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Sample records for manufacturing process final

  1. Integrated manufacturing and processing predoctoral fellowships. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Rozzell, Thomas

    1999-10-01

    The first and fourth cohorts of U.S. Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing and Processing Predoctoral Fellows were supported under this grant for up to three years of study leading to a PhD degree in a field related to integrated manufacturing and processing.

  2. Environmental assessment of advanced thin film manufacturing process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.W.; Mopas, E.; Skinner, D.; McGuire, L.; Strehlow, M.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes work performed by BP Solar, Inc., to provide an extensive preproduction analysis of waste-stream abatement at its plant in Fairfield, California. During the study, numerous technologies were thoroughly evaluated, which allowed BP Solar to select systems that outperformed the stringent federal and state regulations. The main issues were originally perceived to be controlling cadmium compound releases to both air and wastewater to acceptable levels and adopting technologies for air and water waste streams in an efficient, cost-effective manner. BP Solar proposed high-efficiency, reliable control equipment that would reduce air-contaminant emission levels below levels of concern. Cadmium telluride dust is successfully controlled with high-efficiency (>99.9%) bag-in/bag-out filters. For air abatement, carbon canisters provide efficient VOC reduction, and wastewater pretreatment is required per federal pretreatment standards. BP Solar installed a cadmium-scavenging ion exchange system and electrowinning system capable of removing cadmium to <10 ppb (local publicly-owned-treatment-works limits for cadmium is 30 ppb). BP Solar plans to maximize potential reuse of rinse waters by phasing in additional wastewater treatment technologies. Finally, the work to date has identified the areas that need to be revisited as production scales up to ensure that all health, safety, and environmental goals are met.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy integrated manufacturing & processing predoctoral fellowships. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrochenkov, Margaret

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design. This is the final report to close out the contract.

  4. United States Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing & Processing Predoctoral Fellowships. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrochenkov, M.

    2003-03-31

    The objective of the program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design.

  5. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with R-134a and polyolester lubricant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schooley, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report includes a broad list of processing fluids that are known to be used to manufacture air conditioning and refrigeration products. Sixty-four process fluids from this list were selected for compatibility studies with R-134a and ICI EMKARATE RL32H (32 ISO) polyolester lubricant. Solutions or suspensions of the process fluid residues in polyolester lubricant were heated for 14 days at 175{degrees}C (347{degrees}F) in evacuated sealed glass tubes containing only valve steel coupons. Miscibility tests were performed at 90 wt.% R-134a, 10 wt.% polyolester lubricant with process fluid residue contaminate and were scanned in 10{degrees}C (18{degrees}F) increments over a temperature range of ambient to -40{degrees}C (-40{degrees}F). Any sign of turbidity, haze formation or oil separation was considered the immiscibility point.

  6. Industrial process profiles for environmental use: Chapter 30. The electronic component manufacturing industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report is one of a series constituting the catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use. Each industry sector is addressed as a separate chapter of the study. The catalog was developed for the purpose of compiling relevant information concerning air, water, and solid waste emissions from industries which employ similar technologies, have common types of environmental impacts, and supply their products for further processing or consumption to the same general population of customers. This report addresses the following segments of the electronic component manufacturing industry: semiconductors, SIC 3674; capacitors, SIC 3675; resistors, SIC 3676; transformer and inductors, SIC 3677; printed circuit boards, SIC 3679052; electron tubes, SIC 36711, 36713; and cathode ray tubes, SIC 36712, 3671385.

  7. The mechanics of manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.; Stori, J.; King, C.

    1996-10-01

    Economic pressures, particularly related to the quality of manufactured goods and `time-to-market` are forcing designers to think not only in terms of product design but also in terms of integrated product and process design, and finally in terms of deterministic manufacturing planning and control. As a result of these three high level needs, there is now an even greater need for comprehensive simulations that predict material behavior during a manufacturing process, the stresses and/or temperatures on associated tooling, and the final-product integrity. The phrase `manufacturing processes` of course covers a broad scope; it includes semiconductor manufacturing, injection molding of polymers, metal machining and precision lapping, wood and textile production, and the final assembly of piece-parts into a consumer product. It can be seen from this partial listing that the fields of fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, dynamics and tribology can all play a role. The introduction to the paper will contain a review of manufacturing processes and describe where simulations have been successfully applied, and where simulations are still lacking. The best of the simulations are those where the models accurately fit the physical phenomena, where accurate constitutive equations are available, and where boundary conditions are realistic. Thus, the body of the paper will focus on the results from one of these more successful simulations. It has been used to predict the deflections of tooling and the most appropriate operating conditions for the manufacturing process under study. A new method for manufacturing planning is described. In this method, closed form, somewhat simplified, analytical models are used to determine manufacturing planning parameters and then the results from these simpler models are refined by the fuller simulations. A case study in machining parameter selection for peripheral finish milling operations is developed.

  8. Freeze-casting as a Novel Manufacturing Process for Fast Reactor Fuels. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wegst, Ulrike G.K.; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar

    2014-04-07

    Advanced burner reactors are designed to reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive isotopes that need to be disposed of as waste. The input feedstock for creating advanced fuel forms comes from either recycle of used light water reactor fuel or recycle of fuel from a fast burner reactor. Fuel for burner reactors requires novel fuel types based on new materials and designs that can achieve higher performance requirements (higher burn up, higher power, and greater margins to fuel melting) then yet achieved. One promising strategy to improved fuel performance is the manufacture of metal or ceramic scaffolds which are designed to allow for a well-defined placement of the fuel into the host, and this in a manner that permits greater control than that possible in the production of typical CERMET fuels.

  9. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin

    2011-11-29

    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  10. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61

  11. MEGARA optical manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Granados, F.; Percino, E.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.

    2014-07-01

    MEGARA is the future visible integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4-m telescope located in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013, and the blanks of the main optics have been already ordered and their manufacturing is in progress. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system will be manufactured in Mexico, shared between the workshops of INAOE and CIO. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms, being all these elements very large and complex. Additionally, the optical tests and the complete assembly of the camera and collimator subsystems will be carried out in Mexico. Here we describe the current status of the optics manufacturing process.

  12. Manufacturing Curriculum Grant. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Jule Dee

    A manufacturing curriculum for secondary vocational programs was designed to bridge the gap between grades 9-10 level courses and the community college-level curriculum of the Illinois Plan for Industrial Education. During the project, a literature review of manufacturing curriculum materials was conducted, a manufacturing conceptual framework was…

  13. Large forging manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Thamboo, Samuel V.; Yang, Ling

    2002-01-01

    A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

  14. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology, Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Easoz, J.R.; Herlocher, R.H. )

    1991-12-01

    This report examines the cost-effective manufacture of dendritic-web-based photovoltaic modules. It explains how process changes can increase production and reduce manufacturing costs. Long-range benefits of these improved processes are also discussed. Problems are identified that could impede increasing production and reducing costs; approaches to solve these problems are presented. These approaches involve web growth throughput, cell efficiency, process yield, silicon use, process control, automation, and module efficiency. Also discussed are the benefits of bifacial module design, unique to the dendritic web process.

