10-01

    Single-molecule manipulation studies open a door for a close-up investigation of complex biological interactions at the molecular level. In these studies, single biomolecules are pulled while their force response is being monitored. The process is often nonequilibrium, and interpretation of the results has been challenging. We used the atomic force microscope to pull proteins and DNA, and determined the equilibrium properties of the molecules using the recently derived nonequilibrium work theorem. I will present applications of the technique in areas ranging from fundamental biological problems such as DNA mechanics, to complex medical processes such as the mechanical activation of von Willebrand Factor, a key protein in blood coagulation.

  15. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  16. Safety of orthopedic implants in magnetic resonance imaging: an experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritabh; Lerski, Richard A; Gandy, Stephen; Clift, Benedict A; Abboud, Rami J

    2006-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an indispensable tool for musculoskeletal imaging. The presence of metal, however, raises concerns. The potential risks are loosening and migration of the implant, heating of the metal with surrounding tissue, causing thermal damage, and artifactual distortion which compromise the diagnostic value of the procedure. The aim of this study was to test experimentally the nature and extent of the first two of these effects in orthopedic implants. The degree of ferromagnetism was evaluated by deflection studies at the portals of a 0.25 Tesla permanent magnet and 1.0 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. None of the orthopedic implants exhibited any attraction. External fixator clamps, however, showed significant ferromagnetism. The heating of implants by "worst-case" scenario imaging sequences was insignificant. Many contemporary nonferromagnetic orthopedic implants can be imaged safely. It is prudent, however, to perform ex vivo deflection studies on a duplicate implant to confirm MR compatibility. With external fixator devices exhibiting strong ferromagnetism, MRI should be avoided. With expanding indications for MRI, orthopedic implants are unlikely to limit the potential of this powerful tool. PMID:16838376

  17. A Prototype Robotic Arm for Use by Severely Orthopedically Handicapped Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Richard

    This 18-month pilot project, which ran from October 1, 1987 to March 31, 1989, developed a prototype robotic arm for educational use by students with severe orthopedic disabilities in the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The developmental effort was intended first, to provide direct access to currently available instructional materials and, second,…

  18. Development of Controlled Matrix Heterogeneity on a Triphasic Scaffold for Orthopedic Interface Tissue Engineering

    E-print Network

    Lu, Helen H.

    the feasibility of multi-tissue regeneration on a single scaffold, and the potential of interface tissue Tissue Engineering JEFFREY P. SPALAZZI, M.S.,1 STEPHEN B. DOTY, Ph.D.,2 KRISTEN L. MOFFAT, M.S.,1 WILLIAM N. LEVINE, M.D.,3 and HELEN H. LU, Ph.D.1,4 ABSTRACT Biological fixation of orthopedic soft tissue

  19. Increased osteoblast cell density on nanostructured PLGA-coated nanostructured titanium for orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lester J; Swaim, John S; Yao, Chang; Haberstroh, Karen M; Nauman, Eric A; Webster, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    There are more than 30,000 orthopedic implant revision surgeries necessary each year in part due to poor implant fixation with juxtaposed bone. A further emphasis on the current problems associated with insufficient bone implant performance is the fact that many patients are receiving hip implants earlier in life, remaining active older, and that the human lifespan is continuously increasing. Collectively, it is clear that there is a strong clinical need to improve implant performance through proper, prolonged fixation. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to improve the performance of titanium (Ti), one of the most popular orthopedic implant materials. Accordingly, the proliferative response of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on novel nanostructured Ti/PLGA (poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid) composites was examined. This study showed that nano-topography can be easily applied to Ti (through anodization) and porous PLGA (through NaOH chemical etching) to enhance osteoblast cell proliferation which may lead to better orthopedic implant performance. This straight forward application of nano-topography on current bone implant materials represents a new direction in the design of enhanced biomaterials for the orthopedic industry. PMID:18019847

  20. Late orthopedic effects in children with Wilms' tumor treated with abdominal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rate, W.R.; Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; D'Angio, G.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1984, 31 children with biopsy-proven Wilms' tumor received nephrectomy, chemotherapy, and abdominal irradiation and were followed beyond skeletal maturity. Three patients (10%) developed late orthopedic abnormalities requiring intervention. Ten children received orthovoltage irradiation, and all cases requiring orthopedic intervention or developing a scoliotic curve of greater than 20 degrees were confined to this group, for a complication frequency of 50%. Those children who developed a significant late orthopedic abnormality (SLOA) as defined were treated to a higher median dose (2,890 cGy) and a larger field size (150 cm2) than those who did not (2,580 cGy and 120 cm2). Age at irradiation, sex, and initial stage of disease did not appear to influence the risk of developing an SLOA. No child who received megavoltage irradiation developed an SLOA despite treatment up to 4,000 cGy or to field sizes of 400 cm2. We conclude that modern radiotherapy techniques rarely lead to significant late orthopedic abnormalities previously associated with abdominal irradiation in children with Wilms' tumor.

  1. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  2. Biomaterials 27 (2006) 58455854 A citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite for orthopedic implants

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Biomaterials 27 (2006) 5845­5854 A citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite for orthopedic. POC­HA supported osteoblast adhesion in vitro and histology results from POC­HA samples that were­HA is easy and inexpensive, does not involve harsh solvents or initiators, and the mechanical properties

  3. High energy devices versus low energy devices in orthopedics treatment modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultheiss, Reiner

    2003-10-01

    The orthopedic consensus group defined in 1997 the 42 most likely relevant parameters of orthopedic shock wave devices. The idea of this approach was to correlate the different clinical outcomes with the physical properties of the different devices with respect to their acoustical waves. Several changes in the hypothesis of the dose effect relationship have been noticed since the first orthopedic treatments. The relation started with the maximum pressure p+, followed by the total energy, the energy density; and finally the single treatment approach using high, and then the multiple treatment method using low energy. Motivated by the reimbursement situation in Germany some manufacturers began to redefine high and low energy devices independent of the treatment modality. The OssaTron as a high energy, single treatment electro hydraulic device gained FDA approval as the first orthopedic ESWT device for plantar fasciitis and, more recently, for lateral epicondylitis. Two low energy devices have now also gained FDA approval based upon a single treatment. Comparing the acoustic data, differences between the OssaTron and the other devices are obvious and will be elaborated upon. Cluster analysis of the outcomes and the acoustical data are presented and new concepts will be suggested.

  4. ArthroNav:Computer Assisted Navigation System for Orthopedic Surgery using Endoscopic Images

    E-print Network

    Barreto, Joao

    endoscopic camera (b) Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fig. 1. The rigid medical endoscope combines a boroscopeArthroNav:Computer Assisted Navigation System for Orthopedic Surgery using Endoscopic Images Jo techniques to extract information from endoscopic images of human-body cavities will be crucial. The Arthro

  5. Orthopedic Injuries and Their Treatment in Children During Earthquakes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Ilaria; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Bortolin, Michelangelo

    2015-10-01

    Orthopedic injuries commonly affect children during earthquakes, but reports about them are rare. This setting may lead to different standards of care, but guidelines are still missing in this field. A systematic review was performed to: (1) assess type and body distribution of pediatric earthquake-related injuries, treatment performed, length of stay, and complications; and (2) identify starting points to define standards of care. PubMed database was researched for papers (1999-2014 period) in agreement with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. Inclusion criteria were: English, French, Spanish, or Italian language and data reported about orthopedic lesions in children (?18 years old). Reviews, letters, commentaries, editorials, and single case reports were excluded. Two independent reviewers selected articles after abstract and full-text reading. Traumatic injuries caused child hospital admissions ranging from 46.9% to 100.0%; 16% to 53% suffered fractures. Lower limbs mostly were involved. Soft-tissue injuries affected 55% of patients. Debridement and external fixation (EF) were the most frequent surgical treatments. Amputation rates varied from 5% to 11%. This study revealed that field hospitals should be prepared to: (1) treat mainly lower extremities fractures in children; and (2) use especially EF techniques. The presence of orthopedic surgeons familiar with pediatric traumatology should be considered. Morelli I , Sabbadini MG , Bortolin M . Orthopedic injuries and their treatment in children during earthquakes: a systematic review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(5):478-485. PMID:26286704

  6. [Orthopedic made-to-measure shoes for diabetics. Long-term 5-year outcome].

    PubMed

    Illgner, U; Wühr, J; Rümmler, M; Drerup, B; Wetz, H H

    2009-12-01

    For patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot syndrome customized orthopedic shoes represent the most effective treatment to avoid foot ulceration and amputation. A total of 53 patients suffering from diabetes and treated with customized orthopedic shoes for more than 5 years were included in the study. Of the patients 91% had peripheral artery occlusion disease, polyneuropathy and diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy (DNOAP) and in nearly 25% amputation of one limb had already been carried out. The incidence of ulcers over a time period of 5 years was assessed from the patient records and questioning the patients. Questions on the duration of wearing orthopedic shoes, the durability of the shoes and resulting pain were also included. All patients except for one had problems walking on uneven surfaces. Of the patients 89% claimed to have used their shoes always or nearly always and 25% of the shoes had to be replaced after 1 year. The incidence of ulcers was 38% after 5 years. Treatment with customized orthopedic shoes is an effective method to prevent ulcers and amputation. To be successful it is necessary to control that the shoes are made correctly. Not all shoes last as long as 2 years. PMID:19924391

  7. Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichel, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

  8. Developing a Minimum Data Set of the Information Management System for Orthopedic Injuries in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Ali; Chraghbaigi, Ramin; Fathi, Taimur; Shojaee Baghini, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Orthopedic injuries are the most common types of injuries. To identify the main causes of injuries, collecting data in a standard manner at the national level are needed, which justifies necessity of making a minimum data set (MDS). Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an MDS of the information management system for orthopedic injuries in Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in 2013. Data were collected from hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences that had orthopedic department, medical documents centers, legal medicine centers, emergency centers, internet access, and library. Investigated documents were orthopedic injury records in 2012, documents that retrieved from the internet, and printed materials. Records with Random sampling by S22-S99 categories from ICD-10 were selected and the related internet-sourced data were evaluated entirely. Data were collected using a checklist. In order to make a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied by a questionnaire. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by expert’s opinions and test-retest method, respectively. Results: An MDS of orthopedic injuries were assigned to two categories: administrative category with six classes including 142 data elements, and clinical category with 17 classes including 250 data elements. Conclusions: This study showed that some of the essential data elements included in other country’s MDS or required for organizations and healthcare providers were not included. Therefore, a complete list of an MDS elements was created. Existence of comprehensive data concerning the causes and mechanisms of injuries informs public health policy-makers about injuries occurrence and enables them to take rationale measures to deal with these problems. PMID:25237576

  9. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. ); Rohn, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  10. Interactive protein manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  11. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  12. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  13. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, William E. (Knoxville, TN); Kuban, Daniel P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Martin, H. Lee (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member.

  14. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, W.E.; Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1988-10-25

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member. 41 figs.

  15. Liquid Propellant Manipulated Acoustically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Chato, David J.; Mann, Adin, III

    2003-01-01

    Fluids are difficult to manage in the space environment. Without gravity, the liquid and gas do not always remain separated as they do in the 1g environment of Earth. Instead the liquid and gas volumes mix and migrate under the influence of surface tension, thermodynamic forces, and external disturbances. As a result, liquid propellants may not be in a useable location or may even form a chaotic mix of liquid and gas bubbles. In the past, mechanical pumps, baffles, and a variety of specialized passive devices have been used to control the liquid and gas volumes. These methods need to be carefully tuned to a specific configuration to be effective. With increasing emphasis on long-term human activity in space there is a trend toward liquid systems that are more flexible and provide greater control. We are exploring new methods of manipulating liquids by using the nonlinear acoustic effects achieved by using beams of highly directed high-intensity acoustic waves.

  16. Ion manipulation device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

    2014-09-16

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  17. Data Evaluation, Completion and Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Data Evaluation, Completion and Manipulation Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office on Data Evaluation, Completion and Manipulation By GE Global Research Niskayuna, New York And University to begin developing the transient performance and production cost models based on the data received. Task 7

  18. ACHIEVING DEXTEROUS MANIPULATION FOR MINIMALLY

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    ;Hydraulics offers advantages for surgical manipulators. 5 #12;6 #12;The components are housed withinACHIEVING DEXTEROUS MANIPULATION FOR MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGICAL ROBOTS THROUGH THE USE OF HYDRAULICS Devin R. Berg*, Perry Y. Li, and Arthur G. Erdman Department of Mechanical Engineering University

  19. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  20. Improved genetic manipulation of human

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells Stefan R Braam1,2, Chris Denning3 efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (h­supplemented basal media. To develop a generic method for ectopic gene expression in hESCs, we investigated whether

  1. Optimal Manipulation of Voting Rules Svetlana Obraztsova

    E-print Network

    Elkind, Edith

    Optimal Manipulation of Voting Rules Svetlana Obraztsova School of Physical and Mathematical of voting manipulation is a prominent research topic in computational social choice. In this paper, we study the com- plexity of optimal manipulation, i.e., finding a manipulative vote that achieves the manipulator

  2. Manipulation Under Voting Rule Uncertainty Edith Elkind

    E-print Network

    Elkind, Edith

    Manipulation Under Voting Rule Uncertainty Edith Elkind School of Physical and Mathematical social choice is the complexity of various forms of dishonest behavior, such as manipulation, control of (coalitional) manipulation for the setting where there is uncertainty about the voting rule: the manipulator(s

  3. Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst D.

    2003-12-05

    ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates the entire process, so that more and larger problems can be attempted. Currently, the program designers are working to make ProteinShop more applicable and adaptable to different protein folding methodologies. If users could manipulate structures from a biological point of view, and then put them back in the queue for more optimization, the process of experimentation and discovery in protein research could be greatly enhanced. The group is also investigating the use of stereoscopic rendering and three-dimensional input devices to remove the limitations of a two-dimensional interface. Clearly, protein-folding research will have far-reaching ramifications. It could lead to new insights about diseases ranging from Alzheimer's to Cystic fibrosis, which scientists believe are caused by protein folding gone wrong. A better understanding of protein structures could also lead to the engineering of altogether new proteins, and shed light on how drugs bind proteins to alter their structure and function. Above all, ProteinShop is an important tool that will help scientists unravel one of the most challenging problems that theoretical and computational chemistry has to offer.

  4. Embryo manipulation and experimentation.

    PubMed

    Warren, M A

    1991-09-01

    I have argued that early human embryos are not human beings, and do not have normal rights. Like human sperm and ova, they are both alive and biologically human. However, they lack the physiological development necessary to sustain a capacity for sentience. If Ford is right, then they are not yet individual human organisms. But the more important point is that their lack of a capacity for sentience makes them inappropriate candidates for the ascription of moral rights. Thus, research on human embryos produced in vitro is not a wrong against them--at least so long as experimentally manipulated embryos are not returned to the womb, or artificially gestated to a stage at which they might become sentient. Some of the more difficult issues about embryo experimentation involve the rights of women as experimental subject and donors. The consent of both male and female gamete donors should normally be required for the production or experimental use of IVF embryos. (Possible exceptions might include cases in which one or both progenitors have died, and the survivor or other responsible family member wished to donate the (frozen) IVF embryos for research or other uses.) However, it is women's rights that are most apt to be endangered, for example, if the large scale therapeutic or commercial use of human embryos leads to a demand for large numbers of ova. Thus, it is vital that researchers and policy-makers heed feminist concerns about embryo research and the new biomedical technologies it may yield. Given adequate information and appropriate procedural protections, women are capable of making autonomous decisions about donating ova or embryos for biomedical research. But regulatory safeguards are needed to ensure against their being coerced, deceived, or manipulated into becoming ovum or embryo donors. As Daniel Callahan has detailed, biomedical technology has reached the point where we can no longer afford to provide everyone with all of the innovative therapies that might prove beneficial (Callahan, 1989, p 523). Thus, questions about the just and cost-effective distribution of medical resources will become increasingly difficult and important. Among these questions will be whether it is wise or just to invest large sums in the development of innovative methods of assisting human reproduction. We must also consider the interests of future persons who may suffer because of the methods used to bring them into existence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1954730

  5. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  6. Dexterous Manipulation: Making Remote Manipulators Easy to Use

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIGAN, RAYMOND W.; BENNETT, PHIL C.

    2001-11-01

    Perhaps the most basic barrier to the widespread deployment of remote manipulators is that they are very difficult to use. Remote manual operations are fatiguing and tedious, while fully autonomous systems are seldom able to function in changing and unstructured environments. An alternative approach to these extremes is to exploit computer control while leaving the operator in the loop to take advantage of the operator's perceptual and decision-making capabilities. This report describes research that is enabling gradual introduction of computer control and decision making into operator-supervised robotic manipulation systems, and its integration on a commercially available, manually controlled mobile manipulator.

  7. Priming the Surface of Orthopedic Implants for Osteoblast Attachment in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The development of better orthopedic implants is incessant. While current implants can function reliably in the human body for a long period of time, there are still a significant number of cases for which the implants can fail prematurely due to poor osseointegration of the implant with native bone. Increasingly, it is recognized that it is extremely important to facilitate the attachment of osteoblasts on the implant so that a proper foundation of extracellular matrix (ECM) can be laid down for the growth of new bone tissue. In order to facilitate the osseointegration of the implant, both the physical nanotopography and chemical functionalization of the implant surface have to be optimized. In this short review, however, we explore how simple chemistry procedures can be used to functionalize the surfaces of three major classes of orthopedic implants, i.e. ceramics, metals, and polymers, so that the attachment of osteoblasts on implants can be facilitated in order to promote implant osseointegration. PMID:26392807

  8. The Medical Education and Best Practice in Orthopedic Patient Care in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2012-07-01

    The leadership organization focuses on education, teamwork, customer relationship and developing strategy which help in building added value, in managing activities, time and quality. Everyday orthopedic experience shows that medical education is a mixture of: specific knowledge, skills and attitudes of people working together, and that creates effective teamwork in a hospital environment. Apart from the main reason of medical education, teaching about disease treatment and health problem solving, medical education should also concentrate on human factors and behavioral aspects of patient treatment in hospital.Assessment of an organization and medical education process by cultural and teamwork criteria, offers a powerful new way to think about performance at the frontlines of healthcare and in the future it could be gold standard for assessing the success of an organization, and standards in medical education, not only in orthopedics.

  9. Priming the Surface of Orthopedic Implants for Osteoblast Attachment in Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The development of better orthopedic implants is incessant. While current implants can function reliably in the human body for a long period of time, there are still a significant number of cases for which the implants can fail prematurely due to poor osseointegration of the implant with native bone. Increasingly, it is recognized that it is extremely important to facilitate the attachment of osteoblasts on the implant so that a proper foundation of extracellular matrix (ECM) can be laid down for the growth of new bone tissue. In order to facilitate the osseointegration of the implant, both the physical nanotopography and chemical functionalization of the implant surface have to be optimized. In this short review, however, we explore how simple chemistry procedures can be used to functionalize the surfaces of three major classes of orthopedic implants, i.e. ceramics, metals, and polymers, so that the attachment of osteoblasts on implants can be facilitated in order to promote implant osseointegration. PMID:26392807

  10. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  11. In-vivo orthopedic implant diagnostic device for sensing load, wear, and infection

    DOEpatents

    Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen; Thundat, Thomas G.; Komistek, Richard D.; Dennis, Douglas A.; Mahfouz, Mohamed

    2006-08-29

    A device for providing in vivo diagnostics of loads, wear, and infection in orthopedic implants having at least one load sensor associated with the implant, at least one temperature sensor associated with the implant, at least one vibration sensor associated with the implant, and at least one signal processing device operatively coupled with the sensors. The signal processing device is operable to receive the output signal from the sensors and transmit a signal corresponding with the output signal.

  12. Brandon Research, Inc. Orthopedic Implant Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.R.

    1999-04-22

    The project was a joint research effort between the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP) and Brandon Research, Inc. to develop ways to improve implants used for orthopedic surgery for joint replacement. The primary product produced by this study is design information, which may be used to develop implants that will improve long-term fixation and durability in the host bone environment.

  13. A survey of recently published papers on orthopedics in the Brazilian scientific press

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Gomes, Ariane Maris

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of articles published in Brazilian scientific periodicals in recent years. Its main purpose is to bring to the attention of the readership of Acta Ortopedica Brasileira original contributions to the field published in non-specialized journals. We hope that this will serve as a general scientific update for readers. The review includes works published in six ISI indexed non-orthopedic journals, following a literature search conducted in fourteen such journals. PMID:24453633

  14. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  15. Singularities of Robot Manipulators Peter Donelan

    E-print Network

    Donelan, Peter

    Singularities of Robot Manipulators Peter Donelan School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer and control of robot manipulators. Singularities of the kinematic mapping, which determines the position singularities and, more specifically, singularities of robot manipulators, using aspects of the singularity

  16. Endovascular Treatment in Emergency Setting of Acute Arterial Injuries After Orthopedic Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Fontana, Federico Mangini, Monica Ierardi, Anna Maria Lagana, Domenico; Piacentino, Filippo Vizzari, Francesco Alberto Spano, Emanuela Fugazzola, Carlo

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency endovascular treatment of acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (mean age 68.3 years) with acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery were observed, in particular, 5 patients with pseudoaneurysm, 9 patients with active bleeding, and 1 patient with arterial dissection. Transarterial embolization (TAE) and positioning of covered and noncovered stents were the treatments performed. Follow-up after stent implantation (mean 36 months) was performed with color Doppler US (CDU) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Plain X-ray was performed to evidence dislodgment or fracture of the graft. A minimum of 12 months' follow-up is available after TAE. Results: Immediate technical success was obtained in all cases. No major complications occurred. Overall clinical success rate was 100%. During mean follow-up, stent-graft occlusions did not occurred. No recurrence and/or consequence of TAE was registered during a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Conclusions: Percutaneous treatment is a feasible and safe tool for treating arterial injuries because it can provide fast and definitive resolution of the damage. This low-invasiveness approach can be proposed as first-line treatment in patients with acute injuries after orthopedic surgery.

  17. Sol-Gel Derived Hydroxyapatite Coating on Mg-3Zn Alloy for Orthopedic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Manoj Kumar, R.; Kuntal, Kishor Kumar; Gupta, Pallavi; Das, Snehashish; Jayaganthan, R.; Roy, Partha; Lahiri, Debrupa

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, magnesium and its alloys have gained a lot of interest as orthopedic implant constituents because their biodegradability and mechanical properties are closer to that of human bone. However, one major concern with Mg in orthopedics is its high corrosion rate that results in the reduction of mechanical integrity before healing the bone tissue. The current study evaluates the sol-gel-derived hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on a selected Mg alloy (Mg-3Zn) for decreasing the corrosion rate and increasing the bioactivity of the Mg surface. The mechanical integrity of the coating is established as a function of the surface roughness of the substrate and the sintering temperature of the coating. Coating on a substrate roughness of 15-20 nm and sintering at 400°C shows the mechanical properties in similar range of bone, thus making it suitable to avoid the stress-shielding effect. The hydroxyapatite coating on the Mg alloy surface also increases corrosion resistance very significantly by 40 times. Bone cells are also found proliferating better in the HA-coated surface. All these benefits together establish the candidature of sol-gel HA-coated Mg-3Zn alloy in orthopedic application.

  18. Perioperative management of patients with severe pulmonary hypertension in major orthopedic surgery: experience-based recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Seyfarth, Hans-Jürgen; Gille, Jochen; Sablotzki, Armin; Gerlach, Stefan; Malcharek, Michael; Gosse, Andreas; Gahr, Ralf H.; Czeslick, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It is known that pulmonary hypertension is associated with worse outcome in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. The aims of our retrospective analysis were to evaluate the outcomes of our patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing major orthopedic surgery and to give experience-based recommendations for the perioperative management. Material and methods: From 92 patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing different kinds of surgical procedures from 2011–2014 in a tertiary academic hospital we evaluated 16 patients with major orthopedic surgery for perioperative morbidity and mortality. Results: Regarding the in-hospital morbidity and mortality, one patient died postoperatively due to pulmonary infection and right heart failure (6.25%) and 6 patients suffered significant postoperative complications (37.5%; bleeding = 1, infection = 1, wound healing deficits = 3; dysrhythmia = 1). Conclusion: Our data show that major orthopedic surgery is feasible with satisfactory outcome even in cases of severe pulmonary hypertension by an individualized, disease-adapted interdisciplinary treatment concept. PMID:26504732

  19. The Use of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced (CFR) PEEK Material in Orthopedic Implants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan Silvia; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been successfully used in orthopedic implants. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the properties, technical data, and safety of CFR-PEEK biomaterial and to evaluate its potential for new innovation in the design of articulating medical devices. A comprehensive search in PubMed and EMBASE was conducted to identify articles relevant to the outcomes of CFR-PEEK orthopedic implants. The search was also expanded by reviewing the reference sections of selected papers and references and benchmark reports provided by content experts. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. There is limited literature available assessing the performance of CFR-PEEK, specifically as an implant material for arthroplasty systems. Nevertheless, available studies strongly support CFR-PEEK as a promising and suitable material for orthopedic implants because of its biocompatibility, material characteristics, and mechanical durability. Future studies should continue to investigate CFR-PEEK’s potential benefits. PMID:25780341

  20. Survey Finds Few Orthopedic Surgeons Know The Costs Of The Devices They Implant

    PubMed Central

    Okike, Kanu; O’Toole, Robert V.; Pollak, Andrew N.; Bishop, Julius A.; McAndrew, Christopher M.; Mehta, Samir; Cross, William W.; Garrigues, Grant E.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Lebrun, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Orthopedic procedures represent a large expense to the Medicare program, and costs of implantable medical devices account for a large proportion of those procedures’ costs. Physicians have been encouraged to consider costs in the selection of devices, but several factors make acquiring information about costs difficult. To assess physicians’ levels of knowledge about costs, we asked orthopedic attending physicians and residents at seven academic medical centers to estimate the costs of thirteen commonly used orthopedic devices between December 2012 and March 2013. The actual cost of each device was determined at each institution; estimates within 20 percent of the actual cost were considered correct. Among the 503 physicians who completed our survey, attending physicians correctly estimated the cost of the device 21 percent of the time, and residents did so 17 percent of the time. Thirty-six percent of physicians and 75 percent of residents rated their knowledge of device costs “below average” or “poor.” However, more than 80 percent of all respondents indicated that cost should be “moderately,” “very,” or “extremely” important in the device selection process. Surgeons need increased access to information on the relative prices of devices and should be incentivized to participate in cost-containment efforts. PMID:24395941

  1. The Factor Structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Orthopedic Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Tang, Philip; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background Many instruments exist to assess mental disorders and anxiety, such as the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Nothing has been evaluated on the HADS factor structure for use with orthopedic trauma patients. The aim of this study was to validate the underlying structure of the HADS. Specifically, we sought to understand which of the factor structures found in the literature is appropriate for the orthopedic trauma patient population. Methods This study included 348 patients with an average age of 49.8 years (SD: 18.4; range: 18 - 95). Confirmatory data analysis was performed to analyze the latent structure of the HADS. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare all the models, with the lowest AIC being the best fitting model. Results We found that both the anxiety and the depression factors were highly correlated (with Pearson correlations greater than 0.700). After removing one item from each subscale, we found that a two-factor model was the best fitting one (AIC: 8,298.901); all other models had an AIC over 10,000. Conclusion Our results support a satisfactory two-factor structure for the HADS in the orthopedic trauma patients. Further studies are needed to test for higher factor structures in larger samples and in a different population. PMID:25883709

  2. Is the Orthopedic Fellowship Interview Process Broken? A Survey of Program Directors and Residents.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Lasun O; Pehler, Stephen F; Raley, James A; Khoury, Joseph G; Ponce, Brent A

    2015-11-01

    Most orthopedic surgery residents pursue fellowship training. The fellowship interview process requires considerable time and financial investment from residents and residency programs. We conducted a study of the time, financial, and program disruption impact the fellowship interview process has on residents and residency programs. Two mixed-response questionnaires were sent to orthopedic surgery residency directors and postgraduate year 4 and 5 residents. Responses were received from 45 program directors and 129 residents. Sixty-two percent of the directors thought the interview process was extremely disruptive to their program. On average, the residents applied to 19 programs, received 14 interview offers, attended 11 interviews, were away from residency training 11 days, and spent $5875 on travel. About 70% of directors and residents wanted changes made to the orthopedic fellowship interview process. Sixty percent of the directors wanted interviews conducted in a central location. Our results highlight that time away from residency training, financial costs associated with the fellowship interview process, and disruption of the residency program are substantial. PMID:26566560

  3. Robot Manipulation in Human Environments

    E-print Network

    Edsinger, Aaron

    2007-01-16

    Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

  4. Robot manipulation in human environments

    E-print Network

    Edsinger, Aaron Ladd, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

  5. Manipulator Grasping and Pushing Operations

    E-print Network

    Mason, Matthew Thomas

    1982-06-01

    The primary goal of this research is to develop theoretical tools for analysis, synthesis, application of primitive manipulator operations. The primary method is to extend and apply traditional tools of classical mechanics. ...

