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Sample records for mantle heat flow

  1. Core Heat Flow and Suppression of Mantle Plumes by Plate-Scale Mantle Flow: Results From Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, H. M.; Jellinek, A. M.; Richards, M. A.; Manga, M.

    2002-12-01

    Heat flow from the Earth's core to the mantle remains an unresolved quantity. Its value has implications for the core's thermal evolution and growth of the inner core, the geodynamo, and the relative abundance of radioactive elements in the core and mantle. Core heat flow is affected by dynamics of the lowermost mantle in three ways: (1) advection of heat by plume instabilities; (2) conductive heating of subducted material; and (3) suppression of plume instabilities, as well as advection of heat by plate-scale mantle flow. We present results from a boundary-layer analysis and laboratory experiments aimed at understanding the effects of an imposed large-scale circulation on thermal convection at high-Rayleigh number (106<=Ra<=109) in a fluid with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. The ultimate goal of this work is to better understand the effect of plate-scale mantle flow on heat flux across the CMB and on the dynamics of plume formation at the CMB. Our theoretical analysis is complemented by lab experiments, in which a layer of corn syrup is heated from below and a large-scale flow is induced in the fluid above the hot boundary. We identify 4 convective regions associated with high-Rayleigh number convection in the presence of a large-scale flow: (1) a subcritical TBL region (Domain I), where plume instabilities are suppressed by the advective thinning of the TBL and heat flux is increased relative to convection without large-scale flow; (2) a supercritical TBL region (Domain II), where plume instabilities are no longer suppressed and heat flux is equal to convection without large-scale flow; (3) a flow-dominated region (Domain III), which is free of plumes; and (4) a plume-dominated domain (Domain IV), where the interaction of hot buoyant plumes and imposed large-scale flow results in lateral advection and distortion of rising plumes. In addition, we present a boundary-layer analysis that predicts heat flux, Q, from a hot surface as a function of imposed

  2. The Thermal Conductivity of the Earth's Lower Mantle and Implications for Heat Flow at the Core-Mantle Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Emma Sojourner Gage

    The thermal conductivity of the Earth's lowermost mantle controls the rate of heat flow across the core-mantle boundary, and is thus a critical parameter for determining the core and mantle thermal state and evolution. This parameter and its dependence on pressure, temperature, and composition are poorly known, in part due to the inherent difficulties in determining thermal conductivities at the high pressures and temperatures (135 GPa and 3800 K) that occur at the base of the mantle. In this dissertation I estimate the thermal conductivity of the lower mantle using measurements of the thermal conductivity of MgO and (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite made at high pressure and high temperature in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Using three-dimensional heat flow modeling, I demonstrate that the steady-state temperature distributions that form during laser heating experiments in the diamond anvil cell depend on the sample thermal conductivity as well as the experimental geometry. Relative thermal conductivity can be determined by comparing measured temperature vs. laser power curves with a numerical model. I use this technique to determine the pressure-dependence of thermal conductivity of MgO and (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite, and then I extrapolate absolute measurements of thermal conductivity taken near ambient pressure to lower mantle conditions. I also estimate the contribution of radiation to heat transfer in the lower mantle. My resulting value for the thermal conductivity of the lowermost mantle is approximately 6 W/m·K, lower than the commonly assumed value of 10 W/m·K. When combined with estimates for the lower mantle boundary layer temperature gradient, the total core-mantle boundary heat flow is roughly 7 TW. This heat flow implies a slow growth rate for the Earth's inner core.

  3. Modulation of mantle plumes and heat flow at the core mantle boundary by plate-scale flow: results from laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.; Jellinek, A. Mark; Richards, Mark A.; Manga, Michael

    2004-09-01

    We report results from analog laboratory experiments, in which a large-scale flow is imposed upon natural convection from a hot boundary layer at the base of a large tank of corn syrup. The experiments show that the subdivision of the convective flow into four regions provides a reasonable conceptual framework for interpreting the effects of large-scale flow on plumes. Region I includes the area of the hot thermal boundary layer (TBL) that is thinned by the large-scale flow, thereby suppressing plumes. Region II encompasses the critically unstable boundary layer where plumes form. Region III is the area above the boundary layer that is devoid of plumes. Region IV comprises the area of hot upwelling and plume conduits. Quantitative analysis of our experiments results in a scaling law for heat flux from the hot boundary and for the spatial extent of plume suppression. When applied to the Earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB), our results suggest that large-scale mantle flow, due to sinking lithospheric plates, can locally thin the TBL and suppress plume formation over large fractions of the CMB. Approximately 30% of heat flow from the core may be due to increased heat flux from plate-scale flow. Furthermore, CMB heat flux is non-uniformly distributed along the CMB, with large areas where heat flux is increased on average by a factor of 2. As a consequence, the convective flow pattern in the outer core may be affected by CMB heat-flux heterogeneity and sensitive to changes in plate-scale mantle flow. Because of plume suppression and 'focusing' of hot mantle from the CMB into zones of upwelling flow, plume conduits (hotspots) are expected to be spatially associated with lower-mantle regions of low seismic velocities, inferred as hot upwelling mantle flow.

  4. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  5. Seismic-geodynamic constraints on three-dimensional structure, vertical flow, and heat transfer in the mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forte, A.M.; Woodward, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Joint inversions of seismic and geodynamic data are carried out in which we simultaneously constrain global-scale seismic heterogeneity in the mantle as well as the amplitude of vertical mantle flow across the 670 km seismic discontinuity. These inversions reveal the existence of a family of three-dimensional (3-D) mantle models that satisfy the data while at the same time yielding predictions of layered mantle flow. The new 3-D mantle models we obtain demonstrate that the buoyancy forces due to the undulations of the 670 km phase-change boundary strongly inhibit the vertical flow between the upper and lower mantle. The strong stabilizing effect of the 670 km topography also has an important impact on the predicted dynamic topography of the Earth's solid surface and on the surface gravity anomalies. The new 3-D models that predict strongly or partially layered mantle flow provide essentially identical fits to the global seismic data as previous models that have, until now, predicted only whole-mantle flow. The convective vertical transport of heat across the mantle predicted on the basis of the new 3-D models shows that the heat flow is a minimum at 1000 km depth. This suggests the presence at this depth of a globally defined horizon across which the pattern of lateral heterogeneity changes rapidly. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Plume's buoyancy and heat fluxes from the deep mantle estimated by an instantaneous mantle flow simulation based on the S40RTS global seismic tomography model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2012-11-01

    It is still an open question as to how much heat is transported from the deep mantle to the upper mantle by mantle upwelling plumes, which would impose a strong constraint on models of the thermal evolution of the earth. Here I perform numerical computations of instantaneous mantle flow based on a recent highly resolved global seismic tomography model (S40RTS), apply new simple fluid dynamics theories to the plume's radius and velocity, considering a Poiseuille flow assumption and a power-law relationship between the boundary layer thickness and Rayleigh number, and estimate the plume's buoyancy and heat fluxes from the deep lower mantle under varying plume viscosity. The results show that for some major mantle upwelling plumes with localized strong ascent velocity under the South Pacific and Africa, the buoyancy fluxes of each plume beneath the ringwoodite to perovskite + magnesiowüstite ("660-km") phase decomposition boundary are comparable to those inferred from observed hotspot swell volumes on the earth, i.e., on the order of 1 Mg s-1, when the plume viscosity is 1019-1020 Pa s. This result, together with previous numerical simulations of mantle convection and the gentle Clausius-Clapeyron slope for the 660-km phase decomposition derived from recent high-pressure measurements under dehydrated/hydrated conditions in the mantle transition zone, implies that mantle upwelling plumes in the lower mantle penetrate the 660-km phase decomposition boundary without significant loss in thermal buoyancy because of the weak thermal barrier at the 660-km boundary. The total plume heat flux under the South Pacific is estimated to be about 1 TW beneath the 660-km boundary, which is significantly smaller than the core-mantle boundary heat flux. Previously published scaling laws for the plume's radius and velocity based on a plume spacing theory, which explains well plume dynamics in three-dimensional time-dependent mantle convection, suggest that these plume fluxes depend

  7. Surface heat flow and the mantle contribution on the margins of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutorbe, Bruno; Lucazeau, Francis; Bonneville, Alain

    2008-05-01

    We present thermal data from 473 oil exploration wells in Australia and New Zealand. Approximately 2300 bottom-hole temperatures are corrected to form a homogeneous set along with 86 temperatures from reservoir tests. Thermal conductivity profiles are estimated from a set of geophysical well logs using a recently developed neural network approach. Retaining wells in which temperature and thermal conductivity data overlap over an interval greater than 1000 m, we estimate 10 heat flow values in the Taranaki basin of New Zealand and 270 values in the northwestern, western, and southern margins and in the intracontinental Canning basin of Australia. The values are in the range 30-80 mW m-2. As a result of several differences in the data and methods, our heat flow values are 10-20 mW m-2 lower compared to previously published estimates for the same wells in New Zealand. For Australia, our values are consistent with previously measured values and trends in the continental and marine regions. On the northwestern and southeastern margins, we interpret the variations as reflecting changes in the nature of the underlying basement. Consistent with onshore data, it is inferred that the Archean crust is depleted in radiogenic elements compared to Proterozoic regions and that recent volcanism affects the eastern Paleozoic area. After removing from surface heat flow the sediment contributions, including a permanent radiogenic heat component and a transient sedimentation effect, a simple crustal model suggests that mantle heat flow on the continental margin bordering the Pilbara craton is higher than below the craton itself. Moreover, heat flow corrected for the sediment contributions is markedly lower in the Petrel intracontinental basin than in the adjacent margin, although the crust is thinner below this latter region. As both are underlaid by the same basement, this observation may indicate that the mantle contribution is also higher below that margin. Such a higher mantle

  8. Minimal upper mantle temperature variations consistent with observed heat flow and plate velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Heat-flow and plate-velocity measurements are used to model upper-mantle temperature variations; the results are intended to form the basis for a gravity-field-variation model and are also applicable to the interpretation of petrological and seismological data. A 5-deg grid is used, a depth of 280 km is chosen as the fully convecting level, and it is assumed that 85 percent of the global heat production (4.0 x 10 to the 13th W) comes from below this level. The velocity field is calculated by integrating the momentum equations down to 280 km (assuming laterally homogeneous viscosity and density) and then used to determine the temperature fields. The results are presented in graphs, tables, and maps. The largest lateral temperature differences are about 1500 C and occur in the top 20 km, where the largest (about 200 C/Myr) nonlinear terms of the energy equation are also found. Below 50 km, heat transfer becomes more convective than conductive, and the most significant temperature variation appears in the form of negative 'tongues' as cold as -825 C at about 100 km. Temperature variations of at least + or - 180 C are calculated at the fully convecting level.

  9. Ancient dynamos of terrestrial planets more sensitive to core-mantle boundary heat flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, K.; Wicht, J.; Dietrich, W.

    2014-08-01

    The early dynamos of Earth and Mars probably operated without an inner core being present. They were thus exclusively driven by secular cooling and radiogenic heating, whereas the present geodynamo is thought to be predominantly driven by buoyancy fluxes which arise from the release of latent heat and the compositional enrichment associated with inner core solidification. The impact of the inner core growth on the ancient geodynamo has been discussed extensively but is still controversial. The Martian dynamo stopped operating more than 4 Gyr ago but left its signature in the form of a strong crustal magnetization that is much stronger in the southern than in the northern hemisphere. This dichotomy can, for example, be explained by a dynamo predominantly operating in the southern hemisphere due to a heterogeneous heat flux through the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The early Martian dynamo may also have operated without an inner core being present. Here we explore the impact of lateral CMB heat flux variations on dynamos with and without an inner core by comparing numerical dynamos driven by homogeneous internal sources or by bottom buoyancy sources, arising from the inner core boundary (ICB). Three different CMB heat-flux patterns are tested that either break the northern/southern or the azimuthal symmetry. In the dynamos driven by internal heating a rather small CMB heat-flux heterogeneity suffices to break internal symmetries and leads to boundary-induced structures and different field strengths. The effect is much smaller for dynamos driven by ICB buoyancy sources. Our results indicate that the field intensity and morphology of the ancient dynamos of Earth or Mars were more variable and more sensitive to the thermal CMB structure than the geodynamo after onset of inner core growth.

  10. 2-D numerical simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport — implications for the He terrestrial budget and the mantle helium heat imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Maria Clara; Patriarche, Delphine; Goblet, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Because helium and heat production results from a common source, a continental 4He crustal flux of 4.65 * 10 - 14 mol m - 2 s - 1 has been estimated based on heat flow considerations. In addition, because the observed mantle He / heat flux ratio at the proximity of mid-ocean ridges (6.6 * 10 - 14 mol J - 1 ) is significantly lower than the radiogenic production ratio (1.5 * 10 - 12 mol J - 1 ), the presence of a terrestrial helium-heat imbalance was suggested. The latter could be explained by the presence of a layered mantle in which removal of He is impeded from the lower mantle [R.K. O'Nions, E.R. Oxburgh, Heat and helium in the Earth, Nature 306 (1983) 429-431; E.R. Oxburgh, R.K. O'Nions, Helium loss, tectonics, and the terrestrial heat budget, Science 237 (1987) 1583-1588]. van Keken et al. [P.E. van Keken, C.J. Ballentine, D. Porcelli, A dynamical investigation of the heat and helium imbalance, Earth Planet, Sci. Lett. 188 (2001) 421-434] have recently claimed that the helium-heat imbalance remains a robust observation. Such conclusions, however, were reached under the assumption that a steady-state regime was in place for both tracers and that their transport properties are similar at least in the upper portion of the crust. Here, through 2-D simulations of groundwater flow, heat transfer and 4He transport carried out simultaneously in the Carrizo aquifer and surrounding formations in southwest Texas, we assess the legitimacy of earlier assumptions. Specifically, we show that the driving transport mechanisms for He and heat are of a fundamentally different nature for a high range of permeabilities ( k ≤ 10 - 16 m 2) found in metamorphic and volcanic rocks at all depths in the crust. The assumption that transport properties for these two tracers are similar in the crust is thus unsound. We also show that total 4He / heat flux ratios lower than radiogenic production ratios do not reflect a He deficit in the crust or mantle original reservoir. Instead, they

  11. Heat flow in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell and the thermal conductivity of iron-bearing oxides and silicates at lower mantle pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, E. S.; Kavner, A.; Hernlund, J. W.; Pilon, L.; Veitch, M.

    2012-12-01

    The thermal conductivity of minerals in the lowermost mantle controls the total heat flow across the core-mantle boundary and is critical for the thermal evolution of the Earth. However, lower mantle thermal conductivity values and their pressure, temperature, and compositional dependencies are not well known. Here we present our recent progress combining 3D models of heat flow in the laser-heated diamond cell (LHDAC) with laboratory measurements of hotspot temperature distributions to assess the thermal conductivity of lower mantle minerals as a function of pressure and temperature. Using our numerical model of heat flow in the LHDAC, central hotspot temperature and radial and axial temperature gradients are calculated as a function of laser power, sample thermal conductivity, and sample geometry. For a given geometry, the relationship between peak sample temperature and laser power depends on the sample thermal conductivity. However, quantifying the experimental parameters sufficiently to precisely determine an absolute value of sample thermal conductivity is difficult. But relative differences in thermal conductivity are easily inferred by comparing the slopes of differing temperature vs. laser power curves measured on the same system. This technique can be used to measure the pressure dependence of thermal conductivity for minerals at lower mantle conditions. We confirm the effectiveness of this approach by measuring the pressure slope of thermal conductivity for MgO between 10 and 30 GPa. MgO retains the B1 phase throughout the experimental pressure range, and existing experimental measurements and theoretical calculations are in good agreement on the pressure- and temperature- dependence of the thermal conductivity of MgO. We also use this technique to measure the relative thermal conductivity of high pressure assemblages created from San Carlos olivine starting material. Both MgO and (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 materials show a shallower temperature vs. laser power slope

  12. Crustal and upper-mantle structure beneath ice-covered regions in Antarctica from S-wave receiver functions and implications for heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Hansen, S. E.; Wiens, D. A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A. D.; Shore, P.; Wilson, T.

    2016-03-01

    S-wave receiver functions (SRFs) are used to investigate crustal and upper-mantle structure beneath several ice-covered areas of Antarctica. Moho S-to-P (Sp) arrivals are observed at ˜6-8 s in SRF stacks for stations in the Gamburtsev Mountains (GAM) and Vostok Highlands (VHIG), ˜5-6 s for stations in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and the Wilkes Basin (WILK), and ˜3-4 s for stations in the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) and the Marie Byrd Land Dome (MBLD). A grid search is used to model the Moho Sp conversion time with Rayleigh wave phase velocities from 18 to 30 s period to estimate crustal thickness and mean crustal shear wave velocity. The Moho depths obtained are between 43 and 58 km for GAM, 36 and 47 km for VHIG, 39 and 46 km for WILK, 39 and 45 km for TAM, 19 and 29 km for WARS and 20 and 35 km for MBLD. SRF stacks for GAM, VHIG, WILK and TAM show little evidence of Sp arrivals coming from upper-mantle depths. SRF stacks for WARS and MBLD show Sp energy arriving from upper-mantle depths but arrival amplitudes do not rise above bootstrapped uncertainty bounds. The age and thickness of the crust is used as a heat flow proxy through comparison with other similar terrains where heat flow has been measured. Crustal structure in GAM, VHIG and WILK is similar to Precambrian terrains in other continents where heat flow ranges from ˜41 to 58 mW m-2, suggesting that heat flow across those areas of East Antarctica is not elevated. For the WARS, we use the Cretaceous Newfoundland-Iberia rifted margins and the Mesozoic-Tertiary North Sea rift as tectonic analogues. The low-to-moderate heat flow reported for the Newfoundland-Iberia margins (40-65 mW m-2) and North Sea rift (60-85 mW m-2) suggest that heat flow across the WARS also may not be elevated. However, the possibility of high heat flow associated with localized Cenozoic extension or Cenozoic-recent magmatic activity in some parts of the WARS cannot be ruled out.

  13. Exploring Geothermal Energy Potential in Ireland through 3-D Geophysical-Petrological Modelling of Surface Heat-Flow and Crustal and Upper-Mantle Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullea, J.; Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Little is known of Ireland's deep, low-enthalpy geothermal resources and the potential for space heating and/or electricity generation based on geothermal energy to displace Ireland's significant reliance on carbon-based fuels. IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is a four-and-a-half year, all-island, academic-government-industry collaborative project, initiated in 2011, with the overarching objective of developing a strategic and holistic understanding of Ireland's geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One of the challenges in searching for deep geothermal resources in the relatively unexplored setting of Ireland lies in identifying those areas most likely to support significantly elevated temperatures at depth. Available borehole data, although sparse and clustered around areas of mineral and hydrocarbon interest, suggest a marked regional increase in surface heat-flow across Ireland, from ~40 mW/m2 in the south to >80 mW/m2 in the north. The origins of both the observed regional heat-flow trend and local temperature anomalies have not been investigated and are not currently understood. Although variations in the structure of the crust and lithosphere have been revealed by a number of active-source seismic and teleseismic experiments, their effects on surface heat-flow have not been modelled. Bulk 3-D variation in crustal heat-production across Ireland, which may contribute significantly to the observed regional and local temperature variations, has also not been determined. We investigate the origins of Ireland's regional heat-flow trend and regional and local temperature variations using the software package LitMod. This software combines petrological and geophysical modelling of the lithosphere and sub-lithospheric upper mantle within an internally consistent thermodynamic-geophysical framework, where all relevant properties are functions of temperature, pressure and chemical composition. The major

  14. On the role of the porous shell of the solid core of the earth in the anomalous heat and mass flow to the mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A.

    2013-03-15

    The model of the pressure-induced first-order phase transition of a metal melt to the metallicglass state considers a thermodynamically nonequilibrium porous near-surface shell of the solid core of the Earth, which contacts cyclonic vortices in the liquid core. Anomalous flows of heat and light-material mass to the mantle from the solid core at these contact points are calculated. These anomalous flows are shown to be comparable with the observed ones under the assumption of a rapid increase in the melt viscosity at pressures of 1-10 Mbar, which is characteristic of a solid core. In this case, the porous layer permeability may be very low.

  15. South Pacific hotspot swells dynamically supported by mantle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Claudia; Yoshida, Masaki; Isse, Takehi; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Fukao, Yoshio; Barruol, Guilhem

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of mantle plumes and the origin of their associated swells remain some of the most controversial topics in geodynamics. According to the plume theory, originally proposed by Morgan, the hotspot volcanoes are created by jets of hot material (plumes) rising from the deep mantle. With later studies, troubling inconsistencies began to emerge and other phenomena are invoked to explain intraplate volcanism, thus tending to nail the plume coffin. However, the problems encountered may simply be "the maturing of a valid theory to deal with the complexity of the real planet". This alternative is tested here by studying the dynamics of the South Pacific plumes through a new numerical model of mantle flow based on a highly-resolved seismic tomography model. We show here, for the first time, that a direct link exists between the surface observations and the mantle flow. We find indeed outstanding correlations between the observed and the modelled swells and between the modelled flow pattern and the active volcanism. This shows that at a first order, the morphology of the volcanic chains and their associated swells is controlled by the mantle flows. The excellent correlation we find between the buoyancy fluxes obtained from our numerical model and the ones deduced from the swells morphology has even broader implications. It implies indeed that we can accurately evaluate the heat transported by mantle plumes from a careful estimation of the swell morphology. We show that the heat transported by the South Pacific plumes accounts for 13% of the total plume heat flux.

  16. Dynamic coupling of bulk chemistry, trace elements and mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. H.; Heck, H. V.; Nowacki, A.; Wookey, J. M.; Elliott, T.; Porcelli, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fully dynamical models that not only track the evolution of chemical heterogeneities through the mantle, but also incorporate the effect of chemical heterogeneities on the dynamics of mantle convection are now emerging. Since in general analytical solutions to these complex problems are lacking, careful testing and investigations of the effect and usefulness of these models is needed. We extend our existing numerical mantle convection code that can track fluid flow in 3D spherical geometry and tracks both bulk chemical components (basal fraction) and different trace elements. The chemical components fractionate upon melting when and where the solidus is crossed. Now, the chemical information will effect the flow of the fluid in the following ways: The bulk composition will link to density and the (radioactive) trace element abundance to heat production. Results will be reported of the effect of different density structures; either starting with a primordial dense layer at the base of the mantle, having all density variation originate from melting (basalt production), or a combination between these two end-member scenarios. In particular we will focus on the connection between large scale bulk chemical structures in the (deep) mantle and the evolution of the distribution of noble gasses (He and Ar). The distribution of noble gasses depend upon 1) assumptions on the initial distributions in the mantle, 2) the mantle flow, 3) radioactive production and, 4) outgassing to the atmosphere upon melting close to the surface.

  17. South Pacific hotspot swells dynamically supported by mantle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Adam, C.; Isse, T.; Suetsugu, D.; Fukao, Y.; Barruol, G.

    2009-12-01

    The dynamics of mantle plumes and the origin of their associated swells remain some of the most controversial topics in geodynamics. According to the plume theory, originally proposed by Morgan, the hotspot volcanoes are created by jets of hot material (plumes) rising from the deep mantle. With later studies, troubling inconsistencies began to emerge and other phenomena are invoked to explain intraplate volcanism, thus tending to nail the plume coffin. However, the problems encountered may simply be “the maturing of a valid theory to deal with the complexity of the real planet”. This alternative is tested here by studying the dynamics of the South Pacific plumes through a new numerical model of mantle flow based on a highly-resolved seismic tomography model. We show here, for the first time, that a direct link exists between the surface observations and the mantle flow. We find indeed outstanding correlations between the observed and the modelled swells and between the modelled flow pattern and the active volcanism. This shows that at a first order, the morphology of the volcanic chains and their associated swells is controlled by the mantle flows. The excellent correlation we find between the buoyancy fluxes obtained from our numerical model and the ones deduced from the swells morphology has even broader implications. It implies indeed that we can accurately evaluate the heat transported by mantle plumes from a careful estimation of the swell morphology. We show that the heat transported by the South Pacific plumes accounts for 13% of the total plume heat flux.

  18. Active mantle flow and crustal dynamics in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, N.; Bennett, R.; Spinler, J.

    2007-12-01

    We present numerical modeling analysis of active upper mantle flow and its role in driving crustal deformation in southern California. The forces driving lithospheric deformation at tectonic plate boundaries can be thought of as the sum from two sources: (1) forces transmitted from the far-field by rigid tectonic plates, and (2) forces created locally at the plate boundary by heterogeneous density distribution. Here we quantify the latter by estimating the stresses acting on the base of the crust caused by density-driven flow of the upper mantle. Anomalous density structure is derived from shear wave velocity models (Yang & Forsyth, 2006) and is used to drive instantaneous incompressible viscous upper mantle flow relative to a fixed crust; this allows isolation of stresses acting on the crust. Comparison of results with the finite element codes Abaqus (commercial) and GALE (community- developed) is good. We find that horizontal tractions range from 0 to ~3 MPa and vertical tractions range between approximately -15 to 15 MPa (negative indicating downward, positive upward); Absolute magnitudes depend on the assumed velocity-density scaling relationship but the overall patterns of flow are more robust. Anomalous density beneath the Transverse Ranges, in particular beneath the San Bernardino Mountains and offshore beneath the Channel Islands, drives convergent horizontal tractions and negative vertical tractions on the base of the crust there. Anomalous buoyancy beneath the southern Walker Lane Belt and anomalous density beneath the southern Great Valley create a small convective cell (the Sierra Nevada "drip"), which promotes extension on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada block and subsidence of the Great Valley. Favorable comparison with contemporary crustal thickness, heat flow, and surface strain rate indicates that upper mantle flow plays a very important role in active crustal deformation in southern California and much of the non-ideal behavior of this

  19. Role of radiogenic heat generation in surface heat flow formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutorskoi, M. D.; Polyak, B. G.

    2016-03-01

    Heat generation due to decay of long-lived radioactive isotopes is considered in the Earth's crust of the Archean-Proterozoic and Paleozoic provinces of Eurasia and North America. The heat flow that forms in the mantle is calculated as the difference between the heat flow observed at the boundary of the solid Earth and radiogenic heat flow produced in the crust. The heat regime in regions with anomalously high radiogenic heat generation is discussed. The relationship between various heat flow components in the Precambrian and Phanerozoic provinces has been comparatively analyzed, and the role of erosion of the surfaceheat- generating layer has been estimated.

  20. Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.

  1. Dust-Mantled Olympus Mons Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 November 2006 Dust-covered lava flows on the lowermost south flank of Olympus Mons are captured in this 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view acquired during northern summer on 12 October 2006. One leveed lava channel just south (below) the center left of the image disappears into a thick, pitted and cratered dust mantle. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left. The image is located near 13.8oN, 134.1oW. North is toward the top/upper right.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Deep Mantle Flow: Thermochemical Convection and Entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Steinberger, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin; Sobolev, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    One of the most robust results from tomographic studies is the existence of two antipodally located Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) at the base of the mantle, which appear to be chemically denser than the ambient mantle. Results from reconstruction studies (Torsvik et al., 2006) infer that the LLSVPs are stable, long-lived, and are sampled by deep mantle plumes that rise predominantly from their margins. The origin of the dense material is debated, but generally falls within three categories: (i) a primitive layer that formed during magma ocean crystallization, (ii) accumulation of a dense eclogitic component from the recycled oceanic crust, and (iii) outer core material leaking into the lower mantle. A dense layer underlying a less dense ambient mantle is gravitationally stable. However, the flow due to thermal density variations, i.e. hot rising plumes and cold downwelling slabs, may deform the layer into piles with higher topography. Further deformation may lead to entrainment of the dense layer, its mixing with the ambient material, and even complete homogenisation with the rest of the mantle. The amount of the anomalous LLSVP-material that gets entrained into the rising plumes poses a constraint on the survival time of the LLSVPs, as well as on the plume buoyancy, on the lithospheric uplift associated with plume interaction and geochemical signature of the erupted lavas observed at the Earth's surface. Recent estimates for the plume responsible for the formation of the Siberian Flood Basalts give about 15% of entrained dense recycled oceanic crust, which made the hot mantle plume almost neutrally buoyant (Sobolev et al., 2011). In this numerical study we investigate the mechanics of entrainment of a dense basal layer by convective mantle flow. We observe that the types of flow that promote entrainment of the dense layer are (i) upwelling of the dense layer when it gets heated enough to overcome its stabilizing chemical density anomaly, (ii

  3. High surface topography related to upper mantle flow beneath Eastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komut, Tolga

    2015-11-01

    Eastern Anatolia region between north-south colliding Arabian and Eurasian plates has no significant crustal root and shallow (upper) mantle flow beneath seems to be vertically supporting its high topography. It has a high surface heat flow and the underlying mantle is characterized by low seismic velocity zones. Using a mantle density/temperature variation field derived from P-wave seismic velocity, current shallow mantle flow and resultant dynamic topography of Eastern Anatolia and adjacent Arabian foreland and Caucasus areas were calculated along a vertical section. The section crosses the tectonic boundaries interrelated with slab bodies (high seismic velocity/cold regions) and the low velocity zones above the slabs. According to the modelling experiments, the surface topography of Eastern Anatolia seems to be supported by shallow mantle flow dynamics. On the other hand, residual topography for the region was calculated using high resolution crustal thickness data. Positive residual topography that suggests an undercompensated state of Eastern Anatolia is in concordance with the dynamic topography anomaly. The modelled local shallow mantle flow support due to the density contrast between hot (low velocity) zones and underlying cold slab bodies beneath the area may be the present-day snapshot of the mantle flow uplift in Eastern Anatolia presence of which was previously suggested.

  4. Map of Io's volcanic heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Veeder, Glenn J.; Matson, Dennis L.; Johnson, Torrence V.

    2015-12-01

    We present a map of Io's volcanic heat flow. Io's high heat flow is a result of intense tidal heating, which generates widespread volcanic activity. The surface expression of ongoing volcanic activity constrains the location and magnitude of tidal dissipation within Io. Tidal heating models place heating either at relatively shallow (aesthenosphere) levels, or deep in the mantle. It was thought that actual tidal heating could be approximated using a combination of these end-member models. Io's volcanic heat flow has now been mapped in sufficient detail to compare with the models. Our maps show that the distribution of heat flow is not matched by current models of deep nor shallow tidal heating, nor by any combination of these two models. We find relatively low heat flow at sub-jovian (0°W) and anti-jovian (180°W) longitudes, at odds with the pure aesthenospheric heating model. Furthermore, there are large swaths of Io's surface where there is poor correlation between the number of hot spots in an area and the power emitted. We have previously accounted for ≈54% of Io's observed heat flow. We now show that Io's anomalously warm poles, possibly the result of heat flow from deep-mantle heating, would yield the "missing" energy (48 TW) if the polar surfaces are at temperatures of ∼90 K to ∼95 K and cover latitudes above ∼43° to ∼48° respectively. This possibility implies a ratio of deep to shallow heating of about 1:1. However, explaining regional variations in surface volcanic activity requires more detailed modeling of the location and magnitude of the internal tidal dissipation and the consequences of mantle convection and advection within Io. Future model predictions can be compared to our heat flow map.

  5. Superplumes from the core-mantle boundary to the lithosphere: implications for heat flux.

    PubMed

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Gung, Yuancheng

    2002-04-19

    Three-dimensional modeling of upper-mantle anelastic structure reveals that thermal upwellings associated with the two superplumes, imaged by seismic elastic tomography at the base of the mantle, persist through the upper-mantle transition zone and are deflected horizontally beneath the lithosphere. This explains the unique transverse shear wave isotropy in the central Pacific. We infer that the two superplumes may play a major and stable role in supplying heat and horizontal flow to the low-viscosity asthenospheric channel, lubricating plate motions and feeding hot spots. We suggest that more heat may be carried through the core-mantle boundary than is accounted for by hot spot fluxes alone. PMID:11964474

  6. On retrodictions of global mantle flow with assimilated surface velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, Lorenzo; Bunge, Hans-Peter; Schuberth, Bernhard S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Modeling past states of Earth's mantle and relating them to geologic observations such as continental-scale uplift and subsidence is an effective method for testing mantle convection models. However, mantle convection is chaotic and two identical mantle models initialized with slightly different temperature fields diverge exponentially in time until they become uncorrelated, thus limiting retrodictions (i.e., reconstructions of past states of Earth's mantle obtained using present information) to the recent past. We show with 3-D spherical mantle convection models that retrodictions of mantle flow can be extended significantly if knowledge of the surface velocity field is available. Assimilating surface velocities produces in some cases negative Lyapunov times (i.e., e-folding times), implying that even a severely perturbed initial condition may evolve toward the reference state. A history of the surface velocity field for Earth can be obtained from past plate motion reconstructions for time periods of a mantle overturn, suggesting that mantle flow can be reconstructed over comparable times.

  7. Mantle convection with continental drift and heat source around the mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, H.; Kameyama, M.; Kawai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Geological studies have suggested that significant amount of granitic crustal materials have been lost from the surface by the delamination (~1.1 km^3/yr) [1], continental collision (~0.4-0.7 km^3/yr) [1, 2], and subduction at ocean-margin (~2.5-3 km^3/yr) [1, 2]. At ocean-margin subduction zones, most of the granitic materials subducted from the surface are expected to be conveyed through subduction channels by viscous drag to 270km depth [Ichikawa el al., in revision]. If so, then the subducted crustal materials might be expected to be trapped in the mid-mantle owing to the density difference from peridotitic materials induced by the phase transition from coesite to stishovite at 270km depth. In other words, strong heat source materials are most likely to be accumulated around the mantle transition zone, at least, near the plate subduction zones. In this study, we conducted two-dimensional numerical experiments of mantle convection with continental drift and a heat source placed around the mantle transition zone, in order to study the effect of the subducted granitic materials drifting around the mantle transition zone. The simulations deal with a time-dependent convection of fluid under the extended Boussinesq approximation in a model of a two-dimensional rectangular box of 2900km height and 11600km width, where a continent and heat source is imposed. We found that the addition of the heat source considerably reduces the time scale of continental drift. In the absence of the heat source, the resulting time scale is too long compared with that of the so-called supercontinent cycle, where the breakup is induced from a plume generated by an insulating effect of the continent. The heat source also causes massive mechanical mixing especially on the upper mantle. The result suggests that the heat source drifting around mantle transition zone can be a possible candidate inducing the supercontinent cycle in an appropriate time scale. [1] Clift, P. D., P. Vannucchi, and

  8. The mantle flow field beneath western North America.

    PubMed

    Silver, P G; Holt, W E

    2002-02-01

    Although motions at the surface of tectonic plates are well determined, the accompanying horizontal mantle flow is not. We have combined observations of surface deformation and upper mantle seismic anisotropy to estimate this flow field for western North America. We find that the mantle velocity is 5.5 +/- 1.5 centimeters per year due east in a hot spot reference frame, nearly opposite to the direction of North American plate motion (west-southwest). The flow is only weakly coupled to the motion of the surface plate, producing a small drag force. This flow field is probably due to heterogeneity in mantle density associated with the former Farallon oceanic plate beneath North America. PMID:11834831

  9. Mantle flow in regions of complex tectonics: Insights from Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Leo, J. F.; Wookey, J.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Kaneshima, S.; Inoue, H.; Yamashina, T.; Harjadi, P.

    2012-12-01

    Indonesia is arguably one of the tectonically most complex regions on Earth today due to its location at the junction of several major tectonic plates and its long history of collision and accretion. It is thus an ideal location to study the interaction between subducting plates and mantle convection. Seismic anisotropy can serve as a diagnostic tool for identifying various subsurface deformational processes, such as mantle flow, for example. Here, we present novel shear wave splitting results across the Indonesian region. Using three different shear phases (local S, SKS, and downgoing S) to improve spatial resolution of anisotropic fabrics allows us to distinguish several deformational features. For example, the block rotation history of Borneo is reflected in coast-parallel fast directions, which we attribute to fossil anisotropy. Furthermore, we are able to unravel the mantle flow pattern in the Sulawesi and Banda region: We detect toroidal flow around the Celebes Sea slab, oblique corner flow in the Banda wedge, and sub-slab mantle flow around the arcuate Banda slab. We present evidence for deep, sub-520 km anisotropy at the Java subduction zone. In the Sumatran backarc, we measure trench-perpendicular fast orientations, which we assume to be due to mantle flow beneath the overriding Eurasian plate. These observations will allow to test ideas of, for example, slab-mantle coupling in subduction regions.

  10. Mantle Flow beneath Arabia Offset from the Opening Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Chang, S.; Merino, M.; van der Lee, S.; Stein, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The rifting of continents involves a complex and poorly understood sequence of lithospheric stretching, volcanism, and mantle flow that eventually gives rise to seafloor spreading that forms a new ocean basin. The Red Sea, forming as the Arabian plate diverges from Africa, is a classic area for studying this process. Here, we present new insight from joint inversion of seismic wave travel times and waveforms to map velocity structure beneath Arabia and its surroundings. We find the low velocities expected for hot upwelling mantle material centered beneath the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, consistent with the active spreading there. However, this hot material extends not below the northern Red Sea, but is instead offset to the east beneath Arabia, showing northward upper mantle flow from the Afar hotspot. The location of this low velocity channel beneath volcanic rocks erupted since rifting began 30 million years ago indicates that although the flow originates from the hotspot that is essentially fixed in the upper mantle, the channel moves with the Arabian plate. We thus propose that the absence of seafloor spreading in the northern Red Sea reflects the offset mantle flow. Because this offset has existed for millions of years, it is unclear whether it will evolve into seafloor spreading, rifting of Arabia above the channel, or both. This situation has aspects of the end-member models of rifting initiated by either mantle flow or lithospheric extension, and thus shows that the two can occur somewhat independently in different places before coalescing to seafloor spreading.