  15. Blade Manufacturing Improvement Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    SHERWOOD, KENT

    2002-10-01

    The Blade Manufacturing Improvement Project explores new, unique and improved materials integrated with innovative manufacturing techniques that promise substantial economic enhancements for the fabrication of wind turbine blades. The primary objectives promote the development of advanced wind turbine blade manufacturing in ways that lower blade costs, cut rotor weight, reduce turbine maintenance costs, improve overall turbine quality and increase ongoing production reliability. Foam Matrix (FMI) has developed a wind turbine blade with an engineered foam core, incorporating advanced composite materials and using Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) processes to form a monolithic blade structure incorporating a single molding tool. Patented techniques are employed to increase blade load bearing capability and insure the uniform quality of the manufactured blade. In production quantities, FMI manufacturing innovations may return a sizable per blade cost reduction when compared to the cost of producing comparable blades with conventional methods.

  16. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.; Meyer, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing applications team (MATeam) in effecting widespread transfer of NASA technology to aid in the solution of manufacturing problems in the industrial sector are described. During the program's first year of operation, 450 companies, industry associations, and government agencies were contacted, 150 manufacturing problems were documented, and 20 potential technology transfers were identified. Although none of the technology transfers has been commercialized and put in use, several are in the applications engineering phase, and others are in the early stages of implementation. The technology transfer process is described and guidelines used for the preparation of problems statements are included.

  17. Advanced Blade Manufacturing Project - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    POORE, ROBERT Z.

    1999-08-01

    The original scope of the project was to research improvements to the processes and materials used in the manufacture of wood-epoxy blades, conduct tests to qualify any new material or processes for use in blade design and subsequently build and test six blades using the improved processes and materials. In particular, ABM was interested in reducing blade cost and improving quality. In addition, ABM needed to find a replacement material for the mature Douglas fir used in the manufacturing process. The use of mature Douglas fir is commercially unacceptable because of its limited supply and environmental concerns associated with the use of mature timber. Unfortunately, the bankruptcy of FloWind in June 1997 and a dramatic reduction in AWT sales made it impossible for ABM to complete the full scope of work. However, sufficient research and testing were completed to identify several promising changes in the blade manufacturing process and develop a preliminary design incorporating these changes.

  18. Environmentally conscious manufacturing integrated demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, D.E.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration was to show that several of the individually developed materials and processes to reduce hazardous materials and waste could be successfully used on a single assembly. A methodology was developed that could be used on any product to plan the approach to eliminating hazardous materials. Sample units of an existing design electronic unit were fabricated applying this methodology and substituting nonhazardous materials and processes. The results of this project show that total waste can be drastically reduced by at least an order of magnitude and hazardous material and waste can be essentially eliminated in the manufacture of this type of electronic devices.

  19. Photovoltaic industry manufacturing technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vanecek, D.; Diver, M.; Fernandez, R.

    1998-08-01

    This report contains the results of the Photovoltaic (PV) Industry Manufacturing Technology Assessment performed by the Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) of the University of Texas at Arlington for the National Renewable Energy laboratory. ARRI surveyed eleven companies to determine their state-of-manufacturing in the areas of engineering design, operations management, manufacturing technology, equipment maintenance, quality management, and plant conditions. Interviews with company personnel and plant tours at each of the facilities were conducted and the information compiled. The report is divided into two main segments. The first part of the report presents how the industry as a whole conforms to ``World Class`` manufacturing practices. Conclusions are drawn from the results of a survey as to the areas that the PV industry can improve on to become more competitive in the industry and World Class. Appendix A contains the questions asked in the survey, a brief description of the benefits to performing this task and the aggregate response to the questions. Each company participating in the assessment process received the results of their own facility to compare against the industry as a whole. The second part of the report outlines opportunities that exist on the shop floor for improving Process Equipment and Automation Strategies. Appendix B contains the survey that was used to assess each of the manufacturing processes.

  20. Modeling and simulation of CVD processes for manufacturing ceramic composites. Final report, 30 September 1994-25 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Adjerid, S.; Flaherty, J.E.; Hudson, J.B.; Shephard, M.S.; Webster, B.E.

    1995-06-29

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process used to coat crystal sapphire fibers with B-Al2O3 has been mathematically modelled and numerically simulated using adaptive finite element software. This software system is applicable for solving transient and steady partial differential equations and is capable of automatic mesh generation, mesh-order variation, and/or mesh refinement.

  1. New Skills in Process Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom; de Montfort, Rowena; Finnegan, Wendy

    Recent changes in the nature of work in Australia's process manufacturing industry and their impact on operative-level workers and vocational education and training (VET) were examined. Structured interviews were conducted with training or human resource managers in 16 firms representing a cross-section of small, medium, and large enterprises…

  2. Process for manufacturing multilayer capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1996-01-02

    The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation. 4 figs.

  3. Process for manufacturing multilayer capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation.

  4. Laser Material Processing in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marshall

    2014-03-01

    This presentation will address some of the past, present, and potential uses of lasers for material processing in manufacturing. Laser processing includes welding, drilling, cutting, cladding, etc. The U.S. was the hot bed for initial uses of lasers for material processing in the past with Europe, especially Germany, presently leading the way. The future laser processing leader may still be Germany. Selected uses, past and present, of lasers within GE will also be highlighted as seen in such business units as Aviation, Lighting, Power and Water, Healthcare, and Transportation.

  5. 24 CFR 3285.6 - Final leveling of manufactured home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final leveling of manufactured home... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS General § 3285.6 Final leveling of manufactured home. The manufactured home must be adequately leveled prior to completion of...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.6 - Final leveling of manufactured home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final leveling of manufactured home... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS General § 3285.6 Final leveling of manufactured home. The manufactured home must be adequately leveled prior to completion of...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.6 - Final leveling of manufactured home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final leveling of manufactured home... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS General § 3285.6 Final leveling of manufactured home. The manufactured home must be adequately leveled prior to completion of...

  8. 24 CFR 3285.6 - Final leveling of manufactured home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Final leveling of manufactured home... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS General § 3285.6 Final leveling of manufactured home. The manufactured home must be adequately leveled prior to completion of...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.6 - Final leveling of manufactured home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final leveling of manufactured home... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS General § 3285.6 Final leveling of manufactured home. The manufactured home must be adequately leveled prior to completion of...

  10. Manufacturing Process Applications Team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Manufacturing Process Applications Team concerning the promotion of joint Industry/Federal Agency/NASA funded research and technology operating plan (RTOP) programs are reported. Direct transfers occurred in cutting tools, laser wire stripping, soldering, and portable X-ray unit technology. TROP program funding approval was obtained for the further development of the cutting tool Sialon and development of an automated nondestructive fracture toughness testing system.

  11. Development of a High Volume Capable Process to Manufacture High Performance Photovoltaic Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-322

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J. F.

    2012-11-01

    The intent of the work is for RFMD and NREL to cooperate in the development of a commercially viable and high volume capable process to manufacture high performance photovoltaic cells, based on inverted metamorphic (IMM) GaAs technology. The successful execution of the agreement will result in the production of a PV cell using technology that is capable of conversion efficiency at par with the market at the time of release (reference 2009: 37-38%), using RFMD's production facilities. The CRADA work has been divided into three phases: (1) a foundation phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of a basic PV cell at RFMD's production facilities; (2) a technology demonstration phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of prototype PV cells using IMM technology at RFMD's production facilities, and; (3) a production readiness phase where the teams will demonstrate the capability to manufacture PV cells using IMM technology with high yields, high reliability, high reproducibility and low cost.