  6. Modeling of Multiple Mobile Manipulators

    E-print Network

    Tanner, Herbert G.

    John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1. INTRODUCTION Until recently, robotic manipulators were mecha- nisms rigidly mecha- nism, with all the inherent capabilities and prob- lems of such systems. However, as is always

  7. Machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Survey of the present technological development status of machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation in the U.S., Japan, USSR, and England. The extent of task-performance autonomy is examined that machine intelligence gives the manipulator by eliminating the need for a human operator to close continuously the control loop, or to rewrite control programs for each different task. Surveyed research projects show that the development of some advanced automation systems for manipulator control are within the state of the art. Yet, many more realistic breadboard systems and experimental work are needed before further progress can be made in the design of advanced automation systems for manipulator control suitable for new major practical applications. Specific research areas of promise are pointed out.

  8. Interactive Animation of Dynamic Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Abe, Yeuhi

    2006-02-28

    Lifelike animation of manipulation must account for the dynamicinteraction between animated characters, objects, and their environment. Failing to do so would ignore the often significant effects objectshave on the motion ...

  9. Dexterous grasp and manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sudipto

    This dissertation addresses some of the fundamental issues in multifingered cooperative manipulation. The problems investigated were stimulated by the need to devise a motion and force allocation planner for the four fingered DIGITS system. In motion planning, the emphasis has been on determining finger trajectories that generate smooth object motion in free space. A screw motion has been prescribed to be followed between two configurations of the object, in order to obtain simultaneous rotary and translatory motion. The effect of the joint motion limits on the path following capability of the fingers has been analyzed. It has been shown that knowledge of the direction of the surface normal at the contact point, coupled with the use of a spherical fingertip can be used to circumvent some contact uncertainty problems. The geometry of the force system in the multi-point contact situation has been investigated using crew theory. Conditions for which the system is underspecified have been identified. An efficient solution to the minimum norm solution, the equilibrating forces, has been presented. It has been shown that the pairs of equal and opposite forces acting along the lines joining points of contact can be used to span the space of the homogeneous solutions of the underconstrained problem. Techniques to selectively superpose the interaction forces to orient the net contact forces in desired directions have been developed. This leads to the development of a closed form solution to the optimum grasp problem in three dimensions. It has been shown that the local minimum of the maximum friction angle is characterized by a polynomial which can be symbolically enumerated. Solutions to the minimum friction angle problem can be obtained from the roots of the polynomial. The DIGITS system is instrumented to obtain six axis contact force data from the fingertip. Efficient, stable closed form algorithms have been developed to compute the location of the contact point based on the six axis force data for cylindrical and spherical fingertip geometry. It has been shown that for fingertip surfaces made of piecewise ellipsoids, as opposed to a single ellipsoid, the solution may be non-unique. The conditions for such non-uniqueness to occur have been identified.

  10. Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    Motion planning and control for the joints of flexible manipulators are discussed. Specific topics covered include control of a flexible braced manipulator, control of a small working robot on a large flexible manipulator to suppress vibrations, control strategies for ensuring cooperation among disparate manipulators, and motion planning for robots in free-fall.

  11. A novel manipulator technology for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Donald; Khosia, Pradeep; Kanade, Takeo

    1988-01-01

    Modular manipulator designs have long been considered for use as research tools, and as the basis for easily modified industrial manipulators. In these manipulators the links and joints are discrete and modular components that can be assembled into a desired manipulator configuration. As hardware advances have made actual modular manipulators practical, various capabilities of such manipulators have gained interest. Particularly desirable is the ability to rapidly reconfigure such a manipulator, in order to custom tailor it to specific tasks. The reconfiguration greatly enhances the capability of a given amount of manipulator hardware. The development of a prototype modular manipulator is discussed as well as the implementation of a configuration independent manipulator kinematics algorithm used for path planning in the prototype.

  12. Mobile camera-space manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seelinger, Michael J. (Inventor); Yoder, John-David S. (Inventor); Skaar, Steven B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a method of using computer vision to control systems consisting of a combination of holonomic and nonholonomic degrees of freedom such as a wheeled rover equipped with a robotic arm, a forklift, and earth-moving equipment such as a backhoe or a front-loader. Using vision sensors mounted on the mobile system and the manipulator, the system establishes a relationship between the internal joint configuration of the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator and the appearance of features on the manipulator in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Then, the system, perhaps with the assistance of an operator, identifies the locations of the target object in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Using this target information, along with the relationship described above, the system determines a suitable trajectory for the nonholonomic degrees of freedom of the base to follow towards the target object. The system also determines a suitable pose or series of poses for the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator. With additional visual samples, the system automatically updates the trajectory and final pose of the manipulator so as to allow for greater precision in the overall final position of the system.

  13. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-09-22

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

  14. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kar-Keung David (Mountain View, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

  15. Direct Adaptive Impedance Control Of Redundant Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Colbaugh, Richard D.; Glass, Kristin L.

    1995-01-01

    Method of controlling mechanical impedance of end effector of robotic manipulator related to method described in "Adaptive Impedance Control of Redundant Manipulators" (NPO-18606). Present method does not require detailed knowledge and computation of dynamics and inverse kinematic transformation of manipulator. Provides for control globally stable in presence of bounded disturbances. Applicable to both nonredundant and redundant manipulators performing tasks involving impacts between manipulator and objects in its environment, and controlled contact between end effector and object, such as deburring.

  16. Risk level analysis for deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A study of Turkish patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Büyüky?lmaz, Funda; ?endir, Merdiye; Autar, Ricky; Yazgan, ?lknur

    2015-09-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a prevalent problem for orthopedic patients, particularly owing to the nature of operative interventions and treatment procedures, predisposing to an high risk of DVT. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the levels of risk, the risk factors, and their odds ratio for DVT in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Data were collected using a Patient Information Form and the Autar DVT Risk Assessment Scale (DVTRAS) in orthopedic wards of a university hospital on postoperative day 2. Data were analyzed using descriptive, comparative analysis, and binary logistic regression. The 102 patients (mean age, 52.58 ± 21.58 years) were hospitalized for a mean of 14.35 ± 14.56. Of the sample, 53.9% were female, 65.7% had a history of previous surgery, and 54.9% had undergone total hip/knee arthroplastic surgery, 67.6% of patients wore graduated compression stockings, and 62.7% were administered liquid infusion. Those patients had moderate risk score (12.77 ± 5.66) in the Autar DVTRAS. According to binary logistic regression analysis, aging, obesity, immobility, and acute and chronic diseases were significant risk factors for postoperative DVT (p ? .05). This study highlights evidence on the degree of DVT risk, risk factors, and impact of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing major orthopedic operations. For evidence-based clinical practice, these high-level risk factors should be taken into account in the prevention of DVT in orthopedic patients. PMID:26298613

  17. Orthopedic Practice Patterns Relating to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Harris, Joshua D; Fillingham, Yale A; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil N

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an online survey of National Hockey League (NHL), Major League Soccer (MLS), and US Olympic/World Cup Ski/Snowboard (Olympic) team orthopedic surgeons to determine practice patterns relating to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in elite athletes. Of the 94 team orthopedic surgeons surveyed, 47 (50%) responded. Mean (SD) experience as a team physician was 7.73 (5.33) years for NHL, 6.77 (6.64) years for MLS, and 1.14 (0.36) years for Olympic. Mean (SD) number of ACL reconstructions performed in 2012 was 101 (51) for NHL, 78 (38) for MLS, and 110 (105) for Olympic. Overall, 33 surgeons (70.2%) indicated they would use bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft to treat their starting athletes. Twenty-one (44.7%) drilled the femoral tunnel through a transtibial portal, 36.2% through an anteromedial portal, and 12.8% by a 2-incision technique. All the surgeons used a single-bundle technique. Thirty-three (70.2%) did not recommend a brace for their elite athletes during play on return to sport (RTS). Twenty-seven NHL and MLS surgeons (81.8%) recommended RTS only after an athlete has passed a series of RTS tests (eg, Vail, single-leg hop). Most of the NHL, MLS, and Olympic team orthopedic surgeons who were surveyed perform their ACL reconstructions using BPTB autograft, using a single-bundle technique, and through a transtibial portal, and do not require bracing for their athletes returning to sport. Most required their athletes to complete a series of RTS tests before resuming competitive play. PMID:26665248

  18. Differences in the Clinical Outcome of Osteomyelitis by Treating Specialty: Orthopedics or Infectology

    PubMed Central

    Cardona Arango, Doris; Capataz Taffur, Cesar Antonio; Correa Prada, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a heterogeneous infection with regard to etiology and treatment, and currently no single management protocol exists. Management of the condition is typically an interdisciplinary approach between orthopedics and infectious disease; however, the orthopedist is often the person who manages treatment. The aim of the study was to determine differences in the outcome of osteomyelitis according to its treating specialty and to identify factors associated with the recurrence of the disease. An ambispective cohort study of 129 patients with osteomyelitis was conducted and the proportions for qualitative variables and central tendency and dispersion measures for quantitative variables were calculated; the latter were tested for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test. A bivariate analysis was conducted with measures of association based on the chi square test and crude relative risk. A logistic regression model was applied and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05, including the model of relevant clinical variables that fit the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. We found that 70% of patients were treated either by orthopedics or infectious disease. Patients who were treated by an orthopedist alone presented a greater risk of relapse or reinfection (RR = 4.6; 95% CI 2.3;8.9). Risk factors of osteomyelitis recurrence as determined in the regression model included the following: age of 57 years or older (RR = 1.3; 95% 0.3;5.2), long bones (RR = 1.9; 95% CI 0.5;7.1), fracture (RR = 5.0; 95% CI 0.4;51.4), monotherapy (RR = 3.0; 95% CI 0.6;14.5), receiving less than 4 weeks of antibiotics (RR = 1.5; 95% CI 0.2;10.1), inadequate treatment (RR = 3.1; 95% CI 0.4;20.1), and receiving orthopedics treatment (RR = 5.5; 95% CI 1.6;18.2). Most patients evaluated jointly by orthopedics and infectious disease received adequate treatment for osteomyelitis and had fewer relapses. PMID:26678551

  19. Non-Osteotomy and Osteotomy Large Animal Fracture Models in Orthopedic Trauma Research

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Sebastian; Reifenrath, Janin; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W.

    2014-01-01

    Large animal fracture models are important in the field of orthopedic trauma research. New implants are tested in animals before being implanted into humans. Large animals like sheep or swine often are more properly to simulate conditions in humans, e.g. biomechanical demands, compared to rodents. Cited articles mainly analyze shock or fracture healing. Both osteotomy and non-osteotomy fracture models have been used in the past. However, comparative studies are rare and clear recommendation when to use which model are missing. This review will summarize large animal fracture models putting special emphasis on non-osteotomy fracture models. PMID:25568730

  20. iPhone and iPad Use in Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Scott F. M.; Hendawi, Tariq K.; Sperling, John; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Hartsock, Landon

    2015-01-01

    Background Thousands of healthcare mobile applications (apps) are available, and physicians are increasingly recognizing that mobile technology can improve their workflow and allow them to practice medicine in a better and/or more efficient manner. Methods This article highlights apps compatible with the iPhone and iPad and their utility to the busy orthopedic surgeon. Results Currently available apps address every aspect of healthcare: patient management, reference, education, and research. Conclusion Key aspects of helpful apps include low cost (preferably free), a user-friendly interface, and simplicity. PMID:25829881

  1. Adaptation of NASA technology for the optimization of orthopedic knee implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) is adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the tailoring of the implant for optimal interaction with the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized, such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation and prevent failures. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is elevated. The optimization system is expected to provide the means for improving knee prosthesis and individual implant tailoring for each patient.

  2. The evidence-based principles of negative pressure wound therapy in trauma & orthopedics.

    PubMed

    A, Novak; Khan, Wasim S; J, Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy is a popular treatment for the management of both acute and chronic wounds. Its use in trauma and orthopedics is diverse and includes the acute traumatic setting as well as chronic troublesome wounds associated with pressure sores and diabetic foot surgery. Efforts have been made to provide an evidence base to guide its use however this has been limited by a lack of good quality evidence. The following review article explores the available evidence and describes future developments for its use in trauma and orthopaedic practice. PMID:25067971

  3. Perioperative substance use disorder, opioid diversion, and opioid misuse by a medical professional undergoing orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Maher, Dermot P; Kissen, Michael; Danovitch, Itai; Yumul, Roya; Louy, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Patients with substance use disorders can present challenges for effective perioperative pain management. Healthcare professionals with substance abuse disorders requiring medical treatment and pain management represent a unique subpopulation. The authors present a case of a nurse undergoing an orthopedic surgical procedure who was found with two large, organized tackle boxes of opioid medication in her hospital room. Although the incidence of substance use disorders in healthcare professionals is thought to be equivalent to the general population, the presentation, substances of choice, and inciting factors are unique. Further, treatment options available to such individuals have been established and proven successful. PMID:25531961

  4. Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for “engineering” space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to “engineer” light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing. PMID:24084836

  5. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    PubMed

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage. PMID:12062830

  6. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  7. Orthopedic services

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foreign bodies Rotator cuff tear Rotator cuff tendinitis Separation Torn labrum SLAP tears Knee: Cartilage and meniscus ... disease Pain Tendinitis Elbow: Arthritis Bursitis Dislocation or separation Ligament sprains or tears Loose or foreign bodies ...

  8. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  9. Ants: the supreme soil manipulators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review focuses on the semiochemical interactions between ants and their soil environment. Ants occupy virtually every ecological niche and have evolved mechanisms to not just cope with, but also manipulate soil organisms. The metapleural gland, specific to ants was thought to be the major sourc...

  10. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  11. Manipulating the characteristics of code

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Manipulating the governance characteristics of code Rajiv C. Shah and Jay P. Kesan Rajiv C. Shah processes, Technology led strategy, Regulation, Standards, Modulators Abstract Regulation through ``code with code-based solutions. While scholars have noted the role of code, there is little analysis

  12. Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

  13. Proximity Indicator for Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    Display indicates pitch, yaw, and distance of remote manipulator with respect to object to be grasped. Displays numerical values and bargraph simulation of position and orientation of hand. When errors in position and orientation are small enough to ensure successful grasp, unit alerts operator with audible and visible signals.

  14. Manipulating the munchies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Akabas, Myles H.

    2015-01-01

    Crystal structure and drug pharmacophore structure-activity data guided a combined mutagenesis and chemical screen to develop ligand-gated ion channels activated by unique chemical agonists. Through genetic engineering, these channels can be used to manipulate neuronal excitability and dissect the neuronal circuitry responsible for complex behaviors. PMID:22008994

  15. Indicator tensor manipulation on MACSYMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogen, R. A.; Pavelle, R.

    1977-01-01

    A new computational tool for physical calculations is described. It is the first computer system capable of performing indicial tensor calculus (as opposed to component tensor calculus). It is now operational on the symbolic manipulation system MACSYMA. The capabilities of the system are outlined.

  16. Master/slave manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    System capabilities are equivalent to mobility, dexterity, and strength of human arm. Arrangement of torque motor, harmonic drive, and potentiometer combination allows all power and control leads to pass through center of slave with position-transducer arrangement of master, and "stovepipe joint" is incorporated for manipulator applications.

  17. DATACUBE: A datacube manipulation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair; Currie, Malcolm J.

    2014-05-01

    DATACUBE is a command-line package for manipulating and visualizing data cubes. It was designed for integral field spectroscopy but has been extended to be a generic data cube tool, used in particular for sub-millimeter data cubes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. It is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

  18. 4. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    4. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice Universities of Washington and Auckland S~ao Paulo). Example: The SeattleSNPs genetic variation discovery resource supplies data in a format SNP sample al1 al2SNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  19. 4. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    4. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice Universities of Washington and Auckland Lausanne). Example: The SeattleSNPs genetic variation discovery resource supplies data in a format SNP sample al1 al2SNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  20. 3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice Universities of Washington and Auckland Seattle, June in a format SNP sample al1 al2 000095 D001 C T 000095 D002 T T 000095 D003 T T so that data for a singleSNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  1. 4. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    4. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice Universities of Washington and Auckland Auckland). Example: The SeattleSNPs genetic variation discovery resource supplies data in a format SNP sample al1 al2SNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  2. 3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice Universities of Auckland and Washington Seattle, July in a format SNP sample al1 al2 000095 D001 C T 000095 D002 T T 000095 D003 T T so that data for a singleSNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  3. 3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice UW Biostatistics Seattle, June 2010 #12;Merging in a format SNP sample al1 al2 000095 D001 C T 000095 D002 T T 000095 D003 T T so that data for a singleSNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  4. 3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice UW Biostatistics Li`ege, September 2009 #12;Merging in a format SNP sample al1 al2 000095 D001 C T 000095 D002 T T 000095 D003 T T so that data for a singleSNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  5. 4. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    4. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice Universities of Washington and Auckland Seattle, July in a format SNP sample al1 al2 000095 D001 C T 000095 D002 T T 000095 D003 T T so that data for a singleSNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  6. 3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice UW Biostatistics August 2010, #12;Merging and matching in a format SNP sample al1 al2 000095 D001 C T 000095 D002 T T 000095 D003 T T so that data for a singleSNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  7. 3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley

    E-print Network

    Rice, Ken

    3. Data manipulation Thomas Lumley Ken Rice Universities of Washington and Auckland Li). Example: The SeattleSNPs genetic variation discovery resource supplies data in a format SNP sample al1 al2SNP","sample","allele1","allele2")) > dim(data) [1] 2303 4

  8. manipulating cytosolic PPi content can

    E-print Network

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    manipulating cytosolic PPi content can represent a cost-effective and environmentally responsible strategy to control tuber sprouting. Depending on which promoter is used, either delayed13 or accelerated14 sprouting can be achieved. However, to be used commercially, expression of the PPase gene during tuber

  9. Advanced action manipulator system (ADAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugath, D. A.; Dane, D. H.; Blaise, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    Manipulator offers improved performance over other models in its category. It features larger force and reach capabilities and is readily convertible for underwater use. Unique kinematic arrangement provides extremely large working envelope. System has six degrees of motion: azimuth joint, shoulder joint, upper arm rotating joint, elbow joint, wrist pitch, and wrist twist.

  10. COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-01-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

  11. A differential scanning calorimetry study of retrieved orthopedic implants made of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Witkiewicz, H; Deng, M; Vidovszky, T; Bolander, M E; Rock, M G; Morrey, B F; Shalaby, S W

    1996-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to examine thermal and thermooxidative properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) of five acetabular components of failed orthopedic implants retrieved at revision of total hip arthoplasty. The results were compared with controls (unimplanted acetabular cups, a 20-year-old slab of UHMW-PE, and raw material). Profiles of exothermic peaks indicated increased levels of oxidation in all retrieved cups. In three retrieved cups, DSC revealed an additional peak of endotherm that was not seen in control samples. The additional endotherm peaks were not artifacts due to oxidation during scanning, heat buildup during cutting of the samples, or the sterilization method after retrieval. The additional peak was associated with the bulk of the polymer that was extracted with hexane. It varied in relative area, depending on its original location of the sample in a cup, implicating local variability in the extent of changes in material property. The distribution of the changes suggests that, during implantation, tissue exposure and friction affected the level of oxidation and degree of crystallinity in the UHMW-PE to a greater degree than did loading alone. Overall results showed that DSC may be a useful tool in evaluating changes in the properties of UHMW-PE orthopedic components in vivo. PMID:8736025

  12. Updates in the management of orthopedic soft-tissue injuries associated with lower extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Park, Justin J; Campbell, Kirk A; Mercuri, John J; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2012-02-01

    Management of traumatic soft-tissue injuries remains a challenging and ever evolving field within orthopedic surgery. The basic principle of addressing life before limb in the initial assessment of critically injured patients has not changed. Although arteriography remains the gold standard for vascular injury screening, computed tomography angiography is being used more often to determine limb viability, and its sensitivity and specificity for detecting vascular lesions are reported to be excellent. Thorough debridement and irrigation with early institution of antibiotics are crucial in preventing infection; debridement should be performed urgently once life-threatening conditions have been addressed. Increasing use of vacuum-assisted closure therapy has created a trend down the reconstructive ladder, with improvements in resulting wound closure. Although the orthoplastics approach and new microsurgical techniques have made limb salvage possible in even the most severely injured extremities, it is important to clearly identify the zone of injury and to inform patients and their families of the outcomes of limb salvage versus amputation. Results from the LEAP (Lower Extremity Assessment Project) trials and similar studies should guide orthopedic surgeons in the management of these complex injuries. Nevertheless, it is important to individualize management plans according to patient factors. PMID:22482099

  13. Evaluating the reliability of surgical assessment methods in an orthopedic residency program

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas; Harnett, John; Furey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Orthopedic surgical education in Canada has seen major change in the last 15 years. Work hour restrictions and external influence have led to new approaches for surgical training. With a change toward competency-based educational models under the CanMEDS headings there is a need to ensure the validity of modern assessment methods. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of a currently used surgical skill assessment tool within an orthopedic residency program, as measured by the Surgical Encounters Form. Methods A surgical assessment tool has previously been created at our institution that comprises 15 items spanning 4 of the CanMEDS competencies. Results were blinded to the primary investigator and coded by a third party. The assessments were collected, and we measured percent agreement using Cronbach’s ? and Fleiss ?. Results Over a 5-month period 11 staff members assessed 10 residents. Eighty-eight assessments were completed in total. Weighted percent agreement was 90.9%. Cronbach’s ? averaged 0.865 for the medical expert role, 0.920 for technical skills, 0.934 for the communicator role, 1.00 for the collaborator role and 1.00 for the health advocate role. The mean Fleiss ? score was 0.147 (95% confidence interval &0.071 to 0.364), demonstrating low interrater reliability. Conclusion Despite the development of a validated assessment tool to evaluate surgical skills acquisition, interrater reliability results suggest low levels of agreement among assessors. PMID:26204142

  14. Perioperative Complications of Orthopedic Surgery for Lower Extremity in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Because complications are more common in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), surgeons and anesthesiologists must be aware of perioperative morbidity and be prepared to recognize and treat perioperative complications. This study aimed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for perioperative complications of orthopedic surgery on the lower extremities in patients with CP. We reviewed the medical records of consecutive CP patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Medical history, anesthesia emergence time, intraoperative body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, immediate postoperative complications, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, Cormack-Lehane classification, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification were analyzed. A total of 868 patients was included. Mean age at first surgery was 11.8 (7.6) yr. The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia, absolute hypotension, and absolute bradycardia were 26.2%, 4.4%, and 20.0%, respectively. Twenty (2.3%) patients had major complications, and 35 (4.0%) patients had minor complications postoperatively. The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia, absolute hypotension, and major postoperative complications were significantly higher in patients at GMFCS levels IV and V compared with patients at GMFCS levels I to III (P<0.001). History of pneumonia was associated with intraoperative absolute hypotension and major postoperative complications (P<0.001). These results revealed that GMFCS level, patient age, hip reconstructive surgery, and history of pneumonia are associated with adverse effects on intraoperative body temperature, the cardiovascular system, and immediate postoperative complications. PMID:25829819

  15. Nursing time study for the administration of a PRN oral analgesic on an orthopedic postoperative unit.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Lois J; Chelly, Jacques E; Marlin, Vanessa

    2014-09-01

    As needed (PRN) oral opioid analgesics are an integral part of many orthopedic postoperative multimodal pain management regimens. However, the unpredictable nature of this dosing method can lead to disruptions in the process of administering the medication, as well as be an interruption to regular nursing activities. This IRB approved quantitative time study tested the hypothesis that a significant amount of nursing time is required in the administration of PRN oral opioid analgesics on a postoperative orthopedic nursing unit. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the time necessary to complete the required steps related to the administration of PRN oral analgesics. Nurses from 28 nursing shifts used a personal digital assistant (PDA) to record the time needed to complete these steps. We determined that 10.9 minutes is the mean time required to administer PRN oral analgesics on this unit. Other time studies have evaluated the medication administration process as a whole. No time studies related to PRN oral analgesic administration have been reported. In phase I of our project, the data were summarized and will be used as a baseline comparison for phase II, in which we will evaluate an oral PCA medication administration system. PMID:23746873

  16. Influence of preoperative emotional state on postoperative pain following orthopedic and trauma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Robleda, Gemma; Sillero-Sillero, Amalia; Puig, Teresa; Gich, Ignasi; Baños, Josep-E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the relationship between preoperative emotional state and the prevalence and intensity of postoperative pain and to explore predictors of postoperative pain. METHOD: observational retrospective study undertaken among 127 adult patients of orthopedic and trauma surgery. Postoperative pain was assessed with the verbal numeric scale and with five variables of emotional state: anxiety, sweating, stress, fear, and crying. The Chi-squared test, Student's t test or ANOVA and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: the prevalence of immediate postoperative pain was 28%. Anxiety was the most common emotional factor (72%) and a predictive risk factor for moderate to severe postoperative pain (OR: 4.60, 95% CI 1.38 to 15.3, p<0.05, AUC: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.83). Age exerted a protective effect (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: preoperative anxiety and age are predictors of postoperative pain in patients undergoing orthopedic and trauma surgery. PMID:25493674

  17. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  18. Analysis of the Acceleration Characteristics of Manipulators

    E-print Network

    to the PUMA 560 manipulator are discussed. 1 Introduction The end-e ector acceleration is an important for the analysis of the acceleration characteristics of a PUMA 560 manipulator. #12;2 2 Problem Statement

  19. Dielectrophoretic Manipulation of DNA: Separation and Polarizability

    E-print Network

    Bielefeld, Universität

    Dielectrophoretic Manipulation of DNA: Separation and Polarizability Jan Regtmeier, Thanh Tu Duong is manipulated by electrophoresis and by electrodeless dielectrophoresis. By slowly increasing the strength. Furthermore, our results have direct im- plications to future biotechnological applications such as gene

  20. The Mystery and History of Spinal Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Michael C. P.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of spinal manipulation and shows its origin in an obscure past among many cultures. The author suggests reasons for the medical profession's relative disinterest in manipulation, but questions this attitude. PMID:20469344

  1. Iterative inverse kinematics with manipulator configuration control

    SciTech Connect

    Grudic, G.Z.; Lawrence, P.D.

    1993-08-01

    A new method, termed the offset modification method (OM method), for solving the manipulator inverse kinematics problem is presented. The OM method works by modifying the link offset values of a manipulator until it is possible to derive closed-form inverse kinematics equations for the resulting manipulator (termed the model manipulator). This procedure allows one to derive a set of three nonlinear equations in three unknowns that, when numerically solved, give an inverse kinematics solution for the original manipulator. The OM method can be applied to manipulators with any number of degrees of freedom, as long as the manipulator satisfies a given set of conditions (Theorem 1). The OM method is tested on a 6-degree-of-freedom manipulator that has no known closed-form inverse kinematics equations. It is shown that the OM method is applicable to real-time manipulator control, can be used to guarantee convergence to a desired endpoint position and orientation (if it exists), and allows one to directly choose which inverse kinematics solution the algorithm will converge to (as specified in the model manipulator closed-form inverse kinematics equations). Applications of the method to other 6-DOF manipulator geometries and to redundant manipulators (i.e. greater than 6 DOF geometries) are discussed.