  11. Mantle flow influence on the evolution of subduction systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertova, Maria; Spakman, Wim; Steinberger, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Evolution of the subducting slab has been widely investigated in the past two decades be means of numerical and laboratory modeling, including analysis of the factors controlling its behavior. However, until present, relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of the mantle flow. While for large subduction zones, due to the high slab buoyancy force, this effect might be small, mantle flow might be a primary factor controlling the evolution of a regional subduction zone. Here we investigate the impact of prescribed mantle flow on the evolution of both generic and real-Earth subduction models by means of 3D thermo-mechanical numerical modeling. The generic setup consists of a laterally symmetric subduction model using a 3000×2000×1000 km modeling domain with a lateral slab width varying from 500 to 1500 km. Non-linear rheology is implemented including diffusion, dislocation creep and a viscosity-limiter. To satisfy mass conservation, while implementing mantle inflow on some side boundaries, we keep other sides open (Chertova et al. 2012). To test the mantle flow influence on the dynamics of real-Earth subduction zone we adopt the numerical model from Chertova et al. (2014) for the evolution of the western Mediterranean subduction since 35 Ma. First, this model was tested with the arbitrary mantle flow prescribed on one of the four side boundaries or for the combination of two boundaries. In the last set of experiments, for side boundary conditions we use time-dependent estimates of actual mantle flow in the region based on Steinberger (2015) given for every 1 My. We demonstrate that for the western-Mediterranean subduction, the surrounding mantle flow is of second-order compared to slab buoyancy in controlling the dynamics of the subducting slab. Introducing mantle flow on the side boundaries might, however, improve the fit between the modeled and real slab imaged by tomography, although this may also trade-off with varying rheological parameters of

  12. A heat flow calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, W. V.

    1973-01-01

    Reaction mechanism for nickel-cadmium cell is not known well enough to allow calculation of heat effects. Calorimeter can measure heat absorbed or evolved in cell, by determining amount of external heat that must be supplied to calorimeter to maintain constant flow isothermal heat sink.

  13. Internally heated mantle convection and the thermal and degassing history of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Pan, Vivian

    1992-01-01

    An internally heated model of parameterized whole mantle convection with viscosity dependent on temperature and volatile content is examined. The model is run for 4l6 Gyr, and temperature, heat flow, degassing and regassing rates, stress, and viscosity are calculated. A nominal case is established which shows good agreement with accepted mantle values. The effects of changing various parameters are also tested. All cases show rapid cooling early in the planet's history and strong self-regulation of viscosity due to the temperature and volatile-content dependence. The effects of weakly stress-dependent viscosity are examined within the bounds of this model and are found to be small. Mantle water is typically outgassed rapidly to reach an equilibrium concentration on a time scale of less than 200 Myr for almost all models, the main exception being for models which start out with temperatures well below the melting temperature.

  14. Resistance to mantle flow inferred from the electromagnetic strike of the Australian upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Simpson, F

    2001-08-01

    Seismic anisotropy is thought to result from the strain-induced lattice-preferred orientation of mantle minerals, especially olivine, owing to shear waves propagating faster along the a-axis of olivine crystals than along the other axes. This anisotropy results in birefringence, or 'shear-wave splitting', which has been investigated in numerous studies. Although olivine is also anisotropic with respect to electrical conductivity (with the a-axis being most conductive), few studies of the electrical anisotropy of the upper mantle have been undertaken, and these have been limited to relatively shallow depths in the lithospheric upper mantle. Theoretical models of mantle flow have been used to infer that, for progressive simple shear imparted by the motion of an overriding tectonic plate, the a-axes of olivine crystals should align themselves parallel to the direction of plate motion. Here, however, we show that a significant discrepancy exists between the electromagnetic strike of the mantle below Australia and the direction of present-day absolute plate motion. We infer from this discrepancy that the a-axes of olivine crystals are not aligned with the direction of the present-day plate motion of Australia, indicating resistance to deformation of the mantle by plate motion. PMID:11493919

  15. Heat flow structure in the Paleozoides of the Central Asian Fold Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutorskoy, M. D.; Lyapunov, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat generation produced by radioactive decay of long-lived isotopes in the Earth's crust (radiogenic heat flow) within the Paleozoic provinces of the Central Asian Fold Belt is considered. Heat flow from the mantle is calculated as the difference between the observed heat flow and the radiogenic flow. The major cause of this heat flow is the transition of potential energy of gravity differentiation into heat; in this respect, mantle heat flow is called gravigenic. Calculation shows that the fractions of radiogenic and gravigenic heat flows in the Paleozoides studied are nearly equal.

  16. Why is the Cascadia subduction zone backarc hot? Numerical tests of mantle wedge flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, C. A.; Wang, K.; Hyndman, R. D.; He, J.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding mantle wedge processes is critical for constraining thermal and petrological controls on in-slab earthquakes and the behaviour of the deep subduction thrust fault. Observational constraints indicate that the mantle wedge at the northern Cascadia subduction zone is extremely hot. Below the volcanic arc, temperatures greater than 1300° C are required for magma generation. In the backarc, surface heat flow, seismic velocities, thermal isostasy and xenolith studies suggest temperatures of 1200° C at 60 km depth for a distance of 500 km. The landward limit of the backarc is the abrupt contact with the thick, cold North America craton, making high backarc temperatures even more surprising. An initial compilation of thermal data shows that most other backarcs are similarly hot. Finite element thermal models are used to investigate the backarc mantle flow structure that maintains these high temperatures. Two principle driving forces for flow are: traction along the top of the subducting slab and buoyancy forces due to lateral thermal heterogeneities, such as cooling by the slab and Rayleigh instabilities. In this study, we primarily deal with traction-driven flow, using Cascadia subduction parameters. A thick (>200 km) lithosphere was introduced at the landward backarc boundary, consistent with the presence of the North America craton root. For an isoviscous mantle, the craton deflects hot material from depth into the wedge, resulting in a warmer wedge than models without a craton, although the temperatures are 150-300° C lower than inferred from observations. Decoupling of the wedge from the over-riding plate increases the backarc Moho temperature by over 100° C; temperatures below the arc are relatively unaffected. With a more realistic stress- and temperature-dependent viscosity, high velocity flow originates from great depths along the landward boundary, even without a craton. Flow is strongly focussed into the wedge corner, leading to much higher sub

  17. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments. PMID:16286290

  18. Mantle wedge flow pattern and thermal structure in Northeast Japan: Effects of oblique subduction and 3-D slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Ikuko; He, Jiangheng; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakajima, Junichi

    2015-09-01

    We develop a 3-D thermal model for the Northeast Japan subduction margin, using a realistic slab geometry for the subducting Pacific plate, and investigate the effects of oblique subduction and 3-D slab geometry on the mantle wedge flow pattern and the thermal structure. In the Tohoku region, the mantle wedge flow pattern is nearly two-dimensional resulting in a thermal structure similar to those obtained by a 2-D model, owing to the simple slab geometry and subduction nearly perpendicular to the margin. However, in Hokkaido, oblique subduction leads to 3-D mantle wedge flow with northerly inflow and west-northwestward outflow and also results in lower temperatures in the shallow part of the mantle wedge than in Tohoku due to lower sinking rate of the slab. Between Hokkaido and Tohoku, the slab has a hinge-like shape due to a relatively sharp change in the dip direction. In this hinge zone, northerly mantle inflow from Hokkaido and westerly mantle inflow from Tohoku converge, discouraging inflow from northwest and resulting in a cooler mantle wedge. The model-predicted mantle wedge flow patterns are consistent with observed seismic anisotropy and may explain the orientations of volcanic cross-chains. The predicted 3-D thermal structure correlates well with the along-arc variations in the location of the frontal arc volcanoes and help to provide new insights into the surface heat flow pattern and the down-dip extent of interplate earthquakes.

  19. Evolution of the interior of Mercury influenced by coupled magmatism-mantle convection system and heat flux from the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Masaki

    2016-02-01

    To discuss mantle evolution in Mercury, I present two-dimensional numerical models of magmatism in a convecting mantle. Thermal, compositional, and magmatic buoyancy drives convection of temperature-dependent viscosity fluid in a rectangular box placed on the top of the core that is modeled as a heat bath of uniform temperature. Magmatism occurs as a permeable flow of basaltic magma generated by decompression melting through a matrix. Widespread magmatism caused by high initial temperature of the mantle and the core makes the mantle compositionally stratified within the first several hundred million years of the 4.5 Gyr calculated history. The stratified structure persists for 4.5 Gyr, when the reference mantle viscosity at 1573 K is higher than around 1020 Pa s. The planet thermally contracts by an amount comparable to the one suggested for Mercury over the past 4 Gyr. Mantle upwelling, however, generates magma only for the first 0.1-0.3 Gyr. At lower mantle viscosity, in contrast, a positive feedback between magmatism and mantle upwelling operates to cause episodic magmatism that continues for the first 0.3-0.8 Gyr. Convective current stirs the mantle and eventually dissolves its stratified structure to enhance heat flow from the core and temporarily resurrect magmatism depending on the core size. These models, however, predict larger contraction of the planet. Coupling between magmatism and mantle convection plays key roles in mantle evolution, and the difficulty in numerically reproducing the history of magmatism of Mercury without causing too large radial contraction of the planet warrants further exploration of this coupling.

  20. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath Africa and Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed Abdalla

    In spite of numerous studies, the mechanisms for the rifting, uplifting, and volcanism on the African plate remain enigmatic. The most popular hypotheses proposed for explaining these tectonic phenomena involve edge-driven small-scale mantle convection and the thermal or dynamic effects of one or more mantle plumes. In this study we use continental scale shear-wave splitting (SWS) measurements to provide additional constraints on the various models of rifting, uplifting, and volcanism of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the Arabian plate. The splitting of P-to-S converted phases at the core-mantle boundary on the receiver side (XKS including PKS, SKKS, and SKS) is one of the most effective approaches to constrain convective mantle flow patterns. A robust procedure involving automatic and manual batch processing to reliably assess and objectively rank shear-wave splitting parameters were used. The resulting 1532 pairs of splitting parameters show a NNE dominated fast direction. Spatial distribution of the splitting parameters in the CVL and Arabia is not consistent with the edge-driven small-scale mantle convection hypothesis, the mantle plume hypothesis, fossil fabrics formed by past tectonic events, or the fabric-forming process due to the absolute plate motion relative to the deep mantle. The research suggests that the progressive thinning of the lithosphere through basal erosion by the flow leads to decompression melting is responsible for the formation of the CVL, and olivine lattice preferred orientation in the upper asthenosphere associated with the northward motion of the African plate since 150 Ma, most likely causes the observed anisotropy across the Red Sea.

  1. Does subduction-induced mantle flow drive backarc extension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhihao; Schellart, Wouter P.; Strak, Vincent; Duarte, João C.

    2016-05-01

    Backarc extension is a characteristic feature of many narrow subduction zones. Seismological and geochemical studies imply the occurrence of mantle flow around the narrow subducting slabs. Previous 3D models suggested that backarc extension is related to subduction-induced toroidal mantle flow. The physical viability of this mechanism, however, has never been tested using laboratory-based geodynamic models. In this work, we present dynamic laboratory models of progressive subduction in three-dimensional (3D) space that were carried out to test this mechanism. To achieve this, we have used a stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (sPIV) technique to map simultaneously overriding plate deformation and 3D subduction-induced mantle flow underneath and around an overriding plate. The results show that the strain field of the overriding plate is characterized by the localization of an area of maximum extension within its interior (at 300-500 km from the trench). The position of maximum extension closely coincides (within ∼2 cm, scaling to 100 km) with that of the maximum trench-normal horizontal mantle velocity and velocity gradient measured at a scaled depth of 15-25 km below the base of the overriding plate, and the maximum horizontal gradient of the vertical mantle velocity gradient. We propound that in narrow subduction zones backarc extension in the overriding plate is mainly a consequence of the trench-normal horizontal gradients of basal drag force at the base of the overriding plate. Such shear force gradients result from a horizontal gradient in velocity in the mantle below the base of the lithosphere induced by slab rollback. Calculations based on our models indicate a tensional horizontal trench-normal deviatoric stress in the backarc region scaling to ∼28.8 MPa, while the overriding plate trench-normal stress resulting from the horizontal component of the trench suction force is about an order of magnitude smaller, scaling to ∼2.4-3.6 MPa.

  2. Mantle flow beneath Arabia offset from the opening Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Joon; Merino, Miguel; Van der Lee, Suzan; Stein, Seth; Stein, Carol A.

    2011-02-01

    Continental rifting involves a poorly understood sequence of lithospheric stretching, volcanism, and mantle flow that evolves to seafloor spreading. We present new insight from inversion of seismic traveltimes and waveforms beneath Arabia and surroundings. Low velocities occur beneath the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, consistent with active spreading. However, hot material extends not below the northern Red Sea, but is offset eastward beneath Arabia, showing mantle flow from the Afar hotspot. The location of this channel beneath volcanic rocks erupted since rifting began 30 million years ago indicates that flow moves with Arabia. We propose that the absence of seafloor spreading in the northern Red Sea reflects the offset flow. This geometry may evolve to spreading in the Northern Red Sea, rifting of Arabia, or both. This situation has aspects of both active and passive rifting, showing that both can occur before coalescing to seafloor spreading.

  3. Seismic determination of elastic anisotropy and mantle flow.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Yu, Y

    1993-08-27

    When deformed, many rocks develop anisotropic elastic properties. On many seismic records, a long-period (100 to 250 seconds), "quasi-Love" wave with elliptical polarization arrives slightly after the Love wave but before the Rayleigh wave. Mantle anisotropy is sufficient to explain these observations qualitatively as long as the "fast" axis of symmetry is approximately horizontal. Quasi-Love observations for several propagation paths near Pacific Ocean subduction zones are consistent with either flow variations in the mantle within or beneath subducting plates or variations in the direction of fossil spreading in older parts of the Pacific plate. PMID:17790352

  4. Mantle Flow Pattern and Dynamic Topography beneath the Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; King, S. D.; Adam, C. M.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M. H.; Kirby, E.

    2015-12-01

    The complex tectonic history of the eastern US over the past billion years includes episodes of subduction and rifting associated with two complete cycles of supercontinent assembly and breakup. Both the previous global tomography models (S40RTS, SAVANI, TX2011, GyPSuM, SMEAN) and the analysis of the shear-wave splitting from the broadband seismic stations find a distinct coast-to-inland differentiation pattern in the lithosphere and upper mantle. The Mid-Atlantic Geophysical Integrative Collaboration (MAGIC) includes a dense linear seismic array from the Atlantic coast of Virginia to the western boarder of Ohio, crossing several different tectonic zones. To derive the regional mantle flow pattern along with its surface expression such as dynamic topography and aid the interpretation of the seismic observations, we are building a new geodynamic model based on ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth CovecTion) that uses buoyancy derived from seismic tomography along with realistic lithosphere and sub-lithosphere structure. At present, we use S40RTS and SAVANI tomography models together with the temperature-dependent viscosity to compute the mantle flow and dynamic topography. Beneath the eastern US, the upper mantle flow in our model is primarily parallel to the trend of the Appalachian belt, which is broadly consistent with the direction of the local shear-wave splitting. The dynamic topography results exhibit a coast-to-inland magnitude differentiation along the MAGIC seismic deployment. The numerical tests also show that both the magnitude and pattern of the dynamic topography are quite sensitive to the density perturbation and rigidity of the lithosphere/sub-lithosphere. Our future work involves using other tomography and viscosity models to obtain the mantle flow pattern as well as the resulting dynamic topography and geoid.

  5. Thermophysical Modeling of Mantled Lava Flows on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, M. S.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    There has been a long history of thermophysical modeling of the martian surface from the earliest Mariner missions in the 1960's to the current Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers. Thermal inertia has been used for many types of Mars science applications, including estimating grain sizes of eolian materials, rock abundances on the surface, the presence of subsurface ice, and locations of exposed bedrock. It is also used to determine regions relatively free of dust mantling, which have then been the focus of more advanced surface compositional mapping using TIR emissivity. However, there are areas on Mars with very complex surfaces that display complex thermophysical behaviors within a small region. For example, blocky lava flows that warm quickly in the day and cool rapidly at night are in the vicinity of flows that display the opposite behavior, which are also in the same region as flows that show no difference in temperature over the diurnal cycle. Such behavior can result from a unique combination of surface roughness, albedo, and dust thickness, and one such location is the well-developed lava flow field south of Arsia Mons. This region contains some of the largest meter-scale RMS roughness on the planet and recent mapping has shown these flows to be relative young (~100 My). A primary goal of the current research is to develop approaches whereby the spectral effects of the mantling material can be decoupled from the spectra of the underlying lava flows, thereby mapping the composition. Knowledge of any petrologic variability along a single flow or between different flows would provide insights into the development of the flow field if coupled with traditional geologic mapping and relative dating. We have begun to address this complex problem by first studying a terrestrial thermophysical analog site. The silicic flow and dome surfaces of the Mono Craters/Domes (MCD) in east-central CA formed within the last 1,000 years. Some are mantled in places by fine

  6. Time-dependent convection models of mantle thermal structure constrained by seismic tomography and geodynamics: implications for mantle plume dynamics and CMB heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glišović, P.; Forte, A. M.; Moucha, R.

    2012-08-01

    surface plates and a rigid surface. The thermal interpretation of seismic tomography models does not provide a radial profile of the horizontally averaged temperature (i.e. the geotherm) in the mantle. One important goal of this study is to obtain a steady-state geotherm with boundary layers which satisfies energy balance of the system and provides the starting point for more realistic numerical simulations of the Earth's evolution. We obtain surface heat flux in the range of Earth-like values : 37 TW for a rigid surface and 44 TW for a surface with tectonic plates coupled to the mantle flow. Also, our convection simulations deliver CMB heat flux that is on the high end of previously estimated values, namely 13 TW and 20 TW, for rigid and plate-like surface boundary conditions, respectively. We finally employ these two end-member surface boundary conditions to explore the very-long-time scale evolution of convection over billion-year time windows. These billion-year-scale simulations will allow us to determine the extent to which a 'memory' of the starting tomography-based thermal structure is preserved and hence to explore the longevity of the structures in the present-day mantle. The two surface boundary conditions, along with the geodynamically inferred radial viscosity profiles, yield steady-state convective flows that are dominated by long wavelengths throughout the lower mantle. The rigid-surface condition yields a spectrum of mantle heterogeneity dominated by spherical harmonic degree 3 and 4, and the plate-like surface condition yields a pattern dominated by degree 1. Our exploration of the time-dependence of the spatial heterogeneity shows that, for both types of surface boundary condition, deep-mantle hot upwellings resolved in the present-day tomography model are durable and stable features. These deeply rooted mantle plumes show remarkable longevity over very long geological time spans, mainly owing to the geodynamically inferred high viscosity in the lower

  7. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of contemporary mantle flow and tectonic stress beneath the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Aoudia, Abdelkrim; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2010-02-01

    The structure, density and effective viscosity of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Central Mediterranean influence lithospheric deformation, mantle flow, and tectonic stress state. To estimate the contribution of buoyancy forces to regional dynamics, three-dimensional finite-element models are developed to determine contemporary uppermost mantle flow and tectonic stresses. We use density models for the crust and uppermost mantle derived from S-wave seismic velocities and constrained by gravity data. The viscosity model is constrained by the observed strain rate and regional heat flow data. The modeled movement of the uppermost crust is consistent with the northeast-oriented motion of the lithosphere and is in an agreement with the geodetic measurements. The modeled flow patterns of the lower crust and uppermost mantle are consistent with the regional observations. The models predict (i) northwest-oriented movements beneath the southeast part of the Adriatic Sea region, (ii) the northeastern subduction beneath the western part of the Adriatic Sea, (iii) the upwelling beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea and its eastern coast, (iv) the western movement of the Ionian Sea sub-plate, and (v) the subduction beneath the western Calabria region. Our models predict also a distinct compressional regime along the northeast part of the Italian peninsula and to the east of Sicily, and a tensional regime beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea, Umbria-Marche region, and Ionian Sea. The predicted tectonic stress regimes in the northern and central Apennines are in agreement with stress regimes derived from earthquake fault-plane solutions. Changes in the predicted crustal stress pattern and magnitude are likely to be caused by buoyancy-driven mantle circulation beneath the region rather than by gravitational potential energy differences in the crust itself. Based on the model results, we conclude that the buoyancy forces play an important role in the contemporary tectonics of the region.

  8. Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: Heliumisotope trends

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2007-10-07

    Heat and mass are injected into the shallow crust when mantle fluids are able to flow through the ductile lower crust. Minimum 3He/4He ratios in surface fluids from the northern Basin and Range province, western North America increase systematically from low, crustal values in the east to high, mantle values in the west, a regional trend that correlates with the rates of active crustal deformation. The highest ratios occur where the extension and shear strain rates are greatest. The correspondence of helium isotope ratios and active trans-tensional deformation indicates a deformation enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere in regions even where there is no significant magmatism. Superimposed on the regional trend are local, high-{sup 3}He/{sup 4}He anomalies signifying hidden magmatic activity and/or deep fluid production with locally enhanced permeability, identifying zones with high resource potential, particularly for geothermal energy development.

  9. Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: helium isotope trends.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, B Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C

    2007-11-30

    Heat and mass are injected into the shallow crust when mantle fluids are able to flow through the ductile lower crust. Minimum 3He/4He ratios in surface fluids from the northern Basin and Range Province, western North America, increase systematically from low crustal values in the east to high mantle values in the west, a regional trend that correlates with the rates of active crustal deformation. The highest ratios occur where the extension and shear strain rates are greatest. The correspondence of helium isotope ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where there is no substantial magmatism. Superimposed on the regional trend are local, high 3He/4He anomalies indicating hidden magmatic activity and/or deep fluid production with locally enhanced permeability, identifying zones with high resource potential, particularly for geothermal energy development. PMID:18048684

  10. Enceladus' Enigmatic Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Spencer, D.; Verbiscer, A.; Hurford, T.; Segura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of Enceladus' heat flow is important because it provides a vital constraint on Enceladus' tidal dissipation mechanisms, orbital evolution, and the physical processes that generate the plumes. In 2011 we published an estimate of the current heat flow from Enceladus' active south polar terrain: 15.8 +/- 3.1 GW (Howett et al., 2011). This value was calculated by first estimating by modeling, and then removing, the passive component from 17 to 1000 micron observations made of the entire south polar terrain by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). The heat flow was then directly calculated from the residual, assumed endogenic, component. The derived heat flow of 15.8 GW was surprisingly high, about 10 times greater than that predicted by steady-state tidal heating (Meyer and Wisdom, 2007). CIRS has also returned high spatial resolution observations of Enceladus' active south polar terrain. Two separate observations are used: 9 to 16 micron observations taken over nearly the complete south polar terrain and a single 17 to 1000 micron scan over Damascus, Baghdad and Cairo. The shorter wavelength observations are only sensitive to high temperature emission (>70 K), and so longer wavelength observations are required (despite their limited spatial coverage) to estimate the low temperature emission from the stripes. Analysis of these higher resolution observations tells a different story of Enceladus' endogenic heat flow: the preliminary estimate of the heat flow from the active tiger stripes using these observations is 4.2 GW. An additional 0.5 GW must be added to this number to account for the latent heat release by the plumes (Ingersoll and Pankine 2009), giving a total preliminary estimate of 4.9 GW. The discrepancy in these two numbers is significant and we are currently investigating the cause. One possible reason is that there is significantly higher endogenic emission from the regions between the tiger stripes than we currently estimate

  11. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  12. Convective heat flow probe

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  13. Lunar heat flow: Regional prospective of the Apollo landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegler, M. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    reexamine the Apollo Heat Flow Experiment in light of new orbital data. Using three-dimensional thermal conduction models, we examine effects of crustal thickness, density, and radiogenic abundance on measured heat flow values at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites. These models show the importance of regional context on heat flux measurements. We find that measured heat flux can be greatly altered by deep subsurface radiogenic content and crustal density. However, total crustal thickness and the presence of a near-surface radiogenic-rich ejecta provide less leverage, representing only minor (<1.5 mW m-2) perturbations on surface heat flux. Using models of the crust implied by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory results, we found that a roughly 9-13 mW m-2 mantle heat flux best approximate the observed heat flux. This equates to a total mantle heat production of 2.8-4.1 × 1011 W. These heat flow values could imply that the lunar interior is slightly less radiogenic than the Earth's mantle, perhaps implying that a considerable fraction of terrestrial mantle material was incorporated at the time of formation. These results may also imply that heat flux at the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Procellarum potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus (KREEP) Terrane (PKT) is anomalously elevated compared to the rest of the Moon. These results also suggest that a limited KREEP-rich layer exists beneath the PKT crust. If a subcrustal KREEP-rich layer extends below the Apollo 17 landing site, required mantle heat flux can drop to roughly 7 mW m-2, underlining the need for future heat flux measurements outside of the radiogenic-rich PKT region.

  14. Upper mantle flow and lithospheric dynamics beneath the Eurasian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Jiang, G.; Jia, Z.; Gao, R.; Fu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Evidence from seismic tomography, geothermal and short wavelength geoid anomalies reveals the existence of small-scale convective systems in the upper mantle, with scales ranging from 500 km to 700 km. It is reasonable to suggest that these small-scale convective systems probably control the regional tectonic structure and the dynamical processes of the lithosphere. Here we have calculated the patterns of small-scale convection in the upper mantle for the Eurasian region (20°E~170°E,15°N~75°N), using the anomaly of isostatic gravity. The results show that the regional lithospheric tectonics is strongly correlated with the upper mantle flow in the Eurasian region. Two intensive convective belts against the weak background convection can be recognized from convection patterns in this region: Alpine-Himalayan collision belt and West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt. Alpine-Himalayan belt is caused by the collision between the northern plate (Eurasian plate) and the southern plates (African plate and Indian plate). West Pacific island arc-underthrust belt is caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Both of them are also seismotectonic belts. The collision and the subduction are two important geological events occurred since Mesozoic era and Cenozoic era in the Eurasian region. Therefore, the mantle flows may be one of the main driving forces of two events. In addition, most plate boundaries in this region can be recognized and the characteristics of upper mantle convection are different completely between the Eurasian plate and the plates around it (African plate, Arabian plate, Indian plate, Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate). Main structures and geodynamic characteristics of the Eurasian can also be explained by our model results. The Tibet plateau is located in the intensive convective belt. Around the belt, the upwelling materials push the lithosphere to lift unitarily and form the plateau. Towards the north of the Tibet

  15. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  16. Heat flow of the Norwegian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial heat flow influences a large collection of geological processes. Its determination is a requirement to assess the economic potential of deep sedimentary basins. Published heat flow calculations from e.g. major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. The Barents Shelf shows significantly high heat flow, suggesting lateral transfer of heat from the mantle of the adjacent young ocean. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and V

  17. Anisotropic Peridotite Rheology and Regional Upper Mantle Flow Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D. K.; Boyce, D.; Dawson, P.; Castelnau, O.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the rheologic impact of strong lattice preferred orientation (LPO), such as develops due to plate-driven shear, on the pattern of upper mantle flow near plate boundaries. We use finite element models to simulate a regional system of mantle flow, that includes LPO evolution in olivine polycrystal aggregates tracked along flow paths and anisotropic viscosity tensors based on the LPO. Our first, loosely coupled approach begins with a flow field based on a scalar viscosity. The results are postprocessed to compute LPO by integration along streamlines, and an anisotropic viscosity tensor field is derived from LPO. A new flow field is then computed based on the viscosity tensor field. For this case, the predicted flow field differed in a modest but geologically relevant way from the isotropic case. In preparation for incorporating the LPO and effective viscosity calculation directly into the flow code, we have been testing this step separately to assess the sensitivity of the computed tensor to specified deformation parameters. New work explores a power law stress:strain rate relation for the LPO development, upon which the aggregate's effective viscosity tensor depends. The pattern and amplitude of predicted deviation from isotropic viscosity are stronger than for the previously assumed linear stress:strain rate case, as expected. Initial runs that employ the power law viscosity tensor in updated flow calculations are underway at the time of this writing. In addition to the stress exponent for LPO and the resulting viscosity tensor, flow model parameters that notably impact the predictions include the specified stiffening as asthenosphere cools to lithospheric temperatures and mesh resolution within the axial and the base of lithosphere regions. We will present results for subaxial oceanic spreading center flow and report the outcomes of model parameter testing.

  18. Heat flow and heat generation in greenstone belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drury, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Heat flow has been measured in Precambrian shields in both greenstone belts and crystalline terrains. Values are generally low, reflecting the great age and tectonic stability of the shields; they range typically between 30 and 50 mW/sq m, although extreme values of 18 and 79 mW/sq m have been reported. For large areas of the Earth's surface that are assumed to have been subjected to a common thermotectonic event, plots of heat flow against heat generation appear to be linear, although there may be considerable scatter in the data. The relationship is expressed as: Q = Q sub o + D A sub o in which Q is the observed heat flow, A sub o is the measured heat generation at the surface, Q sub o is the reduced heat flow from the lower crust and mantle, and D, which has the dimension of length, represents a scale depth for the distribution of radiogenic elements. Most authors have not used data from greenstone belts in attempting to define the relationship within shields, considering them unrepresentative and preferring to use data from relatively homogeneous crystalline rocks. A discussion follows.

  19. New Map of Io's Volcanic Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D.; Johnson, T. V.

    2014-12-01

    We have created a global map of Io's volcanic heat flow from 245 thermal sources indicative of ongoing or recent volcanic activity, and 8 additional outbursts [1,2]. We incorporate data from both spacecraft and ground-based instruments that have observed Io primarily at infrared wavelengths. This map provides a snapshot of Io's volcanic activity and distribution during the Galileo epoch. Io's volcanic activity, in terms of thermal emission from individual eruptive centres, spans nearly six orders of magnitude, from Surt in 2001 (78 TW) [3] to a faint hot spot in patera P197 (0.2 GW) [1]. We account for ≈54% of Io's yearly volcanic heat flow, which emanates from ≈2% of Io's surface [1]. Averaged heat flow from the non-active surface is 1 ± 0.2 W m2. This quantification of volcanic heat flow map provides constraints for modelling the magnitude and location of the internal heating of Io by tidal dissipation. The observed heat flow distribution is the result of interior heating and volcanic advection, the delivery of magma to the surface regardless of its depth of origin. As noted previously [1, 2] the distribution of heat flow is not uniform, which is not unexpected. The volcanic heat flow does not match the expected distributions from end-member models for both the deep-seated (mantle) heating model (which predicts enhanced polar heating) and the shallow (aesthenospheric) heating model, which predicts enhanced thermal emission at sub-jovian and anti-jovian longitudes. Intriguingly, heat flow curves using a bin size of 30 degrees show a longitudinal offset from the shallow heating model prediction of some tens of degrees [2], suggesting a more complex mixture of deep and shallow heating. Future work includes refinement of thermal emission by including temporal variability of thermal emission at individual volcanoes, and comparing the heat flow map with the Io Geological Map [4] and global topography [5]. We thank the NASA OPR Program for support. Part of this

  20. Subduction, back-arc spreading and global mantle flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, B. H.; Oconnell, R. J.; Raefsky, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the subducted lithosphere associated with Benioff zones provides the only direct evidence about the flow in the earth's interior associated with plate motions. It is the primary objective of the present investigation to study the relation between the orientation of subducting lithosphere and the flow patterns (both local and global) near subduction zones. Most of the calculations conducted are based on simple flow models for radially symmetric, Newtonian viscous spheres. The investigation is concerned with the possibility that a simple model of global mantle flow could account for some features of subduction zones. It is found that such a model can account for the orientation of the seismic zones, and, in addition, also for features related to back-arc spreading and perhaps the maximum earthquake size.

  1. Viscous heating, adiabatic heating and energetic consistency in compressible mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Wei; Zhong, Shijie

    2008-05-01

    Although it has been suggested that the total viscous heating, Qv, should be exactly balanced by the total adiabatic heating, Qa, for compressible mantle convection, previous numerical studies show a significant imbalance of up to several percent between Qv and Qa for simple isoviscous compressible convection. The cause of this imbalance and its potential effects on more complicated convective systems remain largely unknown. In this study, we present an analysis to show that total viscous heating and adiabatic heating for compressible mantle convection with anelastic liquid approximation (ALA) and the Adams-Williamson equation of state are balanced out at any instant in time, and that the previously reported imbalance between Qv and Qa for numerical models with a truncated anelastic liquid approximation (TALA) is caused by neglecting the effect of the pressure on the buoyancy force. Although we only consider the Adams-Williamson equation of state in our analysis, our method can be used to check the energetic consistency for other forms of equation of state. We formulate numerical models of compressible mantle convection under both TALA and ALA formulations by modifying the Uzawa algorithm in Citcom code. Our numerical results confirm our analysis on the balance between total viscous heating and total adiabatic heating.

  2. Heat flow-heat production relationship not found: what drives heat flow variability of the Western Canadian foreland basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.

    2016-06-01

    Heat flow high -80 ± 10 mW/m2 in the northern western parts of the Western Canadian foreland basin is in large contrast to low heat flow to the south and east (50 ± 7 mW/m2) of the same basin with the same old 2E09 year's Precambrian basement and some 200-km-thick lithosphere. Over-thrusted and flat-laying sedimentary units are heated from below by heat flow from the old craton' crust and low 15 ± 5 mW/m2 mantle contribution. The heat flow vs. radiogenic heat production statistical relationship is not found for this area. To account for this large heat flow contrast and to have 200-km-thick lithosphere, we would need to assume that high heat production layer of the upper crust varies in thickness as much as factor of 2 and/or that the measured heat production at top of Precambrian basement is not representative for deeper rocks. The other explanation proposed before that heat in the basin is redistributed by the regional fluid flow systems driven from high hydraulic head areas close to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains toward low elevation areas to the east and north cannot be explained by observed low Darcy fluid velocities and the geometry of the basin.

  3. Mantle Flow in the Rivera-Cocos Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon Soto, G.; Ni, J. F.; Grand, S. P.; Sandvol, E. A.; Valenzuela Wong, R.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Gomez Gonzalez, J. M.; Dominguez Reyes, T.

    2009-12-01

    Western Mexico, where the young and small Rivera plate and the adjacent large Cocos plate are subducting beneath the North American plate, is a unique region on Earth where tearing of subducting oceanic plates, as well as fragmentation of the overriding continental plate, is occurring today. Characterizing the mantle flow field that accompanies the subduction of the Rivera and adjacent Cocos plates can help to clarify the tectonics and magma genesis of this young plate boundary. Here we report observations of seismic anisotropy, as manifested by shear wave splitting derived from local S and teleseismic SKS data collected by the MARS (Mapping Rivera Subduction zone) array that was deployed from January, 2006, through June, 2007, in southwestern Mexico, and from data collected by two of Mexico's Servicio Sismológico Nacional stations. SKS and local S wave splitting parameters indicate that the fast directions of the split SKS waves for stations that lie on the central and southern Jalisco Block are approximately trench-normal, following the convergence direction between the Rivera plate and Jalisco Block. S-wave splitting from slab events show a small averaged delay time of ~0.2 sec for the upper 60 km of the crust and mantle. Therefore, the main source of anisotropy must reside in the entrained mantle below the young and thin Rivera plate. Trench-oblique fast SKS split directions are observed in the western edge of the Rivera plate and the western parts of the Cocos slab. The curved pattern of fast SKS split directions in the western Jalisco block and beneath the Rivera-Cocos slab gap indicates 3-D toroidal mantle flow, around the northwestern edge of the Rivera slab and the Rivera-Cocos gap, which profoundly affect the finite strain field in the northwestern edge of the Rivera slab and the mantle wedge. Both the tomographic images and shear wave splitting results support the idea that the Rivera and western Cocos plates not only moved in a down-dip direction but

  4. Heat Flow of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, C.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial heat flow determination is of prime interest for oil industry because it impacts directly maturation histories and economic potential of oil fields. Published systematic heat flow determinations from major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. For the sake of comparison, we carefully review previous heat flow studies carried out both onshore and offshore Norway. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and Vøring basins. This latter

  5. Mantle circulation models with variational data assimilation: Inferring past mantle flow and structure from plate motion histories and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunge, Hans-Peter

    2002-08-01

    Earth's mantle overturns itself about once every 200 Million years (myrs). Prima facie evidence for this overturn is the motion of tectonic plates at the surface of the Earth driving the geologic activity of our planet. Supporting evidence also comes from seismic tomograms of the Earth's interior that reveal the convective currents in remarkable clarity. Much has been learned about the physics of solid state mantle convection over the past two decades aided primarily by sophisticated computer simulations. Such simulations are reaching the threshold of fully resolving the convective system globally. In this talk we will review recent progress in mantle dynamics studies. We will then turn our attention to the fundamental question of whether it is possible to explicitly reconstruct mantle flow back in time. This is a classic problem of history matching, amenable to control theory and data assimilation. The technical advances that make such approach feasible are dramatically increasing compute resources, represented for example through Beowulf clusters, and new observational initiatives, represented for example through the US-Array effort that should lead to an order-of-magnitude improvement in our ability to resolve Earth structure seismically below North America. In fact, new observational constraints on deep Earth structure illustrate the growing importance of of improving our data assimilation skills in deep Earth models. We will explore data assimilation through high resolution global adjoint models of mantle circulation and conclude that it is feasible to reconstruct mantle flow back in time for at least the past 100 myrs.