  12. Process for manufacturing tantalum capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1993-01-01

    A process for manufacturing tantalum capacitors in which microwave energy is used to sinter a tantalum powder compact in order to achieve higher surface area and improved dielectric strength. The process comprises cold pressing tantalum powder with organic binders and lubricants to form a porous compact. After removal of the organics, the tantalum compact is heated to 1300.degree. to 2000.degree. C. by applying microwave radiation. Said compact is then anodized to form a dielectric oxide layer and infiltrated with a conductive material such as MnO.sub.2. Wire leads are then attached to form a capacitor to said capacitor is hermetically packaged to form the finished product.

  13. Process for manufacturing tantalum capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1993-02-02

    A process for manufacturing tantalum capacitors in which microwave energy is used to sinter a tantalum powder compact in order to achieve higher surface area and improved dielectric strength. The process comprises cold pressing tantalum powder with organic binders and lubricants to form a porous compact. After removal of the organics, the tantalum compact is heated to 1,300 to 2,000 C by applying microwave radiation. Said compact is then anodized to form a dielectric oxide layer and infiltrated with a conductive material such as MnO[sub 2]. Wire leads are then attached to form a capacitor to said capacitor is hermetically packaged to form the finished product.

  14. Monitoring of an antigen manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Zavatti, Vanessa; Budman, Hector; Legge, Raymond; Tamer, Melih

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical methods was employed as a tool for monitoring the manufacturing process of pertactin (PRN), one of the virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis utilized in whopping cough vaccines. Fluorophores such as amino acids and co-enzymes were detected throughout the process. The fluorescence data collected at different stages of the fermentation and purification process were treated employing principal component analysis (PCA). Through PCA, it was feasible to identify sources of variability in PRN production. Then, partial least square (PLS) was employed to correlate the fluorescence spectra obtained from pure PRN samples and the final protein content measured by a Kjeldahl test from these samples. In view that a statistically significant correlation was found between fluorescence and PRN levels, this approach could be further used as a method to predict the final protein content. PMID:26879644

  15. Wind Turbine Manufacturing Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Waseem Faidi; Chris Nafis; Shatil Sinha; Chandra Yerramalli; Anthony Waas; Suresh Advani; John Gangloff; Pavel Simacek

    2012-04-26

    To develop a practical inline inspection that could be used in combination with automated composite material placement equipment to economically manufacture high performance and reliable carbon composite wind turbine blade spar caps. The approach technical feasibility and cost benefit will be assessed to provide a solid basis for further development and implementation in the wind turbine industry. The program is focused on the following technology development: (1) Develop in-line monitoring methods, using optical metrology and ultrasound inspection, and perform a demonstration in the lab. This includes development of the approach and performing appropriate demonstration in the lab; (2) Develop methods to predict composite strength reduction due to defects; and (3) Develop process models to predict defects from leading indicators found in the uncured composites.

  16. Trajectory-Oriented and Fault-Tolerant-Based Intelligent Process Control for Flexible CIGS PV Module Manufacturing; Final Technical Report, 13 May 2002--30 May 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.; Britt, J.; Birkmire, R.; Vincent, T.

    2005-10-01

    ITN Energy Systems, Inc., and Global Solar Energy, Inc., assisted by NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D program, have continued to advance CIGS production technology by developing trajectory-oriented predictive/control models, fault-tolerance control, control platform development, in-situ sensors, and process improvements. Modeling activities included developing physics-based and empirical models for CIGS and sputter-deposition processing, implementing model-based control, and applying predictive models to the construction of new evaporation sources and for control. Model-based control is enabled by implementing reduced or empirical models into a control platform. Reliability improvement activities include implementing preventive maintenance schedules; detecting failed sensors/equipment and reconfiguring to tinue processing; and systematic development of fault prevention and reconfiguration strategies for the full range of CIGS PV production deposition processes. In-situ sensor development activities have resulted in improved control and indicated the potential for enhanced process status monitoring and control of the deposition processes. Substantial process improvements have been made, including significant improvement in CIGS uniformity, thickness control, efficiency, yield, and throughput. In large measure, these gains have been driven by process optimization, which in turn have been enabled by control and reliability improvements due to this PV Manufacturing R&D program.

  17. Establishment of a production-ready manufacturing process utilizing thin silicon substrates for solar cells. Final report. Motorola report No. 2364/4

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, R. A.

    1980-10-01

    Three inch diameter Czochralski silicon substrates sliced directly to 5 mil, 8 mil, and 27 mil thicknesses with wire saw techniques were procured. Processing sequences incorporating either diffusion or ion implantation technologies were employed to produce n+p or n+pp+ solar cell structures. These cells were evaluated for performance, ease of fabrication, and cost effectiveness. It was determined that the use of 7 mil or even 4 mil wafers would provide near term cost reductions for solar cell manufacturers.

  18. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.

  19. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  20. TX-100 manufacturing final project report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Berry, Derek S.

    2007-11-01

    This report details the work completed under the TX-100 blade manufacturing portion of the Carbon-Hybrid Blade Developments: Standard and Twist-Coupled Prototype project. The TX-100 blade is a 9 meter prototype blade designed with bend-twist coupling to augment the mitigation of peak loads during normal turbine operation. This structural coupling was achieved by locating off axis carbon fiber in the outboard portion of the blade skins. The report will present the tooling selection, blade production, blade instrumentation, blade shipping and adapter plate design and fabrication. The baseline blade used for this project was the ERS-100 (Revision D) wind turbine blade. The molds used for the production of the TX-100 were originally built for the production of the CX-100 blade. The same high pressure and low pressure skin molds were used to manufacture the TX-100 skins. In order to compensate for the difference in skin thickness between the CX-100 and the TX-100, however, a new TX-100 shear web plug and mold were required. Both the blade assembly fixture and the root stud insertion fixture used for the CX-100 blades could be utilized for the TX-100 blades. A production run of seven TX-100 prototype blades was undertaken at TPI Composites during the month of October, 2004. Of those seven blades, four were instrumented with strain gauges before final assembly. After production at the TPI Composites facility in Rhode Island, the blades were shipped to various test sites: two blades to the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, two blades to Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico and three blades to the United States Department of Agriculture turbine field test facility in Bushland, Texas. An adapter plate was designed to allow the TX-100 blades to be installed on existing Micon 65/13M turbines at the USDA site. The conclusion of this program is the kick-off of the TX-100 blade testing at the three

  1. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants. First draft of final report of part one and quarterly report of part two, January 3, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1994-11-01

    Included in this report is a compiled partial list of presently used processing materials in the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry and the manufacturers, intended uses, and applications of each. Also listed are the processing materials that have received final acceptance for this contracted study. An analytical methodology discussion is presented, including the final decision and the limitations of said methodology, as well as how to establish a level of confidence in observed immiscible material components in two 32 ISO VG polyolesters: (1) Mobil EAL Arctic 32; and (2) ICI Emkarate RL32H; both with HFC 134a refrigerant solutions.

  2. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the transfer of aerospace technology to solve key problems in the manufacturing sector of the economy is reported. Potential RTOP programs are summarized along with dissemination activities. The impact of transferred NASA manufacturing technology is discussed. Specific areas covered include aircraft production, robot technology, machining of alloys, and electrical switching systems.