  2. Programming by Manipulation for Layout Thibaud Hottelier

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Programming by Manipulation for Layout Thibaud Hottelier Ras Bodik Kimiko Ryokai Electrical, and Samsung. #12;Programming by Manipulation for Layout Thibaud Hottelier UC Berkeley tbh@cs.berkeley.edu Ras We present Programming by Manipulation, a new program- ming methodology for specifying the layout

  3. Influence of Ketamine on Early Postoperative Cognitive Function After Orthopedic Surgery in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ki Hwa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jeong Won; Park, Jang Su; Lee, Kyu Won; Jeon, Sang Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a serious and frequent complication after surgery, especially in elderly patients. Ketamine is an N-methyl D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist with demonstrated neuroprotective effects. An intravenous bolus of a sub-anesthetic dose (0.5 mg/kg) of ketamine can reduce postoperative delirium (POD) and POCD after cardiac surgery. But, the influence of ketamine on early POCD after non-cardiac surgery is unclear. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of ketamine on early postoperative cognitive function after orthopedic surgery in elderly patients. Patients and Methods: Fifty six elderly patients (> 60-years-old), scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery during general anesthesia (duration of anesthesia > two hours) were enrolled. Patients received intravenous bolus, a total of 3 mL mixed with 0.9% normal saline and 0.5 mg/kg ketamine (K group) or 3 mL of 0.9% normal saline (N group). Three neurocognitive function tests (mini-mental status examination, trail-making test, digit substitution test), and c-reactive protein (CRP) concentration were determined before surgery and on postoperative day one (POD 1) and postoperative day six (POD 6). Results: The two groups had similar demographic characteristics except for the gender. Surgical and anesthetic data were not significantly different. A statistically significant difference was observed in comparison of trail-making test score. Trail-making test score increased more in the N group (52.5 points) than the K group (13 points) at POD 1 (P = 0.047) compared with baseline scores. There were no significant differences in the mini-mental status examination, digit substitution test and CRP concentration at POD 1 and POD 6 between the two groups. POCD (the two Z-scores in more than two tests or the combined Z-score was 1.96 or more) was present in one patient (4%) in the K group at POD 6 (P = 0.98). Conclusions: The incidence of POCD was not significantly influenced by a bolus dose of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) after orthopedic surgery in elderly patients. There were no negative effects of ketamine on early POCD. PMID:26587403

  4. Genetic Manipulation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    The sexually-transmitted pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, undergoes natural transformation at high frequency. This property has led to the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers and to the panmictic structure of the gonococcal population. However, high frequency transformation also makes N. gonorrhoeae one of the easiest bacterial species to manipulate genetically in the laboratory. Techniques have been developed that result in transformation frequencies >50%, allowing the identification of mutants by screening and without selection. Constructs have been created to take advantage of this high frequency transformation, facilitating genetic mutation, complementation, and heterologous gene expression. Techniques are described for genetic manipulation of N. gonorrhoeae, as well as for growth of this fastidious organism. PMID:22045584

  5. The laboratory telerobotic manipulator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Butler, P. L.; Costello, H. M.; Glassell, R. L.; Kress, R. L.; Kuban, D. P.; Rowe, J. C.; Williams, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the NASA Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program is performed to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research.

  6. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Babcock, S.M.; Butler, P.L.; Costello, H.M.; Glassell, R.L.; Kress, R.L.; Kuban, D.P.; Rowe, J.C.; Williams, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Automation Technology Branch at NASA Langley Research Center currently is sponsoring the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Database Manipulation on Quantum Computers

    E-print Network

    Ahmed Younes

    2007-05-29

    Manipulating a database system on a quantum computer is an essential aim to benefit from the promising speed-up of quantum computers over classical computers in areas that take a vast amount of storage and processing time such as in databases. In this paper, the basic operations for manipulating the data in a quantum database will be defined, e.g. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, backing up and restoring a database file. This gives the ability to perform the data processing that usually takes a long processing time on a classical database system, in a simultaneous way on a quantum computer. Defining a quantum version of more advanced concepts used in database systems, e.g. the referential integrity and the relational algebra, is a normal extension to this work

  8. [Exploration on eye needling manipulation].

    PubMed

    Hai, Ying; Tian, Wei-Zhu

    2013-09-01

    The 40-year experiences in the clinical application of eye acupuncture in our hospital are summarized. The manipulation of needle insertion, withdrawal and puncture procedure is analyzed. The keys of the techniques of eye acupuncture are explained. The basic needling manipulations are determined. In the insertion of needle, professor Peng stressed on the stability, accuracy and fast, without lifting, thrusting, rotating, and opening/closing techniques involved. TIAN Wei-zhu emphasizes the gentle insertion, pain avoiding, apparent needling sensation and needling sensation transmission. In terms of acupuncture operation, skin stretching, patient's attention shifting, quick insertion of needle and slow-down moving of needle body are required. The outside orbit transverse needling method is recommended basically. PMID:24298770

  9. Do malaria parasites manipulate mosquitoes?

    PubMed Central

    Cator, Lauren J.; Lynch, Pennelope A.; Read, Andrew F.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria parasites have been suggested to alter the behavior of mosquito vectors to increase the likelihood of transmission. Some empirical evidence supports this hypothesis, yet the role of manipulation is ignored in most epidemiological models, and behavioral differences between infected and uninfected females are not considered in the development or implementation of control measures. We suggest that this disconnect exists because the link between behavioral alteration and actual transmission in the field has yet to be fully demonstrated or quantified. We review and discuss the current evidence for manipulation, explore its potential significance for malaria transmission and suggest ways to move this hypothesis forward from theory to potential application in malaria control. PMID:23044288

  10. ORTHODONTICS AND DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS Registration of Cone-Beam CT and 3dMD Maxillodental Data

    E-print Network

    Alberta, University of

    ORTHODONTICS AND DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS Registration of Cone-Beam CT and 3dMD Maxillodental Data that occur during orthodontic (craniofacial) treatment. Registered images obtained from Cone-Beam Computed as well as clinical evaluation of orthodontic treatments. Methods Six consecutive patients with adequate

  11. Laser speckle technology in stomatology. diagnostics of stresses and strains of hard biotissues and orthodontic and orthopedic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Yu. L.; Bazylev, N. B.; Rubnikovich, S. P.; Fomin, N. A.

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated the formation and dynamics of speckle biofi elds formed by hard biotissues of the oral cavity irradiated with low-intensity radiation. We present experimental methods for diagnosing the stressed-strained state of the maxillodental system and orthodontic and orthopedic structures based on speckle technologies and crosscorrelation analysis of speckle biofi elds.

  12. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world. PMID:19444207

  13. Micro-manipulation using rotational fluid flows induced by remote magnetic micro-manipulators

    E-print Network

    Sitti, Metin

    Micro-manipulation using rotational fluid flows induced by remote magnetic micro-manipulators Zhou prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. #12;Micro-manipulation using rotational fluid flows induced by remote magnetic micro-manipulators Zhou Ye,a) Eric Diller,b) and Metin

  14. Average-Case Tractability of Manipulation in Voting via the Fraction of Manipulators

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Daniel

    Average-Case Tractability of Manipulation in Voting via the Fraction of Manipulators Ariel D of voting rules are computationally hard to manipulate in the worst-case; this arguably provides some, it has become apparent that a truly dependable obstacle to manipulation can only be provided by voting

  15. Manipulation of a Mobile Modular Manipulator Interacting with the Environment with the Assistance of

    E-print Network

    Li, Yangmin

    Manipulation of a Mobile Modular Manipulator Interacting with the Environment with the Assistance-DOF manipulator. A tactile sensor, which is installed at the tip of the end-e«ector of the mobile manipulator, is to detect the feedback information from the environment. The dynamic equations are formulated

  16. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  17. A controlled antibiotic release system to prevent orthopedic-implant associated infections: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Marina; Pinczowski, Pedro; Pérez, Marta; Giorello, Antonella; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Santamaría, Jesús; Arruebo, Manuel; Luján, Lluís

    2015-10-01

    A new device for local delivery of antibiotics is presented, with potential use as a drug-eluting fixation pin for orthopedic applications. The implant consists of a stainless steel hollow tubular reservoir packed with the desired antibiotic. Release takes place through several orifices previously drilled in the reservoir wall, a process that does not compromise the mechanical properties required for the implant. Depending on the antibiotic chosen and the number of orifices, the release profile can be tailored from a rapid release of the load (ca. 20h) to a combination of rapid initial release and slower, sustained release for a longer period of time (ca. 200h). An excellent bactericidal action is obtained, with 4-log reductions achieved in as little as 2h, and total bacterial eradication in 8h using 6-pinholed implants filled with cefazolin. PMID:26297104

  18. In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected orthopedic prosthesis infection: comparison with other imaging modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, J.E.; Brown, M.L.; Hauser, M.F.; Berquist, T.H.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.; Klee, G.G.

    1988-07-01

    When infection of prosthetic orthopedic implants is suspected, optimal management requires accurate confirmation or exclusion of infection. The authors retrospectively studied 98 patients with possible infection who underwent scanning with indium-111-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and subsequently underwent surgery within 14 days. At surgery, 50 patients had infections, as determined by means of culture or histologic results. The diagnostic accuracy of In-111 scanning was compared with that of plain radiography, arthrography, three-phase bone scanning, and various clinical and laboratory findings classically associated with infection. Positive findings on In-111 WBC scans and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates were found to be the most predictive variables in the diagnosis of septic prostheses (P less than or equal to .001 and P less than or equal to .002, respectively). Likelihood ratio analysis more clearly demonstrated the superiority of In-111 WBC scanning, with positive and negative scans yielding likelihood ratios of 5.0 and 0.16, respectively.

  19. 3D Bioprinting of Cartilage for Orthopedic Surgeons: Reading between the Lines

    PubMed Central

    Di Bella, Claudia; Fosang, Amanda; Donati, Davide M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Choong, Peter F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Chondral and osteochondral lesions represent one of the most challenging and frustrating scenarios for the orthopedic surgeon and for the patient. The lack of therapeutic strategies capable to reconstitute the function and structure of hyaline cartilage and to halt the progression toward osteoarthritis has brought clinicians and scientists together, to investigate the potential role of tissue engineering as a viable alternative to current treatment modalities. In particular, the role of bioprinting is emerging as an innovative technology that allows for the creation of organized 3D tissue constructs via a “layer-by-layer” deposition process. This process also has the capability to combine cells and biomaterials in an ordered and predetermined way. Here, we review the recent advances in cartilage bioprinting and we identify the current challenges and the directions for future developments in cartilage regeneration. PMID:26322314

  20. Segmentation of multiple knee bones from CT for orthopedic knee surgery planning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dijia; Sofka, Michal; Birkbeck, Neil; Zhou, S Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Patient-specific orthopedic knee surgery planning requires precisely segmenting from 3D CT images multiple knee bones, namely femur, tibia, fibula, and patella, around the knee joint with severe pathologies. In this work, we propose a fully automated, highly precise, and computationally efficient segmentation approach for multiple bones. First, each bone is initially segmented using a model-based marginal space learning framework for pose estimation followed by non-rigid boundary deformation. To recover shape details, we then refine the bone segmentation using graph cut that incorporates the shape priors derived from the initial segmentation. Finally we remove overlap between neighboring bones using multi-layer graph partition. In experiments, we achieve simultaneous segmentation of femur, tibia, patella, and fibula with an overall accuracy of less than 1mm surface-to-surface error in less than 90s on hundreds of 3D CT scans with pathological knee joints. PMID:25333140

  1. Therapeutic approach to Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with maxillary functional orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    de Bittencourt, Aristeu Corrêa; Saga, Armando Yukio; Pacheco, Ariel Adriano Reyes; Tanaka, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Interceptive treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is a challenge orthodontists commonly face due to the different growth patterns they come across and the different treatment strategies they have available. OBJECTIVE: To report five cases of interceptive orthodontics performed with the aid of Klammt's elastic open activator (KEOA) to treat Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: Treatment comprehends one or two phases; and the use of functional orthopedic appliances, whenever properly recommended, is able to minimize dentoskeletal discrepancies with consequent improvement in facial esthetics during the first stage of mixed dentition. The triad of diagnosis, correct appliance manufacture and patient's compliance is imperative to allow KEOA to contribute to Class II malocclusion treatment. RESULTS: Cases reported herein showed significant improvement in skeletal, dental and profile aspects, as evinced by cephalometric analysis and clinical photographs taken before, during and after interceptive orthodontics. PMID:26352852

  2. Biomarkers of Brain Damage and Postoperative Cognitive Disorders in Orthopedic Patients: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in orthopedic patients varies from 16% to 45%, although it can be as high as 72%. As a consequence, the hospitalization time of patients who developed POCD was longer, the outcome and quality of life were worsened, and prolonged medical and social assistance were necessary. In this review the short description of such biomarkers of brain damage as the S100B protein, NSE, GFAP, Tau protein, metalloproteinases, ubiquitin C terminal hydrolase, microtubule-associated protein, myelin basic protein, ?-II spectrin breakdown products, and microRNA was made. The role of thromboembolic material in the development of cognitive decline was also discussed. Special attention was paid to optimization of surgical and anesthetic procedures in the prevention of postoperative cognitive decline. PMID:26417595

  3. Quaternized Chitosan as an Antimicrobial Agent: Antimicrobial Activity, Mechanism of Action and Biomedical Applications in Orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Honglue; Ma, Rui; Lin, Chucheng; Liu, Ziwei; Tang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) is a linear polysaccharide with good biodegradability, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, which makes it potentially useful for biomedical applications, including an antimicrobial agent either alone or blended with other polymers. However, the poor solubility of CS in most solvents at neutral or high pH substantially limits its use. Quaternary ammonium CS, which was prepared by introducing a quaternary ammonium group on a dissociative hydroxyl group or amino group of the CS, exhibited improved water solubility and stronger antibacterial activity relative to CS over an entire range of pH values; thus, this quaternary modification increases the potential biomedical applications of CS in the field of anti-infection. This review discusses the current findings on the antimicrobial properties of quaternized CS synthesized using different methods and the mechanisms of its antimicrobial actions. The potential antimicrobial applications in the orthopedic field and perspectives regarding future studies in this field are also considered. PMID:23325051

  4. A controlled antibiotic release system to prevent orthopedic-implant associated infections: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, Marina; Pinczowski, Pedro; Pérez, Marta; Giorello, Antonella; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Santamaría, Jesús; Arruebo, Manuel; Luján, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    A new device for local delivery of antibiotics is presented, with potential use as a drug-eluting fixation pin for orthopedic applications. The implant consists of a stainless steel hollow tubular reservoir packed with the desired antibiotic. Release takes place through several orifices previously drilled in the reservoir wall, a process that does not compromise the mechanical properties required for the implant. Depending on the antibiotic chosen and the number of orifices, the release profile can be tailored from a rapid release of the load (ca. 20 h) to a combination of rapid initial release and slower, sustained release for a longer period of time (ca. 200 h). An excellent bactericidal action is obtained, with 4-log reductions achieved in as little as 2 h, and total bacterial eradication in 8 h using 6-pinholed implants filled with cefazolin. PMID:26297104

  5. Prosthesis Infections after Orthopedic Joint Replacement: The Possible Role of Bacterial Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels; Wu, Hong; Sørensen, Torben Sandberg; Borgwardt, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore, important to understand the comprehensive interaction between the microbiological situation and the host immune responses that lead to prosthesis infections. Evidence indicates that prosthesis infections are actually biofilm-correlated infections that are highly resistant to antibiotic treatment and the host immune responses. The authors reviewed the related literature in the context of their clinical experience, and discussed the possible etiology and mechanism leading to the infections, especially problems related to bacterial biofilm, and prophylaxis and treatment of infection, including both microbiological and surgical measures. Recent progress in research into bacterial biofilm and possible future treatment options of prosthesis-related infections are discussed. PMID:23888204

  6. [Massive pulmonary thromboembolism during an orthopedic surgery in an obese patient].

    PubMed

    Endoh, Masahiro; Yamanaka, Ikuo; Munetsugu, Yumi

    2013-10-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and the consequent pulmonary embolism (PE) are devastating complications in orthopedic surgery. We report a 45-year-old male patient who developed PE during an operation of proximal tibia fracture under general anesthesia. On mobilization of knee joint, end-tidal CO2 suddenly decreased from 28 to 18 mmHg. Sp(O2) decreased from 99 to 92%, but blood pressure was maintained. Postoperatively Sp(O2) was maintained 94-95% in room air, but sinus tachycardia over 120 beats x min(-1) continued. On postoperative day 1, the patient experienced dyspnea. In the chest CT scan, massive embolism was found in the bilateral main pulmonary arteries and both middle lobe as well as lower lobe arteries in the right lung. DVT was detected by enhanced CT scan of the lower extremity. This patient had many risk factors for PE such as obesity, smoking, immobilization and lack of thromboprophylaxis. PMID:24228456

  7. The Choice Between Total Hip Arthroplasty and Arthrodesis in Adolescent Patients: A Survey of Orthopedic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Mark G; Studdert, David M; Callaghan, John J; Farid, Monica S; Titan, Ashley L; Dietz, Frederick R

    2016-01-01

    For adolescent patients with end-stage hip disease, the choice between total hip arthroplasty (THA) and arthrodesis is complex; the clinical evidence is not definitive, and there are difficult trade-offs between clear short-term benefits from THA and uncertain long-term risks. We surveyed nearly 700 members of the Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America and the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons. Respondents chose between a recommendation of THA or arthrodesis in four clinical vignettes. A clear majority of surgeons recommended THA in two of the vignettes, however opinion was somewhat divided in one vignette (overweight adolescent) and deeply divided in another (adolescent destined for manual labor job). Across all vignettes, recommendations varied systematically according to surgeons' age and their attitudes regarding tradeoffs between life stages. PMID:26298281

  8. Ion beam sputter etching of orthopedic implanted alloy MP35N and resulting effects on fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Christopher, M.; Bahnuik, E.; Wang, S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of two types of argon ion sputter etched surface structures on the tensile stress fatigue properties of orthopedic implant alloy MP35N were investigated. One surface structure was a natural texture resulting from direct bombardment by 1 keV argon ions. The other structure was a pattern of square holes milled into the surface by a 1 keV argon ion beam through a Ni screen mask. The etched surfaces were subjected to tensile stress only in fatigue tests designed to simulate the cyclic load conditions experienced by the stems of artificial hip joint implants. Both types of sputter etched surface structures were found to reduce the fatigue strength below that of smooth surface MP35N.

  9. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brye, R. G.; Frederick, P. N.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The operator's ability to perform five manipulator tip movements while using monoptic and stereoptic video systems was assessed. Test data obtained were compared with previous results to determine the impact of camera placement and stereoptic viewing on manipulator system performance. The tests were performed using the NASA MSFC extendible stiff arm Manipulator and an analog joystick controller. Two basic manipulator tasks were utilized. The minimum position change test required the operator to move the manipulator arm to touch a target contract. The dexterity test required removal and replacement of pegs.

  10. A systematic review of early prognostic factors for persistent pain following acute orthopedic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Fiona J; Watson, Wendy L; Newstead, Stuart V; McClure, Roderick J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute orthopedic trauma contributes substantially to the global burden of disease. OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review aimed to summarize the current knowledge concerning prognostic factors for the presence of persistent pain, pain severity and pain-related disability following acute orthopedic trauma involving a spectrum of pathologies to working-age adults. METHODS: The Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for level II prognostic studies published between January 1996 and October 2010. Studies that were longitudinal and reported results with multivariate analyses appropriate for prognostic studies were included. Studies that addressed two specific injury types that have been the subject of previous reviews, namely, injuries to the spinal column and amputations, were excluded. RESULTS: The searches yielded 992 studies; 10 studies met the inclusion criteria and were rated for methodological quality. Seventeen factors were considered in more than one cohort. There was strong evidence supporting the association of female sex, older age, high pain intensity, preinjury anxiety or depression, and fewer years of education with persistent pain outcomes. There was moderate evidence supporting the association between postinjury depression or anxiety with persistent pain, and that injury severity was not a risk factor for ongoing pain. CONCLUSION: Many individuals experience persistent pain following acute trauma. Due to the lack of studies, the use of different constructs to measure the same factor and the methodological limitations associated with many of the studies, the present review was only able to reliably identify a limited set of factors that predicted persistent pain. Recommendations for the conduct of future methodologically rigorous studies of persistent pain are provided. PMID:22518366

  11. On the dynamics of space manipulators using the Virtual Manipulator, with applications to path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vafa, Z.; Dubowsky, S.

    1990-01-01

    Robotic manipulators carried by future spacecraft are expected to perform important tasks in space, such as the servicing of satellites. However, the performance of these systems could be severely degraded by dynamic disturbances to the spacecraft caused by manipulator motions. This paper presents a method for representing the dynamics of space manipulator systems using the recently developed Virtual Manipulator (VM) concept. This representation is then applied to develop algorithms which can be used to plan manipulator motions that minimize disturbances of the spacecraft.

  12. The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, DongLiang

    2010-01-01

    The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

  13. The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, Dongliang

    2009-12-01

    The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

  14. “I’ve never asked one question.” Understanding the barriers among orthopedic surgery residents to screening female patients for intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Young, Aynsely; Rotstein, Ori D.; Schemitsch, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. Orthopedic surgery residents may identify IPV among injured patients treated in fracture clinics. Yet, these residents face a number of barriers to recognizing and discussing IPV with patients. We sought to explore orthopedic surgery residents’ knowledge of IPV and their preparedness to screen patients for IPV in academic fracture clinic settings with a view to developing targeted IPV education and training. Methods We conducted focus groups with junior and intermediate residents. Discussions explored residents’ knowledge of and experiences with IPV screening and preparedness for screening and responding to IPV among orthopedic patients. Data were analyzed iteratively using an inductive approach. Results Residents were aware of the issue of abuse generally, but had received no specific information or training on IPV in orthopedics. Residents did not see orthopedics faculty screen patients for IPV or advocate for screening. They did not view IPV screening or intervention as part of the orthopedic surgeon’s role. Residents’ clinical experiences emphasized time management and surgical intervention by effectively “getting through clinic” and “dealing with the surgical problem.” Communication with patients about other health issues was minimal or nonexistent. Conclusion Orthopedic surgery residents are entering a career path where IPV is well documented. They encounter cultural and structural barriers preventing the incorporation of IPV screening into their clinical and educational experiences. Hospitals and academic programs must collaborate in efforts to build capacity for sustainable IPV screening programs among these trainees. PMID:25421078

  15. Algorithm For Control Of Underactuated Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Algorithm for improved control of underactuated multiple-link robotic manipulators developed via spatial-algebra-operator approach. Aspects of this approach described in several previous articles in NASA Tech Briefs-most recently "Robot Control Based on Spatial-Operator Algebra" (NPO-17918). Underactuated manipulator has fewer actuators than it has degrees of freedom. Complexity of underactuated systems managed by unified analysis. It has implications for fault-tolerant control, and many practical manipulators underactuated. Examples include manipulators with flexible joints and/or flexible links; space/underwater robots; manipulators that operate with some actuators that turned off because of failure or because of need to conserve energy; manipulators that grasp objects loosely, and manipulators that grasp objects with internal degrees of freedom (e.g., plungers, rollers).

  16. Technology for concrete pipe manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Dan; Lin, Renzhi

    2010-01-01

    The pipe manipulator is a developing mechatronic system to enhance productivity and protects workers from cave-ins in the trench while excavating and laying pipe. The pipe manipulator is for installing concrete pipe into the trench. It is an optical-electro-mechanical system. The mechanism is make up of two parts, the upside and underside. The upside is for lifting the equipment by backhoe and rotating the underside mechanism. It includes rigidity lift beams, holding pad, four-bar linkages, hydraulic cylinder, rotating support, and rotating mechanism. Holding pad will press the bucket back to keep the bucket hooking the pipe man safely and stably. The underside mechanism is for lifting, holding and adjusting the pipe section's stance. The underside mechanism includes support trolley, and lift fork. The support trolley is driven by hydraulic cylinder for moving the fork forward or backward while laying a pipe into trench. The fork is with a self-lock mechanism for preventing the pipe from slide out of the prongs. A new photoelectric locating system is developed for auto-measuring the installing pipe section's stance within the work area. The laser target has been developed as a key part in the photoelectric locating systems. The photoelectric target is a rotating polar coordinate. Photodiodes are used for making the polar radius. There is an angular displacement sensor sitting on the heart-axis of the target for measuring angle of the target rotating. The pipe manipulator can be located by the system, and the locating methods have been presented at last of the paper.

  17. Technology for concrete pipe manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Dan; Lin, Renzhi

    2009-12-01

    The pipe manipulator is a developing mechatronic system to enhance productivity and protects workers from cave-ins in the trench while excavating and laying pipe. The pipe manipulator is for installing concrete pipe into the trench. It is an optical-electro-mechanical system. The mechanism is make up of two parts, the upside and underside. The upside is for lifting the equipment by backhoe and rotating the underside mechanism. It includes rigidity lift beams, holding pad, four-bar linkages, hydraulic cylinder, rotating support, and rotating mechanism. Holding pad will press the bucket back to keep the bucket hooking the pipe man safely and stably. The underside mechanism is for lifting, holding and adjusting the pipe section's stance. The underside mechanism includes support trolley, and lift fork. The support trolley is driven by hydraulic cylinder for moving the fork forward or backward while laying a pipe into trench. The fork is with a self-lock mechanism for preventing the pipe from slide out of the prongs. A new photoelectric locating system is developed for auto-measuring the installing pipe section's stance within the work area. The laser target has been developed as a key part in the photoelectric locating systems. The photoelectric target is a rotating polar coordinate. Photodiodes are used for making the polar radius. There is an angular displacement sensor sitting on the heart-axis of the target for measuring angle of the target rotating. The pipe manipulator can be located by the system, and the locating methods have been presented at last of the paper.

  18. Control & Manipulation of Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piot, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of the advanced accelerators and light source rely on the production of bright electron beams. The rms areas of the beam phase space often need to be tailored to the specific applications. Furthermore, a new class of the forefront research calls for detailed specific distribution such as the particle density in the time coordinate. Several groups are tackling these various challenges and in this report we attempt to give a review of the state-of-the-art of the control and manipulation of the electron beams.

  19. Spin-manipulating polarized deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, V S; Krisch, A D; Leonova, M A; Raymond, R S; Sivers, D W; Wong, V K; Hinterberger, F; Kondratenko, A M

    2011-03-01

    Spin dynamics of polarized deuteron beams near depolarization resonances, including a new polarization preservation concept based on specially-designed multiple resonance crossings, has been tested in a series of experiments in the COSY synchrotron. Intricate spin dynamics with sophisticated pre-programmed patterns as well as effects of multiple crossings of a resonance were studied both theoretically and experimentally with excellent agreement. Possible applications of these results to preserve, manipulate and spin-flip polarized beams in synchrotrons and storage rings are discussed.

  20. Self mobile space manipulator project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. Ben; Friedman, Mark; Xu, Yangsheng; Kanade, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    A relatively simple, modular, low mass, low cost robot is being developed for space EVA that is large enough to be independently mobile on a space station or platform exterior, yet versatile enough to accomplish many vital tasks. The robot comprises two long flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with 2-DOF 'wrist' joints and grippers at each end. It walks by gripping pre-positioned attachment points, such as trusswork nodes, and alternately shifting its base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. The robot can perform useful tasks such as visual inspection, material transport, and light assembly by manipulating objects with one gripper, while stabilizing itself with the other. At SOAR '90, we reported development of 1/3 scale robot hardware, modular trusswork to serve as a locomotion substrate, and a gravity compensation system to allow laboratory tests of locomotion strategies on the horizontal face of the trusswork. In this paper, we report on project progress including the development of: (1) adaptive control for automatic adjustment to loads; (2) enhanced manipulation capabilities; (3) machine vision, including the use of neural nets, to guide autonomous locomotion; (4) locomotion between orthogonal trusswork faces; and (5) improved facilities for gravity compensation and telerobotic control.

  1. Semantics of directly manipulating spatializations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinran; Bradel, Lauren; Maiti, Dipayan; House, Leanna; North, Chris; Leman, Scotland

    2013-12-01

    When high-dimensional data is visualized in a 2D plane by using parametric projection algorithms, users may wish to manipulate the layout of the data points to better reflect their domain knowledge or to explore alternative structures. However, few users are well-versed in the algorithms behind the visualizations, making parameter tweaking more of a guessing game than a series of decisive interactions. Translating user interactions into algorithmic input is a key component of Visual to Parametric Interaction (V2PI) [13]. Instead of adjusting parameters, users directly move data points on the screen, which then updates the underlying statistical model. However, we have found that some data points that are not moved by the user are just as important in the interactions as the data points that are moved. Users frequently move some data points with respect to some other 'unmoved' data points that they consider as spatially contextual. However, in current V2PI interactions, these points are not explicitly identified when directly manipulating the moved points. We design a richer set of interactions that makes this context more explicit, and a new algorithm and sophisticated weighting scheme that incorporates the importance of these unmoved data points into V2PI. PMID:24051771

  2. Mobile remote manipulator vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold G. (inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (inventor); Wallsom, Richard E. (inventor); Jensen, J. Kermit (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A mobile remote manipulator system is disclosed for assembly, repair and logistics transport on, around and about a space station square bay truss structure. The vehicle is supported by a square track arrangement supported by guide pins integral with the space station truss structure and located at each truss node. Propulsion is provided by a central push-pull drive mechanism that extends out from the vehicle one full structural bay over the truss and locks drive rods into the guide pins. The draw bar is now retracted and the mobile remote manipulator system is pulled onto the next adjacent structural bay. Thus, translation of the vehicle is inchworm style. The drive bar can be locked onto two guide pins while the extendable draw bar is within the vehicle and then push the vehicle away one bay providing bidirectional push-pull drive. The track switches allow the vehicle to travel in two orthogonal directions over the truss structure which coupled with the bidirectional drive, allow movement in four directions on one plane. The top layer of this trilayered vehicle is a logistics platform. This platform is capable of 369 degees of rotation and will have two astronaut foot restraint platforms and a space crane integral.