  6. The sensivity of geomagnetic reversal frequency to core-mantle boundary heat flux magnitude and heterogeneity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metman, Maurits; de Groot, Lennart; Thieulot, Cedric; Biggin, Andrew; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    For a number of decades the core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux has been thought to be a key parameter controlling the geomagnetic field. A CMB heat flow increase is assumed to destabilize the geodynamo, increasing and decreasing the reversal frequency and dipole moment, respectively. The opposite case where a CMB flux decrease induces a relatively high dipole moment, as well as a low reversal frequency, would correspond to the characteristics of a superchron (Biggin et al., 2012). So far, only the magnitude of the CMB heat flux has been subject of research. However, the temporal and spatial heat flux distribution across the CMB also appears to have an influence on the geomagnetic reversal frequency. For example, the amount of heat flux heterogeneity may also be associated with a destabilization of the dynamo, increasing the reversal frequency (Olson et al., 2010). In this work we set out to assess: - (1) How the geomagnetic field intensity and reversals are predominantly sensitive to CMB heat flux magnitude or heterogeneity; - (2) what combination of magnitude and heterogeneity best reproduces the geomagnetic record on the 10 Myr timescale. To this end we use the PARODY software and test for a number of CMB heat flow modes (spherical harmonics of increasing degree and order, with an amplitude of 10 mW/m^2) and magnitudes (ranging from 20 to 100 mW/m^2). We will show our modeling results of how CMB heat flow magnitude and heterogeneity control the paleomagnetic record in terms of reversal frequency and dipole moment. Also relevant snapshots in time of outer core convection and thermal/magnetic structure will be shown. References Biggin et al. (2012). Nature Geoscience, 5(8):526-533. Olson et al. (2010). PEPI, 180(1-2):66 - 79.

  7. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  8. Magnetic heat pump flow director

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

  9. Global Transition Zone Anisotropy and Consequences for Mantle Flow and Earth's Deep Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2011-12-01

    The transition zone has long been at the center of the debate between multi- and single-layered convection models that directly relate to heat transport and chemical mixing throughout the mantle. It has also been suggested that the transition zone is a reservoir that collects water transported by subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. Since water lowers mantle minerals density and viscosity, thereby modifying their rheology and melting behavior, it likely affects global mantle dynamics and the history of plate tectonics. Constraining mantle flow is therefore important for our understanding of Earth's thermochemical evolution and deep water cycle. Because it can result from deformation by dislocation creep during convection, seismic anisotropy can help us model mantle flow. It is relatively well constrained in the uppermost mantle, but its presence in the transition zone is still debated. Its detection below 250 km depth has been challenging to date because of the poor vertical resolution of commonly used datasets. In this study, we used global Love wave overtone phase velocity maps, which are sensitive to structure down to much larger depths than fundamental modes alone, and have greater depth resolution than shear wave-splitting data. This enabled us to obtain a first 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy for the upper 800km of the mantle. We inverted the 2Ψ terms of anisotropic phase velocity maps [Visser, et al., 2008] for the first five Love wave overtones between 35s and 174s period. The resulting model shows that the average anisotropy amplitude for vertically polarized shear waves displays two main stable peaks: one in the uppermost mantle and, most remarkably, one in the lower transition zone. F-tests showed that the presence of 2Ψ anisotropy in the transition zone is required to improve the third, fourth, and fifth overtones fit. Because of parameter trade-offs, however, we cannot exclude that the anisotropy is located in the upper transition zone as

  10. Using Surface Observations to Constrain the Direction and Magnitude of Mantle Flow Beneath Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, W. E.; Silver, P. G.

    2001-12-01

    While the motions of the surface tectonic plates are well determined, the accompanying horizontal mantle flow is not. Observations of surface deformation (GPS velocities and Quaternary fault slip rates) and upper mantle seismic anisotropy are combined for the first time, to provide a direct estimate of this flow field. We apply our investigation to western North America where seismic tomography shows a relatively thin lithosphere. Here the likely source of shear wave anisotropy results from a deformation fabric associated with the differential horizontal motion between the base of the lithosphere and the underlying mantle. For a vertically propagating shear wave recorded at a single station, and for mantle strains of order unity, the fast polarization direction, φ , of a split shear wave will be parallel to the direction of progressive simple shear, defined by this differential motion between lithosphere and underlying mantle. If the motion of the overlying lithospehre is known both within and across a plate boundary zone, such as western North America, then the direction and magnitude of mantle flow beneath the plate boundary zone can be uniquely determined with three or more observations of fast polarization directions. Within the Pacific-North American Plate boundary zone in western North America we find that the mantle velocity is 5.0+/-1.5 cm/yr and directed E-NE in a hotspot frame, nearly opposite to the direction of North American plate motion (WSW). The flow is only weakly coupled to the motion of the surface plates, producing a weak drag force. This flow field is most likely due to mantle density heterogeneity associated with the sinking of the old Farallon slab beneath North America. The last few decades have seen the development of two basically incompatible views of the plate-mantle system. The tectonophysical view assumes effective decoupling between the plate and a stationary mantle by a well developed asthenosphere. The plates are essentially 'self

  11. Constraining mantle flow with seismic and geodynamic data: A joint approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Nathan A.; Forte, Alessandro M.; Grand, Stephen P.

    2006-06-01

    Understanding the style of convective flow occurring in the mantle is essential to understand the thermal and chemical evolution of Earth's interior as well as the forces driving plate tectonics. Models of mantle convection based on three-dimensional (3-D) seismic tomographic reconstructions have the potential to provide the most direct constraints on mantle flow. Seismic imaging of deep Earth structure has made great advances in recent years; however, it has not been possible to reach a consensus on the nature of convection in the mantle. Models of mantle flow based on tomography results have yielded variable conclusions largely because of the inherent non-uniqueness and differing degrees of resolution of seismic tomography models as well as the difficulty in determining flow directly from seismic images. Here we address this difficulty by simultaneously inverting global seismic and convection-related data sets. The seismic data consist of globally distributed shear body wave travel times including multi-bounce S-waves, shallow-turning triplicated phases, as well as core reflections and phases traversing the core (SKS and SKKS). Convection-related data sets include global free air gravity, tectonic plate divergence, and excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary. In addition, the convection-related constraint on dynamic surface topography is estimated on the basis of a recent global model of crustal heterogeneity. These convection-related observables are related to mantle density anomalies through instantaneous mantle flow calculations and linked to the seismic data via optimized density-velocity scaling relationships. Simultaneous inversion allows us to test various mantle flow hypotheses directly against the combined seismic and convection data sets, rather than considering flow predictions based solely on a seismically derived 3-D mantle model. In this study, we test four different mantle flow hypotheses, including whole-mantle flow and models with

  12. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators, or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  13. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  14. Mantle wedge anisotropy beneath the Japan and Ryukyu arcs from teleseismic receiver functions - Implications for mantle flow and wedge hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, E. A.; Long, M. D.; Mccormack, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many fundamental aspects of the mantle wedge above subducting slabs, such as the dynamics of mantle flow and the transport of water and melt, have yet to be fully understood. A complete characterization of seismic anisotropy can yield powerful constraints on mantle flow and the degree of mantle wedge hydration. In this study, we characterize the geometry and strength of anisotropy in the mantle wedges beneath northeast Japan and the Ryukyu arc, which overlie the subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates, respectively. We compute radial and transverse component P-to-S receiver functions from 15 stations of the F-net array using the multitaper correlation receiver function estimator (Park and Levin, 2000). In both regions, we observe P-to-SV converted energy on radial component receiver functions that are consistent with conversions originating at the subducting oceanic Moho and the top of the subducting oceanic crust. We also observe P-to-SH conversions on the transverse component receiver functions that are consistent with the presence of multiple anisotropic and/or dipping layers. We compute synthetic receiver functions using a forward modeling scheme to create models for the depths, thicknesses, and strengths of the anisotropic layers beneath both northeast Japan and Ryukyu. Beneath Ryukyu, we detect evidence for a layer of strong anisotropy and high Vp/Vs ratio directly above the slab, consistent with the presence of serpentinite. We see no evidence of this signature in receiver functions from northeast Japan; instead, we see evidence for relatively modest anisotropy due to olivine fabric. We also detect a low-velocity region in the mantle wedge beneath northeast Japan, which may be consistent with the presence of partial melt. Since the presence of serpentinite indicates significant hydration of the wedge, the contrast in anisotropic structure between Ryukyu and northeast Japan has important implications for our understanding of slab hydration and how water

  15. Mantle upwelling and trench-parallel mantle flow in the northern Cascade arc indicated by basalt geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E.; Weis, D.

    2013-12-01

    Cascadia offers a unique perspective on arc magma genesis as an end-member ';hot' subduction zone in which relatively little water may be available to promote mantle melting. The youngest and hottest subducting crust (~5 Myr at the trench) occurs in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, at the northern edge of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate [1]. Geochemical data from GVB primitive basalts provide insights on mantle melting where a slab edge coincides with high slab temperatures. In subduction zones worldwide, including the Cascades, basalts are typically calc-alkaline and produced from a depleted mantle wedge modified by slab input. However, basalts from volcanic centers overlying the northern slab edge (Salal Glacier and Bridge River Cones) are alkalic [2] and lack a trace element subduction signature [3]. The mantle source of the alkalic basalts is significantly more enriched in incompatible elements than the slab-modified depleted mantle wedge that produces calc-alkaline basalts in the southern GVB (Mt. Baker and Glacier Peak) [3]. The alkalic basalts are also generated at temperatures and pressures of up to 175°C and 1.5 GPa higher than those of the calc-alkaline basalts [3], consistent with decompression melting of fertile, hot mantle ascending through a gap in the Nootka fault, the boundary between the subducting Juan de Fuca plate and the nearly stagnant Explorer microplate. Mantle upwelling may be related to toroidal mantle flow around the slab edge, which has been identified in southern Cascadia [4]. In the GVB, the upwelling fertile mantle is not confined to the immediate area around the slab edge but has spread southward along the arc axis, its extent gradually diminishing as the slab-modified depleted mantle wedge becomes dominant. Between Salal Glacier/Bridge River and Glacier Peak ~350 km to the south, there are increases in isotopic ratios (ɛHf = 8.3 to13.0, ɛNd = 7.3 to 8.5, and 208Pb*/206*Pb* = 0.914 to 0.928) and trace element indicators of slab

  16. Seismic Anisotropy and Mantle Flow Beneath Northeastern Africa and Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Afar Depression in NE Africa hosts the Earth's only RRR triple junction exposed on land, and is an ideal place to study processes involved in the transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading. In order to image the crust and upper mantle structure under Afar with an unprecedented spatial resolution, eighteen broadband seismic stations were deployed between Dec. 2009 and May 2011 along an approximately 250 km long profile across the Tendaho Graben in central Afar as part of the Afar Lithosphere Imaging Experiment (ALIE). Here we present results from teleseismic shear-wave (XKS) splitting analysis using data from ALIE and all the available broadband seismic data archived at the IRIS Data Center. Several previous studies of shear wave splitting in the region suggested that the observed anisotropy could be attributed to preexisting Precambrian fabrics, while others argue that vertical magmatic dikes or rift parallel mantle flow are responsible for the observed anisotropy. All of those studies utilized limited quality and quantity of XKS measurements which resulted in the inconsistency of conclusions. This work presents about 200 XKS splitting measurements obtained using data from ALIE and over 400 measurements from other stations in Afar, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), Ethiopian Plateau, and the Arabian plate. A robust process to reliably assess and objectively rank XKS splitting parameters was used to produce the results. Manual screening was applied to the results of the automatic calculations to ensure that no high quality events were ignored and no low quality results were selected. This study found that the ~450 measurements in the Ethiopian Plateau and in the MER have insignificant azimuthal variations with MER dominated by a rift parallel fast direction suggestive of a single layer of anisotropy. In contrast, measurements in the Afar Depression show a systematic azimuthal dependence of splitting parameters with a 90-degree periodicity, which

  17. The role of heat source for spatio-temporal variations of mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, I.; Yamagishi, Y.; Davaille, A.

    2014-12-01

    Hot mantle plumes ascending from the core-mantle boundary experience a filtering effect by the endothermic phase change at the 660-km discontinuity. Fluid dynamics predicts that some hot mantle plumes stagnate at the phase boundary and locally heat the bottom of the upper mantle. This generates the secondary plumes in the upper mantle originating hotspots volcanic activities on the Earth's surface. Recently, seismic tomographic images around the upper-lower mantle boundary showed that the horizontal scale of the low velocity regions, which corresponds to that of the thermally buoyant heat sources, is the order of 100-1000 km. Although most of the fluid dynamic theories on the thermal plumes have been developed using an assumption that the heat source effect is negligible, the behaviors of the starting plumes in the upper mantle should depend on the size of heat source, which is generated by the hotter plume from the CMB. In order to understand the effects of heater size on the starting plume generation, we have experimentally investigated the behaviors of thermally buoyant plumes using a localized heat source (circular plate heater). The combination of quantitative visualization techniques of temperature (Thermochromic Liquid Crystals) and velocity (Particle Image Velocimetry) fields reveals the transient nature of the plume evolution: a variety of the spatio-tempotal distribution of plumes. Simple scaling laws for their ascent velocity and spacing of the plumes are experimentally determined. We also estimate the onset time of the secondary plumes in the upper mantle which depends on the local characteristics of the thermal boundary layer developing at the upper-lower mantle boundary.

  18. Implications for plastic flow in the deep mantle from modelling dislocations in MgSiO3 minerals.

    PubMed

    Carrez, Philippe; Ferré, Denise; Cordier, Patrick

    2007-03-01

    The dynamics of the Earth's interior is largely controlled by mantle convection, which transports radiogenic and primordial heat towards the surface. Slow stirring of the deep mantle is achieved in the solid state through high-temperature creep of rocks, which are dominated by the mineral MgSiO3 perovskite. Transformation of MgSiO3 to a 'post-perovskite' phase may explain the peculiarities of the lowermost mantle, such as the observed seismic anisotropy, but the mechanical properties of these mineralogical phases are largely unknown. Plastic flow of solids involves the motion of a large number of crystal defects, named dislocations. A quantitative description of flow in the Earth's mantle requires information about dislocations in high-pressure minerals and their behaviour under stress. This property is currently out of reach of direct atomistic simulations using either empirical interatomic potentials or ab initio calculations. Here we report an alternative to direct atomistic simulations based on the framework of the Peierls-Nabarro model. Dislocation core models are proposed for MgSiO3 perovskite (at 100 GPa) and post-perovskite (at 120 GPa). We show that in perovskite, plastic deformation is strongly influenced by the orthorhombic distortions of the unit cell. In silicate post-perovskite, large dislocations are relaxed through core dissociation, with implications for the mechanical properties and seismic anisotropy of the lowermost mantle. PMID:17330041

  19. Seismic imaging of structural heterogeneity in Earth's mantle: evidence for large-scale mantle flow.

    PubMed

    Ritsema, J; Van Heijst, H J

    2000-01-01

    Systematic analyses of earthquake-generated seismic waves have resulted in models of three-dimensional elastic wavespeed structure in Earth's mantle. This paper describes the development and the dominant characteristics of one of the most recently developed models. This model is based on seismic wave travel times and wave shapes from over 100,000 ground motion recordings of earthquakes that occurred between 1980 and 1998. It shows signatures of plate tectonic processes to a depth of about 1,200 km in the mantle, and it demonstrates the presence of large-scale structure throughout the lower 2,000 km of the mantle. Seismological analyses make it increasingly more convincing that geologic processes shaping Earth's surface are intimately linked to physical processes in the deep mantle. PMID:11077479

  20. Can differences in heat flow between east and southern Africa be easily interpreted?: Implications for understanding regional variability in continental heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Pollack, Henry N.

    1993-03-01

    We address the extent to which regional variations in continental heat flow can be interpreted, making use of a heat flow data set from east and southern Africa. The first-order observation deriving from these heat flow measurements is a common pattern characterized in both regions by low heat flow in Archean cratons and higher heat flow in younger mobile belts. Two regional differences between east and southern Africa are superimposed on this common heat flow pattern: (1) heat flow in the Tanzania Craton is about 13 mW m -2 lower than in the Kalahari Craton, and (2) heat flow in the Mozambique Belt in east Africa is about 9 mW m -2 lower than in the southern African mobile belts, within about 250 km of the respective Archean cratons. The differences in heat flow between east and southern Africa suggest that the thermal structure of the lithosphere beneath these regions differs somewhat, and we attempt to resolve these differences in lithospheric thermal structure by examining four explanations that could account for the heat flow observations: (1) diminished heat flow in shallow boreholes in east Africa; (2) less crustal heat production in the regions of lower heat flow; (3) thicker lithosphere beneath the regions of lower heat flow; (4) cooler mantle beneath the areas of lower heat flow. We find it difficult to interpret uniquely the heat flow differences between east and southern Africa because available constraints on crustal heat production, crustal structure, lithospheric thickness and mantle temperatures are insufficient to discriminate among the possible explanations. Hence, extracting significant information about lithospheric thermal structure from regional heat flow variations requires more ancillary geochemical and geophysical information than Africa presently offers.

  1. Heat transport in the Hadean mantle: From heat pipes to plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankanamge, Duminda G. J.; Moore, William B.

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonics is a unique feature of Earth, and it plays a dominant role in transporting Earth's internally generated heat. It also governs the nature, shape, and the motion of the surface of Earth. The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth has been difficult to establish observationally, and modeling of the plate breaking process has not consistently accounted for the nature of the preplate tectonic Earth. We have performed numerical simulations of heat transport in the preplate tectonic Earth to understand the transition to plate tectonic behavior. This period of time is dominated by volcanic heat transport called the heat pipe mode of planetary cooling. These simulations of Earth's mantle include heat transport by melting and melt segregation (volcanism), Newtonian temperature-dependent viscosity, and internal heating. We show that when heat pipes are active, the lithosphere thickens and lithospheric isotherms are kept flat by the solidus. Both of these effects act to suppress plate tectonics. As volcanism wanes, conduction begins to control lithospheric thickness, and large slopes arise at the base of the lithosphere. This produces large lithospheric stress and focuses it on the thinner regions of the lithosphere resulting in plate breaking events.

  2. Melt segregation and strain partitioning: implications for seismic anisotropy and mantle flow.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, B K; Kohlstedt, D L; Zimmerman, M E; Heidelbach, F; Hiraga, T; Hustoft, J

    2003-08-29

    One of the principal means of understanding upper mantle dynamics involves inferring mantle flow directions from seismic anisotropy under the assumption that the seismic fast direction (olivine a axis) parallels the regional flow direction. We demonstrate that (i) the presence of melt weakens the alignment of a axes and (ii) when melt segregates and forms networks of weak shear zones, strain partitions between weak and strong zones, resulting in an alignment of a axes 90 degrees from the shear direction in three-dimensional deformation. This orientation of a axes provides a new means of interpreting mantle flow from seismic anisotropy in partially molten deforming regions of Earth. PMID:12947196

  3. Constraints from Earth's heat budget on the origins of deep mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, L. H.

    2008-12-01

    To understand the origin and evolution of mantle heterogeneity, a multidisciplinary approach is required. A successful model must satisfy the constraints provided by seismology, which reveals the current state of the mantle, and geochemistry, which reflects the time-integrated history of the planet. One of the most important observations is the prominence of the degree-2 structure in the lower mantle. The large structures in the lower mantle beneath Africa and the Pacific contribute to the degree-2 signal, but their origin is not yet understood. A number of mantle models have been proposed containing multiple reservoirs in various configurations to produce a depleted source of mid-ocean ridge basalts along with the range of long-lived sources inferred from the geochemistry of ocean islands. One important constraint is provided by the Earth's total heat loss. Heat is produced by radioactive decay in the depleted mantle and continental crust; an additional radioactive source is required to make up the heat production of the bulk silicate earth known from as revealed by cosmochemistry and geodynamical models. This heat source may be located in the lower mantle, possibly associated with the superplume structures. This requires a tradeoff between the radiogenic heat productivity of the reservoir and its size: a small volume must contain a higher concentration of heat producing elements to balance the global heat budget. A very small reservoir at the base of the mantle can likely be ruled out because it would become extremely hot (resulting in velocities that are incompatible with seismic models) or buoyant (and therefore short-lived.) The dynamical implications of a dense layer can be assessed using the criteria that the layer must be stable through time, shows topography at its interface, has an effective density profile compatible with seismic models, and has an appropriate heat flux across the core- mantle boundary. A reservoir that is enriched in radiogenic elements

  4. Numerical Modeling of Mantle Convection with Heat-pipe Melt Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, Sebastian; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Breuer, Doris

    2015-04-01

    During the early evolution of terrestrial bodies, a large amount of mantle melting is expected to affect significantly the energy budget of the interior through heat transport by volcanism. Partial melt, generated when the mantle temperature exceeds the solidus, can propagate to the surface through dikes, thereby advecting upwards a large amount of heat. This so-called heat-pipe mechanism is an effective way to transport thermal energy from the meltregion to the planetary surface. Indeed, recent studies suggest that this mechanism may have shaped the Earth's earliest evolution by controlling interior heat loss until the onset of plate tectonics [1]. Furthermore, heat-piping is likely the primary mechanism through which Jupiter's moon Io loses its tidally generated heat, leading to massive volcanism able to cause a present-day heat-flux about 40 times higher than the Earth's average heat-flux [2]. However, despite its obvious importance, heat-piping is often neglected in mantle convection models of terrestrial planets because of its additional complexity and vaguely defined parameterization. In this study, adopting the approach of [1] we model mantle convection in a generic stagnant lid planet and study heat-piping effects in a systematic way. Assuming that melt is instantaneously extracted to the surface and melting regions are refilled by downward advection of cold mantle material in order to ensure mass conservation, we investigate the influence of heat-pipes on the mantle temperature and stagnant lid thickness using the numerical code Gaia [3]. To this end, we run a large set of simulations in 2D Cartesian geometry spanning a wide parameter space. Our results are consistent with [1] and show that in systems with strongly temperature-dependent viscosity the heat-pipe mechanism sets in at a Rayleigh number Ra ~ 2 × 107. Upon increasing Ra up to ~ 6 × 107mantle temperature accompanied by an increase of the

  5. Mantle flow patterns and magma chambers at ocean ridges: Evidence from the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A.; Boudier, F.; Ceuleneer, G.

    1988-12-01

    As a result of an extensive program of structural mapping in the ultramafic section of the Oman ophiolite, maps of mantle flow below the spreading center of origin have been drawn. They reveal a mantle diapiric system in which the uppermost mantle flow diverges from diapirs 10 15 km across, which could have been spaced by an average distance of 50 km. Some diapirs could have been located off-axis. The rotation of flow lines in the diapirs occurs within the few hundred meters of the transition zone separating the mantle and crustal formations. The importance of this zone is stressed. The structure of the layered gabbros of the crustal unit in most places reflects a large magmatic flow induced by the solid state flow in the underlying peridotites. The magmatic foliation of the gabbros steepens upsection and becomes parallel to the sheeted dike attitude. A new model of a tent-shaped magma chamber is derived from these structural data.

  6. New heat flow determination in northern Tarim Craton, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Wang, Liangshu

    2015-02-01

    Tarim Craton is a Precambrian block situated in northwest China, just north of the Tibetan Plateau, where a large sedimentary basin with abundant hydrocarbon potential has developed. Accurate heat flow data for Tarim is vital for understanding the lithospheric evolution and hydrocarbon generation in this area; however, there were unavailable until now, due to a lack of high quality steady-state temperature logging data. Here, we report 10 new heat flow values derived from steady-state temperature logging and measured thermal conductivity data. New heat flow values range from 40.1 to 49.4 mW m-2, with a mean of 43.1 ± 3.0 mW m-2. In addition, radiogenic heat production from the sediments accounts for 20 per cent of the observed surface heat flow, whilst the mantle heat flow is estimated to be as low as 6-15 mW m-2; this indicates a dominant contribution from crustal heat, to the observed heat flow. The average heat flow and crustal temperature in the Tarim Craton are markedly lower than those in the Tibetan Plateau, whilst the calculated rheological strength of the lithosphere, beneath Tarim, is sufficiently large to resist the elevation-induced gravitational potential energy difference between Tarim and Tibet. This inherited thermal and rheological contrast, between the craton and Plateau, can be traced back to before the India-Asia collision; this accounts for the differential active deformation pattern in the Tarim Craton and adjacent areas.

  7. Heat flow in the Keweenawan rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C.; Mareschal, J.; Jaupart, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    The emplacement of large volumes of mafic volcanic rocks during the Keweenawan rifting has modified the average crustal composition and affects the present steady state heat flux in the region. We have combined new heat flux measurements in the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield and previously published data to characterize the heat flux field around the Keweenawan rift system. For the Nipigon embayment, North of lake Superior in Ontario, mafic intrusions associated with the Keweenawan rifting have resulted in an increase in the volume of mafic rocks in the crust and caused a very small <3mW m-2 decrease in the mean heat flux. There is a very marked decrease in the heat flux (Δ Q ≈ 20mW m-2) beneath the western half of Lake Superior and to the west. The very low values of the surface heat flux (≈ 22mW m-2 correlate with the maximum Bouguer gravity anomaly. The heat flux at the base of the crust in the Canadian Shield has been determined from surface heat flux, heat production, and crustal stucture to be ≈ 15 mW m-2. In the Keweenawan rift, the surface heat flux is only a few mW m-2 higher than the mantle heat flux, which implies that the contribution of the entire crustal column to the surface heat flux is small and that the crust is exclusively made up of depleted mafic volcanic rocks. In the eastern part and northeast of Lake Superior, there is a marked increase in heat flux that correlates with a lower Bouguer anomaly. Local high heat flux anomalies due to intrusions by felsic rocks are superposed with a long wavelength trend of higher heat flow suggesting a more felsic crustal composition in the eastern part of the Keweenawan rift. Simple models suggest that such a thick dense volcanic pile as accumulated in the Keweenawan rift is almost invariably unstable and that very particular conditions were required for it to stabilize in the crust.

  8. The dynamics of plate tectonics and mantle flow: from local to global scales.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Georg; Gurnis, Michael; Burstedde, Carsten; Wilcox, Lucas C; Alisic, Laura; Ghattas, Omar

    2010-08-27

    Plate tectonics is regulated by driving and resisting forces concentrated at plate boundaries, but observationally constrained high-resolution models of global mantle flow remain a computational challenge. We capitalized on advances in adaptive mesh refinement algorithms on parallel computers to simulate global mantle flow by incorporating plate motions, with individual plate margins resolved down to a scale of 1 kilometer. Back-arc extension and slab rollback are emergent consequences of slab descent in the upper mantle. Cold thermal anomalies within the lower mantle couple into oceanic plates through narrow high-viscosity slabs, altering the velocity of oceanic plates. Viscous dissipation within the bending lithosphere at trenches amounts to approximately 5 to 20% of the total dissipation through the entire lithosphere and mantle. PMID:20798311

  9. Microwave heating device for internal heating convection experiments, applied to Earth's mantle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Surducan, E.; Surducan, V.; Neamtu, C.; Limare, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.

    2014-12-15

    We report the design, construction, and performances of a microwave (MW) heating device for laboratory experiments with non-contact, homogeneous internal heating. The device generates MW radiation at 2.47 GHz from a commercial magnetron supplied by a pulsed current inverter using proprietary, feedback based command and control hardware and software. Specially designed MW launchers direct the MW radiation into the sample through a MW homogenizer, devised to even the MW power distribution into the sample's volume. An adjustable MW circuit adapts the MW generator to the load (i.e., the sample) placed in the experiment chamber. Dedicated heatsinks maintain the MW circuits at constant temperature throughout the experiment. Openings for laser scanning for image acquisition with a CCD camera and for the cooling circuits are protected by special MW filters. The performances of the device are analyzed in terms of heating uniformity, long term output power stability, and load matching. The device is used for small scale experiments simulating Earth's mantle convection. The 30 × 30 × 5 cm{sup 3} convection tank is filled with a water‑based viscous fluid. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminum heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions apply at the tank base. We characterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution by measuring the velocity field by Particle Image Velocimetry and the temperature field by using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals.

  10. Microwave heating device for internal heating convection experiments, applied to Earth's mantle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Surducan, E; Surducan, V; Limare, A; Neamtu, C; Di Giuseppe, E

    2014-12-01

    We report the design, construction, and performances of a microwave (MW) heating device for laboratory experiments with non-contact, homogeneous internal heating. The device generates MW radiation at 2.47 GHz from a commercial magnetron supplied by a pulsed current inverter using proprietary, feedback based command and control hardware and software. Specially designed MW launchers direct the MW radiation into the sample through a MW homogenizer, devised to even the MW power distribution into the sample's volume. An adjustable MW circuit adapts the MW generator to the load (i.e., the sample) placed in the experiment chamber. Dedicated heatsinks maintain the MW circuits at constant temperature throughout the experiment. Openings for laser scanning for image acquisition with a CCD camera and for the cooling circuits are protected by special MW filters. The performances of the device are analyzed in terms of heating uniformity, long term output power stability, and load matching. The device is used for small scale experiments simulating Earth's mantle convection. The 30 × 30 × 5 cm(3) convection tank is filled with a water‑based viscous fluid. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminum heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions apply at the tank base. We characterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution by measuring the velocity field by Particle Image Velocimetry and the temperature field by using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals. PMID:25554309

  11. Microwave heating device for internal heating convection experiments, applied to Earth's mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surducan, E.; Surducan, V.; Limare, A.; Neamtu, C.; Di Giuseppe, E.

    2014-12-01

    We report the design, construction, and performances of a microwave (MW) heating device for laboratory experiments with non-contact, homogeneous internal heating. The device generates MW radiation at 2.47 GHz from a commercial magnetron supplied by a pulsed current inverter using proprietary, feedback based command and control hardware and software. Specially designed MW launchers direct the MW radiation into the sample through a MW homogenizer, devised to even the MW power distribution into the sample's volume. An adjustable MW circuit adapts the MW generator to the load (i.e., the sample) placed in the experiment chamber. Dedicated heatsinks maintain the MW circuits at constant temperature throughout the experiment. Openings for laser scanning for image acquisition with a CCD camera and for the cooling circuits are protected by special MW filters. The performances of the device are analyzed in terms of heating uniformity, long term output power stability, and load matching. The device is used for small scale experiments simulating Earth's mantle convection. The 30 × 30 × 5 cm3 convection tank is filled with a water-based viscous fluid. A uniform and constant temperature is maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminum heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions apply at the tank base. We characterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution by measuring the velocity field by Particle Image Velocimetry and the temperature field by using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals.

  12. Stress and heat flow

    SciTech Connect

    Lachenbrunch, A.H.; McGarr, A.

    1990-01-01

    As the Pacific plate slides northward past the North American plate along the San Andreas fault, the frictional stress that resists plate motion there is overcome to cause earthquakes. However, the frictional heating predicted for the process has never been detected. Thus, in spite of its importance to an understanding of both plate motion and earthquakes, the size of this frictional stress is still uncertain, even in order of magnitude.

  13. Simultaneous solution for core magnetic field and fluid flow beneath an electrically conducting mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhies, Goerte V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1994-04-01

    The effects of laterally homogeneous mantle electrical conductivity have been included in steady, frozen-flux core surface flow estimation along with refinements in method and weighting. The refined method allows simultaneous solution for both the initial radial geomagnetic field component at the core-mantle boundary and the subadjacent fluid motion; it also features Gauss' method for solving the nonlinear inverse problem associated with steady motional induction. The trade-off between spatial complexity of the derived flows and misfit to the weighted Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field models is studied for various mantle conductivity profiles. For simple flow and a fixed initial geomagnetic condition a fairly high deep-mantle conductivity performs better than either insulating or weakly conducting profiles; however, a thin, very high conductivity layer at the base of the mantle performs almost as well. Simultaneous solution for both initial geomagnetic field and fluid flow reduces the misfit per degree of freedom even more than does changing the mantle conductivity profile. Moreover, when both core field and flow are estimated, the performance of the solutions and the derived flows become insensitive to the conductivity profile.

  14. Simultaneous solution for core magnetic field and fluid flow beneath an electrically conducting mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Goerte V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    The effects of laterally homogeneous mantle electrical conductivity have been included in steady, frozen-flux core surface flow estimation along with refinements in method and weighting. The refined method allows simultaneous solution for both the initial radial geomagnetic field component at the core-mantle boundary and the subadjacent fluid motion; it also features Gauss' method for solving the nonlinear inverse problem associated with steady motional induction. The trade-off between spatial complexity of the derived flows and misfit to the weighted Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field models is studied for various mantle conductivity profiles. For simple flow and a fixed initial geomagnetic condition a fairly high deep-mantle conductivity performs better than either insulating or weakly conducting profiles; however, a thin, very high conductivity layer at the base of the mantle performs almost as well. Simultaneous solution for both initial geomagnetic field and fluid flow reduces the misfit per degree of freedom even more than does changing the mantle conductivity profile. Moreover, when both core field and flow are estimated, the performance of the solutions and the derived flows become insensitive to the conductivity profile.

  15. Simultaneous solution for core magnetic field and fluid flow beneath an electrically conducting mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    The effects of laterally homogeneous mantle electrical conductivity were included in steady, frozen-flux core surface flow estimation along with refinements in method and weighting. The refined method allows simultaneous solution for both the initial radial geomagnetic field component at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the sub-adjacent fluid motion; it also features Gauss' method for solving the non-linear inverse problem associated with steady motional induction. The tradeoff between spatial complexity of the derived flows and misfit to the weighted Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field models (DGRF's) is studied for various mantle conductivity profiles. For simple flow and a fixed initial geomagnetic condition, a fairly high deep-mantle conductivity performs better than either insulating or weakly conducting profiles; however, a thin, very high conductivity layer at the base of the mantle performs almost as well. Simultaneous solution for both initial geomagnetic field and flow reduces the misfit per degree of freedom even more than does changing the mantle conductivity profile. Moreover, when both core field and flow are estimated, the performance of the solutions and the derived flows become insensitive to the conductivity profile.

  16. Subduction-induced mantle flow, finite strain, and seismic anisotropy: Numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong-Hai; Di Leo, Jeanette F.; Ribe, Neil M.

    2014-06-01

    Surface measurements of shear wave splitting patterns are widely used to infer the mantle circulation around subducting slabs; however, the relation between mantle flow and seismic anisotropy is still elusive. Finite strain is a direct measurement of time-dependent deformation and has been proposed as a proxy for the crystal-preferred orientation (CPO) of mantle minerals. We have conducted a series of numerical models to systematically investigate the mantle flow, finite strain, olivine CPO, and SKS wave splitting in oceanic subduction zones with variable slab width. They demonstrate that the preferred orientations of olivine a axes generally agree with the long (extensional) axes of the finite strain ellipsoid (FSE), even in these very complex mantle flow fields; however, neither the a axis nor the FSE axes necessarily aligns with the instantaneous mantle velocity vector. We identify two domains with distinct deformation mechanisms in the central subplate mantle, where simple shear induced by plate advance dominates at shallow depths and produces trench-normal fast splitting, while pure shear induced by slab rollback dominates the deeper mantle and results in trench-parallel fast splitting. The SKS splitting patterns are thus dependent on the competing effects of these two mechanisms and also on the subduction partition ratio γ = Xp/Xt: trench parallel when γ< 1 and trench normal when γ>1. In addition, different mantle deformation mechanisms and SKS splitting patterns are observed in the mantle wedge and around the slab edges, which may aid in the general interpretation of seismic anisotropy observations in natural subduction zones.

  17. Terrestrial heat flow in east and southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Pollack, Henry N.; Jones, D. L.; Podmore, Francis; Mushayandebvu, Martin

    1990-10-01

    -skinned thrusting of the Mozambique Belt over the Tanzania Cratonic margin, (3) by lateral heat transfer from beneath the rift flanks into the rifts, or (4) by lower mantle heat flow beneath all of eastern Africa prior to the Cenozoic development of the East African rift system.

  18. Reconciling surface plate motions with rapid three-dimensional mantle flow around a slab edge.

    PubMed

    Jadamec, Margarete A; Billen, Magali I

    2010-05-20

    The direction of tectonic plate motion at the Earth's surface and the flow field of the mantle inferred from seismic anisotropy are well correlated globally, suggesting large-scale coupling between the mantle and the surface plates. The fit is typically poor at subduction zones, however, where regional observations of seismic anisotropy suggest that the direction of mantle flow is not parallel to and may be several times faster than plate motions. Here we present three-dimensional numerical models of buoyancy-driven deformation with realistic slab geometry for the Alaska subduction-transform system and use them to determine the origin of this regional decoupling of flow. We find that near a subduction zone edge, mantle flow velocities can have magnitudes of more than ten times the surface plate motions, whereas surface plate velocities are consistent with plate motions and the complex mantle flow field is consistent with observations from seismic anisotropy. The seismic anisotropy observations constrain the shape of the eastern slab edge and require non-Newtonian mantle rheology. The incorporation of the non-Newtonian viscosity results in mantle viscosities of 10(17) to 10(18) Pa s in regions of high strain rate (10(-12) s(-1)), and this low viscosity enables the mantle flow field to decouple partially from the motion of the surface plates. These results imply local rapid transport of geochemical signatures through subduction zones and that the internal deformation of slabs decreases the slab-pull force available to drive subducting plates. PMID:20485433

  19. Lunar heat-flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The principal components of the experiment were probes, each with twelve thermometers of exceptional accuracy and stability, that recorded temperature variations at the surface and in the regolith down to 2.5 m. The Apollo 15 experiment and the Apollo 17 probes recorded lunar surface and subsurface temperatures. These data provided a unique and valuable history of the interaction of solar energy with lunar surface and the effects of heat flowing from the deep interior out through the surface of the moon. The interpretation of these data resulted in a clearer definition of the thermal and mechanical properties of the upper two meters of lunar regolith, direct measurements of the gradient in mean temperature due to heat flow from the interior and a determination of the heat flow at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 sites.