  3. Automated Manufacturing Training Center. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northampton Community Coll., Bethlehem, PA.

    A project conducted by Northampton Community College established an automated manufacturing training center for use by industry in eastern Pennsylvania. The center assists small and medium-size manufacturing firms in evaluating and integrating off-the-shelf technology to make them more competitive in the global marketplace. Comprehensive services…

  4. Closed Loop Welding Controller for Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, F.; Bruno, C.; Cantelli, L.; Longo, D.; Muscato, G.; Rapisarda, S.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate on the closed loop welding controller of a rapid manufacturing Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD) process. SMD was developed and patented by Rolls-Royce in order to produce mechanical parts directly from a CAD model. A simplified SMD plant has been set up in order to investigate the welding dynamics and parameters and to develop a SMD automatic controller. On the basis of the experience acquired, some basic control laws have been developed, and a closed loop controller has been implemented. This controller permits to find and to maintain the process stability condition, so that the final process results totally automatic. The control is performed adjusting the welding conditions on the basis of arc voltage information obtained from the welding machine during the deposition. The experimental results reported confirm the validity of the proposed strategy.

  5. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  6. U-GAS process for chemical manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.; Leppin, D.; Patel, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of two important industrial chemicals, methanol and ammonia, are described. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of manufacture of methanol and ammonia are presented.

  7. Encapsulation Processing and Manufacturing Yield Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of encapsulation processing and a manufacturing productivity analysis for photovoltaic cells are discussed. The goals were: (1) to understand the relationships between both formulation variables and process variables; (2) to define conditions required for optimum performance; (3) to predict manufacturing yield; and (4) to provide documentation to industry.

  8. Final report: An enabling architecture for information driven manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J.M.

    1997-08-01

    This document is the final report for the LDRD: An Enabling Architecture for Information Driven Manufacturing. The project was motivated by the need to bring quality products to market quickly and to remain efficient and profitable with small lot sizes, intermittent production and short product life cycles. The emphasis is on integration of the product realization process and the information required to drive it. Enterprise level information was not addressed except in so far as the enterprise must provide appropriate information to the production equipment to specify what to produce, and the equipment must return enough information to record what was produced. A production script approach was developed in which the production script specifies all of the information required to produce a quality product. A task sequencer that decomposes the script into process steps which are dispatched to capable Standard Manufacturing Modules. The plug and play interface to these modules allows rapid introduction of new modules into the production system and speeds up the product realization cycle. The results of applying this approach to the Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System are described.

  9. Energetic additive manufacturing process with feed wire

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, Lane D.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Greene, Donald L.; Pressly, Gary A.

    2000-11-07

    A process for additive manufacture by energetic wire deposition is described. A source wire is fed into a energy beam generated melt-pool on a growth surface as the melt-pool moves over the growth surface. This process enables the rapid prototyping and manufacture of fully dense, near-net shape components, as well as cladding and welding processes. Alloys, graded materials, and other inhomogeneous materials can be grown using this process.

  10. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The quality cost modeling (QCM) tool is intended to be a relatively simple-to-use device for obtaining a first-order assessment of the quality-cost relationship for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve is a plot of cost versus quality (an index indicating microstructural quality), which is unique for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve indicates the tradeoff between cost and performance, thus enabling one to evaluate affordability. Additionally, the effect of changes in process design, raw materials, and process conditions on the cost-quality relationship can be evaluated. Such results might indicate the most efficient means to obtain improved quality at reduced cost by process design refinements, the implementation of sensors and models for closed loop process control, or improvement in the properties of raw materials being fed into the process. QCM also allows alternative processes for producing the same or similar material to be compared in terms of their potential for producing competitively priced, high quality material. Aside from demonstrating the usefulness of the QCM concept, this is one of the main foci of the present research program, namely to compare processes for making continuous fiber reinforced, metal matrix composites (MMC's). Two processes, low pressure plasma spray deposition and tape casting are considered for QCM development. This document consists of a detailed look at the design of the QCM approach, followed by discussion of the application of QCM to each of the selected MMC manufacturing processes along with results, comparison of processes, and finally, a summary of findings and recommendations.

  11. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  12. Process and quality verification controls for solid propellant manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in-process tests to verify quality and detect discrepant propellant which could compromise motor performance are essential elements of the solid composite propellant manufacturing process. The successful performance of the 260SL-1 and 260SL-2 motors aptly verified the controls used for manufacturing the propellant. The present investigation is concerned with the selected control parameters, and their relationships to composition and final propellant properties. Control performance is evaluated by comparison with processing data experienced in the manufacture of the propellant for the 260SL-1 motor. It is found that the in-process quality verification controls utilized in the propellant manufacturing process for the 260-in. diameter motor contributed significantly to the confidence of successful and predictable motor performance.

  13. Ultra-precision processes for optics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William R.

    1991-12-01

    The Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) is developing advanced manufacturing technologies for fabrication of ultra precision optical components, aiming for a ten-fold improvement in precision and a shortening of the scheduled lead time. Current work focuses on diamond single point turning, ductile grinding, ion milling, and in/on process metrology.

  14. Ultra-precision processes for optics manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, William R.

    1991-01-01

    The Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) is developing advanced manufacturing technologies for fabrication of ultra precision optical components, aiming for a ten-fold improvement in precision and a shortening of the scheduled lead time. Current work focuses on diamond single point turning, ductile grinding, ion milling, and in/on process metrology.

  15. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  16. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives and activities of an aerospace technology transfer group are outlined and programs in various stages of progress are described including the orbital tube flaring device, infrared proximity sensor for robot positioning, laser stripping magnet wire, infrared imaging as welding process tracking system, carbide coating of cutting tools, nondestructive fracture toughness testing of titanium welds, portable solar system for agricultural applications, and an anerobic methane gas generator.

  17. Electromechanical assembly department manufacturing improvements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, S.W.

    1991-12-01

    Techniques for streamlining the processing and flow of products is an electromechanical assembly department were evaluated. Areas looked at included a paperless system for lot identification records, automated tool and fixture storage, evaluation of product transfer methods, and queue time reduction.

  18. Superconductor and process of manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, James.

    1993-07-27

    The process is described of producing a Type II superconducting alloy which is superconducting at a high magnetic field, comprising the steps of creating a composite characterized by a periodic arrangement of at least two transition metals so as to provide numerous interfaces between the different transition metals, the transition metals being selected from the elements niobium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, hafnium, and tantalum, and alloys thereof which are not superconducting at said field, the combination of transition metals being such that one of the metals will serve as a second phase when the layers are subjected to temperatures which would produce a two-phase equilibrium state from a solid solution alloy of said transition metals, mechanically reducing and heating the composite to cause interdiffusion of the transition metals to form ductile superconducting alloy zones at the interfaces of the transition metals, there being sufficient heat treatment in the region where two phases exist in the phase diagram to form two phases, one phase being the desired superconducting Type 11 alloy and the other phase being the non superconducting normal metal or alloy, limiting the temperature of heat treatment to the two-phase region, and thereafter mechanically reducing the composite so that the two zones are each less than about 1,000 nm in thickness.