  3. Actuators for a space manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, W.; Brunson, P.

    1987-01-01

    The robotic manipulator can be decomposed into distinct subsytems. One particular area of interest of mechanical subsystems is electromechanical actuators (or drives). A drive is defined as a motor with an appropriate transmission. An overview is given of existing, as well as state-of-the-art drive systems. The scope is limited to space applications. A design philosophy and adequate requirements are the initial steps in designing a space-qualified actuator. The focus is on the d-c motor in conjunction with several types of transmissions (harmonic, tendon, traction, and gear systems). The various transmissions will be evaluated and key performance parameters will be addressed in detail. Included in the assessment is a shuttle RMS joint and a MSFC drive of the Prototype Manipulator Arm. Compound joints are also investigated. Space imposes a set of requirements for designing a high-performance drive assembly. Its inaccessibility and cryogenic conditions warrant special considerations. Some guidelines concerning these conditions are present. The goal is to gain a better understanding in designing a space actuator.

  4. Optical proximity sensors for manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. R.

    1973-01-01

    A breadboard optical proximity sensor intended for application to remotely operated manipulators has been constructed and evaluated in the laboratory. The sensing head was 20 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm in size, and could be made considerably smaller. Several such devices could be conveniently mounted on a manipulator hand, for example, to align the hand with an object. Type 1 and Type 2 optical configurations are discussed, Type 1 having a sharply defined sensitive volume, Type 2 an extended one. The sensitive volume can be placed at any distance between 1 cm and approximately 1 m by choice of a replaceable prism. The Type 1 lateral resolution was 0.5 mm on one axis and 5 mm perpendicular to it for a unit focused at 7.5 cm. The corresponding resolution in the axial direction was 2.4 cm, but improvement to 0.5 cm is possible. The effect of surface reflectivity is discussed and possible modes of application are suggested.

  5. Mobile manipulator configuration optimization using evolutionary programming

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, J.R.; Andersen, B.L.; Page, W.C.; Pin, F.G.

    1992-11-01

    Multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators are becoming commonplace on mobile platforms. Full autonomy of mobile manipulator robotic systems will depend on the ability to resolve the inherent kinematic redundancy in task commutation. This work investigates the application of an evolutionary search strategy for determining near-optimal mobile manipulator configurations. Joint torques, obstacle avoidance and manipulability are incorporated in a multi-criteria optimization formulation. A variety of aspects of the evolutionary programming paradigm are addressed via empirical studies on a two degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator. These studies investigate full configuration vector versus partial configuration vector mutation as well as mutation strategies which incorporate cost and iteration number. The results of this study are then applied to a planar three DOF manipulator mounted on a single DOF mobile base. Experiments indicate that the configuration optimization problem is amenable to a variety of mutation strategies.

  6. Seismic qualification of existing safety class manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    There are two bridge type electromechanical manipulators within a nuclear fuel handling facility which were constructed over twenty-five years ago. At that time, there were only minimal seismic considerations. These manipulators together with the facility are being reactivated. Detailed analyses have shown that the manipulators will satisfy the requirements of ANSI/AISC N690-1984 when they are subjected to loadings including the site specific design basis earthquake. 4 refs.

  7. Seismic qualification of existing safety class manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1992-05-01

    There are two bridge type electromechanical manipulators within a nuclear fuel handling facility which were constructed over twenty-five years ago. At that time, there were only minimal seismic considerations. These manipulators together with the facility are being reactivated. Detailed analyses have shown that the manipulators will satisfy the requirements of ANSI/AISC N690-1984 when they are subjected to loadings including the site specific design basis earthquake. 4 refs.

  8. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.

  9. Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari

    2003-01-01

    A figure depicts a prototype of a robotic-manipulator gripping device that includes two passive compliant fingers, suitable for picking up and manipulating objects that have irregular shapes and/or that are, themselves, compliant. The main advantage offered by this device over other robotic-manipulator gripping devices is simplicity: Because of the compliance of the fingers, force-feedback control of the fingers is not necessary for gripping objects of a variety of sizes, shapes, textures, and degrees of compliance. Examples of objects that can be manipulated include small stones, articles of clothing, and parts of plants.

  10. Culture and Manipulation of Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lois G.; Goldstein, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The direct manipulation of embryonic cells is an important tool for addressing key questions in cell and developmental biology. C. elegans is relatively unique among genetic model systems in being amenable to manipulation of embryonic cells. Embryonic cell manipulation has allowed the identification of cell interactions by direct means, and it has been an important technique for dissecting mechanisms by which cell fates are specified, cell divisions are oriented, and morphogenesis is accomplished. Here, we present detailed methods for isolating, manipulating and culturing embryonic cells of C. elegans. PMID:22226523

  11. Subacute Pain as a Predictor of Long-Term Pain Following Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Veal, Felicity C.; Bereznicki, Luke R.E.; Thompson, Angus J.; Peterson, Gregory M.; Orlikowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to document the level of pain and functionality in the 12 months following orthopedic surgery and identify if high pain levels following discharge were associated with pain persisting at 12 months. An observational prospective cohort study was undertaken, following 87 patients (mean age 62.4 years [18–92]; 47.1% male) who required orthopedic surgery at the Royal Hobart Hospital, Australia. Following an initial survey, patients were telephoned at 10 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after discharge. Postdischarge pain levels were high with 97.4% of patients suffering pain at 10 days, 81.2% at 6 weeks and 79.5% at 3 months. Pain affected the ability to undertake activities of daily living (ADLs) for 32.7% and 20.0% of patients at 10 days and 6 weeks, respectively. Twelve months after discharge, 65.5% of patients reported pain persisting at the surgical site, with 29.9% of all patients suffering moderate–severe incidental pain; and nearly one quarter of patients reported pain affected their sleep or ADLs. Average pain levels rated as moderate–severe at 10 days (P?=?0.01) and 6 weeks (P?=?0.02) and pain of neuropathic origin at 3 months (30.2% vs 10.3% P?=?0.03) and 12 months (30.4% vs 4.9% P?=?0.01) were associated with persistent pain at 12 months. Pain in the period following discharge from hospital is significant and undermanaged. Previous studies has shown that that acute pain, particularly in the first 48?hours following surgery is a predictor for long-term pain after surgery. This study adds to the current literature by showing that pain in the subacute period, following discharge from hospital is also associated with the pain persisting at 12 months. These findings have important implications for improving quality of life as well as potentially preventing persistent pain with increased follow-up and more intensive management of post-discharge pain. PMID:26356717

  12. Prevention and management of postoperative delirium among older patients on an orthopedic surgical unit: a best practice implementation project.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Pamela K

    2012-01-01

    Delirium is an acute state of confusion that is often seen in older patients after major orthopedic surgical procedures. It is associated with increased costs of care, morbidity, delayed functional recovery, and prolonged hospital stay. Identification of predictive risk factors, early diagnosis and treatment, and implementation of environmental controls can minimize the impact of postoperative delirium. This project measured pre- and post intervention compliance with best practice in the prevention and management of postoperative delirium. PMID:22166973

  13. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.

    1996-02-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator`s slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator`s stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator`s wrist.

  14. Mathematical Modeling For Control Of A Flexible Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Anren

    1996-01-01

    Improved method of mathematical modeling of dynamics of flexible robotic manipulators developed for use in controlling motions of manipulators. Involves accounting for effect, upon modes of vibration of manipulator, of changes in configuration of manipulator and manipulated payload(s). Flexible manipulator has one or more long, slender articulated link(s), like those used in outer space, method also applicable to terrestrial industrial robotic manipulators with relatively short, stiff links, or to such terrestrial machines as construction cranes.

  15. Use of commercial manipulator to handle a nuclear weapon component

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.P.

    1994-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a manipulator workcell to load and unload nuclear weapon pit assemblies from a cart. To develop this workcell, PNL procured a commercially available manipulator, equipped it with force-sensing and vision equipment, and developed manipulator control software. Manipulator workcell development demonstrated that commercially available manipulator systems can successfully perform this task if the appropriate manipulator is selected and the manipulator workcell tooling and software are carefully designed.

  16. Controlling multiple manipulators using RIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yulun; Jordan, Steve; Mangaser, Amante; Butner, Steve

    1989-01-01

    A prototype of the RIPS architecture (Robotic Instruction Processing System) was developed. A two arm robot control experiment is underway to characterize the architecture as well as research multi-arm control. This experiment uses two manipulators to cooperatively position an object. The location of the object is specified by the host computer's mouse. Consequently, real time kinematics and dynamics are necessary. The RIPS architecture is specialized so that it can satisfy these real time constraints. The two arm experimental set-up is discussed. A major part of this work is the continued development of a good programming environment for RIPS. The C++ language is employed and favorable results exist in the targeting of this language to the RIPS hardware.

  17. Genetic Manipulation of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Anna C; Thompson, Mitchell G; Gebhardt, Michael; Corey, Brendan W; Yildirim, Suleyman; Shuman, Howard A; Zurawski, Daniel V

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen of clinical importance. A lack of genetic tools has hindered the research of this organism in the past; however, recently, various methods have been designed, modified, and optimized to facilitate the genetic manipulation of A. baumannii. This unit describes some of the recent genetic advances and new recombinant tools developed for this pathogen, including standard transformation and conjugation techniques specifically developed for the bacteria. As the need to understand the basic biology of A. baumannii increases with the prospect of developing new therapeutics, the use of the basic genetic methods herein can provide the critical first step to identify genes required for infection. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25367274

  18. The value of suction drainage fluid culture during aseptic and septic orthopedic surgery: a prospective study of 901 patients.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Pron, B; Vuagnat, A; Gleizes, V; Signoret, F; Denormandie, P; Si-Ali, A; Perrone, C; Feron, J M; Gaillard, J L

    2002-01-01

    There are no guidelines on the value of suction drainage fluid culture (SDC), and it is difficult to determine whether the organisms cultured from suction drainage fluid samples are pathogenic or simply contaminants. We performed 2989 cultures of suction drainage fluid samples obtained, during a 1-year period, from 901 patients who underwent aseptic or septic orthopedic surgery (946 operations). The culture results were analyzed to evaluate their ability to detect postoperative infection after aseptic operations or to detect either a persistent or new episode of sepsis in patients known to have infection. For aseptic operations, the sensitivity of SDC was 25%, the specificity was 99%, the positive predictive value was 25%, and the negative predictive value was 99%. For septic operations, the sensitivity of SDC was 81%, the specificity was 96%, the positive predictive value was 87%, and the negative predictive value was 94%. We conclude that, for aseptic orthopedic surgery, SDC is not useful in detecting postoperative infection. However, for septic orthopedic surgery, it is of clinical importance. PMID:11731944

  19. Optimal Culture Incubation Time in Orthopedic Device-Associated Infections: a Retrospective Analysis of Prolonged 14-Day Incubation

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Peter; Fracheboud, Dominique; Gautier, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of orthopedic device-associated infections can be challenging. Culture of tissue biopsy specimens is often considered the gold standard; however, there is currently no consensus on the ideal incubation time for specimens. The aim of our study was to assess the yield of a 14-day incubation protocol for tissue biopsy specimens from revision surgery (joint replacements and internal fixation devices) in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively in order to identify cases of infection according to predefined diagnostic criteria. From August 2009 to March 2012, 499 tissue biopsy specimens were sampled from 117 cases. In 70 cases (59.8%), at least one sample showed microbiological growth. Among them, 58 cases (82.9%) were considered infections and 12 cases (17.1%) were classified as contaminations. The median time to positivity in the cases of infection was 1 day (range, 1 to 10 days), compared to 6 days (range, 1 to 11 days) in the cases of contamination (P < 0.001). Fifty-six (96.6%) of the infection cases were diagnosed within 7 days of incubation. In conclusion, the results of our study show that the incubation of tissue biopsy specimens beyond 7 days is not productive in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Prolonged 14-day incubation might be of interest in particular situations, however, in which the prevalence of slow-growing microorganisms and anaerobes is higher. PMID:24153117

  20. Nanoparticulate zinc oxide as a coating material for orthopedic and dental implants.

    PubMed

    Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Sharili, Amir S; Huang, Jie; Rawlinson, Simon C F; Allaker, Robert P

    2015-03-01

    Orthopedic and dental implants are prone to infection. In this study, we describe a novel system using zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) as a coating material to inhibit bacterial adhesion and promote osteoblast growth. Electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) was employed to deposit mixtures of nZnO and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) onto the surface of glass substrates. Nano-coated substrates were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus suspended in buffered saline or bovine serum to determine antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that 100% nZnO and 75% nZnO/25% nHA composite-coated substrates have significant antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, osteoblast function was explored by exposing cells to nZnO. UMR-106 cells exposed to nZnO supernatants showed minimal toxicity. Similarly, MG-63 cells cultured on nZnO substrates did not show release of TNF-? and IL-6 cytokines. These results were reinforced by both proliferation and differentiation studies which revealed that a substrate coated with exclusively nZnO is more efficient than composite surface coatings. Finally, electron and light microscopy, together with immunofluorescence staining, revealed that all cell types tested, including human mesenchymal cell (hMSC), were able to maintain normal cell morphology when adhered onto the surface of the nano-coated substrates. Collectively, these findings indicate that nZnO can, on its own, provide an optimal coating for future bone implants that are both antimicrobial and biocompatible. PMID:24862288

  1. An overview of recent advances in designing orthopedic and craniofacial implants.

    PubMed

    Mantripragada, Venkata P; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C

    2013-11-01

    Great deal of research is still going on in the field of orthopedic and craniofacial implant development to resolve various issues being faced by the industry today. Despite several disadvantages of the metallic implants, they continue to be used, primarily because of their superior mechanical properties. In order to minimize the harmful effects of the metallic implants and its by-products, several modifications are being made to these materials, for instance nickel-free stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys are being introduced to eliminate the toxic effects of nickel being released from the alloys, introduce metallic implants with lower modulus, reduce the cost of these alloys by replacing rare elements with less expensive elements etc. New alloys like tantalum, niobium, zirconium, and magnesium are receiving attention given their satisfying mechanical and biological properties. Non-oxide ceramics like silicon nitride and silicon carbide are being currently developed as a promising implant material possessing a combination of properties such as good wear and corrosion resistance, increased ductility, good fracture and creep resistance, and relatively high hardness in comparison to alumina. Polymer/magnesium composites are being developed to improve mechanical properties as well as retain polymer's property of degradation. Recent advances in orthobiologics are proving interesting as well. This paper thus deals with the latest improvements being made to the existing implant materials and includes new materials being introduced in the field of biomaterials. PMID:23766134

  2. Isocyanate Exposure Assessment Combining Industrial Hygiene Methods with Biomonitoring for End Users of Orthopedic Casting Products

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Ronald L.; Logan, Perry W.; Kore, Anita M.; Strom, Constance M.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Kingston, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat. PMID:23680587

  3. Development of porous Ti6Al4V/chitosan sponge composite scaffold for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite scaffold consisting of porous Ti6Al4V part filled with chitosan sponge was fabricated using a combination of electron beam melting and freeze-drying. The mechanical properties of porous Ti6Al4V part were examined via compressive test. The ultimate compressive strength was 85.35±8.68MPa and the compressive modulus was 2.26±0.42GPa. The microstructure of composite scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The chitosan sponge filled in Ti6Al4V part exhibited highly porous and well-interconnected micro-pore architecture. The osteoblastic cells were seeded on scaffolds to test their seeding efficiency and biocompatibility. Significantly higher cell seeding efficiency was found on composite scaffold. The biological response of osteoblasts on composite scaffolds was superior in terms of improved cell attachment, higher proliferation, and well-spread morphology in relation to porous Ti6Al4V part. These results suggest that the Ti6Al4V/chitosan composite scaffold is potentially useful as a biomedical scaffold for orthopedic applications. PMID:26478418

  4. Review of the regulations for the use of stainless steels for orthopedic implants in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daga, Bernardo; Rivera, Graciela; Boeri, Roberto

    2007-11-01

    Motivated by the relatively high rate of failure of orthopedic implants in Argentina, the authors review the current normative regulating the use of stainless steels in the fabrication of these metallic parts in the country, and compare it with the regulations currently in use in other countries. The analysis shows that several standards in effect in the country do not comply with broadly recognized international standards. This situation is aggravated by a recent revision of the normative that failed to improve the quality standards to reach levels similar to those applied in developed countries or even in MERCOSUR associates. The national organization in charge of implant certification in Argentina, complying with the law, accepts the applicability of IRAM standards to certify stainless steels implants. In the opinion of the authors, the current practice used to certify implants does not guarantee the structural stability and biocompatibility of the devices, increasing the risk of failure in service, and escalating the cost of the public health care system.

  5. Pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli clinical strains from orthopedic implant infections towards human osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Crémet, Lise; Broquet, Alexis; Brulin, Bénédicte; Jacqueline, Cédric; Dauvergne, Sandie; Brion, Régis; Asehnoune, Karim; Corvec, Stéphane; Heymann, Dominique; Caroff, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the first causes of Gram-negative orthopedic implant infections (OII), but little is known about the pathogenicity of this species in such infections that are increasing due to the ageing of the population. We report how this pathogen interacts with human osteoblastic MG-63 cells in vitro, by comparing 20 OII E. coli strains to two Staphylococcus aureus and two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. LDH release assay revealed that 6/20 (30%) OII E. coli induced MG-63 cell lysis whereas none of the four control strains was cytotoxic after 4?h of coculture. This high cytotoxicity was associated with hemolytic properties and linked to hlyA gene expression. We further showed by gentamicin protection assay and confocal microscopy that the non-cytotoxic E. coli were not able to invade MG-63 cells unlike S. aureus strains (internalization rate <0.01% for the non-cytotoxic E. coli versus 8.88 ± 2.31% and 4.60 ± 0.42% for both S. aureus). The non-cytotoxic E. coli also demonstrated low adherence rates (<7%), the most adherent E. coli eliciting higher IL-6 and TNF-? mRNA expression in the osteoblastic cells. Either highly cytotoxic or slightly invasive OII E. coli do not show the same infection strategies as S. aureus towards osteoblasts. PMID:26333570

  6. Biomaterial Co-Cr-Mo Alloys Nano Coating Calcium Phosphate Orthopedic Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, N.; Inwati, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Man

    2014-08-01

    The modem study a thermal martensitic transformation of biomedical Co-Cr-Mo alloys and ultimately offers large elongation to failure while maintaining high strength. In the future study, structural evolution and dislocation slip as an elementary process in the martensitic transformation in Co-Cr-Mo alloys were investigated to reveal the origin of their enhanced phase stability due to nitrogen addition and coating of calcium phosphate specimens with and without nitrogen addition were prepared. The N-doped alloys had a single-phase matrix, whereas the N-free alloys had a duplex microstructure. Irrespective of the nitrogen content, dislocations frequently dissociated into Shockley partial dislocations with stacking faults. The Nano range coating of calcium phosphate function as obstacles to the glide of partial dislocations and consequently significantly affect the kinetics of the martensitic transformation. As a result, the formation of marten site plays a crucial role in plastic deformation and wear behavior, the developed nanostructures modification associated with nitrogen addition must be a promising strategy for highly durable orthopedic implants.

  7. Collagen Self-Assembly on Orthopedic Magnesium Biomaterials Surface and Subsequent Bone Cell Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) biomaterials are a new generation of biodegradable materials and have promising potential for orthopedic applications. After implantation in bone tissues, these materials will directly interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules and bone cells. Type I collagen, the major component of bone ECM, forms the architecture scaffold that provides physical support for bone cell attachment. However, it is still unknown how Mg substrate affects collagen assembly on top of it as well as subsequent cell attachment and growth. Here, we studied the effects of collagen monomer concentration, pH, assembly time, and surface roughness of two Mg materials (pure Mg and AZ31) on collagen fibril formation. Results showed that formation of fibrils would not initiate until the monomer concentration reached a certain level depending on the type of Mg material. The thickness of collagen fibril increased with the increase of assembly time. The structures of collagen fibrils formed on semi-rough surfaces of Mg materials have a high similarity to that of native bone collagen. Next, cell attachment and growth after collagen assembly were examined. Materials with rough surface showed higher collagen adsorption but compromised bone cell attachment. Interestingly, surface roughness and collagen structure did not affect cell growth on AZ31 for up to a week. Findings from this work provide some insightful information on Mg-tissue interaction at the interface and guidance for future surface modifications of Mg biomaterials. PMID:25303459

  8. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B.; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Materials and Methods Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Results Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Conclusions Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA. PMID:26389067

  9. A video guided solution for screw insertion in orthopedic plate fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaraggia, J.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Angelopoulou, E.; Hornegger, J.

    2013-03-01

    In orthopedic and trauma surgery, metallic plates are used for reduction and fixation of bone fractures. In clinical practice, the intra-operative planning for screw fixation is usually based on fluoroscopic images. Screw fixation is then performed on a free-hand basis. As such, multiple attempts may be required in order to achieve an optimal positioning of the fixing screws. To help the physician insert the screws in accordance to the planned position, we propose a method for screw insertion guidance. Our approach uses a small video camera, rigidly placed on the drill, and a set of small markers that are rigidly fixed on a variable angle drill sleeve. In order to investigate the achievable accuracy of our setup, we simulate the estimation of the drill bit position under two different marker arrangements, planar and 3D, and different noise levels. Furthermore, we motivate our choices for marker design and position given the limited space available for marker positioning, the requirement for accurate position estimation of the drill bit and the illumination changes that could affect the surgical site. We also describe our proposed marker detection and tracking pipeline. Our simulation results let us conclude that we can achieve an accuracy of 1° and 1mm in the estimation of angular orientation and tip position of the drill bit respectively, provided that we have accurate marker detection.

  10. Biofilm dispersal of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on orthopedic implant material.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, Katherine J; Malone, Cheryl L; Boles, Blaise R; Morcuende, Jose; Horswill, Alexander R

    2010-01-01

    Orthopedic implant-related bacterial infections are associated with high morbidity that may lead to limb amputation and exert significant financial burden on the healthcare system. Staphylococcus aureus is a dominant cause of these infections, and increased incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) is being reported. The ability of S. aureus to attach to the foreign body surface and develop a biofilm is an important determinant of resistance to antibiotic prophylaxis. To gain insight on CA-MRSA biofilm properties, USA300 biofilm maturation and dispersal was examined, and these biofilms were found to exhibit pronounced, quorum-sensing mediated dispersal from a glass surface. For comparison of biofilm maturation on different surface chemistries, USA300 biofilm growth was examined on glass, polycarbonate, and titanium, and minimal differences were apparent in thickness, total biomass, and substratum coverage. Importantly, USA300 biofilms grown on titanium possessed a functional dispersal mechanism, and the dispersed cells regained susceptibility to rifampicin and levofloxacin treatment. The titanium biofilms were also sensitive to proteinase K and DNaseI, suggesting the matrix is composed of proteinaceous material and extracellular DNA. These studies provide new insights on the properties of CA-MRSA biofilms on implant materials, and indicate that quorum-sensing dispersion could be an effective therapeutic strategy. PMID:19610092

  11. Feasibility of knitted carbon/PEEK composites for orthopedic bone plates.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, K; Huang, Zheng-Ming; Ramakrishna, S; Satknanantham, K; Hamada, H

    2004-08-01

    This paper focuses on fabrication and characterization of knitted carbon/PEEK fabric composites for orthopedic bone plate application. Bending performance of the knitted carbon/PEEK composite bone plates was investigated with respect to two principal knitting directions (wale- and course-directions). As a result, the wale-direction knitted composite bone plates had much scattering in bending stiffness and maximum bending moment although they exhibited the same bending behavior as that of the course-direction specimens. In comparison with our previously developed braided composite bone plates, the knitted composite bone plates had 55-59% bending stiffness, 40-63% yield bending moment, and 54-77% maximum bending moment. However, the knitted composite bone plates showed higher deformability. Based on the results of the braided composite bone plates, it is considered that the knitted composite plate with 3.2mm thickness can be suitable for forearm or humerus treatment especially when damaged bones need higher deformation to encourage bone ossification. PMID:15020164

  12. Bisphosphonate-Based Strategies for Bone Tissue Engineering and Orthopedic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Cattalini, Juan Pablo; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Lucangioli, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a group of well-established drugs that are applied in the development of metabolic bone disorder-related therapies. There is increasing interest also in the application of BPs in the context of bone tissue engineering, which is the topic of this review, in which an extensive overview of published studies on the development and applications of BPs-based strategies for bone regeneration is provided with special focus on the rationale for the use of different BPs in three-dimensional (3D) bone tissue scaffolds. The different alternatives that are investigated to address the delivery and sustained release of these therapeutic drugs in the nearby tissues are comprehensively discussed, and the most significant published approaches on bisphosphonate-conjugated drugs in multifunctional 3D scaffolds as well as the role of BPs within coatings for the improved fixation of orthopedic implants are presented and critically evaluated. Finally, the authors' views regarding the remaining challenges in the fields and directions for future research efforts are highlighted. PMID:22440082

  13. Development of nanofluorapatite polymer-based composite for bioactive orthopedic implants and prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gangfeng; Wang, Hui; Yao, Xiaocong; Bi, Dawei; Zhu, Gang; Tang, Songchao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Lili; Tong, Peijian; Xiao, Luwei

    2014-01-01

    Fluorapatite with low solubility is a promising biomaterial due to its structure, which is similar to hydroxyapatite. In this study a bioactive composite of nanofluorapatite (n-FA) and polyamide 12 (PA12) was fabricated. The results revealed that the mechanical properties (such as compressive strength and elastic modulus), hydrophilicity, and antibacterial properties of n-FA/PA12 composite were obviously improved by adding n-FA into PA12 as compared with PA12. In addition, cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on n-FA/PA12 composite was significantly higher than with PA12, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on the n-FA/PA12 composite was expressed at obviously higher levels as compared with PA12. The results suggest that n-FA/PA12 composite could support cell proliferation and differentiation, showing good cytocompatibility. Histological evaluation indicates that n-FA/PA12 composite enhances the efficiency of new bone formation with the introduction of n-FA into PA12, and the quantity of the newly formed bone for n-FA/PA12 composite is significantly higher than with PA12. In conclusion, n-FA/PA12 composite exhibits good biocompatibility and osteogenesis, which might be used for various orthopedic prostheses and dental implants. PMID:25143735

  14. Synthesis of spherical calcium phosphate particles for dental and orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Bohner, Marc; Tadier, Solène; van Garderen, Noémie; de Gasparo, Alex; Döbelin, Nicola; Baroud, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials have been used increasingly in the past 40 years as bone graft substitutes in the dental and orthopedic fields. Accordingly, numerous fabrication methods have been proposed and used. However, the controlled production of spherical calcium phosphate particles remains a challenge. Since such particles are essential for the synthesis of pastes and cements delivered into the host bone by minimally-invasive approaches, the aim of the present document is to review their synthesis and applications. For that purpose, production methods were classified according to the used reagents (solutions, slurries, pastes, powders), dispersion media (gas, liquid, solid), dispersion tools (nozzle, propeller, sieve, mold), particle diameters of the end product (from 10 nm to 10 mm), and calcium phosphate phases. Low-temperature calcium phosphates such as monetite, brushite or octacalcium phosphate, as well as high-temperature calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite, ?-tricalcium phosphate or tetracalcium phosphate, were considered. More than a dozen production methods and over hundred scientific publications were discussed. PMID:23719177

  15. A novel finite element method based biomechanical model for HIT-Robot Assisted Orthopedic Surgery System.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhiheng; Du, Zhijiang; Monan, Wang

    2006-01-01

    To build a biomechanical human model can make much sense for surgical training and surgical rehearse. Especially, it will be more meaningful to develop a biomechanical model to guide the control strategy for the medical robots in HIT-Robot Assisted Orthopedic Surgery System (HIT-RAOS). In this paper, based the successful work of others, a novel reliable finite element method based biomechanical model for HIT-RAOS was developed to simulate the force needed in reposition procedure. Geometrical model was obtained from 3D reconstruction from CT images of a just died man. Using this boundary information, the finite element model of the leg including part of femur, broken upper tibia, broken lower tibia, talus, calcaneus, Kirschner nail, muscles and other soft tissues was created in ANSYS. Furthermore, as it was too difficult to reconstruct the accurate geometry model from CT images, a new simplified muscle model was presented. The bony structures and tendons were defined as linearly elastic, while soft tissues and muscle fibers were assumed to be hyper elastic. To validate this model, the same dead man was involved to simulate the patient, and a set of data of the force needed to separate the two broken bones and the distance between them in reposition procedure was recorded. Then, another set of data was acquired from the finite element analysis. After comparison, the two sets of data matched well. The Finite Element model was proved to be acceptable. PMID:17945663

  16. A novel finite element method based biomechanical model for HIT-robot assisted orthopedic surgery system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhiheng; Du, Zhijiang; Wang, Monan