  20. Mantle flow and dynamic topography associated with slab window opening: Insights from laboratory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Benjamin; Moroni, Monica; Funiciello, Francesca; Martinod, Joseph; Faccenna, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    We present dynamically self-consistent mantle-scale laboratory models that have been conducted to improve our understanding of the influence of slab window opening on subduction dynamics, mantle flow and associated dynamic topography over geological time scales. The adopted setup consists of a two-layer linearly viscous system simulating the subduction of a fixed plate of silicone (lithosphere) under negative buoyancy in a viscous layer of glucose syrup (mantle). Our experimental setting is also characterized by a constant-width rectangular window located at the center of a laterally confined slab, modeling the case of the interaction of a trench-parallel spreading ridge with a wide subduction zone. We found that the opening of a slab window does not produce consistent changes of the geometry and the kinematics of the slab. On the contrary, slab-induced mantle circulation, quantified both in the vertical and horizontal sections using the Feature Tracking image analysis technique, is strongly modified. In particular, rollback subduction and the opening of the slab window generate a complex mantle circulation pattern characterized by the presence of poloidal and toroidal components, with the importance of each evolving according to kinematic stages. Mantle coming from the oceanic domain floods through the slab window, indenting the supra-slab mantle zone and producing its deformation without any mixing between mantle portions. The opening of the slab window and the upwelling of sub-slab mantle produce a regional-scale non-isostatic topographic uplift of the overriding plate that would correspond to values ranging between ca. 1 and 5 km in nature. Assuming that our modeling results can be representative of the natural behavior of subduction zones, we compared them to the tectonics and volcanism of the Patagonian subduction zone. We found that the anomalous backarc volcanism that has been developing since the middle Miocene could result from the lateral flow of sub

  1. The many impacts of building mountain belts on plate tectonics and mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Philippe; Husson, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    During the Cenozoic, the number of orogens on Earth increased. This observation readily indicates that in the same time, compression in the lithosphere became gradually more and more important. Such an increase of stresses in the lithosphere can impact on plate tectonics and mantle dynamics. We show that mountain belts at plate boundaries increasingly obstruct plate tectonics, slowing down and reorienting their motions. In turn, this changes the dynamic and kinematic surface conditions of the underlying flowing mantle. Ultimately, this modifies the pattern of mantle flow. This forcing could explain many first order features of Cenozoic plate tectonics and mantle flow. Among these, one can cite the compression of passive margins, the important variations in the rates of spreading at oceanic ridges, or the initiation of subduction, the onset of obduction, for the lithosphere. In the mantle, such change in boundary condition redesigns the pattern of mantle flow and, consequently, the oceanic lithosphere cooling. In order to test this hypothesis we first present thermo-mechanical numerical models of mantle convection above which a lithosphere rests. Our results show that when collision occurs, the mantle flow is highly modified, which leads to (i) increasing shear stresses below the lithosphere and (ii) to a modification of the convection style. In turn, the transition between a 'free' convection (mobile lid) and an 'upset' convection (stagnant -or sluggish- lid) highly impacts the dynamics of the lithosphere at the surface of the Earth. Thereby, on the basis of these models and a variety of real examples, we show that on the other side of a collision zone, passive margins become squeezed and can undergo compression, which may ultimately evolve into subduction or obduction. We also show that much further, due to the blocking of the lithosphere, spreading rates decrease at the ridge, a fact that may explain a variety of features such as the low magmatism of ultraslow

  2. High Resolution Modelling of Mantle Convective Flow Below the North American Plate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Moucha, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.; Rowley, D. B.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Quéré, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recent progress in joint seismic-geodynamic tomographic imaging of both thermal and compositional anomalies in Earth's mantle allows us to carry out new high-resolution calculations of the present-day mantle convective flow at all depths, from the lithosphere down to the core-mantle boundary. We are therefore able to delineate the detailed connections between fundamental geological and geophysical surface processes and the underlying mantle convection. We employ these convection calculations to consider North American continental dynamics, with a special focus on the detailed relationship between flow in upper mantle, especially in the asthenosphere, and the impact on present-day dynamic topography as well as its rate-of- change. The surface dynamics that we obtain show a clear and detailed connection to the mantle flow driven by the descent of the ancient Kula-Farallon plate system and a buoyant, actively ascending hot upwelling under the western US. Of particular importance is the relationship of the deep-seated upwelling under the Colorado Plateau as a driving force for current rifting in the Rio Grande River valley. This rifting and its temporal evolution bears a strong resemblance to the convection-induced rifting our convection model also predicts under the East African Rift system. The close similarity between these two rifts, in terms of asthenospheric flow dynamics, will be discussed.

  3. The Earth's Mantle: Evidence of Non-Newtonian Flow.

    PubMed

    Post, R L; Griggs, D T

    1973-09-28

    Recent information from experimentally deformed dunite coupled with a reanalysis of data on the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound suggest that the rheological behavior of the upper mantle is distinctly non-Newtonian, and that the shear strain rate is proportional to the shear stress raised to about the third power. PMID:17821590

  4. Mantle flow geometry from ridge to trench beneath the Gorda-Juan de Fuca plate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Short, Robert; Allen, Richard M.; Bastow, Ian D.; Totten, Eoghan; Richards, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic plates are underlain by a low-viscosity mantle layer, the asthenosphere. Asthenospheric flow may be induced by the overriding plate or by deeper mantle convection. Shear strain due to this flow can be inferred using the directional dependence of seismic wave speeds--seismic anisotropy. However, isolation of asthenospheric signals is challenging; most seismometers are located on continents, whose complex structure influences the seismic waves en route to the surface. The Cascadia Initiative, an offshore seismometer deployment in the US Pacific Northwest, offers the opportunity to analyse seismic data recorded on simpler oceanic lithosphere. Here we use measurements of seismic anisotropy across the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates to reconstruct patterns of asthenospheric mantle shear flow from the Juan de Fuca mid-ocean ridge to the Cascadia subduction zone trench. We find that the direction of fastest seismic wave motion rotates with increasing distance from the mid-ocean ridge to become aligned with the direction of motion of the Juan de Fuca Plate, implying that this plate influences mantle flow. In contrast, asthenospheric mantle flow beneath the Gorda Plate does not align with Gorda Plate motion and instead aligns with the neighbouring Pacific Plate motion. These results show that asthenospheric flow beneath the small, slow-moving Gorda Plate is controlled largely by advection due to the much larger, faster-moving Pacific Plate.

  5. How to estimate the heat production of a 'hidden' reservoir in Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenaga, J.

    2008-12-01

    The possibility of a hidden geochemical reservoir in the deep mantle has long been debated in geophysics and geochemistry, because of its bearings on the structure of the core-mantle boundary region, the origin of hotspots, the style of mantle convection, the history of the geomagnetic field, and the thermal evolution of Earth. The geochemical nature of a hidden reservoir, however, has been estimated based on composition models for the bulk silicate Earth, although these models preclude, in principle, the presence of such reservoir. Here we present a new self-consistent framework to estimate the neodymium and samarium concentration of a hidden reservoir and also constrain the heat production of the bulk silicate Earth, based on the notion of early global differentiation. Our geochemical inference is formulated as a nonlinear inverse problem, and the permissible solution space, delineated by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, indicates that an early enriched reservoir may occupy ~13% of the mantle with internal heat production of ~6~TW. If a hidden reservoir corresponds to the D" layer instead, its heat production would be only ~4~TW. The heat production of the bulk silicate Earth is estimated to be 18.9±3.8~TW, which is virtually independent of the likely reservoir size.

  6. Three-Dimensional Thermal Structure of the Middle-America Subduction Zone: Along-margin mantle flow and slab metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, J. C.; Currie, C. A.; He, J.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature is the primary control parameter of several processes occurring at subduction zones, such as slab metamorphism and dehydration, arc volcanism and the rupture width of megathrust earthquakes. The thermal state depends on the temperature of the oceanic slab and the flow pattern of the overlying mantle wedge. In most previous studies, mantle flow was modeled as two-dimensional (2D) corner flow, driven by the subducting plate. However, recent studies have shown the limitations of the 2D corner flow scheme, as a three-dimensional (3D) oceanic plate structure can generate along-strike pressure gradients, producing a trench-parallel flow component. One region where 3D effects may be important is the Middle America Subduction Zone (MASZ). Here, the dip of the oceanic plate varies from 0 to 70 degrees along the margin, with abrupt changes in slab dip in Central Mexico and Costa Rica-Nicaragua. Seismic anisotropy and arc magma geochemistry variations suggest a significant along-margin component of flow in these areas. Further, offshore surface heat flow measurements show that there may be along-margin variations in the temperature of the subducting oceanic plate, due to variations in plate age and hydrothermal circulation. In this study, we quantify the changes in the thermal structure of a subduction zone that result from along-margin variations in oceanic plate structure. We use 3D numerical models that consist of kinematically-defined subducting and overriding plates, and a flowing mantle wedge driven by drag exerted by the subducting plate. The finite-element code PGCtherm-3D is used to solve the steady-state governing equations for mantle wedge flow and the 3D thermal structure of the subduction zone. The models employ an oceanic plate that smoothly dips into the mantle and has along-margin variations in the deep dip of 40 and 70 degrees over a distance of 50km to 300km, as observed in some regions of the MASZ. Using an isoviscous mantle wedge, our

  7. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Deformation Effect of The Upper Mantle Flow to Ordos and Its Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Ping, L. C.; Qi, D.

    2014-12-01

    Ordos block is a typical representative of cratonic lithosphere in North China. It is stable in the block ,but around the block there are a series of faulted basins and folded mountains, the new tectonic movement around the block is intense. Some scholars propose that the upper mantle flow is an important factor to the extension activity of the fault zone around the block. But it has never been discussed in detail that how the upper mantle flow affects the movement and deformation around Ordos block? A 3D viscoelastic modeling is realized for studying the deformation effect of the upper mantle flow to Ordos and its surroundings, based on the comprehensive geological and geophysical data ,such as 3d rheological structure, the active blocks of China, thermal structure, shear wave splitting, et al. The modeling results indicate that in the vertical direction, compared with the local uplift and depression caused by the compression among the plates, the uplifting of Ordos block as a whole is mainly effected by mantle upwelling. In general the upper mantle surrounding of Ordos block is upwelling, Linfen basin goes up more faster. In the horizontal direction, The general flow direction of upper mantle in the study area is NE, basically the same as Qingzang block movement direction. But there is a bifurcation flow along the southwestern margin of Liupanshan. Generally speaking, the regional deformation is drive mainly by the movement of Qingzang block and adjacent blocks pushing into each other,the deformation effect of the upper mantle flow to Ordos and its surroundings is a superposition and partial adjustment.

  8. A flow law for ilmenite in dislocation creep: Implications for lunar cumulate mantle overturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Nick; Hirth, Greg; Liang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We present results from new deformation experiments and a dislocation creep flow law for synthetic ilmenite. The flow law predicts an effective viscosity more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than dry olivine at mantle stresses and temperatures. Using the flow law, we predict that lunar ilmenite-bearing cumulates (IBC) will be weakened by the presence of low-viscosity ilmenite. Dense, low-viscosity IBC are expected to flow into the lunar interior by a process known as cumulate mantle overturn. Low-viscosity IBC that sink to the core-mantle boundary may be dynamically stable with respect to upwelling. A hot, stable layer of IBC surrounding the lunar core would suppress the development of a core dynamo. A layer of partially molten IBC can also explain the inferred zone of seismic attenuation around the lunar core, as well as a low-viscosity layer suggested by tidal dissipation.

  9. Terrestrial heat flow in the North Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Om Prakash

    1981-07-01

    Large variations in terrestrial heat flow from 21 to 209 mW/m 2 have been observed over the North Island, New Zealand. This is generally in good agreement with the pattern of existing geological and geophysical observations. A high heat flow zone with a value of 92 ±3 mW/m 2, which corresponds to melting temperatures near the base of the crust, is delineated in the northern part of the Taranaki Basin. In the rest of the island, heat flow appears to be low to normal, but some isolated high values are also found. Observed results are interpreted in terms of crust and mantle structure in a region of plate subduction.

  10. Plume Capture by Divergent Plate Motions: Implications for the Distribution of Hotspots, Geochemistry of Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts, and Heat Flux from the Core-Mantle Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellinek, A. M.; Richards, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    The coexistence of mantle plumes with plate-scale flow is problematic in geodynamics. Significant problems include the fixity of hotspots with respect to plate motions, the spatial distribution and duration of hotspots, the geophysical and geochemical signatures of plume-ridge interactions, and the relation between mantle plumes and heat flux across the core-mantle boundary. We present results from laboratory experiments aimed at understanding the effects of an imposed large-scale circulation on thermal convection at high Rayleigh number (up to 109) in a fluid with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. In a large tank, a layer of corn syrup is heated from below while being stirred by large-scale flow due to the opposing motions of a pair of conveyor belts immersed in the syrup at the top of the tank. Three regimes are observed, depending on the velocity ratio V of the imposed horizontal flow velocity to the rise velocity of plumes ascending from the hot boundary. When V<<1, large scale circulation has a negligible effect and convective upwelling occurs as randomly-spaced axisymmetric plumes that interact with one another. When V>10, plume instabilities are suppressed entirely and the heat flux from the hot lower boundary is carried by a central sheet-like upwelling. At intermediate V, ascending plumes are advected along the bottom boundary layer, and the heat flux from the boundary is found to scale (according to a simple boundary layer theory) with V and the ratio of the viscosity of cold fluid above the thermal boundary layer to the viscosity of the hottest fluid in contact with the bottom boundary. For large viscosity ratios (10-100), only about 1/5th or less of the total heat flux from the hot boundary layer is carried by plume instabilities, even for modest imposed horizontal flow velocities (V of order 1). When applied to Earth, our results suggest that plate-scale flow focuses ascending mantle plumes toward mid-ocean ridges, and that plumes may be

  11. Evidence of power-law flow in the Mojave desert mantle.

    PubMed

    Freed, Andrew M; Bürgmann, Roland

    2004-07-29

    Studies of the Earth's response to large earthquakes can be viewed as large rock deformation experiments in which sudden stress changes induce viscous flow in the lower crust and upper mantle that lead to observable postseismic surface deformation. Laboratory experiments suggest that viscous flow of deforming hot lithospheric rocks is characterized by a power law in which strain rate is proportional to stress raised to a power, n (refs 2, 3). Most geodynamic models of flow in the lower crust and upper mantle, however, resort to newtonian (linear) stress-strain rate relations. Here we show that a power-law model of viscous flow in the mantle with n = 3.5 successfully explains the spatial and temporal evolution of transient surface deformation following the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes in southern California. A power-law rheology implies that viscosity varies spatially with stress causing localization of strain, and varies temporally as stress evolves, rendering newtonian models untenable. Our findings are consistent with laboratory-derived flow law parameters for hot and wet olivine--the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle--and support the contention that, at least beneath the Mojave desert, the upper mantle is weaker than the lower crust. PMID:15282602

  12. The mantle convection model with non-Newtonian rheology and phase transitions: The flow structure and stress fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrova, A. M.; Baranov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The mantle convection model with phase transitions, non-Newtonian viscosity, and internal heat sources is calculated for two-dimensional (2D) Cartesian geometry. The temperature dependence of viscosity is described by the Arrhenius law with a viscosity step of 50 at the boundary between the upper and lower mantle. The viscosity in the model ranges within 4.5 orders of magnitude. The use of the non-Newtonian rheology enabled us to model the processes of softening in the zone of bending and subduction of the oceanic plates. The yield stress in the model is assumed to be 50 MPa. Based on the obtained model, the structure of the mantle flows and the spatial fields of the stresses σ xz and σ xx in the Earth's mantle are studied. The model demonstrates a stepwise migration of the subduction zones and reveals the sharp changes in the stress fields depending on the stage of the slab detachment. In contrast to the previous model (Bobrov and Baranov, 2014), the self-consistent appearance of the rigid moving lithospheric plates on the surface is observed. Here, the intense flows in the upper mantle cause the drift and bending of the top segments of the slabs and the displacement of the plumes. It is established that when the upwelling plume intersects the boundary between the lower and upper mantle, it assumes a characteristic two-level structure: in the upper mantle, the ascending jet of the mantle material gets thinner, whereas its velocity increases. This effect is caused by the jump in the viscosity at the boundary and is enhanced by the effect of the endothermic phase boundary which impedes the penetration of the plume material from the lower mantle to the upper mantle. The values and distribution of the shear stresses σ xz and superlithostatic horizontal stresses σ xx are calculated. In the model area of the subducting slabs the stresses are 60-80 MPa, which is by about an order of magnitude higher than in the other mantle regions. The character of the stress fields

  13. Heat flow in a pyroelectric converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, R. B.; Butler, W. F.; Drummond, J. E.; Bruno, D. A.; Briscoe, J. M.

    1985-12-01

    A simulated pyroelectric converter has been constructed. The heat flow and temperature profiles within the converter have been measured. Computer simulations of the heat flow compare well with the measurements and predict an efficiency of 12 percent of the Carnot limit for a real pyroelectric converter with the operating configuration of the simulation. These heat flow results are useful in considerations of heat engines using active materials other than pyroelectrics, such as Nitinol, when these engines utilize similar heat flow management.

  14. Polar Heat Flow on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Davies, A. G.; Blaney, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Galileo spacecraft data have revealed Io's polar regions to be much warmer than previously expected. This unexpected development came from Photo-Polarimeter Radiometer (PPR) data which show that the minimum night temperatures are in the range of 90-95 K virtually everywhere on Io. The minimum night temperatures show no dependence upon latitude and, when away from the sunset terminator, they show no dependence upon time of night. This is indeed bizarre behavior for surface units which generally had been assumed to be passive with respect to Io's pervasive volcanism. Night temperatures of 90-95 K at high, polar latitudes are particularly hard to explain. Even assuming infinite thermal inertia, at these latitudes there is insufficient sunlight to support these warm night temperatures. Thus, through the process of elimination of other possibilities, we come to the conclusion that these surfaces are volcanically heated. Taking previously passive units and turning them into new sources of heat flow is a radical departure from previous thermophysical model paradigms. However, the geological interpretation is straight forward. We are simply seeing the effect of old, cool lava flows which cover most of the surface of Io but yet have some heat to radiate. Under these new constraints, we have taken on the challenge of formulating a physical model which quantitatively reproduces all of the observations of Io's thermal emission. In the following we introduce a new parametric model which suffices to identify a previously unrecognized polar component of Io's heat flow.

  15. A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Rakib; Müller, R Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Williams, Simon E; Flament, Nicolas

    2016-05-12

    Volcanic hotspot tracks featuring linear progressions in the age of volcanism are typical surface expressions of plate tectonic movement on top of narrow plumes of hot material within Earth's mantle. Seismic imaging reveals that these plumes can be of deep origin--probably rooted on thermochemical structures in the lower mantle. Although palaeomagnetic and radiometric age data suggest that mantle flow can advect plume conduits laterally, the flow dynamics underlying the formation of the sharp bend occurring only in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track in the Pacific Ocean remains enigmatic. Here we present palaeogeographically constrained numerical models of thermochemical convection and demonstrate that flow in the deep lower mantle under the north Pacific was anomalously vigorous between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago as a consequence of long-lasting subduction systems, unlike those in the south Pacific. These models show a sharp bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track arising from the interplay of plume tilt and the lateral advection of plume sources. The different trajectories of the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspot tracks arise from asymmetric deformation of thermochemical structures under the Pacific between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago. This asymmetric deformation waned just before the Hawaiian-Emperor bend developed, owing to flow in the deepest lower mantle associated with slab descent in the north and south Pacific. PMID:27172048

  16. A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Rakib; Müller, R. Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Williams, Simon E.; Flament, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Volcanic hotspot tracks featuring linear progressions in the age of volcanism are typical surface expressions of plate tectonic movement on top of narrow plumes of hot material within Earth’s mantle. Seismic imaging reveals that these plumes can be of deep origin—probably rooted on thermochemical structures in the lower mantle. Although palaeomagnetic and radiometric age data suggest that mantle flow can advect plume conduits laterally, the flow dynamics underlying the formation of the sharp bend occurring only in the Hawaiian–Emperor hotspot track in the Pacific Ocean remains enigmatic. Here we present palaeogeographically constrained numerical models of thermochemical convection and demonstrate that flow in the deep lower mantle under the north Pacific was anomalously vigorous between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago as a consequence of long-lasting subduction systems, unlike those in the south Pacific. These models show a sharp bend in the Hawaiian–Emperor hotspot track arising from the interplay of plume tilt and the lateral advection of plume sources. The different trajectories of the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspot tracks arise from asymmetric deformation of thermochemical structures under the Pacific between 100 million years ago and 50 million years ago. This asymmetric deformation waned just before the Hawaiian–Emperor bend developed, owing to flow in the deepest lower mantle associated with slab descent in the north and south Pacific.

  17. Inferences on flow at the base of Earth's mantle based on seismic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Panning, Mark; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2004-01-16

    We applied global waveform tomography to model radial anisotropy in the whole mantle. We found that in the last few hundred kilometers near the core-mantle boundary, horizontally polarized S-wave velocities (VSH) are, on average, faster (by approximately 1%) than vertically polarized S-wave velocities (VSV), suggesting a large-scale predominance of horizontal shear. This confirms that the D" region at the base of the mantle is also a mechanical boundary layer for mantle convection. A notable exception to this average signature can be found at the base of the two broad low-velocity regions under the Pacific Ocean and under Africa, often referred to as "superplumes," where the anisotropic pattern indicates the onset of vertical flow. PMID:14726586

  18. Heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, J.P.; Burrus, J.; Vedova, B.D.

    1988-08-01

    More than 400 terrestrial heat flow determinations have been carried our in the western Mediterranean basins. These include results of detailed surveys in the Ligurian Sea and in the Gulf of Lions and Tyrrhenian basins, as well as sparse measurements in the Gulf of Valencia and the Algerian basin. Most of the measurements are surficial, obtained from the temperatures sensed by outrigged thermistors mounted on weight-driven probes penetrating the sediment to 3 to 10 m. Thermal conductivity was measured either on cores or in situ. The authors present a heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins based on the available geothermal results. Mean regional heat flow values range from 55 to 105 mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Lugiran and Gulf of Lions basin and from 50 to 200 m mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the latter basin, high heat flow characterizes areas of recent intensive thinning of the continental crust and associated incipient oceanic crust formation. In the former basins, heat flow tends to increase from the Provencal coast of France to the Corsican and Sardinian margins, which may reflect on increasing heat contribution from the mantle.

  19. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Kendall, J. M.; Ren, Y.; Hegedus, E.; Ionescu, C.; Brueckl, E. P.; Radovanovic, S.

    2012-12-01

    Since the Mesozoic, central Europe tectonics has been dominated by the closure of the Tethyan Ocean as the African and European plates collided. This was accompanied by subduction, orogeny (the Alpine - Carpathian mountain chain), and microplate accretion. In the Mid-Miocene lithospheric extension formed the Pannonian Basin; this extension has been variously ascribed to slab roll-back, lithospheric gravitational instability or mantle extrusion. We present SKS splitting measurements for central Europe from temporary seismological deployments of the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP, 2005-2007) and the South Carpathian Project (SCP, 2009-2011), together with stations from permanent national networks. This provides a station spacing on the order of 50 - 70 km from the Eastern Alps across the Pannonian Basin and Carpathians to the East European platform with which to test geodynamic models for the region. SKS splitting delay times are between 0.7 - 1.5 s with a regional NW-SE trend of fast directions across the eastern Pannonian-Carpathian region, turning to parallel the tectonic strike in the Alps but perturbed by extension in the western Pannonian, the presence of the East European platform and the lithospheric instability in the Vrancea region of Romania. The fast polarisation orientations are correlated with upper mantle and transition zone tomographic images from a recent finite frequency study with the aim of controlling variations in mantle heterogeneity. The consistency of the regional anisotropy trends across much of central Europe imply olivine orientation perpendicular to the principal compressive stresses created by the collision of Adria and Europe, perturbed by Miocene extension of the Pannonian Basin and present-day lithospheric instability of the Vrancea region.

  20. A sensitivity study of three-dimensional spherical mantle convection at 108 Rayleigh number: Effects of depth-dependent viscosity, heating mode, and an endothermic phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunge, Hans-Peter; Richards, Mark A.; Baumgardner, John R.

    1997-06-01

    Mantle convection is influenced simultaneously by a number of physical effects: brittle failure in the surface plates, strongly variable viscosity, mineral phase changes, and both internal heating (radioactivity) and bottom heating from the core. Here we present a systematic study of three potentially important effects: depth-dependent viscosity, an endothermic phase change, and bottom versus internal heating. We model three-dimensional spherical convection at Rayleigh Ra=108 thus approaching the dynamical regime of the mantle. An isoviscous, internally heated reference model displays point-like downwellings from the cold upper boundary layer, a blue spectrum of thermal heterogeneity, and small but rapid time variations in flow diagnostics. A modest factor 30 increase in lower mantle viscosity results in a planform dominated by long, linear downwellings, a red spectrum, and great temporal stability. Bottom heating has the predictable effect of adding a thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle. We use a Clapeyron slope of γ=-4 MPa °K-1 for the 670 km phase transition, resulting in a phase buoyancy parameter of P=-0.112. This phase change causes upwellings and downwellings to pause in the transition zone but has little influence on the inherent time dependence of flow and only a modest reddening effect on the heterogeneity spectrum. Larger values of P result in stronger effects, but our choice of P is likely already too large to be representative of the mantle transition zone. Combinations of all three effects are remarkably predictable in terms of the single-effect models, and the effect of depth-dependent viscosity is found to be dominant.

  1. Laboratory convection experiments with internal, noncontact, microwave generated heating, applied to Earth's mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limare, Angela; Surducan, Emanoil; di Giuseppe, Erika; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia; Vilella, Kenny; Fourel, Loic; Farnetani, Cinzia; Kaminski, Edouard; Jaupart, Claude

    2014-05-01

    The thermal evolution of terrestrial planets is controlled by secular cooling and internal heating due to the decay of radiogenic isotopes, two processes which are equivalent from the standpoint of convection dynamics. Few studies have been devoted to the intrinsic characteristics of this form of convection, which are dominated by instabilities of a single boundary layer and which involve a non-isentropic interior thermal structure. Laboratory studies of such convection have been plagued by considerable technical difficulties and have been mostly restricted to aqueous solutions with moderate values of the Prandtl number, contrary to planetary mantles. Here, we describe a new laboratory setup to generate internal heating in controlled conditions based on microwave (MW) absorption. The advantages of our technique include, but are not limited to: (1) a volumetric heat source that can be localized or distributed in space, (2) selectively heating part of the volume with time varying intensity and space distribution. Our tank prototype had horizontal dimensions of 30 cm × 30 cm and 5 cm height. A uniform and constant temperature was maintained at the upper boundary by an aluminium heat exchanger and adiabatic conditions were imposed at the tank base. Experimental fluids were hydroxyethylcellulose - water mixtures whose viscosities were varied within a wide range depending on concentration. Experimental Prandtl numbers were set at values larger than 100. Thermochromic Liquid Crystals (TLC) were used to visualize the temperature field, and the velocity field was determined using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The Rayleigh-Roberts number was varied from 105 to 107. We also conducted numerical simulations in 3D cartesian geometry using Stag-3D (Tackley 1993) to reproduce the experimental conditions, including the tank aspect ratio and the temperature dependence of physical properties. We observed that convection is driven by cold descending plumes generated at the upper

  2. Experimental constraints on the impact of slab dip, gaps and rollback on mantle wedge flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, J. G.; Szwaja, S.; Kincaid, C. R.; Fischer, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    We conducted fluids experiments to better understand how subduction zone mantle flow and seismic anisotropy relate to slab dip variations, slab gaps, and retrograde trench motion. Subducting lithosphere was modeled with two rubber-reinforced continuous belts that pass around rollers at the trench and at the equivalent of 670 km depth; the advecting mantle was represented by an isoviscous glucose fluid. Each belt had a variable dip and speed, and trench rollback was modeled using translation of the belt system. Neutral density rotation markers ("whiskers") as well as beads and bubbles were used to track flow patterns; whiskers were also used as proxies for finite strain and were assumed to reflect the evolution of olivine fabrics and anisotropy. The dips of the two slab segments were systematically varied from 30° to 80° at subduction rates equivalent to 4 and 8 cm/yr, and in select cases trench rollback equivalent to 3 cm/yr was imposed. Reference cases with identical parameters for the two slab belts produced mantle wedge flow that reflected simple entrainment by the slab, with flow lines that were roughly trench-normal in much of the wedge, except for toroidal flow around the lateral edges of the slab. Dip variations between the slab segments deflected mantle wedge flow lines towards trench-parallel in the direction of the shallower slab, in agreement with prior numerical modeling studies. The degree of along-arc deflection increased as the slab dip difference grew. Deflection also increased as the absolute dip of the shallower-dipping segment decreased, as predicted by analytical estimates of trench-parallel pressure gradients (Hall et al., 2000). Whisker alignments showed the greatest evidence for extension and alignment of olivine a-axes that are sub-parallel to the trench in the mantle wedge close to the change in slab dip, consistent with the numerical models of Kneller and Van Keken (2007). The addition of trench rollback to a given set of experimental

  3. When mountain belts disrupt mantle flow: from natural evidences to numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Guillaume, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    During the Cenozoic, the number of orogens on Earth increased. This observation readily indicates that in the same time, compression in the lithosphere became gradually more and more important. Here, we show that such mountain belts, at plate boundaries, increasingly obstruct plate tectonics, slowing down and reorienting their motions. In turn, it changes the dynamic and kinematic surface conditions of the underlying flowing mantle, which ultimately modifies the pattern of mantle flow. Such forcing could explain many first order features of Cenozoic plate tectonics and mantle flow. Among others, at lithospheric scale, one can cite the compression of passive margins, the important variations in the rates of spreading at oceanic ridges, the initiation of subductions, or the onset of obductions. In the mantle, such changes in boundary conditions redesign the flow pattern and, consequently, disturb the oceanic lithosphere cooling. In order to test this hypothesis we first present thermo-mechanical numerical models of mantle convection above which a lithosphere is resting on top. Our results show that when collision occurs, the mantle flow is strongly modified, which leads to (i) increasing shear stresses below the lithosphere and (ii) a modification of the convection style. In turn, the transition between a "free" convection (mobile lid) and a "disturbed" convection (stagnant - or sluggish - lid) highly impacts the dynamics of the lithosphere at the surface. Thereby, on the basis of these models and a variety of real examples, we show that on the other side of a lithosphere presenting a collision zone, passive margins become squeezed and can undergo compression, which may ultimately evolve into subduction initiation or obduction. We also show that much further, due to the blocking of the lithosphere, spreading rates decrease at the ridge, which may explain a variety of features such as the low magmatism of ultraslow spreading ridges or the departure of slow spreading

  4. A review of the heat flow data of NE Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Paolo; Barkaoui, Alae-Eddine; Rimi, Abdelkrim; Verdoya, Massimo; Zarhloule, Yassine

    2016-04-01

    The Atlas chain is characterised by a SW-NE trending volcanic belt roughly extending from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea and showing activity that spans in age mainly from Middle Miocene to Quaternary (14.6-0.3 Ma). The geochemical features of volcanism are mostly intraplate and alkaline with the exception of the northeastern termination of the belt where calc-alkaline series crop out. Lithospheric thermal and density models so far proposed, constrained by heat flow, gravity anomalies, geoid, and topography data, show that the Atlas chain is not supported isostatically by a thickened crust and a thin, hot and low-density lithosphere explains the high topography. One of the possible explanations for lithospheric mantle thinning, possibly in relation with the observed alkaline volcanism, is thermal erosion produced by either small-scale convection or activation of a small mantle plume, forming part of a hot and deep mantle reservoir system extending from the Canary Islands. This paper focuses on the several geothermal data available in the northeastern sector of the volcanic belt. The occurrence of an extensive, often artesian, carbonatic reservoir hosting moderately hot groundwater might boost the temperature gradient in the overlying impermeable cover, and consequently mask the deep thermal regime. We therefore revised the available dataset and investigated the contribution of advection. Temperature data available from water and oil wells were reprocessed and analysed in combination with thermal conductivity measurements on a wide set of lithotypes. Data were filtered according to rigid selection criteria, and, in the deeper boreholes, the heat flow was inferred by taking into account the porosity variation with depth and the temperature effect on the matrix and pore-filling fluid conductivity. Moreover, the possible effect of advection was evaluated with simple analytical models which envisage the carbonatic layers as confined aquifers heated by the

  5. Mantle Convection in a Microwave Oven: New Perspectives for the Internally Heated Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limare, A.; Fourel, L.; Surducan, E.; Neamtu, C.; Surducan, V.; Vilella, K.; Farnetani, C. G.; Kaminski, E. C.; Jaupart, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal evolution of silicate planets is primarily controlled by the balance between internal heating - due to radioactive decay - and heat transport by mantle convection. In the Earth, the problem is particularly complex due to the heterogeneous distribution of heat sources in the mantle and the non-linear coupling between this distribution and convective mixing. To investigate the behaviour of such systems, we have developed a new technology based on microwave absorption to study internally-heated convection in the laboratory. This prototype offers the ability to reach the high Rayleigh-Roberts and Prandtl numbers that are relevant for planetary convection. Our experimental results obtained for a uniform distribution of heat sources were compared to numerical calculations reproducing exactly experimental conditions (3D Cartesian geometry and temperature-dependent physical properties), thereby providing the first cross validation of experimental and numerical studies of convection in internally-heated systems. We find that the thermal boundary layer thickness and interior temperature scale with RaH-1/4, where RaH is the Rayleigh-Roberts number, as theoretically predicted by scaling arguments on the dissipation of kinetic energy. Our microwave-based method offers new perspectives for the study of internally-heated convection in heterogeneous systems which have been out of experimental reach until now. We are able to selectively heat specific regions in the convecting layer, through the careful control of the absorption properties of different miscible fluids. This is analogous to convection in the presence of chemical reservoirs with different concentration of long-lived radioactive isotopes. We shall show results for two different cases: the stability of continental lithosphere over a convective fluid and the evolution of a hidden enriched reservoir in the lowermost mantle.

  6. Entropy flow in quantum heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad; Nazarov, Yuli

    2015-03-01

    We evaluate Shannon and Renyi entropy flows from generic quantum heat engines (QHE) to a weakly-coupled probe environment kept in thermal equilibrium. We show the flows are determined by two quantities: heat flow and fictitious dissipation that manifest the quantum coherence in the engine. Our theory leads to novel physics in quantum heat engines.

  7. Arc-parallel flow in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Hoernle, Kaj; Abt, David L; Fischer, Karen M; Nichols, Holly; Hauff, Folkmar; Abers, Geoffrey A; van den Bogaard, Paul; Heydolph, Ken; Alvarado, Guillermo; Protti, Marino; Strauch, Wilfried

    2008-02-28

    Resolving flow geometry in the mantle wedge is central to understanding the thermal and chemical structure of subduction zones, subducting plate dehydration, and melting that leads to arc volcanism, which can threaten large populations and alter climate through gas and particle emission. Here we show that isotope geochemistry and seismic velocity anisotropy provide strong evidence for trench-parallel flow in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica and Nicaragua. This finding contradicts classical models, which predict trench-normal flow owing to the overlying wedge mantle being dragged downwards by the subducting plate. The isotopic signature of central Costa Rican volcanic rocks is not consistent with its derivation from the mantle wedge or eroded fore-arc complexes but instead from seamounts of the Galapagos hotspot track on the subducting Cocos plate. This isotopic signature decreases continuously from central Costa Rica to northwestern Nicaragua. As the age of the isotopic signature beneath Costa Rica can be constrained and its transport distance is known, minimum northwestward flow rates can be estimated (63-190 mm yr(-1)) and are comparable to the magnitude of subducting Cocos plate motion (approximately 85 mm yr(-1)). Trench-parallel flow needs to be taken into account in models evaluating thermal and chemical structure and melt generation in subduction zones. PMID:18223639

  8. Louisville seamount subduction and its implication on mantle flow beneath the central Tonga-Kermadec arc.

    PubMed

    Timm, Christian; Bassett, Daniel; Graham, Ian J; Leybourne, Matthew I; de Ronde, Cornel E J; Woodhead, Jon; Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Watts, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    Subduction of intraplate seamounts beneath a geochemically depleted mantle wedge provides a seldom opportunity to trace element recycling and mantle flow in subduction zones. Here we present trace element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of lavas from the central Tonga-Kermadec arc, west of the contemporary Louisville-Tonga trench intersection, to provide new insights into the effects of Louisville seamount subduction. Elevated (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb, (86)Sr/(87)Sr in lavas from the central Tonga-Kermadec arc front are consistent with localized input of subducted alkaline Louisville material (lavas and volcaniclastics) into sub-arc partial melts. Furthermore, absolute Pacific Plate motion models indicate an anticlockwise rotation in the subducted Louisville seamount chain that, combined with estimates of the timing of fluid release from the subducting slab, suggests primarily trench-normal mantle flow beneath the central Tonga-Kermadec arc system. PMID:23591887

  9. Distribution Pattern of Terrestrial Heat Flow in Bohai Bay Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Gong, Y.; Liu, S.; Li, C.; Li, H.