  19. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the thermoplastics manufacturing industry: Basis and purpose document for final standards, summary of public comments and responses

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document provides a summary of the public comments received on the proposed Polymers and Resins IV NESHAP (40 CFR 63, subpart V), EPA`s responses to these comments, and the final decisions made by the EPA in develping the final rule (40 CFR 63, subart JJJ) for this industry.

  20. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  1. Towards automatic planning for manufacturing generative processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-05-24

    Generative process planning describes methods process engineers use to modify manufacturing/process plans after designs are complete. A completed design may be the result from the introduction of a new product based on an old design, an assembly upgrade, or modified product designs used for a family of similar products. An engineer designs an assembly and then creates plans capturing manufacturing processes, including assembly sequences, component joining methods, part costs, labor costs, etc. When new products originate as a result of an upgrade, component geometry may change, and/or additional components and subassemblies may be added to or are omitted from the original design. As a result process engineers are forced to create new plans. This is further complicated by the fact that the process engineer is forced to manually generate these plans for each product upgrade. To generate new assembly plans for product upgrades, engineers must manually re-specify the manufacturing plan selection criteria and re-run the planners. To remedy this problem, special-purpose assembly planning algorithms have been developed to automatically recognize design modifications and automatically apply previously defined manufacturing plan selection criteria and constraints.

  2. Auxetic polyurethane foam: Manufacturing and processing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahan, Md Deloyer

    Materials with negative Poisson's ratio are referred to as auxetic materials. They are different from conventional materials in their deformation behavior when responding to external stresses. The cross-section of the materials widens in the lateral direction when being stretched in the longitudinal direction and becomes narrower when being compressed longitudinally. While a number of natural auxetic materials exist, most auxetic materials are synthetic. They show interesting properties and have potential in several important applications. Auxetic materials exhibit better mechanical properties than conventional materials such as enhanced indentation resistance, shear resistance, toughness, damping and energy absorption capacity, sound absorption, variable permeability and capability of producing complex curvature. These properties are beneficial in a wide range of applications including personal protective equipments, sound absorbers, packaging, smart filtration, drug delivery, tissue scaffolding, seat cushioning, etc. A wide range of auxetic materials has been synthesized. They include different polymers, metals, composites and ceramics. Among these, auxetic polyurethane (PU) foam is one of the most widely studied types of auxetic materials. Auxetic PU foams are usually fabricated by altering the microstructure of conventional foams and the unusual mechanical properties originate from the deformation characteristics of the microstructures. Three most important processing parameters in fabricating auxetic PU foam that dictate auxetic behavior are processing temperature, heating time and volumetric compression ratio. This study addresses several important issues in the manufacturing and characterization of auxetic PU foam. First, an improved automatic measuring technique has been developed to determine Poisson's ratio of auxetic PU foam. The technique involves development of a Matlab based image processing program. The second part of the study includes an

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics - Applications in Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninati, Maria Laura; Kathol, Austin; Ziemian, Constance

    2012-11-01

    A new Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) exercise has been developed for the undergraduate introductory fluid mechanics course at Bucknell University. The goal is to develop a computational exercise that students complete which links the manufacturing processes course and the concurrent fluid mechanics course in a way that reinforces the concepts in both. In general, CFD is used as a tool to increase student understanding of the fundamentals in a virtual world. A ``learning factory,'' which is currently in development at Bucknell seeks to use the laboratory as a means to link courses that previously seemed to have little correlation at first glance. A large part of the manufacturing processes course is a project using an injection molding machine. The flow of pressurized molten polyurethane into the mold cavity can also be an example of fluid motion (a jet of liquid hitting a plate) that is applied in manufacturing. The students will run a CFD process that captures this flow using their virtual mold created with a graphics package, such as SolidWorks. The laboratory structure is currently being implemented and analyzed as a part of the ``learning factory''. Lastly, a survey taken before and after the CFD exercise demonstrate a better understanding of both the CFD and manufacturing process.

  4. Friction Stir Processing for Efficient Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. Christopher B. Smith; Dr. Oyelayo Ajayi

    2012-01-31

    Friction at contacting surfaces in relative motion is a major source of parasitic energy loss in machine systems and manufacturing processes. Consequently, friction reduction usually translates to efficiency gain and reduction in energy consumption. Furthermore, friction at surfaces eventually leads to wear and failure of the components thereby compromising reliability and durability. In order to reduce friction and wear in tribological components, material surfaces are often hardened by a variety of methods, including conventional heat treatment, laser surface hardening, and thin-film coatings. While these surface treatments are effective when used in conjunction with lubrication to prevent failure, they are all energy intensive and could potentially add significant cost. A new concept for surface hardening of metallic materials and components is Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Compared to the current surface hardening technologies, FSP is more energy efficient has no emission or waste by products and may result in better tribological performance. FSP involves plunging a rotating tool to a predetermined depth (case layer thickness) and translating the FSP tool along the area to be processed. This action of the tool produces heating and severe plastic deformation of the processed area. For steel the temperature is high enough to cause phase transformation, ultimately forming hard martensitic phase. Indeed, FSP has been used for surface modification of several metals and alloys so as to homogenize the microstructure and refine the grain size, both of which led to improved fatigue and corrosion resistance. Based on the effect of FSP on near-surface layer material, it was expected to have beneficial effects on friction and wear performance of metallic materials. However, little or no knowledge existed on the impact of FSP concerning friction and wear performance the subject of the this project and final report. Specifically for steel, which is the most dominant

  5. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

  6. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manufacturing and processing activity... ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.31 Manufacturing and processing activity....” When evaluating zone and subzone manufacturing and processing activity, either as proposed in...

  7. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing and processing activity... ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.31 Manufacturing and processing activity....” When evaluating zone and subzone manufacturing and processing activity, either as proposed in...

  8. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manufacturing and processing activity... ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.31 Manufacturing and processing activity....” When evaluating zone and subzone manufacturing and processing activity, either as proposed in...

  9. Microeconomics of process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Process window control enables accelerated design-rule shrinks for both logic and memory manufacturers, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of process window control to maximum profitability are rare. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the maximum rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We show that the ability of process window control to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process variation at the lot, wafer, x-wafer, x-field, and x-chip levels. We conclude that x-wafer and x-field CD control strategies will be critical enablers of density, performance and optimum profitability at the 90 and 65nm technology nodes. These analyses correlate well with actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential incremental revenue and cost savings. As an example, we show that a scatterometry-based CD Process Window Monitor is an economically justified, enabling technology for the 65nm node.

  10. Materials processing in zero gravity. [space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuenscher, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    Manufacturing processes which are expected to show drastic changes in a space environment due to the absence of earth gravity are classified according to (1) buoyancy and thermal convection sensitive processes and (2) processes where molecular forces like cohesion and adhesion remain as the relatively strongest and hence controlling factors. Some specific process demonstration experiments carried out during the Apollo 14 mission and in the Skylab program are described. These include chemical separation by electrophoresis, the M551 metals melting experiment, the M552 exothermic brazing experiment, the M553 sphere forming experiment, the M554 composite casting experiment, and the M555 gallium arsenide crystal growth experiment.

  11. Transient period process control for continuous manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Nembhard, H.B.; Birge, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    We develop a multiple objective nonlinear control model to optimize decision variables for correlated process characteristics during a transient phase. Given a continuous manufacturing process we show how to use the model to improve operations from startup to the end of the transient period (when steady-state is reached). We also show how to identify the end of the transient period and compare performance using the model during steady-state to traditional SPC techniques that assume the process is in statistical control.