    2006-01-01

    To build a biomechanical human model can make much sense for surgical training and surgical rehearse. Especially, it will be more meaningful to develop a biomechanical model to guide the control strategy for the medical robots in HIT-Robot Assisted Orthopedic Surgery System (HIT-RAOS). In this paper, based the successful work of others, a novel reliable finite element method based biomechanical model for HIT-RAOS was developed to simulate the force needed in reposition procedure. Geometrical model was obtained from 3D reconstruction from CT images of a just died man. Using this boundary information, the finite element model of the leg including part of femur, broken upper tibia, broken lower tibia, talus, calcaneus, Kirschner nail, muscles and other soft tissues was created in ANSYS. Furthermore, as it was too difficult to reconstruct the accurate geometry model from CT images, a new simplified muscle model was presented. The bony structures and tendons were defined as linearly elastic, while soft tissues and muscle fibers were assumed to be hyper elastic. To validate this model, the same dead man was involved to simulate the patient, and a set of data of the force needed to separate the two broken bones and the distance between them in reposition procedure was recorded. Then, another set of data was acquired from the finite element analysis. After comparison, the two sets of data matched well. The Finite Element model was proved to be acceptable. PMID:17959437

  17. Effect of Intravenous Intraoperative Esmolol on Pain Management Following Lower Limb Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Farahmand, Maral; Kazemnezhad Leili, Ehsan; Shirvani, Masoumeh; Khajeh Jahromi, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background Lack of proper control of acute postoperative pain often leads to lingering or chronic pain. Several studies have emphasized the role of beta-blockers in reducing postoperative pain. Esmolol is a selective short-acting beta-blocker that produces few side effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of intravenous intraoperative esmolol on postoperative pain reduction following orthopedic leg fracture surgery. Methods In a clinical trial, 82 patients between 20-65 years of age with tibia fractures and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I & II who underwent surgery were divided into two groups. Group A received esmolol and group B received normal saline. Postoperative pain was measured at three time points: entering the recovery unit, and at 3 h and 6 h following surgery, using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Mean VAS scores at all three time points were significantly different between the two test groups (P = 0.02, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0001, respectively). The consumption of pethidine was lower in group A than in group B (P = 0.004) and the duration of its effect was significantly longer in time (P = 0.026). Conclusions Intravenous intraoperative esmolol is effective in the reduction of postoperative pain following leg fracture surgery. It reduced opioid consumption following surgery and delayed patient requests for analgesics. PMID:26175880

  18. Orthopedics nursing patients' profile of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonça; Jaques, Bruno Dórea

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. RESULTS: The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. CONCLUSION: The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453666

  19. Anatomy and physical examination of the knee menisci: a narrative review of the orthopedic literature

    PubMed Central

    Chivers, Michael D.; Howitt, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to review the physical examination tests available to a practitioner in order to arrive at a clinical diagnosis or suspicion of a meniscal lesion. Background: The menisci transmit weight bearing forces and increase stability of the knee. The menisci also facilitate nutrition, provide lubrication and shock absorption for the articular cartilage and promote knee proprioception. The combinations of torsional and axial loading appear to be the cause of most meniscal injuries. Diagnosis of acute knee injuries has long been a topic for discussion throughout the orthopedic literature. Many clinical tests and diagnostic studies have been developed to increase the clinician’s ability to accurately diagnose these types of disorders of the knee. Conclusion: The accuracy of all diagnostic tests is thought to be dependant upon the skill of the examiner, and the severity and location of the injury. The multitude of tests described to assess meniscal lesions suggests that none are consistently reliable. However, recent research has focused on a composite score to accurately predict meniscus lesions. The combination of a comprehensive history, multiple physical tests and diagnostic imaging for confirmation is typical for a clinical meniscal lesion diagnosis while the gold standard remains the arthroscopic procedure itself. PMID:20037697

  20. Doctors and the Etiquette of Mobile Device Use in Trauma and Orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Lydia; Bullock, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiquette surrounding the use of mobile devices, so-called "mobiquette," has been previously identified as a barrier to use in an educational context. Objective To investigate the influence of mobile device use on patient and staff opinions in the trauma and orthopedics department at a teaching hospital in Wales. Methods A survey of patients at the bedside and staff in their work environment was undertaken. Data included age, frequency of observed use, suspected main reason for use, and whether doctors’ use of a mobile device positively or negatively influenced participants' opinions of them as a professional and as a person. Results A total of 59 patients and 35 staff responded. The modal age range was 40 to 54 years old. Most patients (78%) never see doctors using mobile devices in the workplace, compared with 3% of staff. The main reason for use was thought to be "communicating with colleagues" (48%) followed by "Internet use/applications for work reasons" (40%). Approximately 40% of patients' opinions of doctors were positively influenced by device use, compared with 82% of staff. This difference between patient and staff opinions was statistically significant for both professional (P<.001) and personal (P=.002) opinions. Conclusions Patients are likely to have a negative opinion of doctors using mobile devices in the workplace. This can be balanced by the more positive opinions of colleagues. We advise doctors to remember "mobiquette" around patients. PMID:26116061

  1. Bending and abrasion fatigue of common suture materials used in arthroscopic and open orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Savage, Earle; Hurren, Christopher J; Slader, Simon; Khan, Lukman A K; Sutti, Alessandra; Page, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery, the reattachment of tendon to bone requires suture materials that have stable and durable properties to allow time for healing at the tendon-bone interface. The suture, not rigidly restrained within the anchor eyelet, is free to move during surgery and potentially after surgery with limb motion. During such movement, the suture is subjected to bending and frictional forces that can lead to fatigue-induced failure. We investigated some common contemporary commercial number-two-grade suture materials and evaluated their resistance to bending abrasion fatigue and the consequent failure. Sutures were oscillated over a stainless steel wire at low frequency under load. Number of abrasion cycles to failure, changes in suture morphology, and fatigue-failure method was recorded for each material. Suture structure had a significant effect on abrasion resistance, with braided sutures containing large numbers of fine high tenacity core filaments performing 15-20 times better than other braided suture structures. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) core filaments resisted bending abrasion failure better than other core materials due to the load spreading and abrasion resistance of these filaments. Sutures with UHMWPE cores also had high resistance to tensile failure. Limited correlation was observed between tensile strength and abrasion resistance. PMID:22777625

  2. Dynamic Nonprehensile Manipulation: Controllability, Planning, and Experiments

    E-print Network

    Mason, Matthew T.

    . An example of dynamic nonprehensile manipulation is shooting a basketball---the ball is sent to the basket the first author was at the Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. 1 #12; Figure 1: Shooting a basketball using rolling contact. Dynamic nonprehensile manipulation offers several potential benefits: ffl

  3. Welding torch and wire feed manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    Welding torch and wire feed manipulator increase capability for performing automatic welding operations. The manipulator rotates on its horizontal axis to avoid obstacles as they approach the torch. The initial individual attitudes of the torch and wire guide are set with respect to the general configuration of the part.

  4. MANIPULATION OF STABLE MATCHINGS USING MINIMAL BLACKLISTS

    E-print Network

    Hart, Sergiu

    -MAIL: ratio@math.huji.ac.il URL: http://www.ratio.huji.ac.il/ #12;Manipulation of Stable Matchings using Acceptance; Manipulation; Blacklist Einstein Institute of Mathematics and Center for the Study (Abdulkadiroglu et al., 2005a,b), to centralizing kidney donation assignments (Roth et al., 2005). In Gale

  5. Performance Robustness of Manipulator Collision Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, D.; Lee, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we propose that the manipulator impact control problem be approached from a stochastic optimal control perspective. The reason is that not only is such approach be able to model uncertainties in contact environment, force sensing, as well as manipulator dynamics, the controllers obtained is optimally robust in terms of performance. This result is verified by analyses and simulations.

  6. Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NCCIH fact sheet Chiropractic: An Introduction . What the Science Says About Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain Overall, studies have shown that spinal manipulation is one of several options—including exercise, massage, and physical therapy—that can provide mild- ...

  7. 75 FR 67657 - Prohibition of Market Manipulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Manipulation, 71 FR 4244, 4253 (Jan. 26, 2006) (`` inal rule prohibits the use or employment of any device... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 180 RIN Number 3038-AD27 Prohibition of Market Manipulation AGENCY: Commodity Futures... security-based swaps. The legislation was enacted to reduce risk, increase transparency, and promote...

  8. Count on It: Congruent Manipulative Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Joe; Samelson, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    Representations that create informative visual displays are powerful tools for communicating mathematical concepts. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics encourages the use of manipulatives (NCTM 2000). Manipulative materials are often used to present initial representations of basic numerical principles to young children, and it is…

  9. Interaction control of a redundant mobile manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.H.; Velinsky, S.A.; Hess, R.A.

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses the modeling and control of a spatial mobile manipulator that consists of a robotic manipulator mounted on a wheeled mobile platform. The Lagrange-d`Alembert formulation is used to obtain a concise description of the dynamics of the system, which is subject to nonholonomic constraints. The complexity of the model is increased by introducing kinematic redundancy, which is created when a multilinked manipulator is used. The kinematic redundancy is resolved by decomposing the mobile manipulator into two subsystems: the mobile platform and the manipulator. The redundancy resolution scheme employs a nonlinear interaction-control algorithm, which is developed and applied to coordinate the two subsystems` controllers. The subsystem controllers are independently designed, based on each subsystem`s dynamic characteristics. Simulation results show the promise of the developed algorithm.

  10. Robustness of centrality measures against network manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Qikai; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2015-11-01

    Node centrality is an important quantity to consider in studying complex networks as it is related to many applications ranging from the prediction of network structure to the control of dynamics on networks. In the literature, much effort has been devoted to design new centrality measurements. However, the reliability of these centrality measurements has not been fully assessed, particularly with respect to the fact that many real networks are facing different kinds of manipulations such as addition, removal or rewiring of links. In this paper, we focus on the robustness of classic centrality measures against network manipulation. Our analysis is based on both artificial and real networks. We find that the centrality measurements are generally more robust in heterogeneous networks. Biased link manipulation could more seriously distort the centrality measures than random link manipulation. Moreover, the top part of the centrality ranking is more resistant to manipulation.

  11. Manipulation and gender neutrality in stable marriage Maria Silvia Pini

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    Manipulation and gender neutrality in stable marriage procedures Maria Silvia Pini Univ. of Padova be manipulated. Whilst the Gale-Shapley algorithm is computationally easy to manipulate, we prove-hard to manipulate can be used to define stable marriage procedures which are themselves NP-hard to manipulate

  12. Damping control of a large flexible manipulator through inertial forces of a small manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Baker, C.P.; Evans, M.S.

    1993-06-01

    Damping control is applied to a detailed computer model of a long- reach flexible manipulator test bed. The test bed consists of a long slender link with a dexterous manipulator mounted at its tip. The movement of the dexterous manipulator is controlled to create inertial damping forces on the long link. Parameter identification and sequential loop-closure are used to design a controller that feeds back relative tip position and velocity of the long link to control the azimuth angle of the dexterous manipulator. The controller is designed to be robust to varying manipulator loading conditions and reliable under sensor failures.

  13. Manipulation of Semiclassical Photon States

    E-print Network

    Michael VanValkenburgh

    2008-12-14

    Gabriel F. Calvo and Antonio Picon defined a class of operators, for use in quantum communication, that allows arbitrary manipulations of the three lowest two-dimensional Hermite-Gaussian modes {|0,0>,|1,0>,|0,1>}. Our paper continues the study of those operators, and our results fall into two categories. For one, we show that the generators of the operators have infinite deficiency indices, and we explicitly describe all self-adjoint realizations. And secondly we investigate semiclassical approximations of the propagators. The basic method is to start from a semiclassical Fourier integral operator ansatz and then construct approximate solutions of the corresponding evolution equations. In doing so, we give a complete description of the Hamilton flow, which in most cases is given by elliptic functions. We find that the semiclassical approximation behaves well when acting on sufficiently localized initial conditions, for example, finite sums of semiclassical Hermite-Gaussian modes, since near the origin the Hamilton trajectories trace out the bounded components of elliptic curves.

  14. Interactive digital image manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, J.; Dezur, R.

    1975-01-01

    The system is designed for manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and processing of a wide variety of image data. LANDSAT (ERTS) and other data in digital form can be input directly into the system. Photographic prints and transparencies are first converted to digital form with an on-line high-resolution microdensitometer. The system is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer with 128 K bytes of core memory and a 47.5 megabyte disk. It includes a true color display monitor, with processing memories, graphics overlays, and a movable cursor. Image data formats are flexible so that there is no restriction to a given set of remote sensors. Conversion between data types is available to provide a basis for comparison of the various data. Multispectral data is fully supported, and there is no restriction on the number of dimensions. In this way multispectral data collected at more than one point in time may simply be treated as a data collected with twice (three times, etc.) the number of sensors. There are various libraries of functions available to the user: processing functions, display functions, system functions, and earth resources applications functions.

  15. Designing a strategy to implement optimal conservative treatments in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis in orthopedic practice: a study protocol of the BART-OP study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background National and international evidence-based guidelines for hip and knee osteoarthritis recommend to start with (a combination of) conservative treatments, followed by surgical intervention if a patient does not respond sufficiently to conservative treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that conservative treatments are not optimally used in orthopedic practice. Our study aims to quantify the use of conservative treatments in Dutch orthopedic practice and to explore the barriers and facilitators for the use of conservative treatments that should be taken into account in a strategy to improve the embedding of conservative treatments in hip and knee osteoarthritis in orthopedic practice. Methods This study consists of three phases. First, current use of conservative treatments in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis will be explored using an internet-based survey among at least 100 patients to identify the underused conservative treatments. Second, barriers and facilitators for the use of conservative treatments in orthopedic practice will be identified using semi-structured interviews among 10 orthopedic surgeons and 5 patients. The interviews will be followed by an internet-based survey among approximately 450 orthopedic surgeons and at least 100 patients in which the identified barriers and facilitators will be ranked by importance. Finally, an implementation strategy will be developed based on the results of the previous phases using intervention mapping. Discussion The developed strategy is likely to result in an optimal and standardized use of conservative treatment options in hip and knee osteoarthritis in orthopedic practice, because it is focused on identified barriers and facilitators. In addition, the results of this study can be used as an example for optimizing the use of conservative care in other patient groups. In a subsequent study, the developed implementation strategy will be assessed on its effectiveness, feasibility and costs. PMID:24548844

  16. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-05-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  17. Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok

    1992-01-01

    Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.

  18. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  19. Controlled Manipulation and in Situ Mechanical Measurement of Single Co

    E-print Network

    Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    Controlled Manipulation and in Situ Mechanical Measurement of Single Co Nanowire with a Laser bubble is used to manipulate individual Co nanowires. The short- lived ( manipulation, nanowire bending, Young's modulus, cavitation bubble A pplications of nanowires in many

  20. Manipulation in Human Environments Aaron Edsinger and Charles C. Kemp

    E-print Network

    Kemp, Charlie

    Manipulation in Human Environments Aaron Edsinger and Charles C. Kemp Computer Science to successfully perform manipulation tasks within human environments. Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation since they are complex, dynamic, uncontrolled, and difficult to perceive

  1. Manipulation of Natural Enemies in Agroecosystems: Habitat and Semiochemicals

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    5 Manipulation of Natural Enemies in Agroecosystems: Habitat and Semiochemicals for Sustainable the suitability of the crop landscape for natural enemies by manipulating the resources available recent studies exploring the potential for manipulating the behavior of natural enemies through

  2. Manipulation-Resistant Recommender Systems through Influence Limits

    E-print Network

    Fiat, Amos

    Manipulation-Resistant Recommender Systems through Influence Limits Paul Resnick School In this letter, we outline a new approach to modeling, analyzing, and combating manipulative attacks systems, manipulation-resistance, shilling, information loss Prediction markets reward or punish

  3. 17 CFR 180.2 - Prohibition on price manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibition on price manipulation. 180.2 Section... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PROHIBITION AGAINST MANIPULATION § 180.2 Prohibition on price manipulation. It shall...

  4. 17 CFR 180.2 - Prohibition on price manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibition on price manipulation. 180.2 Section...FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PROHIBITION AGAINST MANIPULATION § 180.2 Prohibition on price manipulation. It shall...

  5. 17 CFR 180.2 - Prohibition on price manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition on price manipulation. 180.2 Section... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PROHIBITION AGAINST MANIPULATION § 180.2 Prohibition on price manipulation. It shall...

  6. The Information Cost of Manipulation-Resistance in Recommender Systems

    E-print Network

    Resnick, Paul

    The Information Cost of Manipulation-Resistance in Recommender Systems Paul Resnick School- theoretic framework to exhibit a fundamental tradeoff be- tween manipulation-resistance and optimal use Intelligence-- Learning General Terms Algorithms, Reliability Keywords Recommender systems, manipulation-resistance

  7. Hypomelanosis of Ito presenting with pediatric orthopedic issues: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hypomelanosis of Ito was originally described as a purely cutaneous disease. Extracutaneous manifestations were described later, forming a neurocutaneous syndrome including skeletal, muscular, ocular and central nervous system symptoms. Hypomelanosis of Ito is characterized by a depigmentation along the lines of Blaschko on the trunk and extremities in certain patterns. The aim of this article was to report another case and give an overview of the related orthopedic symptoms that have been previously described. It was also our wish to contribute with recommendations for consideration with regard to bandages on eczematous rashes, especially on clubfeet. Case presentation A one-and-a-half-month-old boy of Caucasian background born with talipes equinovarus, or clubfoot, on his right foot presented with an eczematous rash after surgical correction and plaster bandaging. Conclusions It is the appearance of hypopigmentation, either alone or in combination with a congenital malformation, particularly central nervous system or musculoskeletal anomalies, which should form the basis of a presumptive diagnosis. This should then lead to further investigations and should always include skin biopsies and a test for chromosomal mosaicism. We report the case of a boy with a clinical picture consisting of a depigmented skin pattern, mental retardation, pes cavus, talipes equinovarus, clinodactyly, eczema, inverted cilia of the eye, strabismus, reduced hearing, ventral hernia, glomerulonephritis, missing testicles, leg length discrepancy with scoliosis, back pain and a syrinx. It is perhaps impossible to make any conclusions about extracutaneous symptoms. However, some symptoms such as retardation, cramps and seizures, delayed development and hypotonia cannot be ignored. Because of the possibility of creating an undesirable and long postoperative period with complications, it is very important to have this diagnosis in mind when deciding to do surgery or not if there are signs of dermatological problems before surgery. In this case, it could also be good clinical practice to test the patient’s reaction to plaster or other bandages. PMID:24886611

  8. Biocompatibility Issues with Modern Implants in Bone - A Review for Clinical Orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Katja M.R; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal defects may result from traumatic, infectious, congenital or neoplastic processes and are considered to be a challenge for reconstructive surgery. Although the autologous bone graft is still the “gold standard”, there is continuing demand for bone substitutes because of associated disadvantages, such as limited supply and potential donor side morbidity [1]. This is not only true for indications in orthopedic and craniomaxillofacial surgeries, but also in repairing endodontic defects and in dental implantology. Before clinical use all new bone substitute materials have to be validated for their osseoconductive and - depending on the composition of the material also –inductive ability, as well as for their long-term biocompatibility in bone. Serving this purpose various bone healing models to test osteocompatibility and inflammatory potential of a novel material on one hand and, on the other hand, non-healing osseous defects to assess the healing potential of a bone substitute material have been developed. Sometimes the use of more than one implantation site can be helpful to provide a wide range of information about a new material [2]. Important markers for biocompatibility and inflammatory responses are the cell types appearing after the implantation of foreign material. There, especially the role of foreign body giant cells (FBGC) is discussed controversial in the pertinent literature, such that it is not clear whether their presence marks an incompatibility of the biomaterial, or whether it belongs to a normal degradation behavior of modern, resorbable biomaterials. This publication is highlighting the different views currently existing about the function of FBGC that appear in response to biomaterials at the implantation sites. A short overview of the general classes of biomaterials, where FBGC may appear as cellular response, is added for clarity, but may not be complete. PMID:19506701

  9. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to S. aureus orthopedic biofilm infection

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Cortney E.; Vidlak, Debbie; Scherr, Tyler D.; Kozel, Jessica A.; Holzapfel, Melissa; Muirhead, David E.; Kielian, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature monocytes and granulocytes that are potent inhibitors of T cell activation. A role for MDSCs in bacterial infections has only recently emerged and nothing is known about MDSC function in the context of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection. Since S. aureus biofilms are capable of subverting immune-mediated clearance, we examined whether MDSCs could play a role in this process. CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSCs represented the main cellular infiltrate during S. aureus orthopedic biofilm infection, accounting for over 75% of the CD45+ population. Biofilm-associated MDSCs inhibited T cell proliferation and cytokine production, which correlated with a paucity of T cell infiltrates at the infection site. Analysis of FACS-purified MDSCs recovered from S. aureus biofilms revealed increased Arg-1, iNOS, and IL-10 expression, key mediators of MDSC suppressive activity. Targeted depletion of MDSCs and neutrophils using the mAb 1A8 (anti-Ly6G) improved bacterial clearance by enhancing the intrinsic pro-inflammatory attributes of infiltrating monocytes and macrophages. Furthermore, the ability of monocytes/macrophages to promote biofilm clearance in the absence of MDSC action was revealed with RB6-C85 (anti-Gr-1 or anti-Ly6G/Ly6C) administration, which resulted in significantly increased S. aureus burdens both locally and in the periphery, since effector Ly-6C monocytes and by extension, mature macrophages, were also depleted. Collectively, these results are the first to demonstrate that MDSCs are key contributors to the chronicity of S. aureus biofilm infection, as their immunosuppressive function prevents monocyte/macrophage proinflammatory activity, which facilitates biofilm persistence. PMID:24646737

  10. An Investigation of Siloxane Cross-linked Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin/Copolymer Composites for Potential Orthopedic Applications†

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, Jason Christopher; Knight, Kelly Jane; Zhou, Huaxing; Chiu, Chi-Kai; Ko, Ching-Chang; You, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Causes of bone deficiency are numerous, but biomimetic alloplastic grafts provide an alternative to repair tissue naturally. Previously, a hydroxyapatite-gelatin modified siloxane (HAp-Gemosil) composite was prepared by cross-linking (N, N?-bis[(3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylene diamine (enTMOS) around the HAp-Gel nanocomposite particles, to mimic the natural composition and properties of bone. However, the tensile strength remained too low for many orthopedic applications. It was hypothesized that incorporating a polymer chain into the composite could help improve long range interaction. Furthermore, designing this polymer to interact with the enTMOS siloxane cross-linked matrix would provide improved adhesion between the polymer and the ceramic composite, and improve mechanical properties. To this end, copolymers of L-Lactide (LLA), and a novel alkyne derivatized trimethylene carbonate, propargyl carbonate (PC), were synthesized. Incorporation of PC during copolymerization affects properties of copolymers such as molecular weight, Tg, and % PC incorporation. More importantly, PC monomers bear a synthetic handle, allowing copolymers to undergo post-polymerization functionalization with graft monomers to specifically tailor the properties of the final composite. For our investigation, P(LLA-co-PC) copolymers were functionalized by an azido-silane (AS) via copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) through terminal alkyne on PC monomers. The new functionalized polymer, P(LLA-co-PC)(AS) was blended with HAp-Gemosil, with the azido-silane linking the copolymer to the silsesquioxane matrix within the final composite. These HAp-Gemosil/P(LLA-co-PC)(AS) composites were subjected to mechanical and biological testing, and the results were compared with those from the HAp-Gemosil composites. This study revealed that incorporating a cross-linkable polymer served to increase the flexural strength of the composite by 50%, while maintaining the biocompatibility of HAp-Gemosil ceramics. PMID:23139457

  11. Elastomeric high-mineral content hydrogel-hydroxyapatite composites for orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Xu, Jianwen; Filion, Tera; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.; Ayers, David C.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2009-01-01

    The design of synthetic bone grafts that mimic the structure and composition of bone and possess good surgical handling characteristics remains a major challenge. We report the development of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites termed “FlexBone” that possess osteoconductive mineral content approximating that of human bone yet exhibit elastomeric properties enabling the press-fitting into a defect site. The approach involves crosslinking pHEMA hydrogel in the presence of HA using viscous ethylene glycol as a solvent. The composites exhibit excellent structural integration between the apatite mineral component and the hydroxylated hydrogel matrix. The stiffness of the composite and the ability to withstand compressive stress correlate with the microstructure and content of the mineral component. The incorporation of porous aggregates of HA nanocrystals rather than compact micrometer-sized calcined HA effectively improved the resistance of the composite to crack propagation under compression. Freeze-dried FlexBone containing 50 wt % porous HA nanocrystals could withstand hundreds-of-megapascals compressive stress and >80% compressive strain without exhibiting brittle fractures. Upon equilibration with water, FlexBone retained good structural integration and withstood repetitive moderate (megapascals) compressive stress at body temperature. When subcutaneously implanted in rats, FlexBone supported osteoblastic differentiation of the bone marrow stromal cells pre-seeded on FlexBone. Taken together, the combination of high osteoconductive mineral content, excellent organic-inorganic structural integration, elasticity, and the ability to support osteoblastic differentiation in vivo makes FlexBone a promising candidate for orthopedic applications. PMID:18546185

  12. Investigating the structure and biocompatibility of niobium and titanium oxides as coatings for orthopedic metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, D; Wren, A W; Misture, S T; Mellott, N P

    2016-01-01

    Applying sol gel based coatings to orthopedic metallic implant materials can significantly improve their properties and lifespan in vivo. For this work, niobium (Nb2O5) and titanium (TiO2) oxides were prepared via solution processing in order to determine the effect of atomic arrangement (amorphous/crystalline) on bioactivity. Thermal evaluation on the synthesized materials identified an endotherm for Nb2O5 at 75°C with 40% weight loss below 400°C, and minimal weight loss between 400 and 850°C. Regarding TiO2 an endotherm was present at 92°C with 25% weight loss below 400°C, and 4% between 400 and 850°C. Phase evolution was determined using High Temperature X-ray Diffraction (HT-XRD) where amorphous-Nb2O5 (450°C), hexagonal-Nb2O5 (525°C), orthorhombic-Nb2O5 (650°C), amorphous-TiO2 (275°C) and tetragonal TiO2 (500°C) structures were produced. Simulated body fluid (SBF) testing was conducted over 1, 7 and 30days and resulted in positive chemical and morphological changes for crystalline Nb2O5 (525°C) and TiO2 (500°C) after 30days of incubation. Rod-like CaP deposits were observed on the surfaces using Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Grazing Incidence-X-ray Diffraction (GI-XRD) shows that the deposits were X-ray amorphous. Cell viability was higher with the TiO2 (122%) samples when compared to the growing cell population while Nb2O5 samples exhibited a range of viability (64-105%), partially dependent on materials atomic structure. PMID:26478387

  13. Hospital Cost of Staphylococcal Infection after Cardiothoracic or Orthopedic Operations in France: A Retrospective Database Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Stève; Cyr, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Staphylococcal infections (SI) after cardiothoracic (CT) or orthopedic (OP) surgery are associated with extended length of stay (LOS), a considerable mortality rate, and high cost. No data on these consequences have been published in France. Therefore, a study was conducted to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and economic outcomes of SI following these operations in France based on a hospital discharge database. Methods: Patients who underwent the most common types of CT or OP operations in 2009 were identified and followed for one year. Staphylococcal infections occurring in the three following months were identified. Results: In 2009, 21,543 patients underwent one of the selected CT procedures (62% coronary artery bypass grafting; 38% cardiac valve replacement) and 175,518 patients underwent one of the selected OP procedures (64% hip arthroplasty; 36% knee arthroplasty). Among the patients, 4.4% (n=955) and 0.9% (n=1,515) developed SI after CT and OP surgery, respectively. Staphylococcal infection led to approximately 1.0 and 1.4 additional hospitalizations per patient, 22.1 and 24.1 additional hospital days, and an excess cost of €15,475 and €13,389 after an CT or OP procedure, respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate was 2.6 times and 6 times greater in infected patients than in non-infected patients for CT and OP. Hospital cost reached €505 million for these two CT procedures and €1.9 billion for the two OP procedures, of which €15 million and €20 million were related directly to patients having developed SI. Conclusions: Staphylococcal infections after common CT or OP operations were associated with greater mortality rates and hospital costs secondary to the additional procedures and greater LOS. PMID:26207403

  14. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with phrases such as “may ultimately infl uence community structure” (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1999), yet few demonstrate ecological effects. Here, we consider the conditions under which manipulative parasites might have a substantial ecological effect in nature and highlight those for which evidence exists (see also Chapter 10).