    2004-12-01

    New temperature data from wells in Bohai bay basin increasing associated with the enhancement of oil and gas exploration there provides more reliable information about studying on Terrestrial heat flow pattern. Based on the data from 88 systematic continuous temperature logging curves and more than 1000 well test temperature data, along with the corresponding thermo-physical parameters of rock samples, here we determined 53 heat flow data and estimated other 172 according to thermal resistance method, then the distribution Pattern of heat flow in Bohai Bay basin is presented. Heat flow in Bohai bay basin is relatively large than those in the surrounding mountain areas. For instance, heat flow of Yanshan, north of the basin, is only low as 25 ~ 54 mW/m2, and less than 50 mW/m2 for Taihang mountain to the west, the average heat flow of Luxi Uplift is about 54 mW/m2. Crustal thickness of regions outside the basin to the west and north approximating to 36~44km, apparently is larger than that of basin, which maybe accounts for the high heat flow in Bohai bay basin. Those regions of relatively thin crust within the basin are of middle-high heat flow. Heat flow in such depressions as the Lower Liaohe, Bozhong, Jiyang and Yongqing area northeast of Jizhong Depression, together with Bohai offshore, for example, are all larger than 64 mW/m2, and even high as 70 mW/m2 for some regions with mantle upwelling. Low heat flow appears in those areas with relatively thick crust. For instance, heat flow in Linqing Depression, southwest margin of Jizhong Depression and southern Huanghua Depression, are all less than 64 mW/m2, even less than 60 mW/m2 for those areas with mantle downwelling. Heat flow pattern in Bohai Bay basin is negative correlation with crustal thickness, for those regions with relatively crustal thinning, heat derived from the deep earth is more due to the large lithospheric extension, resulting in the high heat flow; while for those with crustal thickening, heat

  10. Utilizing thermal isostasy to estimate sub-lithospheric heat flow and anomalous crustal radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasterok, D.; Gard, M.

    2016-09-01

    While surface heat flow relates to the heat loss through the lithosphere, it can be difficult to quantify and separate the heat produced internally through radiogenic decay from the heat transferred across the base of the lithosphere by mantle convection. In this study, we apply a thermo-isostatic analysis to Australia and estimate the sub-lithospheric and radiogenic heat flow components by employing a simple 1-D conservation of energy model. We estimate an anomalous radiogenic heat production across much of eastern Australia generally accounting for >50 mW m-2, while western Australia appears to have high crustal compositionally corrected elevation, possibly related to chemical buoyancy of the mantle lithosphere. A moderately high sub-lithospheric heat flow (∼40 mW m-2) along the eastern and southeastern coast, including Tasmania, is coincident with locations of Cenozoic volcanism and supports an edge-driven convection hypothesis. However, the pattern of sub-lithospheric heat flow along the margin does not support the existence of hotspot tracks. Thermo-isostatic models such as these improve our ability to identify and quantify crustal from mantle sources of heat loss and add valuable constraints on tectonic and geodynamic models of the continental lithosphere's physical state and evolution.

  11. Slab Geometry Control on Mantle Flow Regime: A case study from Central South America Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. B.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.

    2013-12-01

    The subduction of oceanic lithosphere along convergent plate margins plays an important role in the dynamics of the upper mantle beneath convergent margins and major orogenic belts. Many studies of mantle dynamics show that the flow pattern of the mantle varies greatly between different subduction zones as well as within the same subduction zone. The factors that control such variations are poorly understood and need to be investigated further in order to develop a better understanding of various subduction zone processes such as the deformation of mantle beneath convergent plate margins and transport of melts and volatiles in the mantle wedge above subducting slabs. Earlier studies of mantle flow inferred from seismic anisotropy via shear-wave splitting analysis indicated that the dynamics and deformation of subducting and overriding plates as well as the slab geometry have important roles on mantle flow regime. In an effort to test the significance of these factors in constraining the mantle dynamics along the central South America subduction zone, we carried out a shear-wave splitting analysis. Our study area covers southern Peru and northwestern Bolivia encompassing the northernmost Altiplano plateau where subduction of the Nazca plate begins to gradually flatten towards the north. The major part of the data for our analysis comes from the CAUGHT temporary seismic deployment (2010 - 2012) with 49 three-component broadband seismometers. In our study we used SKS, SKKS and PKS arrivals from over 80 teleseismic earthquakes, located between the distance-range of 60 to 140 degrees. We determined polarization direction and delay-time of shear-wave arrivals that are polarized into fast and slow components and split in time. The resultant fast polarization directions indicate the direction of mantle flow beneath the study area and the delay-times show the strength and depth extend of the associated seismic anisotropy. The results of our analysis revealed a

  12. Seismic Anisotropy and Mantle Flow Driven by the Cocos Slab Under Southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-López, Leslie A.; Garibaldi, Berenice R.; León Soto, Gerardo; Valenzuela, Raúl W.; Escudero, Christian R.

    2015-12-01

    Shear wave splitting measurements were made using SKS and SKKS waves recorded by the Meso-American Subduction Experiment, which was deployed in southern Mexico starting at the coast of the Pacific Ocean and running north toward the Gulf of Mexico. In this segment of the Middle America Trench the oceanic Cocos plate subducts under the continental North American plate. The active volcanic arc is located at the southern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Unlike most subduction zones, however, the volcanic arc is not subparallel to the trench. In the fore-arc, between the trench and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the Cocos slab subducts subhorizontally. Beneath the volcanic belt, however, the slab dives steeply into the mantle. A marked difference in the orientation of the fast polarization directions is observed between the fore-arc and the back-arc. In the fore-arc the fast axes determined using SKS phases are oriented NE-SW, in the same direction as the relative motion between the Cocos and North American plates, and are approximately perpendicular to the trench. Physical conditions in the subslab mantle are consistent with the existence of A-type olivine and consequently entrained mantle flow is inferred. Strong coupling between the slab and the surrounding mantle is observed. In the back-arc SKS fast polarization directions are oriented N-S and are perpendicular to the strike of the slab. Given the high temperatures in the mantle wedge tip, the development of A-type, or similar, olivine fabric throughout the mantle wedge is expected. The orientation of the fast axes is consistent with corner flow in the mantle wedge.

  13. Western US intermountain seismicity caused by changes in upper mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Thorsten W.; Lowry, Anthony R.; Faccenna, Claudio; Schmandt, Brandon; Borsa, Adrian; Yu, Chunquan

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the causes of intraplate earthquakes is challenging, as it requires extending plate tectonic theory to the dynamics of continental deformation. Seismicity in the western United States away from the plate boundary is clustered along a meandering, north-south trending `intermountain' belt. This zone coincides with a transition from thin, actively deforming to thicker, less tectonically active crust and lithosphere. Although such structural gradients have been invoked to explain seismicity localization, the underlying cause of seismicity remains unclear. Here we show results from improved mantle flow models that reveal a relationship between seismicity and the rate change of `dynamic topography' (that is, vertical normal stress from mantle flow). The associated predictive skill is greater than that of any of the other forcings we examined. We suggest that active mantle flow is a major contributor to seismogenic intraplate deformation, while gravitational potential energy variations have a minor role. Seismicity localization should occur where convective changes in vertical normal stress are modulated by lithospheric strength heterogeneities. Our results on deformation processes appear consistent with findings from other mobile belts, and imply that mantle flow plays a significant and quantifiable part in shaping topography, tectonics, and seismic hazard within intraplate settings.

  14. Western US intermountain seismicity caused by changes in upper mantle flow.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thorsten W; Lowry, Anthony R; Faccenna, Claudio; Schmandt, Brandon; Borsa, Adrian; Yu, Chunquan

    2015-08-27

    Understanding the causes of intraplate earthquakes is challenging, as it requires extending plate tectonic theory to the dynamics of continental deformation. Seismicity in the western United States away from the plate boundary is clustered along a meandering, north-south trending 'intermountain' belt. This zone coincides with a transition from thin, actively deforming to thicker, less tectonically active crust and lithosphere. Although such structural gradients have been invoked to explain seismicity localization, the underlying cause of seismicity remains unclear. Here we show results from improved mantle flow models that reveal a relationship between seismicity and the rate change of 'dynamic topography' (that is, vertical normal stress from mantle flow). The associated predictive skill is greater than that of any of the other forcings we examined. We suggest that active mantle flow is a major contributor to seismogenic intraplate deformation, while gravitational potential energy variations have a minor role. Seismicity localization should occur where convective changes in vertical normal stress are modulated by lithospheric strength heterogeneities. Our results on deformation processes appear consistent with findings from other mobile belts, and imply that mantle flow plays a significant and quantifiable part in shaping topography, tectonics, and seismic hazard within intraplate settings. PMID:26310767

  15. Microwave-based laboratory experiments for internally-heated mantle convection

    SciTech Connect

    Limare, A.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Vilella, K.; Farnetani, C. G.; Kaminski, E.; Jaupart, C.; Surducan, E.; Surducan, V.; Neamtu, C.

    2013-11-13

    The thermal evolution of terrestrial planets is mainly controlled by the amount of radioactive heat sources in their mantle, and by the geometry and efficiency of solid state thermo-chemical convection within. So far, these systems have been studied using numerical methods only and cross validation by laboratory analogous experiments has not been conducted yet. To fill this gap we perform the first laboratory experiments of mantle convection driven by microwave-generated internal heating. We use a 30×30×5 cm{sup 3} experimental tank filled with 0.5 % Natrosol in water mixture (viscosity 0.6 Pa.s at 20°C). The fluid is heated from within by a microwave device that delivers a uniform volumetric heating from 10 to 70 kW/m{sup 3}; the upper boundary of the fluid is kept at constant temperature, whereas the lower boundary is adiabatic. The velocity field is determined with particle image velocimetry and the temperature field is measured using thermochromic liquid crystals which enable us to charaterize the geometry of the convective regime as well as its bulk thermal evolution. Numerical simulations, conducted using Stag-3D in 3D cartesian geometry, reproduce the experimental setup (i.e., boundary conditions, box aspect ratio, temperature dependence of physical parameters, internal heating rate). The successful comparison between the experimental and numerical results validates our approach of modelling internal heating using microwaves.

  16. Comparisons between seismic Earth structures and mantle flow models based on radial correlation functions.

    PubMed

    Jordan, T H; Puster, P; Glatzmaier, G A; Tackley, P J

    1993-09-10

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations were conducted of mantle convection in which flow through the transition zone is impeded by either a strong chemical change or an endothermic phase change. The temperature fields obtained from these models display a well-defined minimum in the vertical correlation length at or near the radius where the barrier is imposed, even when the fields were filtered to low angular and radial resolutions. However, evidence for such a feature is lacking in the shear-velocity models derived by seismic tomography. This comparison suggests that any stratification induced by phase or chemical changes across the mid-mantle transition zone has a relatively small effect on the large-scale circulation of mantle material. PMID:17745353

  17. Dynamics and Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Northwestern Andes: Subduction Segments, Moho Depth, and Possible Relationships to Mantle Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve, G.; Yarce, J.; Becker, T. W.; Porritt, R. W.; Cardona, A.; Poveda, E.; Posada, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    The northwestern South American plate shows a complex tectonic setting whose causes and relationship to mantle structure are still debated. We combine different techniques to elucidate some of the links between slabs and surface deformation in Colombia. Crustal structure beneath the Northern Andes was inferred from receiver functions where we find thicknesses of nearly 60 km beneath the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera and underneath the southern volcanic area of the Central Cordillera. We infer that such crustal thickening resulted from shortening, magmatic addition, and accretion-subduction. Analyses of relative teleseismic travel time delays and estimates of residual surface topography based on our new crustal model suggest that there are at least two subduction segments underneath the area. The Caribbean slab lies at a low angle beneath northernmost Colombia and steepens beneath the Eastern Cordillera. Such steepening is indicated by negative travel time relative residuals in the area of the Bucaramanga Nest, implying a cold anomaly in the upper mantle, and by positive residual topography just off the east of this area, perhaps generated by slab-associated return flow. Results for the western Andes and the Pacific coastal plains are consistent with "normal" subduction of the Nazca plate: travel time relative residuals there are predominantly positive, and the residual topography shows an W-E gradient, going from positive at the Pacific coastline to negative at the Magdalena Valley, which separates the eastern cordillera from the rest of the Colombian Andean system. Azimuthal analysis of relative travel time residuals further suggests the presence of seismically slow materials beneath the central part of the Eastern Cordillera. Azimuthal anisotropy from SKS splitting in that region indicates that seismically fast orientations do not follow plate convergence, different from what we find for the western Colombian Andes and the Caribbean and Pacific coastal plains

  18. Seismic evidence for flow in the hydrated mantle wedge of the Ryukyu subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Walker, Andrew M; Wookey, James; Wallis, Simon R; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Kendall, J-Michael

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that water-rich serpentinite domains are commonly present in the mantle above shallow subducting slabs and play key roles in controlling the geochemical cycling and physical properties of subduction zones. Thermal and petrological models show the dominant serpentine mineral is antigorite. However, there is no good consensus on the amount, distribution and alignment of this mineral. Seismic velocities are commonly used to identify antigorite-rich domains, but antigorite is highly-anisotropic and depending on the seismic ray path, its properties can be very difficult to distinguish from non-hydrated olivine-rich mantle. Here, we utilize this anisotropy and show how an analysis of seismic anisotropy that incorporates measured ray path geometries in the Ryukyu arc can constrain the distribution, orientation and amount of antigorite. We find more than 54% of the wedge must consist of antigorite and the alignment must change from vertically aligned to parallel to the slab. This orientation change suggests convective flow in the hydrated forearc mantle. Shear wave splitting analysis in other subduction zones indicates large-scale serpentinization and forearc mantle convection are likely to be more widespread than generally recognized. The view that the forearc mantle of cold subduction zones is dry needs to be reassessed. PMID:27436676

  19. "Dynamic Kinematics": Towards Linking Earth's Plate Motions to the Evolution of Global Mantle Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The theory of plate tectonics has been one of the major breakthroughs in solid-Earth science and is capable of explaining many of the tectonic processes on present-day Earth. Moreover, it allows us to reconstruct Earth's tectonic history back until times of the supercontinent Pangaea and thus improves our understanding how Earth developed to its present state. However, plate tectonics remains a kinematic theory that does not sufficiently incorporate the balance of forces in the Earth's mantle and can thus not explain the motion of Earth's tectonic plates in a dynamically consistent manner. Here, we use fully dynamic models of mantle convection in global spherical geometry to overcome this issue. These models include tectonic plates self-consistently evolving from mantle flow (using a viscoplastic rheology) as well as continental drift. We analyze the evolution of plate velocities over time periods considerably longer than those covered by modern plate reconstructions. We observe significant changes in plate velocity magnitude and direction over timescales relevant for the Earth. While some of these plate reorganizations appear to be rather local affecting only very few plates, others seem to have more global consequences. We characterize the variety of different reorganizations based on features of modeled spreading centers and subduction zones, for instance the flux of slab material into the lower mantle. Initial results suggest that global changes in plate configuration correlate with phases of major slab penetration into the lower mantle, while changes on individual plate-scale do not necessarily do so.

  20. Seismic evidence for flow in the hydrated mantle wedge of the Ryukyu subduction zone

    PubMed Central

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Walker, Andrew M.; Wookey, James; Wallis, Simon R.; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Kendall, J. -Michael

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that water-rich serpentinite domains are commonly present in the mantle above shallow subducting slabs and play key roles in controlling the geochemical cycling and physical properties of subduction zones. Thermal and petrological models show the dominant serpentine mineral is antigorite. However, there is no good consensus on the amount, distribution and alignment of this mineral. Seismic velocities are commonly used to identify antigorite-rich domains, but antigorite is highly-anisotropic and depending on the seismic ray path, its properties can be very difficult to distinguish from non-hydrated olivine-rich mantle. Here, we utilize this anisotropy and show how an analysis of seismic anisotropy that incorporates measured ray path geometries in the Ryukyu arc can constrain the distribution, orientation and amount of antigorite. We find more than 54% of the wedge must consist of antigorite and the alignment must change from vertically aligned to parallel to the slab. This orientation change suggests convective flow in the hydrated forearc mantle. Shear wave splitting analysis in other subduction zones indicates large-scale serpentinization and forearc mantle convection are likely to be more widespread than generally recognized. The view that the forearc mantle of cold subduction zones is dry needs to be reassessed. PMID:27436676

  1. Seismic evidence for flow in the hydrated mantle wedge of the Ryukyu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Walker, Andrew M.; Wookey, James; Wallis, Simon R.; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Kendall, J.-Michael

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that water-rich serpentinite domains are commonly present in the mantle above shallow subducting slabs and play key roles in controlling the geochemical cycling and physical properties of subduction zones. Thermal and petrological models show the dominant serpentine mineral is antigorite. However, there is no good consensus on the amount, distribution and alignment of this mineral. Seismic velocities are commonly used to identify antigorite-rich domains, but antigorite is highly-anisotropic and depending on the seismic ray path, its properties can be very difficult to distinguish from non-hydrated olivine-rich mantle. Here, we utilize this anisotropy and show how an analysis of seismic anisotropy that incorporates measured ray path geometries in the Ryukyu arc can constrain the distribution, orientation and amount of antigorite. We find more than 54% of the wedge must consist of antigorite and the alignment must change from vertically aligned to parallel to the slab. This orientation change suggests convective flow in the hydrated forearc mantle. Shear wave splitting analysis in other subduction zones indicates large-scale serpentinization and forearc mantle convection are likely to be more widespread than generally recognized. The view that the forearc mantle of cold subduction zones is dry needs to be reassessed.

  2. Post-Eocene Subduction Dynamics and Mantle Flow beneath Western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Zhou, Q.; Leonard, T.

    2015-12-01

    Both surface geology and mantle seismic images suggest a complex late Cenozoic history of mantle dynamics over western U.S. We try to understand this history by simulating the Farallon subduction since 40 Ma. Forward subduction models assimilating time dependent seafloor ages, plate kinematics and evolving plate boundaries suggest that the present-day 3D distribution of fast seismic anomalies below western U.S. mostly represent late Cenozoic slabs, which experienced multiple phases of segmentation during subduction because of their young age and small mechanical strength (Liu & Stegman, 2011). A major slab segmentation event occurred around mid-Miocene, with the resulting slab tear and induced asthenosphere upwelling correlating with the Steens-Columbia River flood basalts (SCRB) eruption both in space and in time (Liu & Stegman, 2012). This suggests that a mantle plume is not required for the formation of the SCRB. Segmentation of the Farallon slab generates rapid toroidal flows around the newly formed slab edges beneath the Cascadia arc. These mantle flows may affect both the pattern and composition of arc volcanism through transportation of oceanic asthenosphere material into the mantle wedge. Based on the forward model, we further test the influence of slow seismic anomalies on mantle dynamics. On the one hand, we explicitly input a deep hot anomaly to represent the putative Yellowstone plume. On the other hand, we develop a hybrid scheme that combines the adjoint inverse method with the high-resolution forward simulation approach, so that the present-day mantle seismic structure is entirely consistent with the convection model. Our preliminary results suggest that a hot plume could actively rise up only when it is several hundreds of kilometers away from the slabs, as is the case prior to 20 Ma. Subsequently, the plume is dominated by the surrounding slabs, resulting in an overall downwelling mantle flow. This suggests that a plume might have contributed to

  3. Giant impacts, heterogeneous mantle heating and a past hemispheric dynamo on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteux, J.; Amit, H.; Choblet, G.; Langlais, B.; Tobie, G.

    2015-10-01

    The martian surface exhibits a strong dichotomy in elevation, crustal thickness and magnetization between the southern and northern hemispheres. A giant impact has been proposed as an explanation for the for-mation of the Northern Lowlands on Mars. Such an impact probably led to strong and deep mantle heat-ing which may have had implications on the magnetic evolution of the planet. We model the effects of such an impact on the martian magnetic field by imposing an impact induced thermal heterogeneity, and the sub-sequent heat flux heterogeneity, on the martian core- mantle boundary(CMB). The CMB heat flux lateral variations as well as the reduction in the mean CMB heat flux are determined by the size and geographic location of the impactor. A polar impactor leads to a north-south hemispheric magnetic dichotomy that is stronger than an east-west dichotomy created by an equatorial impactor. The amplitude of the hemispheric magnetic dichotomy is mostly controlled by the horizontal Rayleigh number Rah which represents the vigor of the convection driven by the lateral variations of the CMB heat flux. We show that, for a given Rah, an impact induced CMB heat flux heterogeneity is more efficient than a synthetic degree-1 CMB heat flux heterogeneity in generating strong hemispheric magnetic dichotomies. Large Rah values are needed to get a dichotomy as strong as the observed one, favoring a reversing paleo-dynamo for Mars. Our results imply that an impactor radius of˜1000 km could have recorded the magnetic dichotomy observed in the mar- tian crustal field only if very rapid post-impact magma cooling took place.

  4. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2016-02-16

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  5. Beyond surface heat flow: An example from a tectonically active sedimentary basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Phillip A.; Chapman, David S.

    1998-02-01

    Thermal anomalies that have important geodynamic implications may not always be recognizable in present-day surface heat-flow patterns. The masking occurs because surface heat flow responds to mantle heat, crustal radioactivity, magmatism, crustal deformation, burial and/or exhumation, and fluid movement, any of which may offset the thermal effects of the others. Sedimentary basins are particularly suited to partitioning heat flow into its various components. We use Taranaki basin, New Zealand, as an example. It has a relatively undeformed (since the Miocene) western region that is used as a control against which the tectonically active eastern region can be compared. Although surface heat flow is roughly constant across Taranaki basin, basal heat flow modeled at lower crustal upper mantle depths varies by a factor of two or more. A combination of low heat-producing crust and the heat sink effects of crustal thickening in the eastern region can account for the basal heat-flow anomalies. The tectonic thermal anomaly would have gone unnoticed without the aid of detailed basin analysis and thermal modeling.

  6. Mantle flow beneath La Réunion hotspot track from SKS splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.

    2013-01-01

    If upper mantle anisotropy beneath fast-moving oceanic plates is expected to align the fast azimuths close to the plate motion directions, the upper mantle flow pattern beneath slow-moving oceanic plates will reflect the relative motion between the moving plate and the underlying large-scale convecting mantle. In addition to the non-correlation of the fast azimuths with the plate motion direction, the flow and anisotropy pattern may be locally perturbed by other factors such as the upwelling and the sublithospheric spreading of mantle plumes. Investigating such plume-lithosphere interaction is strongly dependent on the available seismological data, which are generally sparse in oceanic environment. In this study, we take the opportunity of recent temporary deployments of 15 seismic stations and 5 permanent stations on the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, the active locus of La Réunion hotspot and of 6 permanent stations installed along or close to its fossil track of about 3700 km in length, to analyze azimuthal anisotropy detected by SKS wave splitting and to decipher the various possible origins of anisotropy beneath the Western Indian Ocean. From about 150 good and fair splitting measurements and more than 1000 null splitting measurements, we attempt to distinguish between the influence of a local plume signature and large-scale mantle flow. The large-scale anisotropy pattern obtained at the SW-Indian Ocean island stations is well explained by plate motion relative to the deep mantle circulation. By contrast, stations on La Réunion Island show a complex signature characterized by numerous "nulls" and by fast split shear wave polarizations trending normal to the plate motion direction and obtained within a small backazimuthal window, that cannot be explained by either a single or two anisotropic layers. Despite the sparse spatial coverage which precludes a unique answer, we show that such pattern may be compatible with a simple model of sublithospheric spreading

  7. How large are present-day heat flow variations across Mars' surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Grott, Matthias; Breuer, Doris

    2015-04-01

    The upcoming InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission, to be launched in 2016, will carry the first in-situ Martian heat flow measurement and provide an important baseline to constrain the present-day heat budget of the planet and, in turn, the thermal and chemical evolution of its interior. Currently, the Earth and the Moon are the only bodies on which in-situ surface heat flow measurements have been performed. Here, strong spatial variations of the surface heat flow are primarily caused by plate tectonics and the heterogeneous distribution of heat producing elements over the surface (e.g., the so-called Procellarum KREEP Terrane PKT on the lunar nearside). In the absence of plate-tectonics and large-scale geochemical anomalies, on Mars, surface heat flow is expected to vary less with geological location, being mainly influenced by variations in the thickness and HPE content of the crust [1], and by mantle plumes [2]. We have tested this assumption by running thermal evolution models for Mars in 3D spherical geometry, using the mantle convection code Gaia [3]. In our calculations, we employ a crust of fixed thickness with a north-south dichotomy in crustal thickness, a low conductivity compared to the mantle and enriched in radiogenic heat producing elements. Our results show that including compressibility effects, phase transitions and different core sizes, surface heat flow variations are mainly dominated by the crust contribution, unless the mantle viscosity increases more than three orders of magnitude with depth. In the latter case, heat flow variations due to mantle upwellings are ~ 8 mW/m2 relative to surface average and remain confined to limited surface regions. Both surface heat flow variations on Mars obtained from numerical models and the heat flow measurement planned for the InSight mission will permit to address the question of a possible plume underneath Elysium and also to test the feasibility

  8. Giant impacts, heterogeneous mantle heating and a past hemispheric dynamo on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteux, Julien; Amit, Hagay; Choblet, Gael; Langlais, Benoît; Tobie, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    The martian surface exhibits a strong dichotomy in elevation, crustal thickness and magnetization between the southern and northern hemispheres. A giant impact has been proposed as an explanation for the formation of the Northern Lowlands on Mars. Such an impact probably led to strong and deep mantle heating which may have had implications on the magnetic evolution of the planet. We model the effects of such an impact on the martian magnetic field by imposing an impact induced thermal heterogeneity, and the subsequent heat flux heterogeneity, on the martian core-mantle boundary (CMB). The CMB heat flux lateral variations as well as the reduction in the mean CMB heat flux are determined by the size and geographic location of the impactor. A polar impactor leads to a north-south hemispheric magnetic dichotomy that is stronger than an east-west dichotomy created by an equatorial impactor. The amplitude of the hemispheric magnetic dichotomy is mostly controlled by the horizontal Rayleigh number Rah which represents the vigor of the convection driven by the lateral variations of the CMB heat flux. We show that, for a given Rah, an impact induced CMB heat flux heterogeneity is more efficient than a synthetic degree-1 CMB heat flux heterogeneity in generating strong hemispheric magnetic dichotomies. Large Rah values are needed to get a dichotomy as strong as the observed one, favoring a reversing paleo-dynamo for Mars. Our results imply that an impactor radius of ~ 1000 km could have recorded the magnetic dichotomy observed in the martian crustal field only if very rapid post-impact magma cooling took place.

  9. Giant impacts, heterogeneous mantle heating and a past hemispheric dynamo on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteux, Julien; Amit, Hagay; Choblet, Gaël; Langlais, Benoit; Tobie, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    The martian surface exhibits a strong dichotomy in elevation, crustal thickness and magnetization between the southern and northern hemispheres. A giant impact has been proposed as an explanation for the formation of the Northern Lowlands on Mars. Such an impact probably led to strong and deep mantle heating which may have had implications on the magnetic evolution of the planet. We model the effects of such an impact on the martian magnetic field by imposing an impact induced thermal heterogeneity, and the subsequent heat flux heterogeneity, on the martian core-mantle boundary (CMB). The CMB heat flux lateral variations as well as the reduction in the mean CMB heat flux are determined by the size and geographic location of the impactor. A polar impactor leads to a north-south hemispheric magnetic dichotomy that is stronger than an east-west dichotomy created by an equatorial impactor. The amplitude of the hemispheric magnetic dichotomy is mostly controlled by the horizontal Rayleigh number Rah which represents the vigor of the convection driven by the lateral variations of the CMB heat flux. We show that, for a given Rah , an impact induced CMB heat flux heterogeneity is more efficient than a synthetic degree-1 CMB heat flux heterogeneity in generating strong hemispheric magnetic dichotomies. Large Rah values are needed to get a dichotomy as strong as the observed one, favoring a reversing paleo-dynamo for Mars. Our results imply that an impactor radius of ∼1000 km could have recorded the magnetic dichotomy observed in the martian crustal field only if very rapid post-impact magma cooling took place.

  10. Heat Flow, Lower Crustal Thermochronology, and Transient Geotherms in the Mesozoic Southern African Continental Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Bell, D. R.; Bowring, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    There is a well-established debate regarding the role of higher mantle heat flux for accommodating the elevated average surface heat flow in the Proterozoic orogenic belts relative to the Archean cratonic regions of southern Africa1,2. Advocates of steeper off-craton lithospheric mantle thermal gradients commonly support their arguments with thermobarometric data indicating elevated temperatures at a given depth in off-craton versus cratonic mantle xenolith suites3,4, and together such inferences have cemented a paradigm of differential lithospheric thickness between Proterozoic orogenic belts (thin) and Archean cratons (thick). However, this inherently steady-state interpretation of lithospheric thermomechanical structure is at odds with emerging data pointing toward transient thermal perturbations and irreversible chemical modifications to the southern African lithosphere during the Late Mesozoic5,6. This contribution seeks to illustrate how an essentially "cratonic" thermal state in the Proterozoic lithospheric mantle of southern Africa remains compatible with nominally elevated surface heat flow in the same regions. Model geotherms have been constructed utilizing published surface heat flow, heat production and thermal conductivity measurements1, and seismically-derived crustal thickness estimates7. New heat-producing element concentration data for kimberlite-borne high-pressure granulite xenoliths from the Proterozoic domains constrain lower crustal heat production to be in the range of 0.15 to 0.2 μW/m3. A family of geologically realistic crustal heat production models accommodates surface heat flow >50 mW/m2, while maintaining moderate basal mantle heat flux <15 mW/m2, with associated lithospheric mantle geotherms and thickness indistinguishable from those of cratonic mantle. This family of models is further consistent with constraints on pre-Mesozoic lower crustal paleotemperatures of <450°C imposed by rutile U-Pb thermochronology in the craton

  11. Buoyancy driven flow in counter flow heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, C. O.

    2012-11-01

    The temperature distribution, the buoyancy head and the flow rate have been studied in a counter flow heat exchanger having buoyancy driven flow on at least one side. The assumptions made for heat flux distribution are varied and the resulting effects on the flow rate and fluid temperatures are studied. A network model is used to simulate the temperature distribution and oil flow rates in an oil-filled power transformer cooled by radiators. It is found that for operating conditions normally found for mineral oil the counter flow assumptions for heat flux distribution gives approximately the same results as assuming uniform heat flux. When a more viscous oil type is used or the radiators are placed lower than normal relative to the heat generating parts, the counter flow assumptions give more reliable results.

  12. Minnesota Heat Flow and Geothermal Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosnold, W. D.; Crowell, J.; Bubach, B.; Wahl, P.; Crowell, A. M.; Mcdonald, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Radiogenic heat production, bedrock geology, gravity, magnetics, and heat flow were combined to study heat flow and geothermal energy potential in Minnesota. Heat production was determined from one-hundred 800 kg samples collected at outcrops and from drill cores by gamma ray spectrometry. Small splits of the samples were also analyzed by chemical methods for K, U, and Th. Heat production averaged 2.6 W m-1 K-1 ± 2.0 for 42 felsic samples and 0.9 W m-1 K-1 ± 0.6 for 58 mafic samples. Areal variation in heat production measured with a portable gamma ray spectrometer was compared to bedrock geology and gravity and magnetic anomaly patterns. Gravity lows and magnetic highs correlate with higher heat production and vice versa. Prior to this study heat flow was reported for only four borehole sites in Minnesota. Those sites were located in Keweenawan mafic rocks of the mid-continent rift and heat flow values averaged 39 ± 6 mW m-2. These low heat flows are consistent with a heat flow study conducted in Lake Superior that showed a trough of low heat flow (19.2 - 41.0 mW m-2) along the northern edge of the lake. Thirty-one new heat flow determinations in the mafic rocks obtained from borehole temperature measurements in mining holes average (34.1 mW m-2 ± 1.9 mW m-2). However, paleoclimate signals evident in the temperature vs. depth profiles indicate that the temperature gradients are at least 27 percent low and heat flow is likely 46.7 mW m-2. Based on a reduced heat flow of 32 mW m-2 and a depth parameter of 10 km, the heat flow heat production relation yields a heat flow value of 58 mW m-2 in the felsic regions in Minnesota. These heat flow values suggest that EGS with a binary power plant would be achievable in the felsic regions.

  13. Resolving Mantle Flow Beneath Italy: The Scientific Goals of the RETREAT Seismological Deployment, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Margheriti, L.; Levin, V.; Pondrelli, S.; Plomerova, J.; Lucente, P.; Okaya, D.; Babuska, V.; Amato, A.; Brandon, M. T.; Vecsey, L.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Piccininni, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Apennines mountains in Italy are associated with subduction by many researchers, motivated by uplift beside thick accretions of sediments in the Po River valley and the Adriatic Sea; deep earthquakes and volcanism in southern Italy, and a long tabular high-wavespeed feature that is observed in mantle tomography from the base of the Apennines to the transition zone. The objective of the RETREAT seismic array is to resolve the pattern of mantle flow associated with the inferred rollback of the Adriatic slab. Because both sides of the active orogen are continental, the Apennines differ from typical oceanic subduction zones. The descent of lithosphere has not, in the historical record, been accompanied by great thrust earthquakes. GPS estimates of convergence are small, no more than a few mm/year. It is not known how much of the crust of the downgoing plate descends with the mantle lithosphere, and how much accretes to the upper crust of the overriding plate. Our seismic results will allow us to resolve the Moho beneath the Apennines and the transition into the actively flowing asthenospheric mantle. Many researchers have argued that subduction of the Adriatic slab has induced a corner flow in the asthenosphere above the slab. Geodynamic modelling suggests that a complex double-cell corner flow is necessary to generate the observed extension of the overriding plate. RETREAT includes broadband seismometers in both 2-D- and linear-arrays that straddle the Apennines and its mantle high-velocity features. In several subduction zones (Kamchatka, Cascadia, Alaska) receiver functions detect P-to-S converted waves from both top and bottom of the subducted oceanic crust. Anisotropy near the top of the slab enhances the P-to-S conversion and suggests the presence of hydrous minerals. If subduction of the full lithosphere is occurring beneath Italy, we expect to observe P-to-S converted phases, with an anisotropic signature, from crust within the subducted lithosphere. Weak

  14. Plastic Flow of Pyrope at Mantle Pressure and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Li,L.; Long, H.; Weidner, D.; Raterron, P.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the abundance of garnet in deforming regions of the Earth, such as subduction zones, its rheological properties are not well defined by laboratory measurements. Here we report measurements of steady-state plastic properties of pyrope in its stability field (temperature up to 1573 K, pressure up to 6.8 GPa, strain rate {approx}10-5 s-1) using a Deformation-DIA apparatus (D-DIA) coupled with synchrotron radiation. Synthetic pyrope (Py100) and natural pyrope (Py70Alm16Gr14) are both studied in a dry environment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the run products indicates that dislocation glide, assisted by climb within grains and dynamic recrystallization for grain-boundary strain accommodation, is the dominant deformation process in pyrope. Both synthetic-and natural-pyropes' stress and strain-rate data, as measured in situ by X-ray diffraction and imaging, are best fitted with the single flow law:

  15. Modeling 3-D flow in the mantle wedge with complex slab geometries: Comparisons with seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, C. R.; MacDougall, J. G.; Druken, K. A.; Fischer, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding patterns in plate scale mantle flow in subduction zones is key to models of thermal structure, dehydration reactions, volatile distributions and magma generation and transport in convergent margins. Different patterns of flow in the mantle wedge can generate distinct signatures in seismological observables. Observed shear wave fast polarization directions in several subduction zones are inconsistent with predictions of simple 2-D wedge corner flow. Geochemical signatures in a number of subduction zones also indicate 3-D flow and entrainment patterns in the wedge. We report on a series of laboratory experiments on subduction driven flow to characterize spatial and temporal variability in 3-D patterns in flow and shear-induced finite strain. Cases focus on how rollback subduction, along-strike dip changes in subducting plates and evolving gaps or tears in subduction zones control temporal-spatial patterns in 3-D wedge flow. Models utilize a glucose working fluid with a temperature dependent viscosity to represent the upper 2000 km of the mantle. Subducting lithosphere is modeled with two rubber-reinforced continuous belts. Belts pass around trench and upper/lower mantle rollers. The deeper rollers can move laterally to allow for time varying dip angle. Each belt has independent speed control and dip adjustment, allowing for along-strike changes in convergence rate and the evolution of slab gaps. Rollback is modeled using a translation system to produce either uniform and asymmetric lateral trench motion. Neutral density finite strain markers are distributed throughout the fluid and used as proxies for tracking the evolution of anisotropy through space and time in the evolving flow fields. Particle image velocimetry methods are also used to track time varying 3-D velocity fields for directly calculating anisotropy patterns. Results show that complex plate motions (rollback, steepening) and morphologies (gaps) in convergent margins produce flows with

  16. Heat flow in eastern Egypt - The thermal signature of a continental breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Hennin, S. F.; El-Sherif, A. A.; El-Sayed, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the heat flow in eastern Egypt were collected to provide information related to the mode and the mechanism of the Red Sea opening. The data indicate a general increase in heat flow towards the Red Sea (75-100 mW/sq m in a zone within 40 km of the coast compared with 35-55 mW/sq m inland). Moderately high heat flow (about 70 mW/sq m) was found for the Gulf of Suez. Heat production data indicate that the coastal thermal anomaly is not primarily related to crustal radiogenic heat production. Possible causes of the anomaly (one of which could be a high mantle heat flow causing a lithospheric thinning centered beneath the Red Sea) are discussed.