  12. Estimated worker exposure to 2378-TCDD and 2378-TCDF in the manufacture, processing, and commercial use of pulp, paper, and paper products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, R.; Meyer, C.; Goodman, B.; Foerst, M.B.

    1990-07-01

    The report assesses potential worker exposures and risks to 2378 TCDD and 2378 TCDF in the production, processing, and commercial use of pulp, paper, and paper products. The report identifies the job categories in each operation and examines worker exposure via the following three exposure pathways: (1) inhalation of volatilized 2378 TCDD/2378 TCDF, (2) inhalation of particulates containing 2378 TCDD/2378 TCDF, and (3) dermal contact with pulp, paper, or sludge. Since no available personnel exposure monitoring data is available, various modeling techniques and assumptions are used to estimate exposures. A range (low and high values) of exposure and risk estimates are presented for each industry/worker scenario and exposure route. The low and high exposures and risks are estimated based on the lowest and highest dioxin TEQ concentrations, as reported in the 104-Mill Study, and typical to reasonable worst-case assumptions, respectively.

  13. Conformal window manufacturing process development and demonstration for polycrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan E.; Gould, Alan R.; Hordin, Tom; Medicus, Kate; Walters, Mark; Brophy, Matthew; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Conformal windows pose new and unique challenges to manufacturing due to the shape, measurement of, and requested hard polycrystalline materials. Their non-rotationally symmetric shape and high departure surfaces do not lend themselves to traditional optical fabrication processes. The hard crystalline materials are another challenge due to increased processing time and possibility of grain decoration. We have developed and demonstrated a process for manufacturing various conformal windows out of fused silica, glass, zinc-sulfide multispectral, and spinel. The current process involves CNC generation/grinding, VIBE polishing, and sub-aperture figure correction. The CNC generation step incorporates an ultrasonic assisted grinding machine; the machine settings and tool are being continuously optimized for minimal sub-surface damage and surface form error. In VIBE, polishing to less than 5 nm rms surface roughness while maintaining overall form error is accomplished with a full aperture conformal polishing tool and with rapid removal rates. The final sub-aperture polishing step corrects the overall form error. Currently we utilize our CMM for surface form measurement and have shown that we can produce spinel conformal windows with form error within +/-10 micrometers of the nominal shape, without grain decoration. This conformal window manufacturing process is continuously optimized for cost reduction and precision of the final optic.

  14. Big Data Analysis of Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windmann, Stefan; Maier, Alexander; Niggemann, Oliver; Frey, Christian; Bernardi, Ansgar; Gu, Ying; Pfrommer, Holger; Steckel, Thilo; Krüger, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The high complexity of manufacturing processes and the continuously growing amount of data lead to excessive demands on the users with respect to process monitoring, data analysis and fault detection. For these reasons, problems and faults are often detected too late, maintenance intervals are chosen too short and optimization potential for higher output and increased energy efficiency is not sufficiently used. A possibility to cope with these challenges is the development of self-learning assistance systems, which identify relevant relationships by observation of complex manufacturing processes so that failures, anomalies and need for optimization are automatically detected. The assistance system developed in the present work accomplishes data acquisition, process monitoring and anomaly detection in industrial and agricultural processes. The assistance system is evaluated in three application cases: Large distillation columns, agricultural harvesting processes and large-scale sorting plants. In this paper, the developed infrastructures for data acquisition in these application cases are described as well as the developed algorithms and initial evaluation results.

  15. A simulation study on garment manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liong, Choong-Yeun; Rahim, Nur Azreen Abdul

    2015-02-01

    Garment industry is an important industry and continues to evolve in order to meet the consumers' high demands. Therefore, elements of innovation and improvement are important. In this work, research studies were conducted at a local company in order to model the sewing process of clothes manufacturing by using simulation modeling. Clothes manufacturing at the company involves 14 main processes, which are connecting the pattern, center sewing and side neating, pockets sewing, backside-sewing, attaching the front and back, sleeves preparation, attaching the sleeves and over lock, collar preparation, collar sewing, bottomedge sewing, buttonholing sewing, removing excess thread, marking button, and button cross sewing. Those fourteen processes are operated by six tailors only. The last four sets of processes are done by a single tailor. Data collection was conducted by on site observation and the probability distribution of processing time for each of the processes is determined by using @Risk's Bestfit. Then a simulation model is developed using Arena Software based on the data collected. Animated simulation model is developed in order to facilitate understanding and verifying that the model represents the actual system. With such model, what if analysis and different scenarios of operations can be experimented with virtually. The animation and improvement models will be presented in further work.

  16. Manufacturing process of nanofluidics using afm probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karingula, Varun Kumar

    A new process for fabricating a nano fluidic device that can be used in medical application is developed and demonstrated. Nano channels are fabricated using a nano tip in indentation mode on AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). The nano channels are integrated between the micro channels and act as a filter to separate biomolecules. Nano channels of 4 to7 m in length, 80nm in width, and at varying depths from 100nm to 850 nm allow the resulting device to separate selected groups of lysosomes and other viruses. Sharply developed vertical micro channels are produced from a deep reaction ion etching followed by deposition of different materials, such as gold and polymers, on the top surface, allowing the study of alternative ways of manufacturing a nanofluidic device. PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) bonding is performed to close the top surface of the device. An experimental setup is used to test and validate the device by pouring fluid through the channels. A detailed cost evaluation is conducted to compare the economical merits of the proposed process. It is shown that there is a 47:7% manufacturing time savings and a 60:6% manufacturing cost savings.

  17. Process and control systems for composites manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsiang, T. H.; Wanamaker, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A precise control of composite material processing would not only improve part quality, but it would also directly reduce the overall manufacturing cost. The development and incorporation of sensors will help to generate real-time information for material processing relationships and equipment characteristics. In the present work, the thermocouple, pressure transducer, and dielectrometer technologies were investigated. The monitoring sensors were integrated with the computerized control system in three non-autoclave fabrication techniques: hot-press, self contained tool (self heating and pressurizing), and pressure vessel). The sensors were implemented in the parts and tools.

  18. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  19. Ceramic component manufacturing process development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.

    1996-09-30

    Ceramic materials are well suited for applications where temperature, wear, and corrosion resistance are necessary. The toughness and wear resistance properties that make ceramics desirable, also make fabrication of parts difficult. The objective of this CRADA was to increase the grinding efficiency on Ceradyne Incorporated silicon nitride. This was to be accomplished through optimization of grinding wheel life and increasing silicon nitride material removal rates. Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between grinding parameters, wheel wear, and material removal rates. Due to excessive, unexplained variation in the experimental results, a consistent relationship between the selected grinding parameters and wheel wear could not be established. Maximum material removal rates were limited by spindle and table drive power. Additional experiments were conducted to evaluate high speed grinding. When compared to conventional grinding speeds, the material removal rates using high speed grinding (13,000 SFM) increased by a factor of five to ten with no degradation of fracture strength.