  15. W-026, acceptance test report manipulator system

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-04-15

    The purpose of the WRAP Manipulator System Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) is to verify that the 4 glovebox sets of WRAP manipulator components, including rail/carriage, slave arm, master controller and auxiliary equipment, meets the requirements of the functional segments of 14590 specification. The demonstration of performance elements of the ATP are performed as a part of the Assembly specifications. Manipulator integration is integrated in the performance testing of the gloveboxes. Each requirement of the Assembly specification will be carried out in conjunction with glovebox performance tests.

  16. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities within the inertia matrix. Then a feedback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  17. Issues in advanced automation for manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    This paper provides a brief description and analysis of the main issues in advanced autonomous control of manipulators as seen from a system point of view. The nature of manipulation is analyzed at some depth. A general multilevel structure is outlined for manipulator control organization which includes the human operator at the top level of the control structure. Different approaches to the development of advanced automation of mechanical arms are summarized. Recent work in the JPL teleoperator project is described, including control system, force/torque sensor, and control software development. Some results from control experiments are summarized.

  18. Dynamics and Manipulation of Nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liufei

    This thesis presents my work on the spin dynamics of nanomagnets and investigates the possibility of manipulating nanomagnets by various means. Most of the work has been published. Some has been submitted for publication. The structure of this thesis is as follows. In Chapter 1, I present the theory of manipulation of a nanomagnet by rotating ac fields whose frequency is time dependent. Theory has been developed that maps the problem onto Landau-Zener problem. For the linear frequency sweep the switching phase diagrams are obtained on the amplitude of the ac field and the frequency sweep rate. Switching conditions have been obtained numerically and analytically. For the nonlinear frequency sweep, the optimal time dependence of the frequency is obtained analytically with account of damping that gives the fastest controllable switching of the magnetization. In Chapter 2, interaction between a nanomagnet and a Josephson junction has been studied. The I-V curve of the Josephson junction in the proximity of a nanomagnet shows Shapiro-like steps due to the ac field generated by the precessing magnetic moment. Possibility of switching of the magnetic moment by a time-linear voltage in the Josephson junction is demonstrated. Realization of the optimal switching is suggested that employs two perpendicular Josephson junctions with time-dependent voltage signals. The result is shown to be robust against voltage noises. Quantum-mechanical coupling between the nanomagnet considered as a two-level system and a Josephson junction has been studied and quantum oscillations of the populations of the spin states have been computed. In Chapter 3, the switching dynamics of a nanomagnet embedded in a torsional oscillator that serves as a conducting wire for a spin current has been investigated. Generalized Slonczewski's equation is derived. The coupling of the nanomagnet, the torsional oscillator and the spin current generates a number of interesting phenomena. The mechanically-assisted magnetization switching is studied, in which the magnetization can be reversed by tilting the torsional oscillator. The effect of the torsional oscillator on the switching of the magnetization in the presence of spin-polarized current is computed. Combined effects of the spin current and a mechanical kick of the torsional oscillator have been studied. In Chapter 4, skyrmion dynamics and interaction of the skyrmion with an electron have been studied. Corrections to the spin texture of the skyrmion due to the crystal lattice have been computed. Due to the lattice effects the skyrmion collapses in clean ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic materials. The lifetime of the skyrmion has been computed numerically and compared with analytical theory. In doped anti-ferromagnetic materials the weak attraction between a skyrmion and an electron may generate a bound state. In Chapter 5, experimental results of the NIST group on magnetic multilayer microcantilevers have been analyzed. Theoretical framework has been suggested that explains the observed strong damping effect of the platinum layer on the mechanical oscillations of Py-Pt bilayer cantilevers. The strong spin-orbit coupling of platinum is shown to impede the motion of the domain wall in permalloy and to dramatically increase the damping of the cantilever motion.

  19. Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis after Major Lower Limb Orthopedic Surgery: Analysis of a Nationwide Claim Registry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Ro, Du Hyun; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Sung, Ki Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the nationwide incidence and risk factors for symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after major lower limb orthopedic surgeries. Materials and Methods The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database was used to retrospectively identify International Classification of Disease-10 codes for DVT and operation codes representing hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, and hip fracture surgeries. The age- and gender-adjusted annual incidence of DVT, rates of major lower limb orthopedic surgeries, and the postoperative incidence of DVT according to the surgical procedure were assessed. Results The age- and gender-adjusted annual incidence of DVT was 70.67 per 100000 persons/year. Compared to patients aged <49 years, the relative risk of DVT was five times higher in patients aged 50-69 and 10 times higher in patients aged >70 years (p<0.001). Females showed a greater relative risk for DVT than males (1.08; p<0.001). The incidence of postoperative DVT, according to the type of surgery, was significantly greater for knee replacement arthroplasty than for other forms of surgery (p<0.002). The relative risk of postoperative DVT was higher in females in knee replacement arthroplasty (1.47) and hip fracture surgery (2.25) groups, although relatively lower in those who underwent hip replacement arthroplasty (0.97). Conclusion Among major lower limb surgeries, advanced age, female gender, and undergoing a knee replacement arthroplasty were found to be risk factors for developing postoperative DVT. These findings further emphasize the need for orthopedic surgeons to consider the development of DVT after surgery in high-risk patients. PMID:25510757

  20. Hemodynamic and oxidative mechanisms of tourniquet-induced muscle injury: near-infrared spectroscopy for the orthopedics setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Reid, W. Darlene; Harris, R. Luke; Jafari, Siavash; Powers, Scott K.; O'Brien, Peter J.

    2012-08-01

    During orthopedic procedures, the tourniquets used to maintain bloodless surgical fields cause ischemia and then reperfusion (I/R), leading to oxidative muscle injury. Established methods exist neither for monitoring orthopedic I/R nor for predicting the extent of tourniquet-associated oxidative injury. To develop a predictive model for tourniquet-associated oxidative muscle injury, this study combined real-time near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring of I/R with Western blotting (WB) for oxidized proteins. We hypothesized strong correlations between NIRS-derived I/R indices and muscle protein oxidation. In 17 patients undergoing ankle fracture repair, a thigh tourniquet was inflated on the injured limb (300 mmHg). Using a continuous-wave (CW) NIRS setup, oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb), and total (tHb) hemoglobin were monitored bilaterally (tourniquet versus control) in leg muscles. Leg muscle biopsies were collected unilaterally (tourniquet side) immediately after tourniquet inflation (pre) and before deflation (post). Average ischemia duration was 43.2±14.6 min. In post-compared to pre-biopsies, muscle protein oxidation (quantified using WB) increased 172.3%±145.7% (P<0.0005). Changes in O2Hb and tHb were negatively correlated with protein oxidation (respectively: P=0.040, R2=0.25 and P=0.003, R2=0.58). Reoxygenation rate was positively correlated with protein oxidation (P=0.041, R2=0.25). These data indicate that using CW NIRS, it is possible to predict orthopedic tourniquet-associated muscle oxidative injury noninvasively.

  1. "WhatsApp"ening in orthopedic care: a concise report from a 300-bedded tertiary care teaching center.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil N; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-07-01

    Smartphones have emerged as essential tools providing assistance in patient care, monitoring, rehabilitation, communication, diagnosis, teaching, research and reference. Among innumerable communication apps, WhatsApp has been widely popular and cost effective. The aim of our study was to report the impact of introduction of a smartphone app "WhatsApp" as an intradepartmental communication tool on (1) awareness of patient-related information, (2) efficiency of the handover process and (3) duration of traditional morning handovers among orthopedic residents in a 300-bedded tertiary care teaching center. Written handovers and paging used for communication at our center led to occasional inefficiencies among residents. Widespread use, low cost, availability and double password protection (phone lock and WhatsApp lock) made WhatsApp's group conversation feature an ideal tool for intradepartmental patient-related communication. Twenty-five consecutive admissions before and after WhatsApp (BW, AW) were included in the study. Eight orthopedic residents attempted fifty randomly arranged questions based on the twenty-five patients in each study period. A null hypothesis that introduction of WhatsApp group would neither increase the awareness of patient-related information nor improve the efficiency of the handovers among residents was assumed. A significant improvement observed in scores obtained by residents in the AW group led to rejection of the null hypothesis. The residents also reported swifter and efficient handovers after the introduction of WhatsApp. Our results indicate that the introduction of a smartphone app "WhatsApp" as an intradepartmental communication tool can bring about an improvement in patient-related awareness, communication and handovers among orthopedic residents. PMID:25633127

  2. Arthropod Grasping and Manipulation A Literature Review

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    of the refereed journal articles related to arthropod grasping and manipulation. Background The phylum Arthropoda to describe this hierarchy: Taxonomic Category Corresponding Suffix Kingdom Phylum (e.g. Arthropoda) Class (e

  3. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  4. 75 FR 67657 - Prohibition of Market Manipulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...recognized that the intent to create an artificial price is the sine qua non of manipulation...specifically intended to do so; (3) that artificial prices existed; and (4) that the accused caused the artificial prices.'' \\38\\ The...

  5. Continuous Backbone "Continuum" Robot Manipulators: A Review

    E-print Network

    gripper. However, the continuum robot was able to use its compliant, actively controlled continuous1 Continuous Backbone "Continuum" Robot Manipulators: A Review Ian D. Walker Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina, 29634 USA iwalker

  6. What is Delaying the Manipulator Revolution?

    E-print Network

    Horn, Berthold K.P.

    Despite two decades of work on mechanical manipulators and their associated controls, we do not see wide-spread application of these devices to many of the tasks to which they seem so obviously suited. Somehow, a variety ...

  7. The modelling of industrial robot manipulator vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Marcham, L.J.; Rao, B.K.N.; Noroozi, S.; Penson, R.P.

    1996-11-01

    The work reported in this paper addresses the modelling of robot manipulator vibration, with the specific aim of producing a model suitable to be employed within an active compensation controller. An overview of existing work on the modelling of robot dynamics, both mathematically and empirically, is reported. A model of the dynamics of an industrial manipulator, inclusive of vibration, derived using Lagrangian mechanics is presented and further developed through the application of experimental modal analysis, by which the position dependent modal parameters of an industrial robot manipulator are determined. The model results are compared with experimental vibration data taken from the end-effector of a PUMA562C industrial manipulator using laser interferometry. Control of an end-effector located, active compensator for vibration suppression, based upon the derived model is discussed and recommendations which form the basis of further investigations, currently being undertaken, are presented.

  8. Control and Estimation for Cooperative Manipulator Tasks

    E-print Network

    Blackmore, Lars

    2006-02-28

    The objective of this project is to achieve reliable transfer of an object from one robotic manipulator to another. This capability is useful for a number of applications, for instance robotic assembly, or robots with ...

  9. [Discussion on needling manipulation of Chifeng Yingyuan].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-yin; Qu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-ming; Wu, Chang-zheng

    2014-09-01

    Regarding the needling manipulation, Chifeng Yingyuan, there are different descriptions in ancient medical literature and the current teaching materials or clinical reports, especially for the understanding recorded in Jinzhenfu Poem of Golden Needle). In the current teaching materials and clinical reports, it is described that the needle is inserted deeply at first, and then shallowly; afterward, the needle tip is pushed to the middle layer and manipulated with lifting, thrusting and rotating technique, combined with twisting and flying method. After analyzing the original description in the book and the feasibility of function and operation, the authors introduced their recognition on its manipulation and techniques in this article. This manipulation should be: the needle is inserted to the middle layer, afterward, the needle body is pulled and tilted toward each of the four directions, on this basis, then twisting and flying method is applied. PMID:25509741

  10. Tension Stiffened and Tendon Actuated Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor); Ganoe, George G. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas C. (Inventor); Mercer, Charles D. (Inventor); Corbin, Cole K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A tension stiffened and tendon actuated manipulator is provided performing robotic-like movements when acquiring a payload. The manipulator design can be adapted for use in-space, lunar or other planetary installations as it is readily configurable for acquiring and precisely manipulating a payload in both a zero-g environment and in an environment with a gravity field. The manipulator includes a plurality of link arms, a hinge connecting adjacent link arms together to allow the adjacent link arms to rotate relative to each other and a cable actuation and tensioning system provided between adjacent link arms. The cable actuation and tensioning system includes a spreader arm and a plurality of driven and non-driven elements attached to the link arms and the spreader arm. At least one cable is routed around the driven and non-driven elements for actuating the hinge.

  11. Optoelectronic tweezers for microparticle and cell manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 .mu.m or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or groups of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  12. Optoelectronic Tweezers for Microparticle and Cell Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei-Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 micromillimeters or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or group of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  13. Efficient, transparent, and comprehensive runtime code manipulation

    E-print Network

    Bruening, Derek L. (Derek Lane), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addresses the challenges of building a software system for general-purpose runtime code manipulation. Modern applications, with dynamically-loaded modules and dynamically-generated code, are assembled at runtime. ...

  14. String Manipulation in the New Language

    E-print Network

    Bobrow, Daniel G.

    1964-07-01

    String manipulation can be made convenient within the *** language by implementing two functions: 1) match [workspace; pattern] and 2) construct {format;pmatch]. In this memo I describe how I think these two functions can ...

  15. Dynamic trading and manipulation in financial markets

    E-print Network

    Huang, Kan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Chapter 1 studies how asset managers, due to reputation concerns, manipulate performance through taking latent risk dynamically. It is found that both skilled and unskilled managers load on excessive level of latent risk ...

  16. Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Eric; Robinson, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid Image-Plane/Stereo (HIPS) manipulation is a method of processing image data, and of controlling a robotic manipulator arm in response to the data, that enables the manipulator arm to place an end-effector (an instrument or tool) precisely with respect to a target (see figure). Unlike other stereoscopic machine-vision-based methods of controlling robots, this method is robust in the face of calibration errors and changes in calibration during operation. In this method, a stereoscopic pair of cameras on the robot first acquires images of the manipulator at a set of predefined poses. The image data are processed to obtain image-plane coordinates of known visible features of the end-effector. Next, there is computed an initial calibration in the form of a mapping between (1) the image-plane coordinates and (2) the nominal three-dimensional coordinates of the noted end-effector features in a reference frame fixed to the main robot body at the base of the manipulator. The nominal three-dimensional coordinates are obtained by use of the nominal forward kinematics of the manipulator arm that is, calculated by use of the currently measured manipulator joint angles and previously measured lengths of manipulator arm segments under the assumption that the arm segments are rigid, that the arm lengths are constant, and that there is no backlash. It is understood from the outset that these nominal three-dimensional coordinates are likely to contain possibly significant calibration errors, but the effects of the errors are progressively reduced, as described next. As the end-effector is moved toward the target, the calibration is updated repeatedly by use of data from newly acquired images of the end-effector and of the corresponding nominal coordinates in the manipulator reference frame. By use of the updated calibration, the coordinates of the target are computed in manipulator-reference-frame coordinates and then used to the necessary manipulator joint angles to position and orient the end-effector at the target with respect to the same kinematic model from the calibration step. As the end-effector/target distance decreases, the computed coordinates of the end-effector and target become more nearly affected by the same errors, so that the differences between their coordinates become increasingly precise. When the end-effector reaches the target, the remaining effective position error is the distance that corresponds to more than about one pixel in the stereoscopic images of the target.

  17. Manipulating Oil Droplets by Superamphiphobic Nozzle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Dong, Zhichao; Li, Ning; Li, Fengyu; Jiang, Lei; Song, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    A superamphiphobic nozzle is prepared to manipulate tiny oil droplet. This nozzle can manipulate tiny oil droplets of varied volumes with high accuracy and reduced liquid retention due to the superantiwetting property. Accordingly, various inks with low surface tension can be printed at picoliter scale, and high-resolution 3D structures are achieved, which will be of significance for the development of liquid transportation and ink-jet printing devices. PMID:26193625

  18. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  19. Efficient Kinematic Computations For 7-DOF Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark K.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Efficient algorithms for forward kinematic mappings of seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) robotic manipulator having revolute joints developed on basis of representation of redundant DOF in terms of parameter called "arm angle." Continuing effort to exploit redundancy in manipulator according to concept of basic and additional tasks. Concept also discussed in "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556) and "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801).

  20. Optical trapping, cell manipulation and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Buican, T.N.; Neagley, D.L.; Morrison, W.C.; Upham, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    A new type of analytical and preparative cytometric instrument was developed. The instrument combines image analysis and machine vision with single cell and chromosome manipulation by means of optical trapping. A proof-of-principle instrument, OCAM, has the ability to locate and analyze biological particles inside an enclosed manipulation chamber, as well as the ability to move and position particles according to preprogrammed protocols. Preliminary results and potential biological applications of such a microrobot are discussed. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Choice and Participation of Career by STEM Professionals with Sensory and Orthopedic Disabilities and the Roles of Assistive Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Heather A.

    This is a qualitative study about sources of self-efficacy and roles of assistive technologies (AT) associated with the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) choice and participation of STEM professionals and graduate students with sensory and orthopedic disabilities. People with disabilities are underrepresented in STEM, which can be traced back along the STEM pipeline to early undergraduate participation in STEM. Little research exists, however, about pathways and factors associated with successful STEM participation for people with disabilities at any point along their trajectories. Eighteen STEM professionals and graduate students with sensory and orthopedic disabilities were interviewed for this study. Sources of self-efficacy were sought from interview transcripts, as were emergent themes associated with the types, uses and roles of AT. Findings suggest that people with sensory and orthopedic disabilities weigh sources of self-efficacy differently from white males without disabilities in STEM and more like other underrepresented minorities in STEM. Social persuasions were most frequently reported and in far more detail than other sources, suggesting that this source may be most impactful in the development of self-efficacy beliefs for this group. Additionally, findings indicate that AT is critical to the successful participation of people with sensory and orthopedic disabilities in STEM at all points along their STEM pathways. Barriers center around issues of access to full engagement in mainstream STEM classrooms and out of school opportunities as well as the impact of ill-informed perceptions about the capabilities of people with disabilities held by parents, teachers and college faculty who can act as gatekeepers along STEM pathways. Gaps in disability specialists' knowledge about STEM-specific assistive technologies, especially at the college level, are also problematic. The prevalence of mainstream public school attendance reported by participants indicates that classroom teachers and disability-related educators have important roles in providing access to STEM mastery experiences as well as providing positive support and high expectations for students with disabilities. STEM and disability-based networks served to provide participants with role models, out of school STEM learning experiences and important long-term social connections in STEM communities.

  2. Unilateral Ankylosis of Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) with Contralateral Condylar Aplasia and Related Orthopedic Deformity – Syndromic or Nonsyndromic?

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Pradkhshana; Sunil, VSB; Bajpai, Manas; Chhibber, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Condylar aplasia which means “failure of development” is a rare condition and can be unilateral or bilateral. Mandibular condylar Aplasia without any association with syndrome is extremely rare. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis results from trauma, infection and inadequate surgical treatment of the condylar area. Congenital cases are very rare. We report case of congenital unilateral aplasia of left mandibular condyle with ankylosis of right condyle, with an associated orthopedic deformity in a nine-year-old male patient, which may be a part of some unreported syndrome that has not been mentioned so far in literature. As per our best knowledge, no other case including such clinical features has been reported. PMID:25738097

  3. Manipulator control for rover planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Tunstel, Edward; Nguyen, Tam; Cooper, Brian K.

    1992-01-01

    An anticipated goal of Mars surface exploration missions will be to survey and sample surface rock formations which appear scientifically interesting. In such a mission, a planetary rover would navigate close to a selected sampling site and the remote operator would use a manipulator mounted on the rover to perform a sampling operation. Techniques for accomplishing the necessary manipulation for the sampling components of such a mission have been developed and are presented. We discuss the implementation of a system for controlling a seven (7) degree of freedom Puma manipulator, equipped with a special rock gripper mounted on a planetary rover prototype, intended for the purpose of performing the sampling operation. Control is achieved by remote teleoperation. This paper discusses the real-time force control and supervisory control aspects of the rover manipulation system. Integration of the Puma manipulator with the existing distributed computer architecture is also discussed. The work described is a contribution toward achieving the coordinated manipulation and mobility necessary for a Mars sample acquisition and return scenario.

  4. Antibiotics: opportunities for genetic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, D A

    1989-08-31

    New antibiotics can still be discovered by the development of novel screening procedures. Notable successes over the last few years include the monobactams, beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid) and new glycopeptides in the antibacterial field; antiparasitic agents such as avermectins; and herbicidal antibiotics like bialaphos. In the future we can expect the engineering of genes from 'difficult' pathogens, including mycobacteria and fungi, and cancer cells, to provide increasingly useful in vitro targets for the screening of antibiotics that can kill pathogens and tumours. There will also be a greater awareness of the need to reveal the full potential for antibiotic production on the part of microorganisms by the physiological and/or genetic awakening of 'silent' genes. Nevertheless, the supply of natural antibiotics for direct use or chemical modification is not infinite and there will be increasing scope for widening the range of available antibiotics by genetic engineering. 'Hybrid' antibiotics have been shown to be generated by the transfer of genes on suitable vectors between strains producing chemically related compounds. More exciting is the possibility of generating novelty by the genetic engineering of the synthases that determine the basic structure of antibiotics belonging to such classes as the beta-lactams and polyketides. Research in this area will certainly yield knowledge of considerable scientific interest and probably also of potential applicability. In the improvement of antibiotic titre in actinomycetes, protoplast fusion between divergent selection lines has taken a place alongside random mutation and screening. In some cases the cloning of genes controlling metabolic 'bottlenecks' in fungi and actinomycetes will give an immediate benefit in the conversion of accumulated biosynthetic intermediates to the desired end product. However, the main impact of genetic engineering in titre improvement will probably come only after a further use of this technology to understand and manipulate the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis as a facet of the general challenge of understanding differential gene expression. Streptomyces offers a particularly fertile field for such research, following the isolation of DNA segments that carry groups of closely linked operons for the biosynthesis of and resistance to particular antibiotics, and of genes with pleiotropic effects on morphological differentiation and secondary metabolite formation. PMID:2573090

  5. Analyses and comparison of a novel, hybrid, multifunctional orthopedic composite and implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicicco, Michael

    In the orthopedic/medical device industry, 2, 2' -bis-(4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)- and diurethanedimethacrylate (DUDMA)-based polymeric biomaterials have become well-known substitutes for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)- and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based biomaterials, respectively. The development of these polymeric biomaterials cannot continue without direct comparison studies against currently marketed materials. The initiative for this research stems wholly from developing analytical methodologies that assist in qualifying novel biomaterials under development, by evaluating their chemical properties, performance, and safety. The goals of this research were: (i) Characterize the assay/quality of every resin component and quantify elution of extractable monomers from novel, DUDMA-based RHAKOSS(TM) implant, (ii) Determine degree of conversion (alpha) and rate of polymerization (Rp) for novel, Bis-GMA-based CORTOSS(TM) composite, (iii) Assess risk for radical-induced post-surgical cytotoxicity for CORTOSS, (iv) Determine if surface radical chemistries occur for sterilized RHAKOSS and assess its oxidative stability, and (v) Quantify antibiotic elution from antibiotic-impregnated CORTOSS and identify factors that control elution. The phenomena studied necessitated the utilization of several analytical spectroscopic techniques; fluorometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), attenuated total reflectance---Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A battery of lateral chemical techniques were employed as well; including molecular derivatization/tagging, phase partitioning, spin-trapping, and thermal annealing. Results demonstrated that RHAKOSS monomer percent compositions were prepared according to formulations and monomer elution was virtually undetectable, serving as an empirical gauge to portend degree of polymerization (DOP). A high alpha was reported for CORTOSS and essentially all bifunctional monomers had at least one functional group polymerized, stressing low monomer elution potential. Regarding cytotoxicity, CORTOSS impeded further production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH), whereas RHAKOSS did not facilitate the Fenton reaction but displayed some chelating abilities. Residual radicals in RHAKOSS were easily terminated, thus not projected to form oxidative degradants. Additionally, significant antibiotic concentrations, over extended durations, eluted from CORTOSS in linear-type fashion, advocating a sustained therapeutic effect, and phase partitioning correlated antibiotic release to hydrophilicity. The incurred data comprehensively argues in favor of the excellent biocompatibility that CORTOSS and RHAKOSS inherently possess, and was definitive in rendering them as advanced biomaterials, possessing favorable chemical properties.

  6. Determining "Grasping" Configurations for a Spatial Continuum Manipulator

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Jing

    Determining "Grasping" Configurations for a Spatial Continuum Manipulator Jinglin Li and Jing Xiao Abstract--Unlike a conventional articulated manipulator, where only the gripper manipulates objects, a continuum manip- ulator, such as a multi-section trunk/tentacle robot, is promising for deft manipulation

  7. Manipulation complexity and gender neutrality in stable marriage procedures

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    Manipulation complexity and gender neutrality in stable marriage procedures Maria Silvia Pini1 to manipulate, we prove that there exist stable marriage procedures which are NP-hard to manipulate. We also which are NP-hard to manipulate can be used to define stable marriage procedures which are themselves NP

  8. On Manipulation of Objects in ThreeFingered Grasp

    E-print Network

    Payandeh, Shahram

    On Manipulation of Objects in Three­Fingered Grasp Dominique P. Chevallier \\Lambda , Shahram, CANADA Abstract Manipulation of the grasped object is defined as the ability of the mechanical end reference frame). This class of manipulation is usually referred to as the fine manipulation whereas

  9. Automatic Verification of Contact States Taking into Account Manipulator Constraints

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Jing

    Automatic Verification of Contact States Taking into Account Manipulator Constraints Wim Meeussen if a rigid object is attached to and moved by a manipulator due to the manipulator constraints. In this paper by a manipulator with a fixed base and a fixed polyhedral part B. Given a contact state graph between an unattached

  10. Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information Vincent Conitzer

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information Vincent Conitzer Department of Computer, USA lxia@cs.duke.edu Manipulation with full/no information We first investigate the following two special cases: (1) the manipulator knows the profile of the other voters, and (2) the manipulator knows

  11. Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information Vincent Conitzer

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information Vincent Conitzer Department of Computer, USA lxia@cs.duke.edu Abstract We consider manipulation problems when the manipulator only has partial information about the votes of the non- manipulators. Such partial information is described by an information

  12. When Are Elections with Few Candidates Hard to Manipulate?

    E-print Network

    Lang, Jérôme

    When Are Elections with Few Candidates Hard to Manipulate? VINCENT CONITZER Duke University TUOMAS protocols are manipulable. One could try to avoid manipulation by using protocols where determining a beneficial manipulation is hard. Especially among computational agents, it is reasonable to measure

  13. Detecting Manipulation in Cup and Round Robin Sports Competitions

    E-print Network

    van Beek, Peter

    Detecting Manipulation in Cup and Round Robin Sports Competitions Tyrel Russell Cheriton School numerous cases where individual athletes and teams have thrown games and colluded to manipulate sports are computationally hard to manipulate and thus possibly resistant to manipulation. In contrast, in this paper we

  14. Bioactive ceramic coating on orthopedic implants for enhanced bone tissue integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniket

    Tissue integration between bone and orthopedic implant is essential for implant fixation and longevity. An immunological response leads to fibrous encapsulation of metallic implants leading to implant instability and failure. Bioactive ceramics have the ability to directly bond to bone; however, they have limited mechanical strength for load bearing applications. Coating bioactive ceramics on metallic implant offers the exciting opportunity to enhance bone formation without compromising the mechanical strength of the implant. In the present study, we have developed a novel bioactive silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC) coating on medical grade Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic implant using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and evaluated bone tissue response to the coated implant at the cellular level. The effect of SCPC composition and suspending medium pH on the zeta potential of three different SCPC formulations; SCPC25, SCPC50 and SCPC75 were analyzed. The average zeta potential of SCPC50 in pure ethanol was more negative than that of SCPC25 or SCPC75; however the difference was not statistically significant. Ti-6Al-4V discs were passivated, coated with SCPC50 (200 nm - 10 mum) and thermally treated at 600 - 800 ºC to produce a coating thickness in the range of 43.1 +/- 5.7 to 30.1 +/- 4.6 ?m. After treatment at 600, 700 and 800 ºC, the adhesion strength at the SCPC50/Ti-6Al-4V interface was 42.6 +/- 3.6, 44.7 +/- 8.7 and 47.2 +/- 4.3 MPa, respectively. XRD analyses of SCPC50 before and after EPD coating indicated no change in the crystallinity of the material. Fracture surface analyses showed that failure occurred within the ceramic layer or at the ceramic/polymer interface; however, the ceramic/metal interface was intact in all samples. The adhesion strength of SCPC50-coated substrates after immersion in PBS for 2 days (11.7 +/- 3.9 MPa) was higher than that measured on commercially available hydroxyapatite (HA) coated substrates (5.5 +/- 2.7 MPa), although the difference was not statistically significant. SEM - EDX analyses of SCPC50-coated Ti-6Al-4V pre-immersed in PBS for 7 days showed the formation of a Ca-deficient HA surface layer. Bone cells attached to the SCPC50-coated implants expressed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alkaline phosphatase activity (82.4 +/- 25.6 nmoles p-NP/mg protein/min) than that expressed by cells attached to HA-coated or uncoated implants. Protein adsorption analyses showed that SCPC50-coated substrates adsorbed significantly more (p < 0.05) serum protein (14.9 +/- 1.2 mug) than control uncoated substrates (8.9 +/- 0.7 mug). Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that the SCPC50 coating has a high affinity for serum fibronectin. Protein conformation analyses by FTIR showed that the ratio of the area under the peak for amide I/amide II bands was significantly higher (p < 0.05) on the surface of SCPC50-coated substrate (5.0 +/- 0.6) than that on the surface of the control uncoated substrates (2.2 +/- 0.3). Moreover, ICP-OES analyses indicated that SCPC50-coated substrates withdrew Ca ions from, and released P and Si ions into, the tissue culture medium, respectively. In conjunction with the favorable protein adsorption and modifications in medium composition, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells attached to SCPC50-coated substrates expressed 10-fold higher level of mRNA encoding osteocalcin and had significantly higher production of osteopontin and osteocalcin proteins than cells attached to the uncoated Ti-6Al-4V substrate. In addition, osteoblast-like cells attached to the SCPC50-coated substrates produced significantly lower levels of the inflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokines, IL-6, IL-12p40 and RANKL than those attached to uncoated Ti-6Al-4V. Surface topography analyses using AFM suggested that the SCPC50 particles deposit onto the metal surface in a manner that preferentially fills the grooves on the substrate created during substrate preparation. An increase in the surface roughness of the SCPC50-coated substrate from 217.8 +/- 54.6 nm to 284.3 +/- 37.3 nm was accompani

  15. Direct manipulation of virtual objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Long K.

    Interacting with a Virtual Environment (VE) generally requires the user to correctly perceive the relative position and orientation of virtual objects. For applications requiring interaction in personal space, the user may also need to accurately judge the position of the virtual object relative to that of a real object, for example, a virtual button and the user's real hand. This is difficult since VEs generally only provide a subset of the cues experienced in the real world. Complicating matters further, VEs presented by currently available visual displays may be inaccurate or distorted due to technological limitations. Fundamental physiological and psychological aspects of vision as they pertain to the task of object manipulation were thoroughly reviewed. Other sensory modalities -- proprioception, haptics, and audition -- and their cross-interactions with each other and with vision are briefly discussed. Visual display technologies, the primary component of any VE, were canvassed and compared. Current applications and research were gathered and categorized by different VE types and object interaction techniques. While object interaction research abounds in the literature, pockets of research gaps remain. Direct, dexterous, manual interaction with virtual objects in Mixed Reality (MR), where the real, seen hand accurately and effectively interacts with virtual objects, has not yet been fully quantified. An experimental test bed was designed to provide the highest accuracy attainable for salient visual cues in personal space. Optical alignment and user calibration were carefully performed. The test bed accommodated the full continuum of VE types and sensory modalities for comprehensive comparison studies. Experimental designs included two sets, each measuring depth perception and object interaction. The first set addressed the extreme end points of the Reality-Virtuality (R-V) continuum -- Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and Reality Environment (RE). This validated, linked, and extended several previous research findings, using one common test bed and participant pool. The results provided a proven method and solid reference points for further research. The second set of experiments leveraged the first to explore the full R-V spectrum and included additional, relevant sensory modalities. It consisted of two full-factorial experiments providing for rich data and key insights into the effect of each type of environment and each modality on accuracy and timeliness of virtual object interaction. The empirical results clearly showed that mean depth perception error in personal space was less than four millimeters whether the stimuli presented were real, virtual, or mixed. Likewise, mean error for the simple task of pushing a button was less than four millimeters whether the button was real or virtual. Mean task completion time was less than one second. Key to the high accuracy and quick task performance time observed was the correct presentation of the visual cues, including occlusion, stereoscopy, accommodation, and convergence. With performance results already near optimal level with accurate visual cues presented, adding proprioception, audio, and haptic cues did not significantly improve performance. Recommendations for future research include enhancement of the visual display and further experiments with more complex tasks and additional control variables.