  17. The Yellowstone Hotspot and Related Plume: Volcano-Tectonics, Tomography, Kinematics, Dynamics and Mantle Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M.; Smith, R. B.; Puskas, C.; Farrell, J.; Waite, G.

    2005-12-01

    Earth's violent forces have produced the renowned scenery and the world's largest display of geysers at Yellowstone National Park. The energy responsible for these features is related to the Yellowstone hotspot, a coupled crust-mantle magmatic system that has had a profound influence on a much larger area of the western US: the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain-Newberry volcanic field (YSRPN). The volcanic system has produced a 16 Ma track of NE-trending, time progressive, silicic-basaltic volcanism from the Snake River Plain (SNR) to Yellowstone with a mirror image of NW-trending magmatism across the high lava plains to the Newberry caldera, OR. The origin of this magmatic-tectono system has been variously ascribed to plume-plate interaction, lithosphere extension, return mantle flow, decompression melting, etc. We interpret and integrate results from modeling of data from a prototype EarthScope experiment in 1999-2002. These include crust-mantle tomography, geoid and gravity modeling, kinematics from GPS, and geodynamic models. We present a comprehensive model for the mechanism behind YSRPN that is in accordance with our observations and models, e.g. from GPS and seismology. Geodetic data show high rates of deformation at the Yellowstone Plateau, with periods of pronounced uplift and subsidence as well as significant EW extension. Seismic tomography reveals a pronounced mid-crustal P- and S-wave low velocity body of > 8% melt extending from ~6 km to 15 km beneath the caldera. This system is fed by an upper-mantle low velocity plume-like body of up to 1.5% melt in the upper 200 km. The body further extends down to the the base of the transition zone at 650 km depth, notably tilting WNW. At this depth, we estimate the excess temperature between 85 K and 120 K, depending on the water content. Using the inclined plume-geometry and the 650-km source depth we extrapolate the mantle source southwestward as a plume-head in oceanic-type lithosphere beneath the Columbia

  18. Inferring upper-mantle flow from seismic anisotropy: An experimental perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, Philip; Hansen, Lars N.

    2016-02-01

    Patterns of mantle flow are most directly inferred from observations of seismic anisotropy, which is mainly caused by the crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine, the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle. CPO is generated by high temperature ductile deformation, which often yields predictable relationships between the elastic or seismic properties of a material and the kinematics of flow. Over the last 15 years there has been a wealth of new data describing the how olivine CPO forms and evolves as a function of deformation conditions and strain magnitude. In this review, we explore the relationships between deformation, the evolution of CPO, and the development of seismic anisotropy, from the perspective of experimental rock mechanics. We first review the experimental basis for the study of olivine CPO evolution from the formative studies in the early nineteen sixties through recent advances. We then review some emerging complications to the study of CPO evolution, such as the long-lived transient CPOs that arise from changes in deformation kinematics, mechanisms, and conditions. Finally we discuss the origins of seismic anisotropy and the challenges of interpreting seismic anisotropy in terms of mantle flow.

  19. Experiments on flow focusing in soluble porous media, with applications to melt extraction from the mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, P.B.; Whitehead, J.A.; Aharonov, E.; Jordahl, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate finite strucutres formed as a consequence of the `reactive infiltration instability` in a series of laboratory and numerical experiments with growth of solution channels parallel to the fluid flow direction. Our experiments demonstrate channel growth in the presence of an initial solution front and without an initial solution front where there is a gradient in the solubility of the solid matrix. In the gradient case, diffuse flow is unstable everywhere, channels can form and grow at any point, and channels may extend over the length scale of the gradient. As a consequence of the gradient results, we suggest that the reactive infiltration instability is important in the Earth`s mantle, where partial melts in the mantle ascend adiabatically. This hypothesis represents an important alternative to mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB) extraction in fractures, since fractures may not form in weak, viscously deforming asthenospheric mantle. We also briefly consider the effects of crystallization, rather than dissolution reactions, on the morphology of porous flow via a second set of experiments where fluid becomes supersaturated in a solid phase. This process may produce a series of walled conduits, as in our experiments. Development of a low-porosity cap overlying high porosity conduits may create hydrostatic overpressure sufficient to cause fracture and magma transport to the surface in dikes.

  20. Bent Mantle Plumes and Channel Flow Under the 660 Km Discontinuity in Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, D. A.; Tosi, N.

    2011-12-01

    Recent high-resolution seismic imaging by multiply-reflected S waves of the transition zone topography beneath the Hawaiian archipelago gives strong evidence for a 1000 to 2000 km wide hot thermal anomaly ponding beneath the 660 km boundary west of Hawaii islands (Cao et al., Science ,2011). This scenario suggests that Hawaiian volcanism may not be caused by a stationary narrow plume rising from the core-mantle boundary but by hot plume material first held back beneath the 660 km discontinuity and then entrained under the transition zone before coming up to the surface. Using a cylindrical convection model with multiple phase transitions, we investigate the particular dynamical conditions needed for obtaining this peculiar plume morphology. Focusing on the role exerted by pressure-dependent thermodynamic and transport parameters, we show that a strong reduction of the coefficient of thermal expansion in the lower mantle and a viscosity hill at a depth of around 1800 km are needed for plumes to have enough focused buoyancy to reach and pass through the 660 km phase boundary. The lateral spreading of plumes near the top of the lower mantle manifests itself as a channel flow whose length is controlled by the viscosity contrast due to temperature variations . For small amounts of viscosity contrast , broad and highly viscous plumes are generated which tend to pass through the transition zone relatively unscathed. For higher values , between 100 and 1000 ,we obtain horizontal channel flows beneath the 660 km boundary as long as 1500 km within a timescale that resembles that of Hawaiian hotspot history. This finding may account for the origin of the broad hot anomaly observed west of Hawaii. For a normal thermal anomaly of 450 K associated with a lower mantle plume, we obtain activation energies of about 400 kJ/mol and 600 kJ/mol for viscosity contrasts of 100 and 1000, respectively, in good agreement with values based on lower mantle mineral physics. If an increase of

  1. Rheologic effects of crystal preferred orientation in upper mantle flow near plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Donna; Castelnau, Olivier; Dawson, Paul; Boyce, Donald

    2016-04-01

    Observations of anisotropy provide insight into upper mantle processes. Flow-induced mineral alignment provides a link between mantle deformation patterns and seismic anisotropy. Our study focuses on the rheologic effects of crystal preferred orientation (CPO), which develops during mantle flow, in order to assess whether corresponding anisotropic viscosity could significantly impact the pattern of flow. We employ a coupled nonlinear numerical method to link CPO and the flow model via a local viscosity tensor field that quantifies the stress/strain-rate response of a textured mineral aggregate. For a given flow field, the CPO is computed along streamlines using a self-consistent texture model and is then used to update the viscosity tensor field. The new viscosity tensor field defines the local properties for the next flow computation. This iteration produces a coupled nonlinear model for which seismic signatures can be predicted. Results thus far confirm that CPO can impact flow pattern by altering rheology in directionally-dependent ways, particularly in regions of high flow gradient. Multiple iterations run for an initial, linear stress/strain-rate case (power law exponent n=1) converge to a flow field and CPO distribution that are modestly different from the reference, scalar viscosity case. Upwelling rates directly below the spreading axis are slightly reduced and flow is focused somewhat toward the axis. Predicted seismic anisotropy differences are modest. P-wave anisotropy is a few percent greater in the flow 'corner', near the spreading axis, below the lithosphere and extending 40-100 km off axis. Predicted S-wave splitting differences would be below seafloor measurement limits. Calculations with non-linear stress/strain-rate relation, which is more realistic for olivine, indicate that effects are stronger than for the linear case. For n=2-3, the distribution and strength of CPO for the first iteration are greater than for n=1, although the fast seismic

  2. Constraining temperature and heat flux at the core-mantle boundary with plumes as a probe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, W.; Zhong, S.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the temperature and heat flux at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) region is crucial for inferring the thermal evolution history of the Earth’s core and mantle. Plumes, which may originate at the CMB as a result of thermal boundary instabilities and rise to the Earth’s surface, are one of the most important probes which can be employed to study the temperature and heat flux at the CMB region, as Davies [1988] originally proposed. With analytical and numerical models, here we show that the CMB temperature and heat flux can be well deduced from the surface plume-related observations and the thermodynamic parameters of the Earth’s mantle. The results are summarized as following. First, we demonstrate that the total adiabatic cooling effect is exactly balanced out by the total viscous dissipation at any instant in time in compressible mantle convection. Second, we show that the cooling of plumes is dominated by the adiabatic cooling effect, thus the temperature of plumes along depth and the CMB temperature can be derived from surface observed plume temperature. Third, although high CMB heat flux occurs in regions with cold downwellings, the plume heat flux above the CMB respresents reasonably well the total CMB heat flux, supporting the original proposal by Davies [1988] but inconsistent with Labrosse [2002]. However, the plume heat flux decreases significantly from the CMB to the Earth’s surface due to the adiabatic cooling effect for plumes. At last, we obtain that the CMB temperature is ~3750 K and the CMB heat flux is ~11 TW. Our study suggests that to acquire better estimates of CMB temperature and heat flux, improved knowledge about the coefficient of thermal expansion and specific heat in the Earth’s mantle is essential.

  3. Reconciling the geophysical and geochemical mantles: Plume flows, heterogeneities, and disequilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Geoffrey F.

    2009-10-01

    Geophysical evidence and numerical models of mantle stirring imply the source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) comprises most of the mantle, excepting only the D″ region and the "superpile" anomalies deep under Africa and the Pacific. Geophysical evidence is also strong that the mantle is heated substantially from within. Geochemical inferences of a strongly depleted MORB source are inconsistent with this picture because they would require the MORB source to be heated mainly from below and because they cannot accommodate all of the Earth's incompatible elements. Lacking any other large mantle reservoir, the MORB source is required to balance the global uranium budget, which implies a U concentration of about 10 ng/g, more than double recent estimates. The MORB source would then have been depleted only by a factor of two in highly incompatible elements, rather than four or more, relative to is primitive composition. Both geophysical and geochemical evidence support a heterogeneous, multicomponent MORB source. Surprisingly, former plume material may comprise 25% of the MORB source, and this alone could add 50-100% to previous inventories of incompatible elements. Previous geochemical estimates may also be less secure because of a continuing focus on the more common, more depleted MORBs, because of long chains of geochemical inference, and because of a reliance on peridotites that may not have equilibrated with the mean composition of the heterogeneous source. Mean compositions are of most geophysical relevance, rather than putative end-member compositions, but mean compositions will be difficult to estimate accurately because more enriched components are less common and more variable. Nevertheless, a reconciliation of geochemical and geophysical inferences seems possible.

  4. The flow at the Earth's core-mantle boundary under weak prior constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baerenzung, Julien; Holschneider, Matthias; Lesur, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Prior information in ill-posed inverse problem is of critical importance because it is conditioning the posterior solution and its associated variability. The problem of determining the flow evolving at the Earth's core-mantle boundary through magnetic field models derived from satellite or observatory data is no exception to the rule. This study aims to estimate what information can be extracted on the velocity field at the core-mantle boundary, when the frozen flux equation is inverted under very weakly informative, but realistic, prior constraints. Instead of imposing a converging spectrum to the flow, we simply assume that its poloidal and toroidal energy spectra are characterized by power laws. The parameters of the spectra, namely, their magnitudes, and slopes are unknown. The connection between the velocity field, its spectra parameters, and the magnetic field model is established through the Bayesian formulation of the problem. Working in two steps, we determined the time-averaged spectra of the flow within the 2001-2009.5 period, as well as the flow itself and its associated uncertainties in 2005.0. According to the spectra we obtained, we can conclude that the large-scale approximation of the velocity field is not an appropriate assumption within the time window we considered. For the flow itself, we show that although it is dominated by its equatorial symmetric component, it is very unlikely to be perfectly symmetric. We also demonstrate that its geostrophic state is questioned in different locations of the outer core.

  5. Mantle viscosity - A comparison of models from postglacial rebound and from the geoid, plate driving forces, and advected heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Bradford H.

    1991-01-01

    Models of the radial variation of effective viscosity inferred from the earth's response to surface loads associated with Pleistocene deglaciation are compared to structures inferred from models of geodynamic phenomena associated with convection: the geoid, plate-driving forces, and advected heat flux. While observations of the earth's response to surface loads do not have sufficient resolution to justify more than two viscous layers, adequately matching the observed long-wavelength geoid anomalies associated with density contrasts in the lower mantle (inferred from seismic tomography) and in the upper mantle (inferred from a model of subducted slabs) requires more structure. It is possible to explain the geoid, observed plate velocities, the advected heat flux in the lower mantle, and relative sea-level variations in oceanic regions, all with a mantle with a high-viscosity/elastic lid, an asthenospheric channel of 2 x 10 exp 19 Pa s from 100 to 400-km depth, a 6 x 10 exp 20 Pa s transition zone, and a lower mantle of 6 x 10 exp 21 Pa s. The uplift history of Australia, Fennoscandia, and Laurentia can be explained with an asthenospheric viscosity less than a factor of 10 higher. Lateral variations in lower mantle viscosity are not required. Transient creep appears to be unimportant for the recent response-to-surface loads from Pleistocene deglaciation.

  6. Seismic anisotropy beneath South China Sea: using SKS splitting to constrain mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, M.; Le, K.; Yang, T.

    2011-12-01

    The evolution of South China Sea is under debate and several hypotheses have been proposed: (1) The collision of India plate and Eurasia plate; (2) the backward movement of the Pacific subduction plate; (3) mantle upwelling; and (4) combinations of above hypotheses. All these causal mechanisms emphasize the contributions of deep structures to the evolution of South China Sea. In this study we use earthquake data recorded by seismic stations surrounding South China Sea to constrain mantle flow beneath. To fill the vacancy of seismic data in Viet Nam, we deployed 4 seismic stations (VT01-VT04) in a roughly north - south orientation in Viet Nam in Nov. 2009. We combine the VT dataset with the AD and MY datasets from IRIS and select 81 events for SKS splitting analysis. Measurements were made at 11 stations using Wolfe and Silver (1998)'s multi-event stacking procedure. Our observed splitting directions in Vietnam are generally consistent with those of Bai et. al. (2009) . In northern Vietnam, the splitting times are around 1 sec and the fast directions are NWW-SEE, parallel to the absolute plate motion as well as the motion of the Earth surface, implying the crust and the mantle are coupled in this region and is moving as a result of the collision of India and China. While in southern Vietnam and Malaya, the fast directions are NE-SW, almost perpendicular to the absolute plate motion as well as the surface motion of Eurasia plate. However, the observed NE-SW is parallel to the subduction direction of the Australian plate, which might be caused by the mantle flow along NE-SW induced by the subduction.

  7. A New Model for Heat Flow in Extensional Basins: Estimating Radiogenic Heat Production

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Douglas W.

    2002-06-15

    Radiogenic heat production (RHP) represents a significant fraction of surface heat flow, both on cratons and in sedimentary basins. RHP within continental crust-especially the upper crust-is high. RHP at any depth within the crust can be estimated as a function of crustal age. Mantle RHP, in contrast, is always low, contributing at most 1 to 2 mW/m{sup 2} to total heat flow. Radiogenic heat from any noncrystalline basement that may be present also contributes to total heat flow. RHP from metamorphic rocks is similar to or slightly lower than that from their precursor sedimentary rocks. When extension of the lithosphere occurs-as for example during rifting-the radiogenic contribution of each layer of the lithosphere and noncrystalline basement diminishes in direct proportion to the degree of extension of that layer. Lithospheric RHP today is somewhat less than in the distant past, as a result of radioactive decay. In modeling, RHP can be varied through time by considering the half lives of uranium, thorium, and potassium, and the proportional contribution of each of those elements to total RHP from basement. RHP from sedimentary rocks ranges from low for most evaporites to high for some shales, especially those rich in organic matter. The contribution to total heat flow of radiogenic heat from sediments depends strongly on total sediment thickness, and thus differs through time as subsidence and basin filling occur. RHP can be high for thick clastic sections. RHP in sediments can be calculated using ordinary or spectral gamma-ray logs, or it can be estimated from the lithology.

  8. Heat flow from the Liberian precambrian shield

    SciTech Connect

    Sass, J.H.; Behrendt, J.C.

    1980-06-10

    Uncorrected heat flow in iron formation rocks from three areas within the Liberian part of the West African Shield ranges from 50 to more than 80 mW m/sup -2/. When corrections are applied for topography and refraction, the range of heat flow is narrowed to between 38 and 42 mW m/sup -2/. In comparison with heat flows from other parts of the West African Craton, these values are consistent with preliminary results from Ghana (42 +- 8 mW m/sup -2/) and Nigeria (38 +- 2 mW /sup -2/) but are somewhat higher than values from Niger (20 mW m/sup -2/) and neighboring Sierra Leone (26 mW m/sup -2/). The Liberian values are significantly lower than the heat flow offshore in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean (58 +- 8 mW m/sup -2/), suggesting large lateral temperature gradients within the lithosphere near the coast. Values of heat production from outcrops of crystalline basement rocks near the holes are between 2 and 2.3 ..mu..W m/sup -3/. A heat-flow/heat-production relation cannot be established because of the small range of values; however, assuming a 'characteristic depth' of 8 km (similar to the North American Craton) the reduced heat flow of from 20 to 25 mW m/sup -2/ is consistent with that from other Precambrian shields.

  9. Pneumatic Proboscis Heat-Flow Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacny, Kris; Hedlund, Magnus; Mumm, Eric; Shasho, Jeffrey; Chu, Philip; Kumar, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Heat flow is a fundamental property of a planet, and provides significant constraints on the abundance of radiogenic isotopes, the thermal evolution and differentiation history, and the mechanical properties of the lithosphere. Heat-flow measurements are also essential in achieving at least four of the goals set out by the National Research Council for future lunar exploration. The heat-flow probe therefore directly addresses the goal of the Lunar Geophysical Network, which is to understand the interior structure and composition of the Moon. A key challenge for heat flow measurement is to install thermal sensors to the depths approximately equal to 3 m that are not influenced by the diurnal, annual, and longer-term fluctuations of the surface thermal environment. In addition, once deployed, the heat flow probe should cause little disturbance to the thermal regime of the surrounding regolith. A heat-flow probe system was developed that has two novel features: (1) it utilizes a pneumatic (gas) approach, excavates a hole by lofting the lunar soil out of the hole, and (2) deploys the heat flow probe, which utilizes a coiled up tape as a thermal probe to reach greater than 3-meter depth. The system is a game-changer for small lunar landers as it exhibits extremely low mass, volume, and simple deployment. The pneumatic system takes advantage of the helium gas used for pressurizing liquid propellant of the lander. Normally, helium is vented once the lander is on the surface, but it can be utilized for powering pneumatic systems. Should sufficient helium not be available, a simple gas delivery system may be taken specifically for the heat flow probe. Either way, the pneumatic heat flow probe system would be much lighter than other systems that entirely rely on the electrical power of the lander.

  10. Nonuniqueness of inverted core-mantle boundary flows and deviations from tangential geostrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, M. A.; Oliveira, O.; Nogueira, F.

    2004-08-01

    The task of finding a flow at the top of the core that fits geomagnetic observations at the Earth's surface is an underdetermined problem. Weighted regularized least squares together with the tangential geostrophy hypothesis strongly constrain the flow, inhibiting both medium- to small-scale flow features from emerging and low-latitude currents from crossing the geographic equator. In this study, we solve the inverse problem in the frozen flux approximation, using a weak regularization and alleviating the tangential geostrophy constraint. Two classes of solutions are found (I and II), both fitting the data within the errors but nonetheless showing very distinct features. Using, as a further criterion, the ability of the flow solutions to reproduce the decade variations of the length of day does not allow us, in general, to give a clear preference to one class over another. For typical flows from the whole set of solutions described above, we identify the regions on the core-mantle boundary (CMB) where tangential geostrophy is violated, and we quantify those deviations. Assuming that they are due to Lorentz forces acting on the fluid, we compute preliminary charts of electrical density currents (J) on the CMB, consistent with the frozen flux and insulating mantle hypotheses. The most pronounced features in these charts are concentrated over the hemisphere roughly centered beneath the Atlantic Ocean. In light of thermodynamical arguments, class II flows seem closer to real surface core flows. We compute an upper limit JRMS ≈ 0.4 A/m2 for geomagnetically "visible" density currents related to these flows.

  11. Anisotropy of thermal diffusivity in the upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, A; Gibert, B; Seipold, U; Mainprice, D

    2001-06-14

    Heat transfer in the mantle is a key process controlling the Earth's dynamics. Upper-mantle mineral phases, especially olivine, have been shown to display highly anisotropic thermal diffusivity at ambient conditions, and seismic anisotropy data show that preferred orientations of olivine induced by deformation are coherent at large scales (>50 km) in the upper mantle. Thus heat transport in the upper mantle should be anisotropic. But the thermal anisotropy of mantle minerals at high temperature and its relationship with deformation have not been well constrained. Here we present petrophysical modelling and laboratory measurements of thermal diffusivity in deformed mantle rocks between temperatures of 290 and 1,250 K that demonstrate that deformation may induce a significant anisotropy of thermal diffusivity in the uppermost mantle. We found that heat transport parallel to the flow direction is up to 30 per cent faster than that normal to the flow plane. Such a strain-induced thermal anisotropy implies that the upper-mantle temperature distribution, rheology and, consequently, its dynamics, will depend on deformation history. In oceans, resistive drag flow would result in lower vertical diffusivities in both the lithosphere and asthenosphere and hence in less effective heat transfer from the convective mantle. In continents, olivine orientations frozen in the lithosphere may induce anisotropic heating above mantle plumes, favouring the reactivation of pre-existing structures. PMID:11459053

  12. From mountain building in the Tibetan Plateau to crustal extension in North China: The role of sublithospheric mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Yang, Y.; Ceylan, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Cui, D.

    2010-12-01

    Cenozoic continental collision and mountain building in the Tibetan Plateau, the Tian Shan, and the rest of western China contrast with the coeval crustal extension and volcanism in North China. While escaping tectonics provides a possible link between these two tectonic regimes, the role of sublithospheric mantle flow remains uncertain. Here we show that seismic velocity and anisotropy structures under the Tibetan Plateau and North China are correlated with crustal deformation, which indicates a significant role of sublithospheric mantle flow for crustal dynamics. The sublithospheric mantle flow under the Ordos Plateau and the surrounding regions are consistent with the mantle flow being primarily driven by the Indo-Asian collision; the flow is largely controlled by the lateral variations of lithospheric rheology. Under the North China Plain, the sublithospheric mantle flow results from both subduction of the Pacific plate and the Indo-Asian collision. Geodynamic modeling suggests that large-scale lateral flow in the asthenosphere provides a critical dynamic link between the Cenozoic compressive tectonics in Tibetan Plateau and extensional tectonics in North China.

  13. Thermodynamics of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, F. J.

    2003-05-01

    Convective boiling in sub-cooled water flowing through a heated channel is essential in many engineering applications where high heat flux needs to be accommodated. It has been customary to represent the heat transfer by the boiling curve, which shows the heat flux versus the wall-minus-saturation temperature difference. However it is a rather complicated problem, and recent revisions of two-phase flow and heat transfer note that calculated values of boiling heat transfer coefficients present many uncertainties. Quite recently, the author has shown that the average thermal gap in the heated channel (the wall temperature minus the average temperature of the coolant) was tightly connected with the thermodynamic efficiency of a theoretical reversible engine placed in this thermal gap. In this work, whereas this correlation is checked again with data taken by General Electric (task III) for water at high pressure, a possible connection between this wall efficiency and the reversible-work theorem is explored.

  14. Pluto's Polygonal Terrain Places Lower Limit on Planetary Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowbridge, A.; Steckloff, J. K.; Melosh, H., IV; Freed, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    During its recent flyby of Pluto, New Horizons imaged an icy plains region (Sputnik Planum) whose surface is divided into polygonal blocks, ca. 20-30 km across, bordered by what appear to be shallow troughs. The lack of craters within these plains suggests they are relatively young, implying that the underlying material is recently active. The scale of these features argues against an origin by cooling and contraction. Here we investigate the alternative scenario that they are the surface manifestation of shallow convection in a thick layer of nitrogen ice. Typical Rayleigh-Bernard convective cells are approximately three times wider than the depth of the convecting layer, implying a layer depth of ca. 7-10 km. Our convection hypothesis requires that the Rayleigh number exceed a minimum of about 1000 in the nitrogen ice layer. We coupled a parameterized convection model with a temperature dependent rheology of nitrogen ice (Yamashita, 2008), finding a Rayleigh number 1500 to 7500 times critical for a plausible range of heat flows for Pluto's interior. The computed range of heat flow (3.5-5.2 mW/m2) is consistent with the radiogenic heat generated by a carbonaceous chondrite (CC) core implied by Pluto's bulk density. The minimum heat flow at the critical Rayleigh number is 0.13 mW/m2. Our model implies a core temperature of 44 K in the interior of the convecting layer. This is very close to the exothermic β-α phase transition in nitrogen ice at 35.6 K (for pure N2 ice; dissolved CO can increase this, depending on its concentration), suggesting that the warm cores of the rising convective cells may be β phase, whereas the cooler sinking limbs may be α phase. This transition may thus be observable due to the large difference in their spectral signature. Further applying our model to Pluto's putative water ice mantle, the heat flow from CC is consistent with convection in Pluto's mantle and the activity observed on its surface.

  15. Heat Flow Partitioning Between Continents and Oceans - from 2D to 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, L. N.; Cooper, C. M.; Lenardic, A.

    2010-12-01

    Scalings derived from thermal network theory explain how the presence of continents can influence the Earth’s overall heat loss. Intuitively, it may seem that increasing the proportion of a planet’s surface area covered by continents would decrease the efficiency of heat transfer given that continents do not participate in convective overturn. However, this ignores the potential feedback between the insulating effect of continents and the temperature-dependent viscosity of the mantle (Lenardic et al, 2005, Cooper et al, 2007). When this feedback is considered, a clear regime exists in which the partial stagnation and insulation of the surface by buoyant continental crust can lead to an increase in heat flow compared to the uninsulated case. The numerical results used to verify the scalings have mostly been conducted in two dimensions in order to cover a very wide range of Rayleigh number, fraction of continental coverage, and continental thickness. However as more recent results show that the configuration of the crust also plays a role in determining the heat flow partitioning and global heat flow (See Lenardic et al, “Continents, Super-Continents, Mantle Thermal Mixing, and Mantle Thermal Isolation” in this session), we have begun to repeat this exhaustive and exhausting 2D study in 3D. Cooper, C.M., A. Lenardic, and L.-N. Moresi "Effects of continental insulation and the partioning of heat producing elements on the Earth's heat loss." Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 ,10.1029, 2006. Lenardic, A., L.-N. Moresi, A.M. Jellinek, and M. Manga "Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents." Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 234 ,317-333, 2005.

  16. Multiple subduction imprints in the mantle below Italy detected in a single lava flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikogosian, Igor; Ersoy, Özlem; Whitehouse, Martin; Mason, Paul R. D.; de Hoog, Jan C. M.; Wortel, Rinus; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    2016-09-01

    Post-collisional magmatism reflects the regional subduction history prior to collision but the link between the two is complex and often poorly understood. The collision of continents along a convergent plate boundary commonly marks the onset of a variety of transitional geodynamic processes. Typical responses include delamination of subducting lithosphere, crustal thickening in the overriding plate, slab detachment and asthenospheric upwelling, or the complete termination of convergence. A prominent example is the Western-Central Mediterranean, where the ongoing slow convergence of Africa and Europe (Eurasia) has been accommodated by a variety of spreading and subduction systems that dispersed remnants of subducted lithosphere into the mantle, creating a compositionally wide spectrum of magmatism. Using lead isotope compositions of a set of melt inclusions in magmatic olivine crystals we detect exceptional heterogeneity in the mantle domain below Central Italy, which we attribute to the presence of continental material, introduced initially by Alpine and subsequently by Apennine subduction. We show that superimposed subduction imprints of a mantle source can be tapped during a melting episode millions of years later, and are recorded in a single lava flow.

  17. The Tonga-Vanuatu Subduction Complex -- a Self-Optimized 3D Slab-Slab-Mantle Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreary, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    flows must converge and mix beneath the shared TVSC backarc, which must then shed a huge advected subslab heat load by maximizing ridge length in the area available. Found at both SSSTs are adakites indicative of a TVSC source laced with slab-edge melt and boninites consistent with flux- melting of hot, dry subslab MUM on entry to the supraslab wedge. Isotopics reveal widespread source mixing of Pacific and Indian MOR end-members. Diverging NT and VS trenches rotate clockwise at extremely high rates about pinning points at and Euler poles near trench-floater intercepts: Louisville Ridge on PA, and West Torres Plateau-D'Entrecasteaux Ridge on AU. In this configuration, the spinning, free-falling NT and SV slabs form a highly coupled self-organized gravity-powered pump pulling hot subslab MUM beneath the TVSC with enough left-over head to power severe transition zone buckling of an 80+ Ma NT (PA) slab also actively extending toward its free edge. Several nonlinear couplings (e.g., temperature-dependent viscosity and slab damage at tightening upper hinges) feedback positively to pump efficiency. The TVSC is but one possible slab-mantle pump partaking of the strong self-optimizing tendency characteristic of all natural flow systems (e.g., Bejan and Lorente, 2006). Slab-mantle pump natural history is now under investigation, as such pumps may have allowed a shrinking post-Pangean Pacific with an unrelenting sublithospheric room problem to relieve itself of excess MUM by making efficient use of available circum-Pacific slab curtain porosity -- a commodity that may have been in very short supply through most of the Cretaceous.

  18. Patterns of Seismic Anisotropy Around Subduction Zones: Model Predictions and Implications for Subduction-Induced Mantle Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenda, M.; Capitanio, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction zones are sites of large lithospheric slabs sinking into the Earth's mantle inducing complex 3D flow. Seismic anisotropy generated by strain-induced lattice/crystal preferred orientation (LPO/CPO) of intrinsically anisotropic minerals is commonly used to study the patterns of mantle flow and the associated plate motions at convergent margins. Here, we computed the upper mantle fabric due to strain-induced LPO in 3D thermo-mechanical models of dynamic subduction. Overall, strong fabrics develop in the upper and mid mantle around the subduction zone. We find that the mantle fabric occurrence depends on the distribution and amount of the deformation, whereas it is independent of the rate of subduction. As a consequence, distinctive fabric patterns are formed in the upper mantle below, aside and above the slab. Additionally, synthetic seismograms of teleseismic waves propagating sub-vertically were computed to estimate SKS splitting, which are sensitive to the upper mantle anisotropy. The results are remarkably comparable with observations from different subduction settings (i.e., Cascadia, Calabria, Aegean), yielding strong constraints on the recent dynamics of these margins. Concluding, we discuss the potential bias the seismic anisotropy introduces, which might affect isotropic seismic tomographies imaging subduction zones and eventually leading to (mis)interpreation of artificial seismic anomalies.

  19. Short wavelength and high amplitude (~ 1 km) surface uplift in the western Colorado Plateau driven by recent and ongoing mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, R.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    upper mantle are driving differential uplift of the lithosphere along the western flank of the Colorado Plateau. The differential uplift across the faults and the length scale of the high mantle velocity gradient area indicate that the zone of uplift has an amplitude of ca. 1000 m and a wavelength of ca. 200 m. High amplitude and short wavelength dynamic topography reflect mantle flow forcings, suggested by the extremely sharp mantle velocity gradients, filtered through a thinned lithosphere with high heat flow and thin effective elastic thickness that suggest upper mantle melt-filled shear zone conduits. This new geologic evidence for recent and ongoing surface uplift offers an important constraint for geodynamic models which are beginning to elucidate the mantle processes that are producing dynamic topography on the western edge of the Colorado Plateau.

  20. Slab Driven Plate Motions and Three-dimensional Mantle Flow Pathways in the Central American Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadamec, M. A.; Fischer, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a series of three-dimensional (3D), high-resolution, end-member tectonic configurations of the Central American plate system and use these to solve for the 3D viscous mantle flow and surface plate motions. The 3D geodynamic models test the relative control of the viscosity structure (Newtonian versus Composite), subducting plate geometry (continuous slab versus Cocos-Nazca slab gap), and overriding plate thickness (uniform versus laterally variable) on the predicted motion of the Cocos and Nazca plates and the slab-induced 3D flow field in the upper mantle. Models using the composite viscosity formulation result in increased surface plate motions, which better fit the observed motion of the Cocos and Nazca plates. This is particularly significant because these 3D regional models contain the entire Cocos plate, suggesting the importance of the non-linear rheology in models that aim to predict surface plate motions. Faster flow velocities occur in models using the composite viscosity due to the decreased resistance to subduction and reduced viscous support of the slab as the mantle surrounding the slab undergoes non-linear weakening. A zone of partial decoupling between the uppermost mantle and lithosphere, thus, naturally develops due to the composite viscosity formulation. Models that include a gap between the Cocos and Nazca slabs better fit the mantle flow pathways interpreted from the geochemical signatures, as material is brought from beneath the Cocos plate around the slab edge and northward into the mantle wedge beneath Central America. The mantle-lithosphere decoupling is enhanced in models with the slab gap, wherein the mantle flow field contains both counter-clockwise toroidal flow around the Cocos slab edge and clockwise toroidal flow around the northern Nazca slab edge, both of which are non-parallel to surface motions. The models also demonstrate that overriding plate thickness places a control on both the predicted surface motion and

  1. FAST TRACK PAPER: Mantle flow in the Rivera-Cocos subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Gerardo León; Ni, James F.; Grand, Stephen P.; Sandvol, Eric; Valenzuela, Raúl W.; Speziale, Marco Guzmán; González, Juan M. Gómez; Reyes, Tonatiuh Domínguez

    2009-11-01

    Western Mexico, where the young and small Rivera Plate and the adjacent large Cocos Plate are subducting beneath the North American Plate, is a unique region on Earth where tearing of subducting oceanic plates, as well as fragmentation of the overriding continental plate, is occurring today. Characterizing the mantle flow field that accompanies the subduction of the Rivera and adjacent Cocos plates can help to clarify the tectonics and magma genesis of this young plate boundary. Here we report observations of seismic anisotropy, as manifested by shear wave splitting derived from local S and teleseismic SKS data collected by the Mapping Rivera Subduction zone array that was deployed from 2006 January to 2007 June, in southwestern Mexico, and from data collected by two of Mexico's Servicio Sismológico Nacional stations. SKS and local S-wave splitting parameters indicate that the fast directions of the split SKS waves for stations that lie on the central and southern Jalisco Block are approximately trench-normal, following the convergence direction between the Rivera Plate and Jalisco Block. S-wave splitting from slab events show a small averaged delay time of ~0.2 s for the upper 60 km of the crust and mantle. Therefore, the main source of anisotropy must reside in the entrained mantle below the young and thin Rivera Plate. Trench-oblique fast SKS split directions are observed in the western edge of the Rivera Plate and the western parts of the Cocos slab. The curved pattern of fast SKS split directions in the western Jalisco block and beneath the Rivera-Cocos slab gap indicates 3-D toroidal mantle flow, around the northwestern edge of the Rivera slab and the Rivera-Cocos gap, which profoundly affect the finite strain field in the northwestern edge of the Rivera slab and the mantle wedge. Both the tomographic images and shear wave splitting results support the idea that the Rivera and western Cocos plates not only moved in a downdip direction but also have recently

  2. Heat flow from the West African shield

    SciTech Connect

    Brigaud, F.; Lucazeau, F.; Ly, S.; Sauvage, J.F.

    1985-09-01

    The heat flow over Precambrian shields is generally lower than over other continental provinces. Previous observations at 9 sites of the West African shield have shown that heat flow ranges from 20 mW m/sup -2/ in Niger to 38-42 mW m/sup -2/ in Liberia, Ghana and Nigeria. Since some of these values are lower than expected for Precambrian shields, it is important to find out whether or not they are representative of the entire shield before trying to derive its thermal structure. In this paper, we present new heat flow determinations from seven sites of the West African shield. These indicate that the surface heat flow is comparable with that of other Precambrian shields in the world.

  3. Three-dimensional Numerical Models of Mantle Flow Through the Cocos-Nazca Slab Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadamec, M.; Fischer, K. M.