  20. Precision replenishable grinding tool and manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Kerns, John A.; Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Colella, Nicholas J.; Davis, Pete J.; Juntz, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    A reusable grinding tool consisting of a replaceable single layer of abrasive particles intimately bonded to a precisely configured tool substrate, and a process for manufacturing the grinding tool. The tool substrate may be ceramic or metal and the abrasive particles are preferably diamond, but may be cubic boron nitride. The manufacturing process involves: coating a configured tool substrate with layers of metals, such as titanium, copper and titanium, by physical vapor deposition (PVD); applying the abrasive particles to the coated surface by a slurry technique; and brazing the abrasive particles to the tool substrate by alloying the metal layers. The precision control of the composition and thickness of the metal layers enables the bonding of a single layer or several layers of micron size abrasive particles to the tool surface. By the incorporation of an easily dissolved metal layer in the composition such allows the removal and replacement of the abrasive particles, thereby providing a process for replenishing a precisely machined grinding tool with fine abrasive particles, thus greatly reducing costs as compared to replacing expensive grinding tools.

  1. Precision replenishable grinding tool and manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Blaedel, K.L.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, P.J.; Juntz, R.S.

    1998-06-09

    A reusable grinding tool consisting of a replaceable single layer of abrasive particles intimately bonded to a precisely configured tool substrate, and a process for manufacturing the grinding tool are disclosed. The tool substrate may be ceramic or metal and the abrasive particles are preferably diamond, but may be cubic boron nitride. The manufacturing process involves: coating a configured tool substrate with layers of metals, such as titanium, copper and titanium, by physical vapor deposition (PVD); applying the abrasive particles to the coated surface by a slurry technique; and brazing the abrasive particles to the tool substrate by alloying the metal layers. The precision control of the composition and thickness of the metal layers enables the bonding of a single layer or several layers of micron size abrasive particles to the tool surface. By the incorporation of an easily dissolved metal layer in the composition such allows the removal and replacement of the abrasive particles, thereby providing a process for replenishing a precisely machined grinding tool with fine abrasive particles, thus greatly reducing costs as compared to replacing expensive grinding tools. 11 figs.

  2. Defective Reduction in Automotive Headlining Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittichai, Saranya; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    In an automobile parts manufacturing company, currently the headlining process has a lot of wastes resulting in a high cost of quality per year. In this paper, the Six Sigma method is used to reduce the defects in the headlining process. Cause-and-effect matrix and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were adopted to screen the factors that affect the quality of headlining. The 2k-1 fractional factorials design was also use to determine the potential preliminary root causes. The full factorial experiments was conducted to identify appropriate settings of the significant factors. The result showed that the process can reduce the defects of headlining from 12.21% to 6.95%

  3. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James E.

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  4. Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempner, Evan A.

    The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure

  5. Modeling the VARTM Composite Manufacturing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Xiao-Lan; Loos, Alfred C.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive simulation model of the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Modeling (VARTM) composite manufacturing process has been developed. For isothermal resin infiltration, the model incorporates submodels which describe cure of the resin and changes in resin viscosity due to cure, resin flow through the reinforcement preform and distribution medium and compaction of the preform during the infiltration. The accuracy of the model was validated by measuring the flow patterns during resin infiltration of flat preforms. The modeling software was used to evaluate the effects of the distribution medium on resin infiltration of a flat preform. Different distribution medium configurations were examined using the model and the results were compared with data collected during resin infiltration of a carbon fabric preform. The results of the simulations show that the approach used to model the distribution medium can significantly effect the predicted resin infiltration times. Resin infiltration into the preform can be accurately predicted only when the distribution medium is modeled correctly.

  6. Dimensional Stability of Complex Shapes Manufactured by the VARTM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, Pascal; Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Pipes, R. Byron

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process is a cost effective, innovative method that is being considered for manufacture of large aircraft-quality components where high mechanical properties and dimensional tolerance are essential. In the present work, carbon fiber SAERTEX fabric/SI-ZG-5A epoxy resin C-shaped laminates were manufactured by VARTM using different cure cycles followed by the same post-cure cycle. The final part thickness was uniform except at the corner were thinning was observed. The cure cycle selected is shown to significantly affect the part spring-in and a long cycle at 66 C followed by a 178 C post-cure produced a part with negligible spring-in.

  7. Manufacturability improvements in EUV resist processing toward NXE:3300 processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yuhei; Matsunaga, Koichi; Shimoaoki, Takeshi; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Nafus, Kathleen; Foubert, Philippe; Goethals, Anne-Marie; Shimura, Satoru

    2014-03-01

    As the design rule of semiconductor process gets finer, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is aggressively studied as a process for 22nm half pitch and beyond. At present, the studies for EUV focus on manufacturability. It requires fine resolution, uniform, smooth patterns and low defectivity, not only after lithography but also after the etch process. In the first half of 2013, a CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTMZ-EUV was installed at imec for POR development in preparation of the ASML NXE:3300. This next generation coating/developing system is equipped with state of the art defect reduction technology. This tool with advanced functions can achieve low defect levels. This paper reports on the progress towards manufacturing defectivity levels and latest optimizations towards the NXE:3300 POR for both lines/spaces and contact holes at imec.

  8. 21 CFR 1005.25 - Service of process on manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of process on manufacturers. 1005.25....25 Service of process on manufacturers. (a) Every manufacturer of electronic products, prior to... Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968) (21 U.S.C. 360mm(d)) and this section. The agent may...

  9. Adhesive materials and processing selection for environmentally conscious manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1995-06-01

    Manufacturers that use certain adhesives and related manufacturing processes must consider the impact they have on worker health, safety, and the environment. Product manufacturers must find alternate replacements for solvent-based adhesives and solvent cements. In addition, processes that use ozone-depleting solvents for hand-wipe cleaning operations as well as vapor degreasing must find suitable alternates in order to be environmentally compliant. Likewise, manufacturers that use etching solutions that contain chrome must find a replacement. This paper identifies some of the specific problems associated with using certain adhesives and manufacturing processes. Environmentally acceptable alternative adhesives and processes are presented.

  10. 10 CFR 52.171 - Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.171 Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests. (a)(1) Notwithstanding any provision in 10 CFR 50.109, during the term of...

  11. 10 CFR 52.171 - Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.171 Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests. (a)(1) Notwithstanding any provision in 10 CFR 50.109, during the term of...

  12. 10 CFR 52.171 - Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests... APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.171 Finality of manufacturing licenses; information requests. (a)(1) Notwithstanding any provision in 10 CFR 50.109, during the term of...

  13. Simulating the Composite Propellant Manufacturing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Suzanne; Love, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    There is a strategic interest in understanding how the propellant manufacturing process contributes to military capabilities outside the United States. The paper will discuss how system dynamics (SD) has been applied to rapidly assess the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a specific composite propellant production complex. These facilities produce a commonly used solid propellant with military applications. The authors will explain how an SD model can be configured to match a specific production facility followed by a series of scenarios designed to analyze operational vulnerabilities. By using the simulation model to rapidly analyze operational risks, the analyst gains a better understanding of production complexities. There are several benefits of developing SD models to simulate chemical production. SD is an effective tool for characterizing complex problems, especially the production process where the cascading effect of outages quickly taxes common understanding. By programming expert knowledge into an SD application, these tools are transformed into a knowledge management resource that facilitates rapid learning without requiring years of experience in production operations. It also permits the analyst to rapidly respond to crisis situations and other time-sensitive missions. Most importantly, the quantitative understanding gained from applying the SD model lends itself to strategic analysis and planning.