  16. Differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacterial pathogens to 405-nm light highlighting potential for decontamination applications in orthopedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Praveen; Maclean, Michelle; MacGregor, Scott J.; Anderson, John G.; Grant, M. Helen

    2014-10-01

    Healthcare associated infections pose a major threat to patients admitted to hospitals and infection rates following orthopedic arthroplasty surgery are as high as 4%. A 405-nm high-intensity narrow spectrum light has been proven to reduce environmental contamination in hospital isolation rooms, and there is potential to develop this technology for application in arthroplasty surgery. Cultured rat osteoblasts were exposed to varying light intensities and it was found that exposures of up to a dose of 36 J/cm2 had no significant effect on cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay], function (alkaline phosphatase activity), and proliferation rate (BrdU cell proliferation assay). High irradiance exposures (54 J/cm2) significantly affected the cell viability indicating that the effects of 405-nm light on osteoblasts are dose dependent. Additionally, exposure of a variety of clinically related bacteria to a dose of 36 J/cm2 resulted in up to 100% kill. These results demonstrating the differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacteria to 405-nm light are an essential step toward developing the technique for decontamination in orthopedic surgery.

  17. Dynamic whole-body robotic manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Yeuhi; Stephens, Benjamin; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2013-05-01

    The creation of dynamic manipulation behaviors for high degree of freedom, mobile robots will allow them to accomplish increasingly difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating how the coordinated use of the body, legs, and integrated manipulator, on a mobile robot, can improve the strength, velocity, and workspace when handling heavy objects. We envision that such a capability would aid in a search and rescue scenario when clearing obstacles from a path or searching a rubble pile quickly. Manipulating heavy objects is especially challenging because the dynamic forces are high and a legged system must coordinate all its degrees of freedom to accomplish tasks while maintaining balance. To accomplish these types of manipulation tasks, we use trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. We apply the Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) algorithm to solve for trajectories that optimize task performance while also obeying important constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate desired feed-forward body forces and foot step locations, which enable tracking on the robot. Some hardware results for cinderblock throwing are demonstrated on the BigDog quadruped platform augmented with a human-arm-like manipulator. The results are analogous to how a human athlete maximizes distance in the discus event by performing a precise sequence of choreographed steps.

  18. Distinguishing manipulated stocks via trading network analysis

    E-print Network

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Wang, Zhao-Yang; 10.1016/j.physa.2011.04.006

    2011-01-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. For the study of manipulation, it is critical to analyze investor behavior in the stock market. In this paper, an analysis of the full transaction records of over a hundred stocks in a one-year period is conducted. For each stock, a trading network is constructed to characterize the relations among its investors. In trading networks, nodes represent investors and a directed link connects a stock seller to a buyer with the total trade size as the weight of the link, and the node strength is the sum of all edge weights of a node. For all these trading networks, we find that the node degree and node strength both have tails following a power-law distribution. Compared with non-manipulated stocks, manipulated stocks have a high lower bound of the power-law tail, a high average degree of the trading network and a low correlation between the price return and the seller-buyer ratio. These findings may help us to detect manipulated stoc...

  19. Better with Byzantine: Manipulation-Optimal Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Abraham; Sandholm, Tuomas

    A mechanism is manipulable if it is in some agents’ best interest to misrepresent their private information. The revelation principle establishes that, roughly, anything that can be accomplished by a manipulable mechanism can also be accomplished with a truthful mechanism. Yet agents often fail to play their optimal manipulations due to computational limitations or various flavors of incompetence and cognitive biases. Thus, manipulable mechanisms in particular should anticipate byzantine play. We study manipulation-optimal mechanisms: mechanisms that are undominated by truthful mechanisms when agents act fully rationally, and do better than any truthful mechanism if any agent fails to act rationally in any way. This enables the mechanism designer to do better than the revelation principle would suggest, and obviates the need to predict byzantine agents’ irrational behavior. We prove a host of possibility and impossibility results for the concept which have the impression of broadly limiting possibility. These results are largely in line with the revelation principle, although the considerations are more subtle and the impossibility not universal.

  20. Identification and analysis of robot manipulator singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Tourassis, V.D. ); Ang, M.H. Jr. )

    1992-06-01

    The existence of singular positions inside the robot workspace is an inherent problem for task planning and robot control. At manipulator configurations near singular positions, very large joint motions are required to produce relatively small end-effector displacements. In the limit, when a singularity is encountered, the required joint motions become unbounded and the manipulator loses at least one degree of freedom. Identifying the singularities in the robot workspace is not always an analytically tractable problem, except for manipulators with opportune placement of the joint axes. Typically, it is easier and more informative to evaluate the robot arm and wrist singularities, which reflect the limitation of the lower-order robot subsystems responsible for positioning and orienting, respectively, the end effector in space. The objective of this article is to define analytically the interplay between the individual arm and wrist singularities. Specifically, a general formula that defines manipulator singularities in terms of the subsystem singularities is developed. The analysis leads to a novel, efficient method for identifying the singularities of six-axis manipulator. This is then illustrated through an example.

  1. Effects of Step Rate Manipulation on Joint Mechanics during Running

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI; and 2 Department of Biomedical joints so as to evaluate a potential strategy to reduce lower extremity loading and risk for injury%). We tested our primary hypothesis that a reduction in energy absorption by the lower extremity joints

  2. Intelligent Behaviour Modelling and Control for Mobile Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkady, Ayssam; Mohammed, Mohammed; Gebriel, Eslam; Sobh, Tarek

    In the last several years, mobile manipulators have been increasingly utilized and developed from a theoretical viewpoint as well as for practical applications in space, underwater, construction and service environments. The work presented in this chapter deals with the problem of intelligent behaviour modelling and control of a mobile manipulator for the purpose of simultaneously following desired end-effector and platform trajectories. Our mobile manipulator comprised a manipulator arm mounted on a motorized mobile base wheelchair. The need for accurate modelling of the mobile manipulator is crucial in designing and controlling the motion of the robot to achieve the target precision and manipulability requirements. In this chapter, we propose a new method for measuring the manipulability index used for serial manipulators. Furthermore, we provide some simulations that are implemented on different serial manipulators, such as the Puma 560 manipulator, a six degrees of freedom (DOF) manipulator and the Mitsubishi Movemaster manipulator. We then extend the manipulability concept commonly used for serial manipulators to general mobile manipulator systems.

  3. Sensing Temperatures Via Prostheses And Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerkus, Mike

    1991-01-01

    Proposed temperature-sensing system applies heat to (or removes heat from) human user's skin according to temperature of remote object. Used in artificial limbs and in telerobotic manipulators. In prosthetic arm and hand, sensors on tips of artificial fingers send signals to electronic control network that drives small, lightweight thermoelectric heat pump worn on back of user's shoulder. Heat pump heats or cools skin according to signals from sensors. Heat pump and control network worn like article of clothing. In manual control of remote robot, sensors placed in fingers of remote manipulator. Sensors drive, via similar electronic control network, thermoelectric heat pumps in fingers of glove worn by operator, who then has benefit of information about temperatures on manipulated object.

  4. Motion Control of Rover-Mounted Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a simple online approach for motion control of rover-mounted manipulators. An integrated kinetic model of the rover-plus-manipulator system is derived which incorporates the nonholonomic rover constraint with the holonomic end-effector constraint. The redundancy introduced by the rover mobility is exploited to perform a set of user-specified additional tasks during end-effector motion. The configuration control approach is utilized to satisfy the nonholonomic rover constraint, while accomplishing the end-effector motion and the redundancy resolution goal simultaneously. This framework allows the user to assign weighting factors to the rover movement and manipulator motion, as well as to each task specification. The computational efficiency of the control scheme makes it particularly suitable for real-time implementation. The proposed method is applied to a planar two-jointed arm mounted on a rover, and computer simulation results are presented for illustration.

  5. Coordinated Control Of Mobile Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1995-01-01

    Computationally efficient scheme developed for on-line coordinated control of both manipulation and mobility of robots that include manipulator arms mounted on mobile bases. Applicable to variety of mobile robotic manipulators, including robots that move along tracks (typically, painting and welding robots), robots mounted on gantries and capable of moving in all three dimensions, wheeled robots, and compound robots (consisting of robots mounted on other robots). Theoretical basis discussed in several prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, including "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801), "Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles" (NPO-17852), "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556), "More Uses for Configuration Control of Robots" (NPO-18607/NPO-18608).

  6. Dynamic Analysis of a Two Member Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinley, W. Mark; Shen, Ji Y.

    1997-01-01

    Attenuating start-up and stopping vibrations when maneuvering large payloads attached to flexible manipulator systems is a great concern for many space missions. To address this concern, it was proposed that the use of smart materials, and their applications in smart structures, may provide an effective method of control for aerospace structures. In this paper, a modified finite element model has been developed to simulate the performance of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, and was applied to a flexible two-arm manipulator system. Connected to a control voltage, the piezoelectric actuators produce control moments based on the optimal control theory. The computer simulation modeled the end-effector vibration suppression of the NASA manipulator testbed for berthing operations of the Space Shuttle to the Space Station. The results of the simulation show that the bonded piezoelectric actuators can effectively suppress follow-up vibrations of the end-effector, stimulated by some external disturbance.

  7. Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  8. Optical trapping and manipulation of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragò, Onofrio M.; Jones, Philip H.; Gucciardi, Pietro G.; Volpe, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea C.

    2013-11-01

    Optical trapping and manipulation of micrometre-sized particles was first reported in 1970. Since then, it has been successfully implemented in two size ranges: the subnanometre scale, where light-matter mechanical coupling enables cooling of atoms, ions and molecules, and the micrometre scale, where the momentum transfer resulting from light scattering allows manipulation of microscopic objects such as cells. But it has been difficult to apply these techniques to the intermediate -- nanoscale -- range that includes structures such as quantum dots, nanowires, nanotubes, graphene and two-dimensional crystals, all of crucial importance for nanomaterials-based applications. Recently, however, several new approaches have been developed and demonstrated for trapping plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanostructures. Here we review the state-of-the-art in optical trapping at the nanoscale, with an emphasis on some of the most promising advances, such as controlled manipulation and assembly of individual and multiple nanostructures, force measurement with femtonewton resolution, and biosensors.

  9. Cooperative control of multiple space manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahon, M.; Angeles, J.

    The control of multi-armed robotic systems is inherently more complex than that of single-arm systems. Whereas a single manipulator can be controlled purely through positions or velocities, multiple manipulators handling a common payload must also be controlled in terms of forces. In this paper, the problem of finding force setpoints for the controller is formulated as a constrained optimization problem where the constraints are provided by the dynamics equations and the actuator capabilities. A number of potential objective functions which may be minimized are reviewed including the internal force, a norm of the vector of actuator torques and power losses in the system. These are then compared for a task in which the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM) moves a payload in the absence of gravity. It is concluded that the actuator torque criterion appears to offer the worst compromise in performance, while the minimum internal force and minimum power loss criteria each have their advantages.

  10. Force reflecting hand controller for manipulator teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryfogle, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    A force reflecting hand controller based upon a six degree of freedom fully parallel mechanism, often termed a Stewart Platform, has been designed, constructed, and tested as an integrated system with a slave robot manipulator test bed. A force reflecting hand controller comprises a kinesthetic device capable of transmitting position and orientation commands to a slave robot manipulator while simultaneously representing the environmental interaction forces of the slave manipulator back to the operator through actuators driving the hand controller mechanism. The Stewart Platform was chosen as a novel approach to improve force reflecting teleoperation because of its inherently high ratio of load generation capability to system mass content and the correspondingly high dynamic bandwidth. An additional novelty of the program was to implement closed loop force and torque control about the hand controller mechanism by equipping the handgrip with a six degree of freedom force and torque measuring cell. The mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems are discussed and system tests are presented.

  11. Clinical evaluation of a commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction tool for CT simulations in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hua; Noel, Camille; Chen, Haijian; Harold Li, H.; Low, Daniel; Moore, Kevin; Klahr, Paul; Michalski, Jeff; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Severe artifacts in kilovoltage-CT simulation images caused by large metallic implants can significantly degrade the conspicuity and apparent CT Hounsfield number of targets and anatomic structures, jeopardize the confidence of anatomical segmentation, and introduce inaccuracies into the radiation therapy treatment planning process. This study evaluated the performance of the first commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction function (O-MAR) for radiation therapy, and investigated its clinical applications in treatment planning. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for the evaluation. The CIRS electron density phantom with known physical (and electron) density plugs and removable titanium implants was scanned on a Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16-slice CT simulator. The CT Hounsfield numbers of density plugs on both uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images were compared. Treatment planning accuracy was evaluated by comparing simulated dose distributions computed using the true density images, uncorrected images, and O-MAR corrected images. Ten CT image sets of patients with large hip implants were processed with the O-MAR function and evaluated by two radiation oncologists using a five-point score for overall image quality, anatomical conspicuity, and CT Hounsfield number accuracy. By utilizing the same structure contours delineated from the O-MAR corrected images, clinical IMRT treatment plans for five patients were computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images, respectively, and compared. Results: Results of the phantom study indicated that CT Hounsfield number accuracy and noise were improved on the O-MAR corrected images, especially for images with bilateral metal implants. The {gamma} pass rates of the simulated dose distributions computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images referenced to those of the true densities were higher than 99.9% (even when using 1% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criterion), suggesting that dose distributions were clinically identical. In all patient cases, radiation oncologists rated O-MAR corrected images as higher quality. Formerly obscured critical structures were able to be visualized. The overall image quality and the conspicuity in critical organs were significantly improved compared with the uncorrected images: overall quality score (1.35 vs 3.25, P= 0.0022); bladder (2.15 vs 3.7, P= 0.0023); prostate and seminal vesicles/vagina (1.3 vs 3.275, P= 0.0020); rectum (2.8 vs 3.9, P= 0.0021). The noise levels of the selected ROIs were reduced from 93.7 to 38.2 HU. On most cases (8/10), the average CT Hounsfield numbers of the prostate/vagina on the O-MAR corrected images were closer to the referenced value (41.2 HU, an average measured from patients without metal implants) than those on the uncorrected images. High {gamma} pass rates of the five IMRT dose distribution pairs indicated that the dose distributions were not significantly affected by the CT image improvements. Conclusions: Overall, this study indicated that the O-MAR function can remarkably reduce metal artifacts and improve both CT Hounsfield number accuracy and target and critical structure visualization. Although there was no significant impact of the O-MAR algorithm on the calculated dose distributions, we suggest that O-MAR corrected images are more suitable for the entire treatment planning process by offering better anatomical structure visualization, improving radiation oncologists' confidence in target delineation, and by avoiding subjective density overrides of artifact regions on uncorrected images.

  12. Hybrid position/force control of manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raibert, M. H.; Craig, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A new conceptually simple approach to controlling compliant motions of a robot manipulator is presented. The 'hybrid' technique described combines force and torque information with positional data to satisfy simultaneous position and force trajectory constraints specified in a convenient task related coordinate system. Analysis, simulation, and experiments are used to evaluate the controller's ability to execute trajectories using feedback from a force sensing wrist and from position sensors found in the manipulator joints. The results show that the method achieves stable, accurate control of force and position trajectories for a variety of test conditions.

  13. Adaptive Impedance Control Of Redundant Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Colbaugh, Richard D.; Glass, Kristin L.

    1994-01-01

    Improved method of controlling mechanical impedance of end effector of redundant robotic manipulator based on adaptive-control theory. Consists of two subsystems: adaptive impedance controller generating force-control inputs in Cartesian space of end effector to provide desired end-effector-impedance characteristics, and subsystem implementing algorithm that maps force-control inputs into torques applied to joints of manipulator. Accurate control of end effector and effective utilization of redundancy achieved simultaneously by use of method. Potential use to improve performance of such typical impedance-control tasks as deburring edges and accommodating transitions between unconstrained and constrained motions of end effectors.

  14. TV requirements for manipulation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, L. A.; Crooks, W. H.; Coan, P. P.

    1977-01-01

    Four tasks (docking, coupling, manipulation, and transportation), stressing work volume and element relationships, are outlined to test a video system for remote manipulation in space. A 4 degree of freedom motion frame was used to evaluate operating parameters, which grouped the visual dimensions into major areas of influence, e.g., depth precision, object differentiation, reference, dynamics, and resolution. Four video systems were included in the simulation testing: a black and white and a color monoscopic system, a stereoscopic system, and a black and white two-view system. The two-view system was found best suited for the operations described.

  15. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOEpatents

    Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator is disclosed which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern. 8 figs.

  16. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOEpatents

    Weinstein, Berthold W. [Livermore, CA; Willenborg, David L. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern.

  17. Control automation in undersea manipulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedy, A.; Weltman, G.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for the successful use of automated manipulation in an undersea environment are discussed, and initial specifications for systems which share control between a human operator and an autonomous control element are established. Areas of concern include: (1) objectives of automation; (2) characteristics of the underwater task; (3) hierarchy of control algorithms; (4) man/machine interface; (5) sensory feedback; and (6) general system organization. Special emphasis is placed on the solutions to the problem of controlling an undersea manipulator which is capable of performing certain automatic functions and implementing these solutions using current technology. Current capabilities for control automation are summarized.

  18. Remote manipulator with force feed-back

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Salisbury, J. K., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Controller for remote manipulators gives user "feel" for forces required to lift, slide, turn, and otherwise handle objects. Because operator experiences sensations similar to those he would perceive if he handled objects directly, he needs much less skill and training for manipulator than for one with force feedback. It was developed to handle hazardous materials, such as radioactive substances, explosives, or corrosive chemicals. Other possible uses include tracking moving objects, vehicle control, and human interaction with computers (for example, via three dimensional display of computer model).

  19. Atomic Manipulation on an Insulator Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirth, Sabine; Ostendorf, Frank; Reichling, Michael

    The manipulation of atomic and molecular species on metal surfaces with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operated at low temperature is a well established method for bottom-up nanofabrication [G. Meyer et al., Single Mol. 1, 79 (2000); N. Lorente, R. Rurali, H. Tang, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, S1049 (2005)], but is limited in its understanding and applications by restrictions inherent to the STM technique. These limitations can be overcome by using a dynamic scanning force microscope (SFM) for atomic manipulation that offers three major advantages compared to STM. First, the force microscope allows a quantification of the forces applied during the manipulation process (see Chap. 9), second, it facilitates manipulation at room temperature (see Chaps. 8 and 11) and, third, the technique allows manipulation on electrically insulating surfaces. However, examples for force controlled manipulation of atomic size species on an insulator surface are still scarce regarding experimental evidence [S. Hirth, F. Ostendorf, M. Reichling, Nanotechnology 17, S148 (2006); R. Nishi et al., Nanotechnology 17, S142 (2006)] as well as theoretical explanation [T. Trevethan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028101 (2007); T. Trevethan et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 085414 (2007)]. Here we demonstrate the force controlled manipulation of water related defects on a CaF2 (111) surface by a raster scanning motion of the tip over a specific surface region. Manipulation is facilitated by repulsive forces exerted by approaching the tip very closely to the detects. We focus mainly on the presentation of manipulation results and discuss the circumstances that allow a control of the manipulation process. The CaF2 (111) surface is specifically well suited for such studies as this surface has been very well characterized by NC-AFM in previous studies [M. Reichling, C. Barth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 768 (1999); C. Barth, M. Reichling, Surf. Sci. 470, L99 (2000); F.J. Giessibl, M. Reichling, Nanotechnology 16, S118 (2005); R. Hoffmann et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17863 (2005)] and contrast formation is understood on a quantitative level [A.S. Foster et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2373 (2001); C. Barth et al., J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 2061 (2001); A.S. Foster et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 235417 (2002)]. Furthermore, the geometric and electronic structures of this surface is well understood from a variety of theoretical simulations [A.V. Puchina et al., Solid State Commun. 106, 285 (1998); V.E. Puchin et al., J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 2081 (2001); Y. Ma, M. Rohlfing, Phys. Rev. B 75, 205114 (2007); Y. Ma, M. Rohlfing, Phys. Rev. B 77, 115118 (2008)]. Therefore, it can be expected that the experimental evidence of force controlled manipulation presented here will finally be fully explained by further theoretical modeling.

  20. Comparison of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Flat-Panel Computed Tomography Regarding Visualization of Cortical Fractures, Cortical Defects, and Orthopedic Screws: A Phantom Study.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Lang, Hannah; Lampert, Florian; Kemna, Lars; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Neubauer, Claudia; Reising, Kilian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Goerke, Sebastian M

    2015-08-01

    To compare the visualization of cortical fractures, cortical defects, and orthopedic screws in a dedicated extremity flat-panel computed tomography (FPCT) scanner and a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner.We used feet of European roe deer as phantoms for cortical fractures, cortical defects, and implanted orthopedic screws. FPCT and MDCT scans were performed with equivalent dose settings. Six observers rated the scans according to number of fragments, size of defects, size of defects opposite orthopedic screws, and the length of different screws. The image quality regarding depiction of the cortical bone was assessed. The gold standard (real number of fragments) was evaluated by autopsy.The correlation of reader assessment of fragments, cortical defects, and screws with the gold standard was similar for FPCT and MDCT. Three readers rated the subjective image quality of the MDCT to be higher, whereas the others showed no preferences.Although the image quality was rated higher in the MDCT than in the FPCT by 3 out of 6 observers, both modalities proved to be comparable regarding the visualization of cortical fractures, cortical defects, and orthopedic screws and of use to musculoskeletal radiology regarding fracture detection and postsurgical evaluation in our experimental setting. PMID:26252281

  1. Comparison of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Flat-Panel Computed Tomography Regarding Visualization of Cortical Fractures, Cortical Defects, and Orthopedic Screws

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Lang, Hannah; Lampert, Florian; Kemna, Lars; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Neubauer, Claudia; Reising, Kilian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Goerke, Sebastian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the visualization of cortical fractures, cortical defects, and orthopedic screws in a dedicated extremity flat-panel computed tomography (FPCT) scanner and a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner. We used feet of European roe deer as phantoms for cortical fractures, cortical defects, and implanted orthopedic screws. FPCT and MDCT scans were performed with equivalent dose settings. Six observers rated the scans according to number of fragments, size of defects, size of defects opposite orthopedic screws, and the length of different screws. The image quality regarding depiction of the cortical bone was assessed. The gold standard (real number of fragments) was evaluated by autopsy. The correlation of reader assessment of fragments, cortical defects, and screws with the gold standard was similar for FPCT and MDCT. Three readers rated the subjective image quality of the MDCT to be higher, whereas the others showed no preferences. Although the image quality was rated higher in the MDCT than in the FPCT by 3 out of 6 observers, both modalities proved to be comparable regarding the visualization of cortical fractures, cortical defects, and orthopedic screws and of use to musculoskeletal radiology regarding fracture detection and postsurgical evaluation in our experimental setting. PMID:26252281

  2. An orthodontic/orthopedic correction of the Class III malocclusion in young patients with a modified RPE appliance and a facemask.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyun; Cruz, Claudia; Alexander, R G

    2010-01-01

    Orthopedic appliances such as palatal expanders and facemasks have been successfully used for young patients with Class III malocclusions. A modified rapid palatal expansion (RPE) appliance in conjunction with a facemask can be used for correction of transverse and sagittal discrepancies in the initial phase of treatment for these patients. PMID:21032992

  3. Guidance, Counseling, and Support Services for High School Students with Physical Disabilities: Visual, Hearing, Orthopedic, Neuromuscular, Epilepsy, Chronic Health Conditions. Includes State Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, June C.; And Others

    Intended for use by high school guidance personnel, the two volumes provide general information and a resource guide on physical disabilities including visual impairment, hearing impairment, orthopedic handicap, neuromuscular handicap, epilepsy, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions. The first section provides an overview of each of the…

  4. Epidemiology of Orthopedic Fractures and Other Injuries among Inpatients Admitted due to Traffic Accidents: A 10-Year Nationwide Survey in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ren-Hao; Chang, Nien-Tzu; Chu, Dachen; Hsu, Kuo-Fang; Hsu, Yuan-Nian; Hsu, Jin-Chyr

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the major injury patterns associated with traffic accidents and evaluate the risk factors of the main injury, a survey of Taiwan's national insurance admission data between 2002 and 2011 was performed. The incidence of traffic-accidents-related hospitalization was between 9.17% and 11.54% and the average mortality rate of the inpatients admitted due to traffic accidents was 0.68%. Of all inpatients due to road traffic accidents in Taiwan, orthopedic fractures were the most common injuries that accounted for 29.36% of them. There were a total of 391,197 cases of three orthopedic fracture groups that were divided into (1) fracture of upper limb, (2) fracture of lower limb, and (3) fracture of spine and trunk. An increase in national medical cost used for inpatients with orthopedic fractures was noted and ranged from US$ 45.6 million to US$ 86 million annually. These orthopedic fracture patterns were frequently associated with other injuries especially head injuries (ranged from 14% to 26%). A significant relation to male gender, older age, low income, and admission to high-level hospital to the observed fracture patterns was observed. PMID:24672344

  5. Epidemiology of orthopedic fractures and other injuries among inpatients admitted due to traffic accidents: a 10-year nationwide survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ren-Hao; Chang, Nien-Tzu; Chu, Dachen; Hsu, Kuo-Fang; Hsu, Yuan-Nian; Hsu, Jin-Chyr; Tseng, Lin-Yu; Yang, Nan-Ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the major injury patterns associated with traffic accidents and evaluate the risk factors of the main injury, a survey of Taiwan's national insurance admission data between 2002 and 2011 was performed. The incidence of traffic-accidents-related hospitalization was between 9.17% and 11.54% and the average mortality rate of the inpatients admitted due to traffic accidents was 0.68%. Of all inpatients due to road traffic accidents in Taiwan, orthopedic fractures were the most common injuries that accounted for 29.36% of them. There were a total of 391,197 cases of three orthopedic fracture groups that were divided into (1) fracture of upper limb, (2) fracture of lower limb, and (3) fracture of spine and trunk. An increase in national medical cost used for inpatients with orthopedic fractures was noted and ranged from US$ 45.6 million to US$ 86 million annually. These orthopedic fracture patterns were frequently associated with other injuries especially head injuries (ranged from 14% to 26%). A significant relation to male gender, older age, low income, and admission to high-level hospital to the observed fracture patterns was observed. PMID:24672344

  6. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2012-06-01

    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  7. Subpicosecond Coherent Manipulation of X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W.