    2013-05-01

    Global slab geometry models suggest a 350 km to 1000 km spacing between the southern extent of the Cocos slab and the northern extent of the Nazca slab (Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998; Syracuse and Abers, 2006; Hayes et al., 2012). The apparent gap between the east-dipping Cocos and Nazca slabs at depth correlates to several tectonic features on the Pacific side of Central and northern South America that may limit subduction, namely the (a) Panama Fault zone, (b) incoming young lithosphere associated with the Cocos-Nazca spreading center, and (c) the Cocos, Coiba, Malpelo, and Carnegie ridges associated with the Galapogos hotspot and Cocos-Nazca spreading center (Protti et al., 1994; Johnston and Thorkelson, 1997; Gutscher et al., 1999; Abratis and Worner, 2001; Sdrolias and Muller, 2006; Mann et al., 2007; Gazel et al., 2011). In addition, on the Caribbean side of Central and northern South America, seismic data suggest that part of the Caribbean plate is subducting and dipping in a direction opposite to the Cocos and Nazca slabs (van der Hilst and Mann, 1994; Camacho et al., 2010). We construct high-resolution three-dimensional numerical models of the Cocos-Nazca subduction system to test the effects of a slab gap and variable overriding plate thickness on surface plate motion and mantle flow. The 3D tectonic configuration is generated with SlabGenerator (Jadamec and Billen, 2010, 2012) and the mantle convection code CitcomCU is used to solve for the viscous flow (Moresi and Solomatov, 1995; Zhong, 2006). The negative thermal buoyancy of the slabs drive the flow. No driving velocities are applied to the plates or any of the slabs in the model. The detailed geometries of the Cocos and Nazca slabs are constructed from seismicity and seismic tomography (Protti et al., 1994; Colombo et al., 1997; Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998; Rogers et al., 2002; Husen et al., 2003; Syracuse and Abers, 2006; Syracuse et al., 2008; Dzierma et al., 2011). Seismic tomography

  4. Flow and heat transfer enhancement in tube heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed Ahmed, Sayed Ahmed E.; Mesalhy, Osama M.; Abdelatief, Mohamed A.

    2015-11-01

    The performance of heat exchangers can be improved to perform a certain heat-transfer duty by heat transfer enhancement techniques. Enhancement techniques can be divided into two categories: passive and active. Active methods require external power, such as electric or acoustic field, mechanical devices, or surface vibration, whereas passive methods do not require external power but make use of a special surface geometry or fluid additive which cause heat transfer enhancement. The majority of commercially interesting enhancement techniques are passive ones. This paper presents a review of published works on the characteristics of heat transfer and flow in finned tube heat exchangers of the existing patterns. The review considers plain, louvered, slit, wavy, annular, longitudinal, and serrated fins. This review can be indicated by the status of the research in this area which is important. The comparison of finned tubes heat exchangers shows that those with slit, plain, and wavy finned tubes have the highest values of area goodness factor while the heat exchanger with annular fin shows the lowest. A better heat transfer coefficient ha is found for a heat exchanger with louvered finned and thus should be regarded as the most efficient one, at fixed pumping power per heat transfer area. This study points out that although numerous studies have been conducted on the characteristics of flow and heat transfer in round, elliptical, and flat tubes, studies on some types of streamlined-tubes shapes are limited, especially on wing-shaped tubes (Sayed Ahmed et al. in Heat Mass Transf 50: 1091-1102, 2014; in Heat Mass Transf 51: 1001-1016, 2015). It is recommended that further detailed studies via numerical simulations and/or experimental investigations should be carried out, in the future, to put further insight to these fin designs.

  5. Control of slab width on subduction-induced upper mantle flow and associated upwellings: Insights from analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strak, Vincent; Schellart, Wouter P.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of slab width W (i.e., trench-parallel extent) on subduction-induced upper mantle flow remains uncertain. We present a series of free subduction analog models where W was systematically varied to upscaled values of 250-3600 km to investigate its effect on subducting plate kinematics and upper mantle return flow around the lateral slab edges. We particularly focused on the upwelling component of mantle flow, which might promote decompression melting and could thereby produce intraplate volcanism. The models show that W has a strong control on trench curvature and on the trench retreat, subducting plate, and subduction velocities, generally in good agreement with previous modeling studies. Upper mantle flow velocity maps produced by means of a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry technique indicate that the magnitude of the subduction-induced mantle flow around the lateral slab edges correlates positively with the product of W and trench retreat velocity. For all models an important upwelling component is always produced close to the lateral slab edges, with higher magnitudes for wider slabs. The trench-parallel lateral extent of this upwelling component is the same irrespective of W, but its maximum magnitude gets located closer to the subducting plate in the trench-normal direction and it is more focused when W increases. For W ≤ 2000 km the upwelling occurs laterally (in the trench-parallel direction) next to the subslab domain and the mantle wedge domain, while for W ≥ 2000 km it is located only next to the subslab domain and focuses closer to the trench tip, because of stronger poloidal flow in the mantle wedge extending laterally.

  6. Heat flow in eastern Egypt - The thermal signature of a continental breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Hennin, S. F.; El-Sherif, A. A.; El-Sayed, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    It is noted that the Red Sea is a modern example of continental fragmentation and incipient ocean formation. A consistent pattern of high heat flow in the Red Sea margins and coastal zone, including Precambrian terrane up to at least 30 km from the Red Sea, has emerged from the existing data. It is noted that this pattern has important implications for the mode and mechanism of Red Sea opening. High heat flow in the Red Sea shelf requires either a high extension of the crust in this zone (probably with major basic magmatic activity) or young oceanic crust beneath this zone. High heat flow in the coastal thermal anomaly zone may be caused by lateral conduction from the offshore lithosphere and/or from high mantle heat flow. It is suggested that new oceanic crust and highly extended continental crust would be essentially indistinguishable with the available data in the Red Sea margins, and are for many purposes essentially identical.

  7. Cryogenic fluid flow instabilities in heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, R. B.; Staub, F. W.

    1969-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigation determines the nature of oscillations and instabilities that occur in the flow of two-phase cryogenic fluids at both subcritical and supercritical pressures in heat exchangers. Test results with varying system parameters suggest certain design approaches with regard to heat exchanger geometry.

  8. The feasibility of inverting for flow in the lowermost mantle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, A.; Walpole, J.; Wookey, J. M.; Walker, A.; Forte, A. M.; Masters, G.; Kendall, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), the largest change in physical properties occurs within the Earth. Furthermore, up to a few hundred kilometres above the CMB--the region known as D″--the largest lateral variations in seismic wave speed are observed outside the upper mantle. Observations of shear wave splitting in D″ shows that these variations are dependent not only on position, but also wave propagation direction and polarisation; that is, strong seismic anisotropy is a pervasive feature of D″, just as in the upper mantle (UM). Similarly to the UM, it is frequently argued that alignment of anisotropic minerals due to flow is the cause of this. Were this the case, this anisotropy could be used to retrieve the recent strain history of the lowermost mantle. Recent modelling of mineral alignment in D″ [1,2] has shown that quite simple models of mantle flow do not produce simple anisotropy, hence one must make use of the most information about the type and orientation of anisotropy possible. Global inversion for radial anisotropy permits complete coverage of the CMB but so far has relied on core-diffracted waves (Sdiff) which are challenging to accurately interpret [3]. The assumption of radial anisotropy may also be too restrictive [4]. Shear wave splitting studies do not impose any assumed type of anisotropy but have been traditionally limited in their geographical scope. We present the results of a consistent analysis of core-reflected shear waves (ScS) for shear wave splitting, producing near-global coverage [5] of D″. Over 12,000 individual measurements are made, from ~470 events. Along well-studied paths such as beneath the Caribbean, our results agree excellently with previous work. Elsewhere, a full range of fast orientations are observed, indicating that simple SV-SH comparisons may not accurately reflect the elasticity present. We compare these results to candidate models of D″ anisotropy assuming a simple flow model derived from geophysical

  9. Effects of subduction and slab gaps on mantle flow beneath the Lesser Antilles based on observations of seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaphorst, David; Kendall, J.-Michael; Baptie, Brian; Latchman, Joan L.; Bouin, Marie-Paule

    2016-04-01

    Subduction is a key process in the formation of continental crust. However, the interaction of the mantle with the subducting slab is not fully understood and varies between subduction zones. The flow geometry and stress patterns influence seismic anisotropy; since anisotropic layers lead to variations in the speed of seismic waves as a function of the direction of wave propagation, mantle flow can be constrained by investigating the structure of these anisotropic layers. In this study we investigate seismic anisotropy in the eastern Greater and the Lesser Antilles along a subduction environment, including the crust and the upper mantle as regions of interest. We use a combination of teleseismic and local events recorded at three-component broadband seismic stations on every major island in the area to observe and distinguish between anisotropy in the crust, the mantle wedge and the sub-slab mantle. Local event delay times (0.21±0.12s) do not increase with depth, indicating a crustal origin and an isotropic mantle wedge. Teleseismic delay times are larger (1.34±0.47s), indicating sub-slab anisotropy. The results suggest trench-parallel mantle flow, with the exception of trench-perpendicular alignment in narrow regions east of Puerto Rico and south of Martinique, suggesting mantle flow through gaps in the slab. This agrees with the continuous northward mantle flow that is caused by the subducting slab proposed by previous studies of that region. We were able to identify a pattern previously unseen by other studies; on St. Lucia a trench-perpendicular trend also indicated by the stations around can be observed. This pattern can be explained by a mantle flow through a gap induced by the subduction of the boundary zone between the North and South American plates. This feature has been proposed for that area using tomographic modelling (van Benthem et al., 2013). It is based on previous results by Wadge & Shepherd (1984), who observed a vertical gap in the Wadati

  10. The impact of slab dip variations, gaps and rollback on mantle wedge flow: insights from fluids experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, Julia G.; Kincaid, Chris; Szwaja, Sara; Fischer, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    Observed seismic anisotropy and geochemical anomalies indicate the presence of 3-D flow around and above subducting slabs. To investigate how slab geometry and velocity affect mantle flow, we conducted a set of experiments using a subduction apparatus in a fluid-filled tank. Our models comprise two independently adjustable, continuous belts to represent discrete sections of subducting slabs that kinematically drive flow in the surrounding glucose syrup that represents the upper mantle. We analyse how slab dip (ranging from 30° to 80°), slab dip difference between slab segments (ranging from 20° to 50°), rates of subduction (4-8 cm yr-1) and slab/trench rollback (0-3 cm yr-1) affect mantle flow. Whiskers were used to approximate mineral alignment induced by the flow, as well as to predict directions of seismic anisotropy. We find that dip variations between slab segments generate 3-D flow in the mantle wedge, where the path lines of trenchward moving mantle material above the slab are deflected towards the slab segment with the shallower dip. The degree of path line deflection increases as the difference in slab dip between the segments increases, and, for a fixed dip difference, as slab dip decreases. In cases of slab rollback and large slab dip differences, we observe intrusion of subslab material through the gap and into the wedge. Flow through the gap remains largely horizontal before eventual downward entrainment. Whisker alignment in the wedge flow is largely trench-normal, except near the lateral edges of the slab where toroidal flow dominates. In addition, whisker azimuths located above the slab gap deviate most strongly from trench-normal orientations when slab rollback does not occur. Such flow field complexities are likely sufficient to affect deep melt production and shallow melt delivery. However, none of the experiments produced flow fields that explain the trench-parallel shear wave splitting fast directions observed over broad arc and backarc

  11. Boundary-layer mantle flow under the Dead Sea transform fault inferred from seismic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Rümpker, Georg; Ryberg, Trond; Bock, Günter

    2003-10-01

    Lithospheric-scale transform faults play an important role in the dynamics of global plate motion. Near-surface deformation fields for such faults are relatively well documented by satellite geodesy, strain measurements and earthquake source studies, and deeper crustal structure has been imaged by seismic profiling. Relatively little is known, however, about deformation taking place in the subcrustal lithosphere--that is, the width and depth of the region associated with the deformation, the transition between deformed and undeformed lithosphere and the interaction between lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle flow at the plate boundary. Here we present evidence for a narrow, approximately 20-km-wide, subcrustal anisotropic zone of fault-parallel mineral alignment beneath the Dead Sea transform, obtained from an inversion of shear-wave splitting observations along a dense receiver profile. The geometry of this zone and the contrast between distinct anisotropic domains suggest subhorizontal mantle flow within a vertical boundary layer that extends through the entire lithosphere and accommodates the transform motion between the African and Arabian plates within this relatively narrow zone. PMID:14523443

  12. Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. Subba

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic heating in hypersonic space vehicles is an important factor to be considered in their design. Therefore the designers of such vehicles need reliable heat transfer data in this respect for a successful design. Such data is usually produced by testing the models of hypersonic surfaces in wind tunnels. Most of the hypersonic test facilities at present are conventional blow-down tunnels whose run times are of the order of several seconds. The surface temperatures on such models are obtained using standard techniques such as thin-film resistance gages, thin-skin transient calorimeter gages and coaxial thermocouple or video acquisition systems such as phosphor thermography and infrared thermography. The data are usually reduced assuming that the model behaves like a semi-infinite solid (SIS) with constant properties and that heat transfer is by one-dimensional conduction only. This simplifying assumption may be valid in cases where models are thick, run-times short, and thermal diffusivities small. In many instances, however, when these conditions are not met, the assumption may lead to significant errors in the heat transfer results. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate this aspect. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: (1) to determine the limiting conditions under which a model can be considered a semi-infinite body; (2) to estimate the extent of errors involved in the reduction of the data if the models violate the assumption; and (3) to come up with correlation factors which when multiplied by the results obtained under the SIS assumption will provide the results under the actual conditions.

  13. Seismic Anisotropy near Hawaii - Evidence for plume-related mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, Gabi; Marzen, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    During the Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment) deployment, we collected continuous seismic data at ten land stations and nearly 70 ocean bottom sites from 2005 through mid-2007. Both the usage broad-band seismometers as well as the central location of Hawaii with good azimuthal seismicity coverage has allowed us to conduct a comprehensive analysis of surface wave azimuthal anisotropy at periods between 20 and 100 s. We use a sub-array approach to successively fit propagating spherical wave fronts in order to obtain frequency-dependent estimates at a large number of points. We use the standard Smith-and-Dahlen parameterization to express azimuthal variations. A systematic comparison between results obtained for different truncation levels in the trigonometric expansion allows us to assess stability of the results and assign error bars. At short periods, the fast direction aligns coherently with the fossil spreading direction across the entire PLUME network. This result supports the idea that flow-aligned asthenospheric material is "frozen" to the bottom of the cooling plate as it thickens. However, at longer periods, that sense the asthenosphere below the fast direction rotates incoherently, indicating that flow in the asthenosphere is significantly perturbed from the direction of current plate motion. A published shear-wave splitting study (Collins et al., 2012) found no evidence for such an anomalous mantle flow and therefore seems inconsistent with our results. We present initial surface-wave inversion results that suggest that plume-related mantle flow does not reach into the upper lithosphere. We also present forward-modeling results attempting to reconcile both surface-wave and shear-wave splitting observations. Collins, J.A., Wolfe, C.J. and Laske, G., 2012. Shear wave splitting at the Hawaiian hots pot from the PLUME land and ocean bottom seismometer deployments, Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 13, doi:10.1029/2011gc003881.

  14. Ionospheric Heating Rates Associated with Solar Wind Forcing: Ejecta flow, High Speed Flow and Slow Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, D. J.; Kasprzak, B.; Richardson, I.; Paige, T.; Evans, D.

    2001-12-01

    We present estimates of global ionospheric Joule and particle heating as a function of solar wind flow types over solar cycles 21, 22 and the first half of solar cycle 23. Richardson et al., [JGR, 2000] used a variety of techniques to categorize the solar wind flow as ejecta, high-speed stream or slow flow. Their work provides the basis for our catigorization of heating by flow type. The estimates of Joule heating are based on output of the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure, and fits to the Polar Cap Index [Chun et al., GRL, 1999]. Estimates of particle heating are derived from polar orbiting satellites. Although ejecta only account for 19% of the solar wind flow, they account for 27% of the Joule heating. High-speed stream flow accounts for 47% of the flow occurrence and 44% of the Joule heating. We will show similar comparisons for particle heating. Our solar cycle statistics indicate that Joule heating produces a yearly average hemispheric heating rate of 53 GW while particles produce a hemispheric heating rate of 38 GW. Joule heating exhibits more variability than particle heating. During solar cycle maximum years Joule heating accounts for twice the heating associated with particles heating.

  15. Method for identifying anomalous terrestrial heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy Kerr

    1977-01-25

    A method for locating and mapping the magnitude and extent of terrestrial heat-flow anomalies from 5 to 50 times average with a tenfold improved sensitivity over orthodox applications of aerial temperature-sensing surveys as used for geothermal reconnaissance. The method remotely senses surface temperature anomalies such as occur from geothermal resources or oxidizing ore bodies by: measuring the spectral, spatial, statistical, thermal, and temporal features characterizing infrared radiation emitted by natural terrestrial surfaces; deriving from these measurements the true surface temperature with uncertainties as small as 0.05 to 0.5 K; removing effects related to natural temperature variations of topographic, hydrologic, or meteoric origin, the surface composition, detector noise, and atmospheric conditions; factoring out the ambient normal-surface temperature for non-thermally enhanced areas surveyed under otherwise identical environmental conditions; distinguishing significant residual temperature enhancements characteristic of anomalous heat flows and mapping the extent and magnitude of anomalous heat flows where they occur.

  16. The mantle wedge's transient 3-D flow regime and thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D. R.; Le Voci, G.; Goes, S.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Arc volcanism, volatile cycling, mineralization, and continental crust formation are likely regulated by the mantle wedge's flow regime and thermal structure. Wedge flow is often assumed to follow a regular corner-flow pattern. However, studies that incorporate a hydrated rheology and thermal buoyancy predict internal small-scale-convection (SSC). Here, we systematically explore mantle-wedge dynamics in 3-D simulations. We find that longitudinal "Richter-rolls" of SSC (with trench-perpendicular axes) commonly occur if wedge hydration reduces viscosities to Pa s, although transient transverse rolls (with trench-parallel axes) can dominate at viscosities of Pa s. Rolls below the arc and back arc differ. Subarc rolls have similar trench-parallel and trench-perpendicular dimensions of 100-150 km and evolve on a 1-5 Myr time-scale. Subback-arc instabilities, on the other hand, coalesce into elongated sheets, usually with a preferential trench-perpendicular alignment, display a wavelength of 150-400 km and vary on a 5-10 Myr time scale. The modulating influence of subback-arc ridges on the subarc system increases with stronger wedge hydration, higher subduction velocity, and thicker upper plates. We find that trench-parallel averages of wedge velocities and temperature are consistent with those predicted in 2-D models. However, lithospheric thinning through SSC is somewhat enhanced in 3-D, thus expanding hydrous melting regions and shifting dehydration boundaries. Subarc Richter-rolls generate time-dependent trench-parallel temperature variations of up to K, which exceed the transient 50-100 K variations predicted in 2-D and may contribute to arc-volcano spacing and the variable seismic velocity structures imaged beneath some arcs.

  17. Colorado Heat Flow Data from IHFC

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: The International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado IHFC Data Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: Abstract: This layer contains the heat flow sites and data of the State of Colorado compiled from the International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) global heat flow database (www.heatflow.und.edu/index2.html). The data include different items: Item number, descriptive code, name of site, latitude and longitude, elevation, depth interval, number of temperature data, temperature gradient, number of conductivity measurement, average conductivity, number of heat generation measurements, average heat production, heat flow, number of individual sites, references, and date of publication. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4522121.800672 m Left: 165356.134075 m Right: 621836.776246 m Bottom: 4097833.419676 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude Of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich

  18. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath the Peruvian flat slab region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, C. M.; Long, M. D.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our understanding of the formation, evolution, and dynamics of flat slab subduction remains incomplete. The Peruvian flat slab segment extending from 3°S to 15°S represents a region with great potential to address flat slab dynamics. It is the largest present-day region of flat-slab subduction and arguably the best modern analog to the Farallon flat slab presumably associated with the Laramide orogeny in the western US. The role of mantle flow in the flat slab subduction system can be investigated via the study of seismic anisotropy. We conduct an in depth shear wave splitting analysis at the long running GSN seismic station NNA overlying the flat slab using a variety of event sources. The results demonstrate a clear frequency dependence of the splitting parameters in addition to variation with backazimuth, both an indication of complex anisotropy. Modeling of two anisotropic layers is used in comparison with splitting measurements to assess the possible contribution from different parts of the subduction zone. In addition, we present preliminary shear wave splitting results from stations of the PULSE (PerU Lithosphere and Slab Experiment) array, a temporary deployment of 40 broadband stations that provides lateral coverage of the flat slab system. PULSE stations will be deployed through 2013 and we expect this data set to yield powerful insights into the mantle dynamics of the Peruvian flat slab region.

  19. Global dynamic topography observations reveal limited influence of large-scale mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggard, M. J.; White, N.; Al-Attar, D.

    2016-06-01

    Convective circulation of the Earth's mantle maintains some fraction of surface topography that varies with space and time. Most predictive models show that this dynamic topography has peak amplitudes of about +/-2 km, dominated by wavelengths of 104 km. Here, we test these models against our comprehensive observational database of 2,120 spot measurements of dynamic topography that were determined by analysing oceanic seismic surveys. These accurate measurements have typical peak amplitudes of +/-1 km and wavelengths of approximately 103 km, and are combined with limited continental constraints to generate a global spherical harmonic model, the robustness of which has been carefully tested and benchmarked. Our power spectral analysis reveals significant discrepancies between observed and predicted dynamic topography. At longer wavelengths (such as 104 km), observed dynamic topography has peak amplitudes of about +/-500 m. At shorter wavelengths (such as 103 km), significant dynamic topography is still observed. We show that these discrepancies can be explained if short-wavelength dynamic topography is generated by temperature-driven density anomalies within a sub-plate asthenospheric channel. Stratigraphic observations from adjacent continental margins show that these dynamic topographic signals evolve quickly with time. More rapid temporal and spatial changes in vertical displacement of the Earth's surface have direct consequences for fields as diverse as mantle flow, oceanic circulation and long-term climate change.

  20. Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, N.; Yarr, George

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.

  1. Volcanism on Mercury (dikes, lava flows, pyroclastics): Crust/mantle density contrasts, the evolution of compressive stress and the presence of mantle volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Background. There is great uncertainty about the internal structure of Mercury and the composition of the mantle [e.g., 1, 2]. The high mean density of the body suggests that it may have lost parts of its crust and mantle in a giant impact at some stage after most of its initial accretion was sufficiently complete that at least partial separation of a core had occurred. It is the uncertainty about the timing of the giant impact, and hence the physico-chemical state of proto-Mercury at the time that it occurred, that leads to difficulties in predicting the interior structure and mantle composition. However, it seems reasonable to assume that the Mercury we see today has some combination of a relatively low-density crust and a relatively highdensity mantle; uncertainty remains about the presence and types of volatiles [2]. The second uncertainty is the nature of the surface plains units, specifically, are these lava flows and pyroclastics erupted from the interior, or impact-reworked earlier crust [3-5] (Figs. 1-2)? The detection of candidate pyroclastic deposits [4] has very important implications for mantle volatiles. Furthermore, whatever the surface composition, the presence of planet-wide systems of wrinkle ridges and thrust faults implies that a compressive crustal stress regime became dominant at some stage in the planet's history [3, 6]. If the plains units are indeed lava flows, then the fact that the products of the compressive regime deform many plains units suggests that the development of the compressive stresses may have played a vital role in determining when and if surface eruptions of mantle-derived magmas could occur. This would be analogous to the way in which the change with time from extensional to compressive global stresses in the lithosphere of the Moon influenced the viability of erupting magmas from deep mantle sources [7-9]. Analysis: To investigate the relationship between lithospheric stresses and magma eruption conditions [e.g., 9-11] we

  2. Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake.

    PubMed

    Pollitz, F F; Wicks, C; Thatcher, W

    2001-09-01

    Two recent large earthquakes in the Mojave Desert, California-the magnitude 7.3 1992 Landers and magnitude 7.1 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes-have each been followed by elevated crustal strain rates over periods of months and years. Geodetic data collected after the Hector Mine earthquake exhibit a temporally decaying horizontal velocity field and a quadrant uplift pattern opposite to that expected for localized shear beneath the earthquake rupture. We interpret the origin of this accelerated crustal deformation to be vigorous flow in the upper mantle in response to the stress changes generated by the earthquake. Our results suggest that transient flow in the upper mantle is a fundamental component of the earthquake cycle and that the lower crust is a coherent stress guide coupling the upper crust with the upper mantle. PMID:11546869

  3. Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: Postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Wicks, C.; Thatcher, W.

    2001-01-01

    Two recent large earthquakes in the Mojave Desert, California - the magnitude 7.3 1992 Landers and magnitude 7.1 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes - have each been fog[owed by elevated crustal strain rates over periods of months and years. Geodetic data collected after the Hector Mine earthquake exhibit a temporaLLy decaying horizOntaL velocity field and a quadrant uplift pattern opposite to that expected for LocaLized shear beneath the earthquake rupture. We interpret the origin of this accelerated crustal deformation to be vigorous flow in the upper mantle in response to the stress changes generated by the earthquake. Our results suggest that transient flow in the upper mantle is a fundamental component of the earthquake cycle and that the Lower crust is a coherent stress guide coupling the upper crust with the upper mantle.

  4. Heat transfer peculiarities in supersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovoi, V. Ia.; Brazhko, V. N.; Maikapar, G. I.; Skuratov, A. S.; Struminskaia, I. V.

    1992-12-01

    A method of heat transfer and gas flow investigation based on the application of thermal sensitive coatings or thermocouple sensors and various visualization techniques is described. The thermal sensitive coatings and visualization reveal heat transfer peculiarities, and the complex nature of the method contributes to understanding the processes and generalization of quantitative results. Data concerning heat transfer on the leeward side of a blunt cone in the regions of the shock-wave boundary layer and bow wave interaction, in gaps and cavities of the orbiter's thermal insulation, and in the vicinity of them, are presented.

  5. Core cooling by subsolidus mantle convection. [thermal evolution model of earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Cassen, P.; Young, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Although vigorous mantle convection early in the thermal history of the earth is shown to be capable of removing several times the latent heat content of the core, a thermal evolution model of the earth in which the core does not solidify can be constructed. The large amount of energy removed from the model earth's core by mantle convection is supplied by the internal energy of the core which is assumed to cool from an initial high temperature given by the silicate melting temperature at the core-mantle boundary. For the smaller terrestrial planets, the iron and silicate melting temperatures at the core-mantle boundaries are more comparable than for the earth; the models incorporate temperature-dependent mantle viscosity and radiogenic heat sources in the mantle. The earth models are constrained by the present surface heat flux and mantle viscosity and internal heat sources produce only about 55% of the earth model's present surface heat flow.

  6. Mantle Flow Implications across Easter and Southern Africa from Shear Wave Splitting Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Bagley, B. C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; van der Meijde, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present new shear wave splitting results from broadband seismic stations in Botswana and Namibia, and combine them with previous results from stations in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Angola to further examine the pattern of seismic anisotropy across southern Africa. The new results come from stations in northern Namibia and Botswana, which help to fill in large gaps in data coverage. Our preliminary results show that fast polarization directions overall trend in a NE orientation. The most noticeable measurements that deviate from this pattern are located around the Archean Tanzania Craton in eastern Africa. The general NE pattern of fast polarization directions is attributed to mantle flow linked to the African superplume. Smaller scale variations from this general direction can be explained by shape anisotropy in the lithosphere in magmatic regions in the East African rift system and to fossil anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere.

  7. Notes on heat flow at Ririwai, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwueke, C.

    Heat flow measurements carried out in the Ririwai ring complexes gave an average temperature gradient of 16.0 ± 0.5°C km -1 and thermal conductivity of the granites measured in the laboratory varied from 3.007 to 3.672 W/m°C. The laboratory results conforms with the estimated thermal conductivities from mineralogical compositions: modal analysis 3.13 W/m°C, C.I.P.W. norm 3.06 W/m°C and the content of oxides SiO 2 3.17 W/m°C. The calculated average heat flow is 50.72 ± 2.54 mWm -2 which is higher than those from the West African Craton: 20 mWm -2 in Niger, (Chapman and Pollack, 1974), 26 mWm -2 in Ghana (Beck and Mustonen, 1972) and 38.5 ± 1.7 mWm -2 from the same complex (Verheijen and Ajakaiye, 1979). The heat flow value of 50.72 ± 2.54 mWm -2 is considered normal for post PreCambrian orogenic provinces and also in agreement with the relation between heat flow and age.

  8. Numberical Solution to Transient Heat Flow Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobiske, Ronald A.; Hock, Jeffrey L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the reduction of the one- and three-dimensional diffusion equation to the difference equation and its stability, convergence, and heat-flow applications under different boundary conditions. Indicates the usefulness of this presentation for beginning students of physics and engineering as well as college teachers. (CC)

  9. Evidence for mantle plumes?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Don L; Natland, James H

    2007-11-22

    Geophysical hotspots have been attributed to partially molten asthenosphere, fertile blobs, small-scale convection and upwellings driven by core heat. Most are short-lived or too close together to be deeply seated, and do not have anomalous heat flow or temperature; many are related to tectonic features. Bourdon et al. investigate the dynamics of mantle plumes from uranium-series geochemistry and interpret their results as evidence for thermal plumes. Here we show why alternative mechanisms of upwelling and melting should be considered. PMID:18033248

  10. Rényi entropy flows from quantum heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad H.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2015-03-01

    We evaluate Rényi entropy flows from generic quantum heat engines (QHE) to a weakly coupled probe environment kept in thermal equilibrium. We show that the flows are determined not only by heat flow but also by a quantum coherent flow that can be separately measured in experiment apart from the heat flow measurement. The same pertains to Shannon entropy flow. This appeals for a revision of the concept of entropy flows in quantum nonequlibrium thermodynamics.

  11. The first deep heat flow determination in crystalline basement rocks beneath the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek; Chan, Judith; Crowell, James; Gosnold, Will; Heaman, Larry M.; Kück, Jochem; Nieuwenhuis, Greg; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Unsworth, Martyn; Walsh, Nathaniel; Weides, Simon

    2014-05-01

    relationship determined for other provinces of the Canadian Shield. However, this relationship could not be established for Q estimates from industrial temperatures data for the study area that includes the Taltson Magmatic Zone and neighbouring Buffalo High and Buffalo Utikuma domains to the west. It appears that the spatial wavelength of heat generation change is much smaller than that of heat flow. Thermal modelling of heat flow and heat generation data from the Hunt Well, using mantle heat flow contributions of 15 ± 5 mW m-2 results in lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth estimates of near 200 km. This mantle heat flow value is consistent with the range for the stable continental areas, 15 (±3) mW m-2.

  12. On the effect of the Post-perovskite phase change on global mantle flow, geoid and dynamic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Kaban, Mikhail; Petrunin, Alexei

    2014-05-01

    In the lowermost parts of mantle, the D" layer is a profoundly important layer as it involves the process of heat and mass transfer between core and mantle. However, the physical nature of this layer is an issue of active debate. The seismic data represent a rapid increase and decrease of the shear velocity, especially beneath Circum-Pacific margins, in the D" layer. Indeed, such abrupt velocity discontinuity is not expected for this hot layer. The discovery of the perovskite (pv) to Post-perovskite (pPv) phase transformation has led to dramatic increase in our understanding of the structure of the D" layer, since it is thought to produce such seismic discontinuity. Here, we have investigate the influence of the phase transformation of pv to pPv on the geoid undulation as one of the most important geophysical observable, using 3D spherical shell mantle circulation models based on a seismic tomography model (S40RTS) and strongly lateral viscosity variations in the D" layer and the mantle above. We demonstrate that the geoid anomalies are strongly affected by the presence of pPv in the lowermost mantle. While the geoid heights over subduction zones are increased by considering a strong pPv compared to then surrounding mantle, a weak pPv reduces the geoid height, and a better fit to the observed geoid is obtained. We show that, applying a weak pPv viscosity of at least three orders of magnitude any higher viscosity contrast does not affect the geoid any further. We also investigate the effects of weak pPv combined with a different tomography model, a different pPv density contrast, the presence or absence of a global thermal-boundary-layer (TBL) and the presence or absence of lateral viscosity variations in the lower mantle. Keywords: Post-perovskite, phase transitions, geoid, dynamic topography

  13. Investigating seismic anisotropy beneath the Reykjanes Ridge using models of mantle flow, crystallographic evolution, and surface wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, A.; Ito, G.; Dunn, R. A.

    2013-08-01

    Surface wave studies of the Reykjanes Ridge (RR) and the Iceland hotspot have imaged an unusual and enigmatic pattern of two zones of negative radial anisotropy on each side of the RR. We test previously posed and new hypotheses for the origin of this anisotropy, by considering lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine A-type fabric in simple models with 1-D, layered structures, as well as in 2-D and 3-D geodynamic models with mantle flow and LPO evolution. Synthetic phase velocities of Love and Rayleigh waves traveling parallel to the ridge axis are produced and then inverted to mimic the previous seismic studies. Results of 1-D models show that strong negative radial anisotropy can be produced when olivine a axes are preferentially aligned not only vertically but also subhorizontally in the plane of wave propagation. Geodynamic models show that negative anisotropy on the sides of the RR can occur when plate spreading impels a corner flow, and in turn a subvertical alignment of olivine a axes, on the sides of the ridge axis. Mantle dehydration must be invoked to form a viscous upper layer that minimizes the disturbance of the corner flow by the Iceland mantle plume. While the results are promising, important discrepancies still exist between the observed seismic structure and the predictions of this model, as well as models of a variety of types of mantle flow associated with plume-ridge interaction. Thus, other factors that influence seismic anisotropy, but not considered in this study, such as power-law rheology, water, melt, or time-dependent mantle flow, are probably important beneath the Reykjanes Ridge.

  14. Regional heat flow variations in the northern Michigan and Lake Superior region determined using the silica heat flow estimator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vugrinovich, R.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional heat flow data are sparse for northern Michigan. The groundwater silica heat flow estimator expands the database sufficiently to allow regional variations in heat flow to be examined. Heat flow shows a pattern of alternating highs and lows trending ESE across the Upper Peninsula and Lake Superior. The informal names given to these features, their characteristic heat flow and inferred causes are listed: {A table is presented} The results suggest that, for the study area, regional variations in heat flow cannot be interpreted solely in terms of regional variations of the heat generation rate of basement rocks. ?? 1987.

  15. Turbulent Heat Transfer in Ribbed Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2012-11-01

    From the view point of heat transfer control, surface roughness is one of the popular ways adopted for enhancing heat transfer in turbulent pipe flow. Such a surface roughness is often modeled with a rib. In the current investigation, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed for turbulent flow in a pipe with periodically-mounted ribs at Reτ=700, Pr=0.71, and p / k =2, 4, and 8. Here, p and k represent the pitch and rib height, respectively. The rib height is fixed as one tenth of the pipe radius. The profiles of mean velocity components, mean temperature, root-mean-squares (rms) of temperature fluctuation are presented at the selected streamwise locations. In comparison with the smooth-pipe case at the same Re and Pr, the effects of the ribs are clearly identified, leading to overall enhancement of turbulent heat transfer in terms of Nu. The budget of temperature variance is presented in the form of contours. The results of an Octant analysis are also given to elucidate the dominant events. Our LES results shed light on a complete understanding of the heat-transfer mechanisms in turbulent ribbed-pipe flow which has numerous applications in engineering. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2012013019).

  16. Towards adjoint-based inversion for rheological parameters in nonlinear viscous mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthen, Jennifer; Stadler, Georg; Petra, Noemi; Gurnis, Michael; Ghattas, Omar

    2014-09-01

    We address the problem of inferring mantle rheological parameter fields from surface velocity observations and instantaneous nonlinear mantle flow models. We formulate this inverse problem as an infinite-dimensional nonlinear least squares optimization problem governed by nonlinear Stokes equations. We provide expressions for the gradient of the cost functional of this optimization problem with respect to two spatially-varying rheological parameter fields: the viscosity prefactor and the exponent of the second invariant of the strain rate tensor. Adjoint (linearized) Stokes equations, which are characterized by a 4th order anisotropic viscosity tensor, facilitates efficient computation of the gradient. A quasi-Newton method for the solution of this optimization problem is presented, which requires the repeated solution of both nonlinear forward Stokes and linearized adjoint Stokes equations. For the solution of the nonlinear Stokes equations, we find that Newton’s method is significantly more efficient than a Picard fixed point method. Spectral analysis of the inverse operator given by the Hessian of the optimization problem reveals that the numerical eigenvalues collapse rapidly to zero, suggesting a high degree of ill-posedness of the inverse problem. To overcome this ill-posedness, we employ Tikhonov regularization (favoring smooth parameter fields) or total variation (TV) regularization (favoring piecewise-smooth parameter fields). Solution of two- and three-dimensional finite element-based model inverse problems show that a constant parameter in the constitutive law can be recovered well from surface velocity observations. Inverting for a spatially-varying parameter field leads to its reasonable recovery, in particular close to the surface. When inferring two spatially varying parameter fields, only an effective viscosity field and the total viscous dissipation are recoverable. Finally, a model of a subducting plate shows that a localized weak zone at the

  17. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOEpatents

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Hardee, Harry C.; Reynolds, Gerald D.; Steinfort, Terry D.

    1992-01-01

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers arranged in a vertical string. The transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings.

  18. Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor

    DOEpatents

    Carrigan, C.R.; Hardee, H.C.; Reynolds, G.D.; Steinfort, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    A triaxial thermopile array geothermal heat flow sensor is designed to measure heat flow in three dimensions in a reconstituted or unperturbed subsurface regime. Heat flow can be measured in conductive or permeable convective media. The sensor may be encased in protective pvc tubing and includes a plurality of thermistors and an array of heat flow transducers produce voltage proportional to heat flux along the subsurface regime and permit direct measurement of heat flow in the subsurface regime. The presence of the thermistor array permits a comparison to be made between the heat flow estimates obtained from the transducers and heat flow calculated using temperature differences and Fourier's Law. The device is extremely sensitive with an accuracy of less than 0.1 Heat Flow Units (HFU) and may be used for long term readings. 6 figs.

  19. Controls on the Flow Regime and Thermal Structure of the Subduction Zone Mantle Wedge: A Systematic 2-D and 3-D Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Voci, Giuseppe; Davies, Rhodri; Goes, Saskia; Kramer, Stephan; Wilson, Cian

    2014-05-01

    Arc volcanism at subduction zones is likely regulated by the mantle wedge's flow regime and thermal structure and, hence, numerous studies have attempted to quantify the principal controls on mantle wedge conditions. Here, we build on these previous studies by undertaking the first systematic 2-D and 3-D numerical investigation, across a wide parameter-space, into how hydration and thermal buoyancy influence the wedge's flow regime and associated thermal structure, above a kinematically driven subducting plate. We find that small-scale convection (SSC), resulting from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, or drips, off the base of the overriding lithosphere, is a typical occurrence, if: (i) viscosities are < 5×1018 Pa s; and (ii) hydrous weakening of wedge rheology extends at least 100-150 km from the trench. In 2-D models, instabilities generally take the form of 'drips'. Although along-strike averages of wedge velocities and temperature in 3-D structure are consistent with those in 2-D, fluctuations are larger in 3-D. Furthermore, in 3-D, two separate, but interacting, longitudinal Richter roll systems form (with their axes aligned perpendicular to the trench), the first below the arc region and the second below the back-arc region. These instabilities result in transient and spatial temperature fluctuations of 100-150K, which are sufficient to influence melting, the stability of hydrous minerals and the dehydration of crustal material. Furthermore, they are efficient at eroding the overriding lithosphere, particularly in 3-D and, thus, provide a means to explain observations of high heat flow and thin back-arc lithosphere at many subduction zones, if back-arc mantle is hydrated.

  20. Earth thermal history simulations with layering at various depths in the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costin, S.; Butler, S.

    2009-05-01

    Understanding Earth's heat energy budget over all of geological time presents a number of challenges. The current measured surface heat flow is significantly greater than the geochemically estimated internal heating rate which requires a significant degree of mantle secular cooling. This degree of secular cooling is difficult to obtain if the mantle lost heat efficiently at early times. One possible mechanism to decrease convective efficiency at early times is mantle layering at 660-km depth. Also, the persistence of Earth's magnetic field over the last 3.5 Gyrs combined with the relatively high estimates for the current core temperature require that either the core was initially much hotter than the mantle, or that there is radioactive internal heating in the mantle, or that a mechanism, such as a stagnant lower mantle layer acts to significantly decrease the heat flow efficiency from the core to the mantle. In this contribution we will present simulations with mantle layering at 660-km depth and demonstrate that mantle layering is not an effective mechanism for storing mantle heat at early times. Simulations with a stagnant layer in D', that persists over much of Earth's history, will also be presented and we will demonstrate that as long as this layer is not strongly enriched in radioactive elements, it can act to substantially increase the predicted age of the inner core and allow a long lived geodynamo.

  1. Subsurface heat flow in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Grant; Woodbury, Allan D.

    2004-02-01

    The subsurface temperature field beneath Winnipeg, Canada, is significantly different from that of the surrounding rural areas. Downward heat flow to depths as great as 130 m has been noted in some areas beneath the city and groundwater temperatures in a regional aquifer have risen by as much as 5°C in some areas. Numerical simulation of heat transport supports the conjecture that these temperature changes can be largely attributed to heat loss from buildings and the temperature at any given point is sensitive to the distance from and the age of any buildings. The effect is most noticable when buildings are closely spaced, which is typical of urban areas. Temperature measurements in areas more than a few hundred meters away from any heated structure were only a few tenths of a degree Celsius greater than those observed outside the city, suggesting that other reasons for increases in subsurface temperature, such as changes in surface cover or climate change, may be responsible for some of the some of the observed increase in temperatures. These sources of additional heat to the subsurface make it difficult to resolve information on past climates from temperatures measured in boreholes and monitoring wells. In some areas, the temperature increases may also have an impact on geothermal energy resources. This impact might be in the form of an increase in heat pump efficiency or in the case of the Winnipeg area, a decrease in the efficiency of direct use of groundwater for cooling.

  2. Critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David Douglas

    The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon was investigated for water flow in tubes with particular emphasis on the development of methods for predicting CHF in the subcooled flow boiling regime. The Purdue University Boiling and Two-Phase Flow Laboratory (PU-BTPFL) CHF database for water flow in a uniformly heated tube was compiled from the world literature dating back to 1949 and represents the largest CHF database ever assembled with 32,544 data points from over 100 sources. The superiority of this database was proven via a detailed examination of previous databases. The PU-BTPFL CHF database is an invaluable tool for the development of CHF correlations and mechanistic models that are superior to existing ones developed with smaller, less comprehensive CHF databases. In response to the many inaccurate and inordinately complex correlations, two nondimensional, subcooled CHF correlations were formulated, containing only five adjustable constants and whose unique functional forms were determined without using a statistical analysis but rather using the parametric trends observed in less than 10% of the subcooled CHF data. The correlation based on inlet conditions (diameter, heated length, mass velocity, pressure, inlet quality) was by far the most accurate of all known subcooled CHF correlations, having mean absolute and root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 10.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The outlet (local) conditions correlation was the most accurate correlation based on local CHF conditions (diameter, mass velocity, pressure, outlet quality) and may be used with a nonuniform axial heat flux. Both correlations proved more accurate than a recent CHF look-up table commonly employed in nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic computer codes. An interfacial lift-off, subcooled CHF model was developed from a consideration of the instability of the vapor-liquid interface and the fraction of heat required for liquid-vapor conversion as opposed to that for bulk liquid heating. Severe

  3. Deep Mantle Dynamics under the North American Continent Drives Localised Flow and Stress Below the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Moucha, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.

    2007-12-01

    The origin of intraplate earthquakes represents one of the outstanding problems in modern geophysical research, and the major earthquake sequence that struck the central Mississippi River Valley in 1811-1812, the so-called New Madrid seismic sequence, has become a principal target of this research. As Johnston and Schweig (1996) have noted, the occurrence of such large magnitude earthquakes in "stable" North American crust, far from any plate boundaries, remains an enigma. To understand the possible origin of this enigmatic seismic activity we have developed a new high resolution model of mantle flow below North America. The model is constrained by simultaneously inverting global seismic and mantle-convection data sets and it includes an explicit treatment of the positive chemical buoyancy of the continental tectosphere. Moreover, it adopts a depth dependent mantle viscosity structure which reconciles both glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and convection data. The flow model successfully reproduces plate velocities and observations of surface gravity and topography, including the continent-scale quasi-linear depression (after corrections for GIA and crustal heterogeneity) extending from northern Alaska to Venezuela. The predictions also match lithospheric flow and stress fields inferred from local and regional measurements of seismic anisotropy and surface deformation. We demonstrate that these signals are largely driven by viscous flow coupled to density anomalies within the lower mantle associated with the descent of the ancient Kula-Farallon plate system. More importantly, the flow calculations elucidate how these large-scale heterogeneities give rise to flow and stress patterns below the New Madrid Seismic Zone which are favourably oriented with respect the local fault geometry in this portion of the Mississippi valley.

  4. Heat flow diagnostics for helicon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.; Cassady, Leonard D.; Chancery, William J.

    2008-10-15

    We present experimental studies of power balance in an argon helicon discharge. An infrared camera measures the heating of the dielectric tube containing a helicon discharge based on measurement of temperature profiles of the tube surface before and after a rf pulse. Using this diagnostic, we have measured surface heating trends at a variety of operating conditions on two helicon systems: the 10 kW VASIMR VX-50 experiment and the University of Texas at Austin 1 kW helicon experiment. Power losses downstream from the antenna are measured using thermocouples and probes. The heating of the dielectric tube increases with decreasing magnetic fields, higher gas flow rates, and higher molecular mass of the gas. These preliminary results suggest that cross-field particle diffusion contributes a significant proportion of the energy flux to the wall.

  5. Heat flow and near-surface radioactivity in the Australian continental crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Jaeger, J.C.; Munroe, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Heat-flow data have been obtained at 44 sites in various parts of Australia. These include seven sites from the old (~ 2500 m.y.) Precambrian shield of Western Australia, seventeen from the younger (~ 600- 2000 m.y.) Precambrian rocks of South Australia, the Northern Territory, and Queensland, and twenty within the eastern Paleozoic and younger rocks. Thirty of the sites are located where no previous heat-flow data existed, and the remainder provide significant extensions or refinements of areas previously studied. Where the holes studied penetrated the crystalline basement rocks, or where the latter rocks were exposed within a few kilometers of the holes, the upper crustal radiogenic heat production has been estimated based on gamma-ray spectrometric determinations of U, Th, and K abundances. Three heat-flow provinces are recognized in Australia based on the linear relation (q = q* + DA0 ) between heat flow q and surface radioactivity A0. New data from the Western Australian shield support earlier studies showing that heat flow is low to normal with values ranging from 0.7 to 1.2 hfu and with the majority of values less than 1.0 hfu, and the parameters q* = 0.63 hfu and 0 = 4.5 km determined previously were confirmed. Heat flow in the Proterozoic shield of central Australia is quite variable, with values ranging between about l and 3 hfu. This variability is attributed mainly to variations in near-surface crustal radioactivity. The parameters of the heat-flow line are q* = 0.64 hfu and 0 = 11.1 km and moderately high temperatures are predicted for the lower crust and upper mantle. Previous suggestions of a band of l ow- to - normal heat flow near the coast in eastern Australia were confirmed in some areas, but the zone is interrupted in at least one region (the Sydney Basin), where heat flow is about 2.0 hfu over a large area. The reduced heat flow, q*, in the Paleozoic intrusive rocks of eastern Australia varies from about 0.8 to 2.0 hfu . This variability might

  6. The Anisotropic Structure of South China Sea: Using OBS Data to Constrain Mantle Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Xue, M.; Yang, T.; Liu, C.; Hua, Q.; Xia, S.; Huang, H.; Le, B. M.; Huo, D.; Pan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic mechanism of the formation of South China Sea (SCS) has been debated for decades. The anisotropic structure can provide useful insight into the complex evolution of SCS by indicating its mantle flow direction and strength. In this study, we employ shear wave splitting methods on two half-year seismic data collected from 10 and 6 passive source Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) respectively. These OBSs were deployed along both sides of the extinct ridge in the central basin of SCS by Tongji University in 2012 and 2013 respectively, which were then successfully recovered in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Through processing and inspecting the global and regional earthquakes (with local events being processing) of the 2012 dataset, measurements are made for 2 global events and 24 regional events at 5 OBSs using the tangential energy minimization, the smallest eigenvalue minimization, as well as the correlation methods. We also implement cluster analysis on the splitting results obtained for different time windows as well as filtered at different frequency bands. For teleseismic core phases like SKS and PKS, we find the fast polarization direction beneath the central basin is approximately NE-SW, nearly parallel to the extinct ridge in the central basin of SCS. Whereas for regional events, the splitting analysis on S, PS and ScS phases shows much more complicated fast directions as the ray path varies for different phases. The fast directions observed can be divided into three groups: (1) for the events from the Eurasia plate, a gradual rotation of the fast polarization direction from NNE-SSW to NEE-SWW along the path from the inner Eurasia plate to the central SCS is observed, implying the mantle flow is controlled by the India-Eurasia collision; (2) for the events located at the junction of Pacific plate and Philippine plate, the dominant fast direction is NW-SE, almost perpendicular to Ryukyu Trench as well as sub-parallel to the absolute direction of

  7. Rayleigh Wave Azimuthal Anisotropy beneath the Hawaiian Swell - Evidence for plume-related mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, Gabi; Marzen, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    During the two-stage Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment) deployment, we collected continuous seismic data at ten land stations and nearly 70 ocean bottom sites from 2005 through mid-2007. Both the usage broad-band seismometers as well as the central location of Hawaii with good azimuthal seismicity coverage allows us to conduct a comprehensive analysis of surface wave azimuthal anisotropy at periods between 20 and 100 s. Using a triangle method that we developed for earlier studies, we fit propagating spherical wave fronts to the phases at three stations simultaneously to determine the frequency-dependent average phase velocity within these triangles. We use the standard Smith-and-Dahlen parameterization to express azimuthal variations. A systematic comparison between results obtained for different truncation levels in the trigonometric expansion allows us to assess stability of the results and assign error bars. We observe a marked shift in the overall geometry of fast directions. At periods shorter than about 30 s, the fast direction aligns coherently with the fossil spreading direction across the entire PLUME network. This result supports the idea that flow-aligned asthenospheric material is added to the cooling plate as it thickens. This is also consistent with published PLUME shear-wave splitting observations. However, at longer periods, that sense the asthenosphere below the fast direction rotates incoherently, indicating that flow in the asthenosphere is significantly perturbed from the direction of current plate motion. We present results from forward modeling as well as initial inversions that suggest that plume-related mantle flow does not reach into the upper lithosphere, at the scales imposed by both the PLUME station spacing and the surface waves used in this study.

  8. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2015-05-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  9. Mantle viscosity stratification and flow geometry - Implications for surface motions on earth and Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, W. S.

    1993-02-01

    For a fixed heat flow, the surface flow velocity of a convecting layer is not strongly sensitive to the variation of viscosity as a function of depth. Thus, the inferred absence of a low viscosity asthenosphere on Venus can not account for the limited surface motions there. The surface velocity is dependent on the convective geometry. Cartesian geometry convection can produce large surface velocities if the high viscosity surface layer is broken in places by weak zones. On the other hand, a high viscosity surface layer may inhibit the development of large surface velocities in axisymmetric convection.

  10. Mantle viscosity stratification and flow geometry - Implications for surface motions on earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.

    1993-01-01

    For a fixed heat flow, the surface flow velocity of a convecting layer is not strongly sensitive to the variation of viscosity as a function of depth. Thus, the inferred absence of a low viscosity asthenosphere on Venus can not account for the limited surface motions there. The surface velocity is dependent on the convective geometry. Cartesian geometry convection can produce large surface velocities if the high viscosity surface layer is broken in places by weak zones. On the other hand, a high viscosity surface layer may inhibit the development of large surface velocities in axisymmetric convection.

  11. Flow characteristics and heat transfer in wavy walled channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Zachary; Shah, Tapan; Monts, Vontravis; Warey, Alok; Balestrino, Sandro; Alexeev, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    Using lattice Boltzmann simulations, we investigated the effects of wavy channel geometry on the flow and heat transfer within a parallel plate heat exchanger. We observed three distinct flow regimes that include steady flow with and without recirculation and unsteady time-periodic flow. We determined the critical Reynolds numbers at which the flow transitions between different flow regimes. To validate our computational results, we compared the simulated flow structures with the structures observed in a flowing soap film. Furthermore, we examine the effects of the wavy channel geometry on the heat transfer. We find that the unsteady flow regime drastically enhances the rate of heat transfer and show that heat exchangers with wavy walls outperform currently used heat exchangers with similar volume and power characteristics. Results from our study point to a simple and efficient method for increasing performance in compact heat exchangers.

  12. Geomechanical Fracturing with Flow and Heat

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-01-01

    The GeoFracFH model is a particle-based discrete element model (DEM) that has been coupled with fluid flow and heat conduction/convection. In this model, the rock matrix material is represented by a network of DEM particles connected by mechanical bonds (elastic beams in this case, see Figure 1, gray particles connected by beams). During the simulation process, the mechanical bonds that have been stretched or bent beyond a critical strain (both tensile and shear failures aremore » simulated) are broken and removed from the network in a progressive manner. Bonds can be removed from the network with rates or probabilities that depend on their stress or strain, or the properties of the discrete elements and bonds can be varied continuously to represent phenomena such as creep, strain hardening, and chemical degradation. The coupling of a DEM geomechanical model with models for Darcy flow and heat transport is also illustrated in Figure 1. Darcy flow and heat transport equations are solved on an underlying fixed finite difference grid with evolving porosity and permeability for each grid cell that depends on the local structure of the discrete element network (such as the DEM particle density). The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which then deforms and fractures the rock matrix. The deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, coupling the two phenomena. The intimate coupling between fracturing, fluid flow, and thermal transport makes the GeoFracFH model, rather than conventional continuum mechanical models, necessary for coupled hydro-thermal-mechanical problems in the subsurface.« less

  13. Numerical Simulations of Texture Development and Associated Rheological Anisotropy in Regions of Complex Mantle Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D. K.; Castelnau, O.; Becker, T. W.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the predictions of different micromechanical approaches that have been employed recently to study mineral alignment during flow in the upper mantle. Computational capabilities are reaching a point where the potential rheological effects of such lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) can be considered as an integral part of determining the flow pattern and evolution. But, in order to have confidence in taking this next step, the detailed behavior of the different micromechanical models needs to be understood. An important consequence of LPO development is the subsequent anisotropy of the mechanical properties. Curiously, most published geophysical studies only address the elastic anisotropy, probably because of its link with the observed seismic anisotropy. The viscoplastic (or rheological) anisotropy has received much less attention, although it may have a notable influence on regional and global convective flow pattern, which in turn controls the LPO development. Micromechanical approaches aim at linking the rheological behaviour at the grain scale, associated with the activate deformation mechanisms (dislocation glide and climb, diffusion creep, "), with the overall rheology at the sample scale, including also other mechanisms such as recrystallization. This is achieved by an evaluation of the internal stress generated by the (strong) mechanical interaction between neighbour grains. All models proposed in the literature (kinematic model, finite strain model, tangent self-consistent model, lower bound model, ") make simplifying assumptions, since the mechanical problem is very complicated. One can distinguish between rather simple models that allow some freedom in deformation of individual grains, and more advanced techniques (and generally more accurate) that require a minimum number (=4) of independent slip systems (or directional deformation mechanisms) for the plastic strain to occur. In respect to this, unlike all other models

  14. Anomalous subglacial heat flow in central Greenland induced by the Iceland plume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, Alexey G.; Rogozhina, Irina; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Johnson, Jesse; Koulakov, Ivan; Thomas, Maik

    2013-04-01

    3000 m of ice sheet thickness has ensured that central Greenland has kept it geothermal heat flow (GHF) distribution enigmatic. Some few direct ice temperature measurements from deep ice cores reveal a GHF of 50 to 60 mW/m² in the Summit region and this is noticeably above what would be expected for the underlying Early Proterozoic lithosphere. In addition, indirect estimates from zones of rapid basal melting suggest extreme anomalies 15 to 30 times continental background. Subglacial topography indicates caldera like topographic features in the zones hinting at possible volcanic activity in the past [1], and all of these observations combined hint at an anomalous lithospheric structure. Further supporting this comes from new high-resolution P-wave tomography, which shows a strong thermal anomaly in the lithosphere crossing Greenland from east to west [2]. Rock outcrops at the eastern and western end of this zone indicate significant former magmatic activity, older in the east and younger in the west. Additionally, plate modelling studies suggest that the Greenland plate passed over the mantle plume that is currently under Iceland from late Cretaceous to Neogene times, consistent with the evidence from age of magmatism. Evidence of rapid basal melt revealed by ice penetrating radar along the hypocentre of the putative plume track indicates that it continues to affect the Greenland continental geotherm today. We analyse plume-induced thermal disturbance of the present-day lithosphere and their effects on the central Greenland ice sheet by using a novel evolutionary model of the climate-ice-lithosphere-upper mantle system. Our results indicate that mantle plume-induced erosion of the lithosphere has occurred, explaining caldera-type volcanic structures, the GHF anomaly, and requiring dyke intrusion into the crust during the early Cenozoic. The residual thermo-mechanical effect of the mantle plume has raised deep-sourced heat flow by over 25 mW/m² since 60 Ma and

  15. Seismological observations in Northwestern South America: Evidence for two subduction segments, contrasting crustal thicknesses and upper mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarce, Jefferson; Monsalve, Gaspar; Becker, Thorsten W.; Cardona, Agustín; Poveda, Esteban; Alvira, Daniel; Ordoñez-Carmona, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    The cause of tectonic deformation in northwestern South America and its link to upper mantle structure and flow are debated. We use a combination of broadband and short period travel time seismic data for P-waves to show that observations are consistent with the presence of two subduction segments in Colombia and contrasting values of crustal thickness. In Northern Colombia, at latitudes greater than 6°N, most of the seismic stations are associated with negative teleseismic travel time residuals, relative to a regional mean, suggesting that the upper mantle is seismically faster than predicted from global models. In particular, for the Caribbean coastal plains there are no signs of significant anomalies in the upper mantle, evidenced by the small magnitude of the travel time delays and subdued Pn speeds (~ 7.97 km/s). To the southeast of such plains there is an increase in magnitude of the negative travel time residuals, including the Northern Eastern Cordillera, the Perija Range and the Merida Andes. An analysis of non-isostatic residual topography, based on a model of crustal thickness in northwestern South America, is consistent with a slab-associated upper mantle flow beneath the region just east of the Bucaramanga Nest. We interpret these results to indicate the presence of a Caribbean slab, initially flat beneath the Caribbean coastal plains, and steepening sharply in the southeast, including the area of Bucaramanga. For most of the western Andean region and the Pacific coast, south of 6°N, teleseismic differential travel time residuals are predominantly positive, indicating that the upper mantle is in general seismically slower than the reference model. Beneath the Central Cordillera, just to the east of this area, the residuals become smaller and predominantly negative; residual non-isostatic topography is negative as well. These features are probably related to the effect of the Nazca subduction developing an asthenospheric wedge.

  16. A coupled heat and water flow apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.M.O.; Caporouscio, F.; Yong, R.N. ); Cheung, C.H. ); Kjartanson, B.H. )

    1993-03-01

    Safe and permanent disposal of radioactive waste requires isolation of a number of diverse chemical elements form the environment. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the concept of disposing of waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the ground surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The temperatures and hydraulic potential in the buffer and back fill material were investigated. To study the performance of a compacted buffer material under thermal and isothermal conditions, a coupled heat and water flow apparatus is designed and presented. In the preliminary design, a one-dimensional flow of heat and water was not achieved. however, control of temperature gradient, existence of one-dimensional flow, and uniformity of temperature and volumetric water content distributions at any cross section within the specimen are achieved in the modified design. Experimental results have shown that the temperature stabilizes very rapidly after a period of approximately 0. 107 days. The moisture moves away from the hot end along the longitudinal direction of the specimen due to imposed thermal gradient. The time required for moisture to stabilize is in order of days. 17 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. 2-Phase Fluid Flow & Heat Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-03-13

    GEOTHER is a three-dimensional, geothermal reservoir simulation code. The model describes heat transport and flow of a single component, two-phase fluid in porous media. It is based on the continuity equations for steam and water, which are reduced to two nonlinear partial differential equations in which the dependent variables are fluid pressure and enthalpy. GEOTHER can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal interaction in rock that can be approximated by a porous media representation. Itmore » can simulate heat transport and the flow of compressed water, two-phase mixtures, and superheated steam in porous media over a temperature range of 10 to 300 degrees C. In addition, it can treat the conversion from single to two-phase flow, and vice versa. It can be used for evaluation of a near repository spatial scale and a time scale of a few years to thousands of years. The model can be used to investigate temperature and fluid pressure changes in response to thermal loading by waste materials.« less

  18. Revised lunar heat-flow values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langseth, M. G.; Keihm, S. J.; Peters, K.

    1976-01-01

    The 3.5- and 2-year subsurface temperature histories at the Apollo 15 and 17 heat-flow sites have been analyzed, and the results yield significantly lower thermal conductivity determinations than the results of previous short-term experiments. The thermal conductivity determined by probes at a depth of about 150 cm and 250 cm lies in the range 0.9-1.3 times 10 to the -4th W/cm K. On the basis of measurements of variations of surface thorium abundance and inferred crustal thicknesses, the average global heat flux is estimated to be about 1.8 microwatts/sq cm. This requires a uranium concentration of 46 ppb.

  19. Minimal residual disease monitoring by 8-color flow cytometry in mantle cell lymphoma: an EU-MCL and LYSA study

    PubMed Central

    Cheminant, Morgane; Derrieux, Coralie; Touzart, Aurore; Schmit, Stéphanie; Grenier, Adrien; Trinquand, Amélie; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Thieblemont, Catherine; Ribrag, Vincent; Cheze, Stéphane; Sanhes, Laurence; Jardin, Fabrice; Lefrère, François; Delarue, Richard; Hoster, Eva; Dreyling, Martin; Asnafi, Vahid; Hermine, Olivier; Macintyre, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of minimal residual disease may guide therapeutic strategies in mantle cell lymphoma. While multiparameter flow cytometry is used for diagnosis, the gold standard method for minimal residual disease analysis is real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). In this European Mantle Cell Lymphoma network (EU-MCL) pilot study, we compared flow cytometry with RQ-PCR for minimal residual disease detection. Of 113 patients with at least one minimal residual disease sample, RQ-PCR was applicable in 97 (86%). A total of 284 minimal residual disease samples from 61 patients were analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry and RQ-PCR. A single, 8-color, 10-antibody flow cytometry tube allowed specific minimal residual disease assessment in all patients, with a robust sensitivity of 0.01%. Using this cut-off level, the true-positive-rate of flow cytometry with respect to RQ-PCR was 80%, whereas the true-negative-rate was 92%. As expected, RQ-PCR frequently detected positivity below this 0.01% threshold, which is insufficiently sensitive for prognostic evaluation and would ideally be replaced with robust quantification down to a 0.001% (10-5) threshold. In 10 relapsing patients, the transition from negative to positive by RQ-PCR (median 22.5 months before relapse) nearly always preceded transition by flow cytometry (4.5 months), but transition to RQ-PCR positivity above 0.01% (5 months) was simultaneous. Pre-emptive rituximab treatment of 2 patients at minimal residual disease relapse allowed re-establishment of molecular and phenotypic complete remission. Flow cytometry minimal residual disease is a complementary approach to RQ-PCR and a promising tool in individual mantle cell lymphoma therapeutic management. PMID:26703963

  20. Minimal residual disease monitoring by 8-color flow cytometry in mantle cell lymphoma: an EU-MCL and LYSA study.

    PubMed

    Cheminant, Morgane; Derrieux, Coralie; Touzart, Aurore; Schmit, Stéphanie; Grenier, Adrien; Trinquand, Amélie; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Thieblemont, Catherine; Ribrag, Vincent; Cheze, Stéphane; Sanhes, Laurence; Jardin, Fabrice; Lefrère, François; Delarue, Richard; Hoster, Eva; Dreyling, Martin; Asnafi, Vahid; Hermine, Olivier; Macintyre, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of minimal residual disease may guide therapeutic strategies in mantle cell lymphoma. While multiparameter flow cytometry is used for diagnosis, the gold standard method for minimal residual disease analysis is real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). In this European Mantle Cell Lymphoma network (EU-MCL) pilot study, we compared flow cytometry with RQ-PCR for minimal residual disease detection. Of 113 patients with at least one minimal residual disease sample, RQ-PCR was applicable in 97 (86%). A total of 284 minimal residual disease samples from 61 patients were analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry and RQ-PCR. A single, 8-color, 10-antibody flow cytometry tube allowed specific minimal residual disease assessment in all patients, with a robust sensitivity of 0.01%. Using this cut-off level, the true-positive-rate of flow cytometry with respect to RQ-PCR was 80%, whereas the true-negative-rate was 92%. As expected, RQ-PCR frequently detected positivity below this 0.01% threshold, which is insufficiently sensitive for prognostic evaluation and would ideally be replaced with robust quantification down to a 0.001% (10-5) threshold. In 10 relapsing patients, the transition from negative to positive by RQ-PCR (median 22.5 months before relapse) nearly always preceded transition by flow cytometry (4.5 months), but transition to RQ-PCR positivity above 0.01% (5 months) was simultaneous. Pre-emptive rituximab treatment of 2 patients at minimal residual disease relapse allowed re-establishment of molecular and phenotypic complete remission. Flow cytometry minimal residual disease is a complementary approach to RQ-PCR and a promising tool in individual mantle cell lymphoma therapeutic management. (clinicaltrials identifiers: 00209209 and 00209222). PMID:26703963

  1. Underworld and multi-basin heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenette, S. M.; O'Neill, C.; Moresi, L. N.; Danis, C. R.; Mansour, J.

    2011-12-01

    We present an over arching method for non-linear heat flow assessments of large, multi-basin systems. Our example is the Sydney-, Gunnedah-, Bowen basins (Danis et al 2011), which covers an area of 800kms by 1900kms and depth of 5kms, on the east coast of Australia. It is used as a baseline towards further fluid and structural geodynamics oriented analysis. In contrast to reservoir scale geothermal models - basin, multi-basin and towards lithosphere scale models exhibit their own challenges in terms of physical/rheological behaviour and computational tractability. For instance we model a non-linear heat flow by means of temperature dependent conductivity, as indicated by Clauser and Huenges (1995), which allows crystalline basement rocks, such as granites, to show for example a significant decrease in conductivity from ambient temperature up to around 400C, dropping from around 3 mK**(units) to around 2. For this modelling, a specialisation of the geodynamics code 'Underworld' (Moresi et al 2007) called Underworld-GT is used. A toolbox is added to the otherwise un-touched Underworld code adding geothermal workflow and context to Underworld. A particular novel feature is the ability to load stratigraphic layers, and/or GoCAD or GeoModeller voxel sets as the constraining geological geometry, whilst allowing the heat assessment models to scale from 1 process to 1000s. Another is the ability to prescribe synthetic drill holes, and its use in stochastic-oriented assessments of model parameters. Following the Underworld platform's approach and its simple PDE abstraction layer, these model configurations from a baseline for further additions to the governing equations such as fluid flow and structure, enabling a bridge between reservoir and continental scale dynamics, albeit with their own computational challenges.

  2. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Mantle Convection in Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tackley, Paul J.; Schubert, Gerald; Glatzmaier, Gary A.; Schenk, Paul; Ratcliff, J. Todd; Matas, J.-P.

    2001-01-01

    Io has very high surface heat flow and an abundance of volcanic activity, which are thought to be driven by nonuniform tidal heating in its interior. This nonuniform heat is transported to the base of the lithosphere by very vigorous convection in Io's silicate mantle, the form of which is presumably responsible for the distribution of surface features such as volcanoes and mountains. We here present three-dimensional spherical calculations of mantle convection in Io, in order to ascertain the likely form of this convection and the resulting distribution of heat flow at the surface and core-mantle boundary. Different models of tidal dissipation are considered: the endmember scenarios (identified by M. N. Ross and G. Schubert) of dissipation in the entire mantle, or dissipation in a thin (approximately 100-km-thick) asthenosphere, as well as the 'preferred' distribution of M. N. Ross et al. comprising 1/3 mantle and 2/3 asthenosphere heating. The thermal structure of Io's mantle and asthenosphere is found to be strongly dependent on tidal heating mode, as well as whether the mantle-asthenosphere boundary is permeable or impermeable. Results indicate a large-scale flow pattern dominated by the distribution of tidal heating, with superimposed small-scale asthenospheric instabilities that become more pronounced with increasing Rayleigh number. These small-scale instabilities spread out the surface heat flux, resulting in smaller heat flux variations with increasing Rayleigh number. Scaled to Io's Rayleigh number of O(10(exp 12)) variations of order a few percent are expected. This small but significant variation in surface heat flux may be compatible with the observed distributions of volcanic centers and mountains, which appear fairly uniform at first sight but display a discernible distribution when suitably processed. The observed distribution of volcanic centers is similar to the asthenosphere heating distribution, implying that most of the tidal heating in Io

  3. The Earth's Mantle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and dynamics of the earth's mantle is discussed. Research indicates that the silicate mantle is heated by the decay of radioactive isotopes and that the heat energizes massive convention currents in the upper 700 kilometers of the ductile rock. These currents and their consequences are considered. (JN)

  4. Variations in Moho and Curie depths and heat flow in Eastern and Southeastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Feng; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The Eastern and Southeastern Asian regions witness the strongest land-ocean and lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions. The extreme diversity of geological features warrants a unified study for a better understanding of their geodynamic uniqueness and/or ubiquity from a regional perspective. In this paper we have explored a large coverage of potential field data and have detected high resolution Moho and Curie depths in the aforementioned regions. The oldest continental and oceanic domains, i.e. the North China craton and the Pacific and Indian Ocean have been found thermally perturbed by events probably linked to small-scale convection or serpentinization in the mantle and to numerous volcanic seamounts and ridges. The thermal perturbation has also been observed in proximity of the fossil ridge of the western Philippine Sea Basin, which shows anomalously small Curie depths. The western Pacific marginal seas have the lowest Moho temperature, with Curie depths generally larger than Moho depths. The contrary is true in most parts of easternmost Eurasian continent. Magmatic processes feeding the Permian Emeishan large igneous province could have also been genetically linked to deep mantle/crustal processes beneath the Sichuan Basin. The regionally elongated magnetic features and small Curie depths along the Triassic Yangtze-Indochina plate boundary suggest that the igneous province could be caused by tectonic processes along plate margins, rather than by a deep mantle plume. At the same time, we interpret the Caroline Ridge, the boundary between the Pacific and the Caroline Sea, as a structure having a continental origin, rather than as hotspot or arc volcanism. The surface heat flow is primarily modulated by a deep isotherm through thermal conduction. This concordance is emphasized along many subduction trenches, where zones of large Curie depths often correspond with low heat flow. Local or regional surface heat flow variations cannot be faithfully used in inferring

  5. A lithosphere-dynamics constraint on mantle flow: Analysis of the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, K. N.; Meijer, P. Th.; Govers, R.; Wortel, M. J. R.

    2010-09-01

    We present a method to estimate the poorly understood mechanical coupling between lithosphere and underlying mantle, and apply it to the Eurasian plate. Mechanical equilibrium of tectonic plates requires the torque from mantle tractions ($\\overline{TM) to be balanced by the torques from edge forces ($\\overline{TE) and lithospheric body forces ($\\overline{TB). The direction of $\\overline{TE proves tightly constrained by plate boundary nature but $\\overline{TB is affected uncertainties in the density structure of continents. We consistently find that the non-zero torque required from mantle tractions does not agree with the orientation of any published absolute motion model. We conclude that mechanical balance of the Eurasian plate requires an actively convecting mantle, which should result in a torque on the Eurasian plate located in the southwest Pacific.

  6. The effect of asymmetric heating on flow stability and heat transfer for flow in a vertical tube

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, C.H.

    1987-11-01

    This study presents experimental results of combined free and forced convection heat transfer in a vertical tube with a circumferentially nonuniform constant wall heat flux. The effect of an asymmetric wall heat flux on flow stability and on the rate of heat transfer for water flowing downward in a vertical tube was investigated. Experimental results were used to develop two stability maps which identify various flow regimes, corresponding to different thermal and hydraulic conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were also determined. Experimental results in the present investigation were compared to those with uniform heating in horizontal and vertical tube flow situations discussed in the literature. 23 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Mantle devolatilization and rheology in the framework of planetary evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, CH.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the thermal history of an Earth-like planet with the help of a parameterized mantle convection model including the volatile exchange between mantle and surface reservoirs. The weakening of mantle silicates by dissolved volatiles is described by a functional relationship between creep rate and water fugacity. We use flow law parameters of diffusion creep in olivine under dry and wet conditions. The mantle degassing rate is considered as directly proportional to the seafloor spreading rate, which is also dependent on the mantle heat flow. To calculate the spreading rate, we assume that the heat flow under the mid-ocean ridges is double the average mantle heat flow. The rate of regassing also depends on the seafloor spreading rate as well as on other factors like the efficiency of volatile recycling through island arc volcanism. Both mechanisms (de- and regassing) are coupled self-consistently with the help of the parameterized convection model under implementation of a temperature and volatile-content-dependent mantle viscosity.

  8. Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems

    DOEpatents

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1989-01-01

    In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.

  9. Coupled flow, thermal and structural analysis of aerodynamically heated panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.; Dechaumphai, Pramote

    1986-01-01

    A finite element approach to coupling flow, thermal and structural analyses of aerodynamically heated panels is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations for laminar compressible flow are solved together with the energy equation and quasi-static structural equations of the panel. Interactions between the flow, panel heat transfer and deformations are studied for thin stainless steel panels aerodynamically heated by Mach 6.6 flow.

  10. The upper mantle transition region - Eclogite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The upper mantle transition region is usually considered to be peridotite which undergoes a series of phase changes involving spinel and post-spinel assemblages. There are difficulties associated with attempts to explain the 220, 400 and 670 km discontinuities in terms of phase changes in a peridotitic mantle. Moreover, in a differentiated earth there should be large quantities of eclogite in the upper mantle. Eclogite is denser than Al2O3-poor mantle to depths of 670 km, but it stays in the garnet stability field to pressures in excess of those required to transform depleted mantle to denser phases such as ilmenite and perovskite. Eclogite, therefore, remains above 670 km. The seismic properties of the transition region are more consistent with eclogite than peridotite. Most of the mantle's inventory of incompatible trace elements may be in this layer, which is a potential source region for some basalt magmas. The radioactivity in this layer is the main source of mantle heat flow, 0.7 microcalorie/sq cm-sec, and drives upper mantle convection.