    2004-05-12

    The Takagi-Taupin theory is synthesized with the eikonal theory in a unified space-time approach, based upon microscopic electromagnetism. It is designed specifically to address x-ray diffraction in crystal structures being modified within down to a few femtosconds. Possible applications in the subpicosecond coherent manipulation of x-rays are given.

  8. Better Vision Through Manipulation Giorgio Metta1

    E-print Network

    Sandini, Giulio

    , University of Genoa 2 Artifical Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Vision and manipulation are inextricably intertwined in the primate brain. Tantalizing results from neu- roscience, but not necessarily why. Is the integration we see functionally important, or just a reflection of evolution's lack

  9. Acquiring Transferrable Mobile Manipulation Skills George Konidaris

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    task. Button Handle Switch Door 245 cm 355cm Start Fig. 2. The first task in the Red Room Domain The uBot first learned to solve a mobile manipulation task. The robot began the task in a small room the handle was turned after the button had been pressed a door in the side of the room opened, allowing the u

  10. Control Algorithms For Kinematically Redundant Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents improved algorithms for controlling kinematically redundant robotic manipulators, producing unique configuration for each end-effector location. Furthermore, they generally produce configurations in which no interference between robot boom and payload or base structures. Report presents comparison between various other robot-kinematic algorithms.

  11. Motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas Karl (Berkeley, CA); Andresen, Nord (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14

    The invention relates to a motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen holder with sub-micron resolution parallel to a y-z plane and rotating the specimen holder in the y-z plane, the manipulator comprising a base (2), and attachment means (30) for attaching the specimen holder to the manipulator, characterized in that the manipulator further comprises at least three nano-actuators (3.sup.a, 3.sup.b, 3.sup.c) mounted on the base, each nano-actuator showing a tip (4.sup.a, 4.sup.b, 4.sup.c), the at least three tips defining the y-z plane, each tip capable of moving with respect to the base in the y-z plane; a platform (5) in contact with the tips of the nano-actuators; and clamping means (6) for pressing the platform against the tips of the nano-actuators; as a result of which the nano-actuators can rotate the platform with respect to the base in the y-z plane and translate the platform parallel to the y-z plane.

  12. Entropy Manipulation of Arbitrary Nonlinear Mappings

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    Entropy Manipulation of Arbitrary Nonlinear Mappings John W. Fisher III José C. Principe be nonlinearly transformed onto a maximum entropy feature space resulting in statistically independent features theory, namely mutual information and maximum cross- entropy. The adaptation is unsupervised in the sense

  13. Remote manipulator system steering capability for SVDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    Details of the remote manipulator system steering capability to be implemented into the space vehicle dynamics simulator are reported. The resolve rate law is included as part of the overall steering capability. The steering model includes three automatic modes, four manual augmented modes, and a single joint rate mode.

  14. Using magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate biological objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2013-09-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the manipulation of biological objects, including proteins, genes, cellular organelles, bacteria, cells, and organs, are reviewed. MNPs are popular candidates for controlling and probing biological objects with a magnetic force. In the past decade, progress in the synthesis and surface engineering of MNPs has further enhanced this popularity.

  15. Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chips for Dielectric Manipulation

    E-print Network

    Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chips for Dielectric Manipulation A THESIS PRESENTED BY THOMAS by Thomas Hunt All rights reserved. #12;iii Abstract Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chips for Dielectric of integrated circuit / microfluidic chips to move individual living cells and chemical droplets along

  16. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

    1984-04-01

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2/sup 0/ deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

    1984-07-01

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Flexible manipulator control experiments and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, S.; Ozguner, U.; Tzes, A.; Kotnik, P. T.

    1987-01-01

    Modeling and control design for flexible manipulators, both from an experimental and analytical viewpoint, are described. From the application perspective, an ongoing effort within the laboratory environment at the Ohio State University, where experimentation on a single link flexible arm is underway is described. Several unique features of this study are described here. First, the manipulator arm is slewed by a direct drive dc motor and has a rigid counterbalance appendage. Current experimentation is from two viewpoints: (1) rigid body slewing and vibration control via actuation with the hub motor, and (2) vibration suppression through the use of structure-mounted proof-mass actuation at the tip. Such an application to manipulator control is of interest particularly in design of space-based telerobotic control systems, but has received little attention to date. From an analytical viewpoint, parameter estimation techniques within the closed-loop for self-tuning adaptive control approaches are discussed. Also introduced is a control approach based on output feedback and frequency weighting to counteract effects of spillover in reduced-order model design. A model of the flexible manipulator based on experimental measurements is evaluated for such estimation and control approaches.

  19. Improved electromechanical master-slave manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, G.; Goertz, R.; Grimson, J.; Mingesz, D.; Potts, C.

    1968-01-01

    Electric master-slave manipulator uses force multiplication and allows the operator to remotely control the slave arm. Both the master and slave arms execute seven distinct motions by a specially designed force-reflecting servo having a one to one correspondence between the motion at the master and slave.

  20. An anthropomorphic master-slave manipulator system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the results of a teleoperator systems technology program devoted to the development of an anthropomorphic unilateral master-slave manipulator system. Following a discussion of the mechanical design details and servo design considerations, the developed system's test results are presented.

  1. Spider management in agroecosystems: Habitat manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Fadel; Richman, David B.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the literature and on work conducted in Israel, the management of spider populations through habitat manipulation was found to be very helpful in controlling pest insects in various crops. Spiders were found to be reduced or eliminated by non-selective insecticides, although some resistance has been noted

  2. Disrupting Reconsolidation: Pharmacological and Behavioral Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited modifications. At the same time, the fear-erasing effects…

  3. Opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique for highperformance

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Ravindranath, Sandeep; Kumar, Aloke; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Wereley, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    This communication first demonstrates bio-compatibility of a recently developed opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique, using microorganisms. Aggregation, patterning, translation, trapping and size-based separation of microorganisms performed with the technique firmly establishes its usefulness for development of a high-performance on-chip bioassay system.

  4. Two-Handed Direct Manipulation Responsive Workbench

    E-print Network

    Laidlaw, David

    -systems, like head mounted displays (HMDs) and the CAVE [4], that try to immerse userscompletely in a virtual--Interaction techniques; I.3.7 [Computer Graph- ics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism--Virtual reality; H.5-handed interaction, virtual reality, three dimen- sional interaction, direct manipulation, 3D widgets, interactive 3D

  5. Dynamic nonprehensile manipulation: Controllability, planning, and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, K.M.; Mason, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors are interested in using low-degree-of-freedom robots to perform complex tasks by nonprehensile manipulation (manipulation without a form- or force-closure grasp). By not grasping, the robot can use gravitational, centrifugal, and Coriolis forces as virtual motors to control more degrees of freedom of the part. The part`s extra motion freedoms are exhibited as rolling, slipping, and free flight. This paper describes controllability, motion planning, and implementation of planar dynamic nonprehensile manipulation. The authors show that almost any planar object is controllable by point contact, and the controlling robot requires only two degrees of freedom (a point translating in the plane). They then focus on a one-joint manipulator (with a two-dimensional state space), and show that even this simplest of robots, by using slipping and rolling, can control a planar object to a full-dimensional subset of its six-0dimensional state space. The authors have developed a one-joint robot to perform a variety of dynamic tasks, including snatching an object from a table, rolling an object on the surface of the arm, and throwing and catching. Nonlinear optimization is used to plan robot trajectories that achieve the desired object motion via coupling forces through the nonprehensile contact.

  6. Minimum-Time Control For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Current theories examined critically. Report surveys state of art in theory of minimum-time control of robotic manipulators. Discusses some of the promising developments, pointing out, however, optimal-control problem in full generality remains unsolved. Compares various solution methods, indicating merits and flaws.

  7. [Nurse's experience of using music therapy to relieve acute pain in a post-orthopedic surgery patient].

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Tsai-Yun; Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the experience of a nurse who used music therapy as the intervention to reduce a patient's pain during wound care after orthopedic surgery. The intervention was applied between April 8th and April 29th 2008. The nurse applied Roy's adaptation model as the assessment tool. The major and primary health problem identified was acute pain accelerated by wound care. The pain of this client not only triggered negative feelings, but also affected negatively on his daily life and feelings of self-belongingness. Through an individual-tailored music therapy, the client's pain during wound care was greatly reduced and even completely disappeared. The ultimate outcome of decrease in pain included reductions in negative feelings and increased positive spiritual strength. It is recommended that nurses who are responsible for wound care use this simple and economical music intervention to reduce acute postoperative pain. PMID:19634107

  8. Generalized impedance control of a redundant manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessey, Michael Peter

    In this thesis, we consider the general problem of impedance control of an n degree-of-freedom (dof) serial link manipulator with emphasis on the redundant manipulator case. Other approaches in the literature insist upon keeping the number of impedance dofs less than or equal to the number of manipulator dofs with a clear partitioning of se lf motion and desired end effect or motion. Our approach does not possess these limitations and is based on, and even encourages, the imposition of multiple conflicting impedance objectives (including distributed impedances). These desired impedances can be either 'fictitious' or actual, 'link' or 'joint' based, and can be customized to a particular application of interest. Impedance interpolation is the key vehicle for resolving the multiple (and likely conflicting) impedance objectives to produce a blended or compromise solution. We show (using singular value decomposition) that provided that a sufficient number (or distribution) and type of impedance dofs are specified (e.g. is greater than or equal to n for the discrete case), a stable control law solution will always exist. Furthermore, singularity robustness of the control law solution can be increased by judiciously adding impedance dofs to the problem. The resultant local dynamics are studied and shown to be conditionally stable and can always be made unconditionally stable by introducing sufficiently high joint impedances. Experimental aspects of Generalized Impedance Control are studied for the case of interpolated stiffness control of a 3 dof serial link manipulator. In addition, a computationally efficient approach to solving the inverse kinematics problem for an n degree-of-freedom (dof) serial link manipulator is presented; regardless of the manipulator's kinematic configuration or whether it is redundant or nonredundant. The method referred to as the 'multiplexed joint' method is based on individually moving joints in such a manner as to minimize the weighted norm of the resultant linearized location error transformation. A higher level joint scheduling algorithm controls which joints are to be moved. The simplest form of this joint scheduling algorithm would be to cyclicly sequence through all of the joints--hence the analogy to the multiplex or operation. Simulation results are presented for the case of a 3 dof planar redundant manipulator.

  9. Comparison between intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine-fentanyl and bupivacaine-fentanyl in elective infraumbilical orthopedic surgery: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Layek, Amitava; Maitra, Souvik; Gozi, Nitish K; Bhattacharjee, Sulagna; Pal, Sugata; Sen, Suvadeep; Hazra, Avijit

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: We aimed to evaluate and compare the block characteristics and duration of analgesia of intrathecal isobaric ropivacaine-fentanyl and bupivacaine-fentanyl combination in adult patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery. Material and Methods: Seventy-four American Society of Anesthesiologists’ I and II adult patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery under subarachnoid block were randomized to receive either 3 ml 0.5% isobaric ropivacaine and 25 mcg fentanyl (Group R) or 3 ml 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine and 25 mcg fentanyl (Group B). The hemodynamic profiles, maximum upper level of sensory block height, time to reach peak block height, two dermatome regression time, and duration of motor block were recorded. Results: There was no statistically significant difference regarding the hemodynamic parameters between the groups. The median (range) peak sensory block height was T7 (T4-T9) in Group R and T7 (T4-T10) in Group B. Time to reach peak block height (13.2 ± 2.3 min in Group R vs. 13.7 ± 2.2 min in Group B; P = 0.385) was similar between the groups. Two dermatome regression time in sensory block (median 120 min vs. 85 min; P < 0.001) and duration of motor block (median 245 min vs. 150 min; P < 0.001) was significantly higher in Group B. The duration of analgesia (median 360 min vs. 245 min; P < 0.001) was significantly higher in the bupivacaine group. Conclusion: Intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine-fentanyl combination produces a significantly longer duration of analgesia, sensory block and motor block than isobaric ropivacaine-fentanyl combination. As ropivacaine has a shorter duration of sensory and motor block, it may be preferred in day care surgery. PMID:26702216

  10. Sedation-assisted Orthopedic Reduction in Emergency Medicine: The Safety and Success of a One Physician/One Nurse Model

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, David R.; Hoehn, Casey L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Much of the emergency medical research on sedation-assisted orthopedic reductions has been undertaken with two physicians––one dedicated to the sedation and one to the procedure. Clinical practice in community emergency departments (EDs), however, often involves only one physician, who both performs the procedure and simultaneously oversees the crendentialed registered nurse who administers the sedation medication and monitors the patient. Although the dual-physician model is advocated by some, evidence in support of its superiority is lacking. Methods: In this electronic health records review we describe sedation-assisted closed reductions of major joints and forearm fractures in three suburban community EDs. The type of procedure and sedation medication, need for specialty assistance, success rates, and intervention-requiring adverse events are reported. Results: During the 18-month study period, procedural sedation was performed 457 times on 442 patients undergoing closed reduction for shoulder dislocations (n = 111), elbow dislocations (n = 29), hip dislocations (n = 101), and forearm fractures (n = 201). In the vast majority of this cohort (98.4% [435/442]), a single emergency physician simultaneously managed both the procedural sedation and the initial orthopedic reduction without the assistance of a second physician. The reduction was successful or satisfactory in 96.6% (425/435; 95% confidence interval [CI], 95.8–98.8%) of these cases, with a low incidence of intervention-requiring adverse events (2.8% [12/435]; 95% CI, 1.5–4.8%). Conclusion: Sedation-assisted closed reduction of major joint dislocations and forearm fractures can be performed effectively and safely in the ED using a one physician/one nurse model. A policy that requires a separate physician (or nurse anesthetist) to administer medications for all sedation-assisted ED procedures appears unwarranted. Further research is needed to determine which specific clinical scenarios might benefit from a dual-physician approach. PMID:23447756

  11. Effects of preemptive analgesia with celecoxib or acetaminophen on postoperative pain relief following lower extremity orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Parviz; Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Efficacy of preemptive analgesia with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in comparison with acetaminophen is controversial. The present study evaluates the preemptive analgesia efficacy of celecoxib and acetaminophen in comparison with placebo for postoperative pain relief in patients who underwent orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Ninetypatients eligible for elective distal extremity surgery were categorized in three groups: group C includedpatients who received oral celecoxib 200 mg 2 h before surgery; group A included those who received oral acetaminophen 320 mg 2 h before surgery; and group P included those who received oral placebo 2 h before surgery. Pain scores were recorded at 4, 12, and 24 h after operation. Results: The pain scores 4 h after operation was significantly less in group C than in groups A and P (4.7±1.7 vs. 5±1.5 vs. 6.8±1.7, respectively, P = 0.015). No significant difference was noted in pain scores at 12 h (4.6±2, 4.9±1.9, 4.3±1.4 in group A, group C, group P, respectively P > 0.05) and 24 h (3.1±1.7, 3.0±1.4, 3.3±1.7 in group A, group C, group P, respectively, P > 0.05) after operation among the three groups. Conclusion: Using oral celecoxib 200 mg 2 h before operation is better thanusing oral acetaminophen 320 mg 2 h before the beginning of surgery for control of postoperative pain in patients who underwent lower extremity orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia. PMID:23459777

  12. The evolution of teleoperated manipulators at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Noakes, M.W.; Herndon, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    ORNL has made significant contributions to teleoperator and telerobotics technology for two decades and continues with an aggressive program today. Examples of past projects are: (1) the M2 servomanipulator, which was the first digitally controlled teleoperator; (2) the Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM), which was the first remotely maintainable teleoperator; (3) the CESARm/Kraft dissimilar teleoperated system; and (4) the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM), a 7-Degree-of-Freedom (7-DOF) telerobot built as a prototype for work in space. More recently, ORNL has become heavily involved with Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) robotics programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The ERWM program requires high payloads and high dexterity. As a result, a hydraulically actuated, dual-arm system comprised of two 6-DOF arms mounted on a 5-DOF base has been constructed and is being used today for various research tasks and for decontamination and dismantlement activities. All of these teleoperated manipulator systems build upon the experiences gained throughout the almost two decades of development. Each system incorporates not only the latest technology in computers, sensors, and electronics, but each new . system also adds at least one new feature to the technologies already developed and demonstrated in the previous system(s). As a result of this process, a serious study of these manipulator systems is a study in the evolution of teleoperated manipulator the systems in general. This provides insight not only into the research and development paths chosen in the past, but also into the appropriate directions for future teleoperator and telerobotics research. This paper examines each of the teleoperated/telerobotic systems developed at ORNL, summarizes their features and capabilities, examines the state of the most current telerobotic system (the Dual Arm Work Module), PM provides direction for a Next Generation Telerobotic Manipulator system.

  13. Manipulator Comparative Testing Program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1987-02-01

    The manipulator systems tested included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Central Research Laboratories Model M-2, and the GCA PaR Systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (1) the BILARM in master/slave mode without force reflection, (2) the BILARM in master/slave mode with force reflection, (3) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode without force reflection, (4) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode with force reflection, (5) the BILARM with switchbox controls, and (6) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments examined differences between master/slave systems with and without force reflection and differences between master/slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems. A fourth experiment examined the relative contributions of the remote viewing system and the manipulator system to the performance of remote handling tasks. Results of the experiments showed that operators using the Model M-2 in master/slave mode had significantly faster times to completion than operators using the BILARM in master/slave mode, with about the same error rate per trial. Operators were slower using the BILARM with force reflection than without it, and they committed more errors. There was no statistically significant difference between force-reflection and nonforce-reflection conditions for the M-2 manipulator for any of the performance criteria. Tasks and procedures used in this testing were not sensitive to differences within any single system. No inferences about the effect of force reflection on remote task performance should be made from these data. The two manipulator systems in switchbox mode had significantly slower times to completion than any system in master/slave mode, with approximately the same error rate per trial. There were no significant differences between the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR arm.

  14. Manipulator Performance Evaluation Using Fitts' Taping Task

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Jared, B.C.; Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    Metaphorically, a teleoperator with master controllers projects the user's arms and hands into a re- mote area, Therefore, human users interact with teleoperators at a more fundamental level than they do with most human-machine systems. Instead of inputting decisions about how the system should func- tion, teleoperator users input the movements they might make if they were truly in the remote area and the remote machine must recreate their trajectories and impedance. This intense human-machine inter- action requires displays and controls more carefully attuned to human motor capabilities than is neces- sary with most systems. It is important for teleoperated manipulators to be able to recreate human trajectories and impedance in real time. One method for assessing manipulator performance is to observe how well a system be- haves while a human user completes human dexterity tasks with it. Fitts' tapping task has been, used many times in the past for this purpose. This report describes such a performance assessment. The International Submarine Engineering (ISE) Autonomous/Teleoperated Operations Manipulator (ATOM) servomanipulator system was evalu- ated using a generic positioning accuracy task. The task is a simple one but has the merits of (1) pro- ducing a performance function estimate rather than a point estimate and (2) being widely used in the past for human and servomanipulator dexterity tests. Results of testing using this task may, therefore, allow comparison with other manipulators, and is generically representative of a broad class of tasks. Results of the testing indicate that the ATOM manipulator is capable of performing the task. Force reflection had a negative impact on task efficiency in these data. This was most likely caused by the high resistance to movement the master controller exhibited with the force reflection engaged. Measurements of exerted forces were not made, so it is not possible to say whether the force reflection helped partici- pants control force during testing.

  15. Force controlled manipulation is a common technique for compli antly contacting and manipulating uncertain environments. Visual

    E-print Network

    Abstract Force controlled manipulation is a common technique for compli­ antly contacting feedback, force and vision, represent complementary sensing modalities; visual feedback pro­ vides, and force feed­ back provides highly localized and precise information upon con­ tact. This paper presents

  16. Individual differences in manipulation: further studies of an emotional manipulation scale. 

    E-print Network

    Selfridge, Amy Louise

    2008-06-27

    Emotional manipulation is a strategy used by individuals to force the environment into compliance with their goals (St Clair, 1966). This study assessed the factor structure, validity and test-retest reliability of an ...

  17. Dexterous manipulation planning for a planar whole-arm manipulation system 

    E-print Network

    Son, Wookho

    1996-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation planning can be defined as the process of determining the control trajectories both in terms of joint displacements and efforts for an articulated mechanical hand, in such a way that, if executed, the hands can reconfigure...

  18. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  19. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  20. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  1. A hierarchical approach to manipulation with diverse actions

    E-print Network

    Barry, Jennifer

    We define the Diverse Action Manipulation (DAMA) problem in which we are given a mobile robot, a set of movable objects, and a set of diverse, possibly non-prehensile manipulation actions, and the goal is to find a sequence ...

  2. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  3. 19 CFR 134.13 - Imported articles repacked or manipulated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported articles repacked or manipulated. 134.13 Section...THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.13 Imported articles repacked or manipulated. (a)...

  4. A virtual manipulator model for space robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, S.; Vafa, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Future robotic manipulators carried by a spacecraft will be required to perform complex tasks in space, like repairing satellites. Such applications of robotic manipulators will encounter a number of kinematic, dynamic and control problems due to the dynamic coupling between the manipulators and the spacecraft. A new analytical modeling method for studying the kinematics and dynamics of manipulators in space is presented. The problem is treated by introducing the concept of a Virtual Manipulator (VM). The kinematic and dynamic motions of the manipulator, vehicle and payload, can be described relatively easily in terms of the Virtual Manipulator movements, which have a fixed base in inertial space at a point called a Virtual Ground. It is anticipated that the approach described here will aid in the design and development of future space manipulator systems.

  5. High-Throughput Single-Cell Manipulation in Brain Tissue

    E-print Network

    Steinmeyer, Joseph Daly

    The complexity of neurons and neuronal circuits in brain tissue requires the genetic manipulation, labeling, and tracking of single cells. However, current methods for manipulating cells in brain tissue are limited to ...

  6. A Possible Novel Strategy for Reproductive Manipulation by an Endosymbiont 

    E-print Network

    Haltom, Amanda R

    2012-07-11

    Reproductive manipulation is commonly seen in insects infected by maternally inherited endosymbionts. These endosymbionts have adopted several strategies to manipulate their hosts in order to guarantee their transmission into the next host...

  7. Merging physical manipulatives and digital interface in educational software 

    E-print Network

    Zacchi, Anna

    1999-01-01

    how elementary school students used physical manipulations in conjunction with the digital interface of educational software for geometry. The blending of physical manipulations and digital interface helped the students to overcome the limits...

  8. Prehensile Pushing: In-hand Manipulation with Push-Primitives

    E-print Network

    Chavan Dafle, Nikhil Narsingh

    This paper explores the manipulation of a grasped object by pushing it against its environment. Relying on precise arm motions and detailed models of frictional contact, prehensile pushing enables dexterous manipulation ...

  9. Programmable Cell Manipulation Using Lab-on-a-Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Park, Je-kyun

    Programmable manipulation of particles or cells plays an important role in many biological and medical applications. Here a new programmable micro manipulator, named lab-on-a-display, in which particles are manipulated by optically induced electrokinetic forces generated from an optoelectronic tweezers on a liquid crystal display, is introduced. This optoelectrofluidic platform has been utilized to manipulate various kinds of cells such as blood cells, oocytes, and motile bacteria for several biotechnological applications.

  10. Design of a Hydraulic Dexterous Manipulator for Minimally Invasive Surgery

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    Design of a Hydraulic Dexterous Manipulator for Minimally Invasive Surgery A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED and motivation. iii #12;Design of a Hydraulic Dexterous Manipulator for Minimally Invasive Surgery by Devin- cal platforms, which include the balance between the scale of the robot and its manipulability

  11. Verifying Safety Properties of Concurrent Heap-Manipulating Programs

    E-print Network

    Sagiv, Shmuel "Mooly"

    Verifying Safety Properties of Concurrent Heap-Manipulating Programs Eran Yahav and Mooly Sagiv We provide a parametric framework for verifying safety properties of concurrent heap-manipulating programs to successfully verify the following properties of a concurrent program: --Concurrent manipulation of linked

  12. Design and fabricate a pair of Rancho anthropomorphic manipulator arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. R.; Karchak, A., Jr.; Bontrager, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The basic design features of the Rancho Anthropomorphic Manipulator (RAM), bilateral manipulator system are reported. In contrast with other previous electrically powered manipulators, the RAM features increased payload capability, structural integrity, position control, and the ability to interchange its own terminal devices. A set of detailed design drawings and a motion picture are considered.

  13. Force, current and field effects in single atom manipulation

    E-print Network

    Braun, Kai-Felix

    Force, current and field effects in single atom manipulation K.-F. Braun , S.-W. Hla , N. Pertaya present a detailed investigation of the manipulation of Ag and Au atoms with a STM tip on the Ag(111 of the atom during manipulation. The threshold tunnelling resistance and tip-height to move a Au/Ag atom have

  14. Inverse Dynamics Analysis of a 6-PSS Parallel Manipulator

    E-print Network

    Li, Yangmin

    Inverse Dynamics Analysis of a 6-PSS Parallel Manipulator Weiyuan Xu1 , Yangmin Li1,2, , Song Lu1. In this paper, a new six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) parallel manipulator with adjustable actuators is proposed work is applied to an- alyze the dynamics of this 6-PSS parallel manipulator. This methodology can

  15. Manipulability of Single Transferable Vote Toby Walsh1

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Toby

    Manipulability of Single Transferable Vote Toby Walsh1 NICTA and UNSW, Sydney, Australia Abstract bounds the worst-case complexity. Recent theoretical results suggest that manipulation may often be easy in practice. We study empirically the cost of manipulating the single transferable vote (STV) rule

  16. Interactive manipulation of multiresolution curves Luis Antonio Rivera Escriba

    E-print Network

    de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique

    Interactive manipulation of multiresolution curves Luis Antonio Rivera Escriba Department@visgraf.impa.br 15th April 1999 Abstract A new method for manipulation of curves in several degrees is presented ness constant. We direct manipulation to produce local deformation on each resolu- tion curve, so does

  17. Particle manipulation with nonadiabatic ponderomotive forcesa... I. Y. Dodinb

    E-print Network

    Particle manipulation with nonadiabatic ponderomotive forcesa... I. Y. Dodinb and N. J. Fisch effectively seen by particles in oscillating fields allow advanced techniques of particle manipulation was awarded for the invention of methods of atom manipulation by laser light.1 Similar capabilities also apply

  18. Manipulation of Electron Beam Propagation by Hetero-Dimensional

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Manipulation of Electron Beam Propagation by Hetero-Dimensional Graphene Junctions Zhengfei Wang 84112 D exterous manipulation of light beams underpins the two defini- tive technologies of our times through carefully controlled light as information carriers. In an analogy, manipulation of electron beams

  19. Manipulating Two Stage Voting Rules Nina Narodytska and Toby Walsh

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Toby

    Manipulating Two Stage Voting Rules Nina Narodytska and Toby Walsh Abstract We study the computational complexity of computing a manipulation of a two stage voting rule. An example of a two stage that there is no connection between the computational complexity of manipulating the two stages of such a voting rule

  20. Autonomous Manipulation of Deformable Objects based on Teleoperated Demonstrations

    E-print Network

    Hirche, Sandra

    Autonomous Manipulation of Deformable Objects based on Teleoperated Demonstrations Matthias Rambow, Thomas Schauß, Martin Buss, and Sandra Hirche Abstract-- While humans can manipulate deformable objects, the manipulator, and the environment makes this problem even more challenging. This paper presents a framework