  14. Powder metallurgy process for manufacturing core projectile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Taufik; Setyowati, Vuri Ayu; Widyastuti

    2013-09-01

    Bullets are part of the defense equipment which the development is very rapid. There are a variety of forms but the bullet Lead is a metal that has always been used for applications projectiles. Lead core constituent materials are combined with antimony. In this research will be conducted by making the material for the core projectile with Tin Lead. The addition of Tin will increase the stiffness of Lead which is soft in nature. The Lead Tin composition variation was given in 10% weight of Sn. The manufacturing process using powder metallurgy using temperature and holding time variations of sintering at 100, 150, and 200°C for 1,2, and 3 hours. XRD samples will be tested to determine the form and phase morphology was observed using SEM-EDX. These results revealed that Pb-10%wtSn Composite which is sintered in temperature 200°C for 3 hours has the greatest density, 10.695 g/cm3 as well as the smallest porosity, 2.2%. In agreement with theoretical analysis that increasing higher temperature and longer holding time give decrease in porosity level due to activation energy which further promotes grain growth. Moreover, there is no intermetallic phase formation as well as no oxide found on composites.

  15. Precision manufacturing using advanced optical interference lithography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Hawryluk, A.M.

    1997-04-03

    Goal was to develop interference lithography (IL) as a reliable process for patterning large-area, deep-submicron scale field emission arrays for field emission display (FED) applications. We have developed a system based on IL which can easily produce an array of 0.2-0.5 micron emitters over large area (up to 400 sq. in. to date) with better than 5% height and spacing uniformity. Process development as a result of this LDRD project represents a significant advance over the current state of the art for FED manufacturing and is applicable to all types of FEDs, independent of the emitter material. Ability of IL to pattern such structures simultaneously and uniformly on a large format has application to other technology areas, such as dynamic random access memory (DRAM) production and magnetic media recording.

  16. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, Eric

    2009-02-16

    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  17. Achieving continuous manufacturing for final dosage formation: challenges and how to meet them. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Byrn, Stephen; Futran, Maricio; Thomas, Hayden; Jayjock, Eric; Maron, Nicola; Meyer, Robert F; Myerson, Allan S; Thien, Michael P; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2015-03-01

    We describe the key issues and possibilities for continuous final dosage formation, otherwise known as downstream processing or drug product manufacturing. A distinction is made between heterogeneous processing and homogeneous processing, the latter of which is expected to add more value to continuous manufacturing. We also give the key motivations for moving to continuous manufacturing, some of the exciting new technologies, and the barriers to implementation of continuous manufacturing. Continuous processing of heterogeneous blends is the natural first step in converting existing batch processes to continuous. In heterogeneous processing, there are discrete particles that can segregate, versus in homogeneous processing, components are blended and homogenized such that they do not segregate. Heterogeneous processing can incorporate technologies that are closer to existing technologies, where homogeneous processing necessitates the development and incorporation of new technologies. Homogeneous processing has the greatest potential for reaping the full rewards of continuous manufacturing, but it takes long-term vision and a more significant change in process development than heterogeneous processing. Heterogeneous processing has the detriment that, as the technologies are adopted rather than developed, there is a strong tendency to incorporate correction steps, what we call below "The Rube Goldberg Problem." Thus, although heterogeneous processing will likely play a major role in the near-term transformation of heterogeneous to continuous processing, it is expected that homogeneous processing is the next step that will follow. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Form precompetitive partnerships, including industry (pharmaceutical companies and equipment manufacturers), government, and universities. These precompetitive partnerships would develop case studies of continuous manufacturing and ideally perform joint-technology development, including

  18. Printing Processes Used to Manufacture Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rardin, Tina E.; Xu, Renmei

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for renewable energy sources, and solar power is a good option in many instances. Photovoltaic solar panels are now being manufactured via various methods, and different printing processes are being incorporated into the manufacturing process. Screen printing has been used most prevalently in the printing process to make…

  19. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Scott; Baca, Georgina; O'Connor, Michael

    2015-12-31

    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  20. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  1. 21 CFR 1005.25 - Service of process on manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Service of process on manufacturers. 1005.25 Section 1005.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH IMPORTATION OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS Bonding and Compliance Procedures § 1005.25 Service of process on manufacturers....

  2. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide pertinent and readily usable information on the extraterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of components and elements of these planned large space systems from preprocessed lunar materials which are made available at a processing and manufacturing site in space. Required facilities, equipment, machinery, energy and manpower are defined.

  3. 31 CFR 500.412 - Process vs. manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process vs. manufacture. 500.412 Section 500.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 500.412 Process vs. manufacture. A commodity subject to § 500.204 remains subject howsoever...

  4. Study on Process Planning System for Holonic Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Suyoto; Sugimura, Nobuhiro; Kokubun, Atsushi

    New architectures of manufacturing systems have been proposed aiming at realizing more flexible control structures of manufacturing systems which can cope with dynamic changes in volume and variety of products. They are so called as holonic manufacturing systems, autonomous distributed manufacturing systems, random manufacturing systems and biological manufacturing systems. The objective of the present research is to develop an integrated process planning and scheduling system which is applicable to the holonic manufacturing systems. In the previous paper, procedures were proposed to recognize the machining features from the product model. A systematic method is proposed, in this paper, to select suitable machining sequences and sequences of machining equipment, by applying the genetic algorithm (GA) and the dynamic programming (DP) methods.

  5. Optimization of steel bar manufacturing process using six sigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Khawar; Ullah, Misbah; Tariq, Adnan; Maqsood, Shahid; Akhtar, Rehman; Nawaz, Rashid; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2016-03-01

    Optimization of a manufacturing process results in higher productivity and reduced wastes. Production parameters of a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Pakistan is optimized by using six Sigma-Define, measure, analyze, improve, and controlmethodology. Production data is collected and analyzed. After analysis, experimental design result is used to identify significant factors affecting process performance. The significant factors are controlled to optimized level using two-level factorial design method. A regression model is developed that helps in the estimation of response under multi variable input values. Model is tested, verified, and validated by using industrial data collected at a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Peshawar(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). The sigma level of the manufacturing process is improved to 4.01 from 3.58. The novelty of the research is the identification of the significant factors along with the optimum levels that affects the process yield, and the methodology to optimize the steel bar manufacturing process.

  6. Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, Ian Alexander; Geddes, Cameron James; Rudolf, Randall Lynn; Selby, Bruce Allen; MacDonald, Duncan Charles

    2012-12-11

    A method includes making coiled tubing at a coiled tubing manufacturing unit coupled to a coiled tubing transportation system. One or more coiled tubing reels are transported from the coiled tubing manufacturing unit to one or more moveable well drilling systems using the coiled tubing transportation system. The coiled tubing transportation system runs from the tubing manufacturing unit to one or more movable well drilling systems, and then back to the coiled tubing manufacturing unit.

  7. Chicago Manufacturing Tech Prep. Fiscal Year 1991 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    During its first year of development in 1991, the Chicago Manufacturing Technical Preparation (Tech Prep) Program established a plan for implementing an industry-driven, articulated 4-year manufacturing technology course of study that integrates applied academic courses with technical courses and meets industry hiring standards. The project…

  8. Manufacturing Process Simulation of Large-Scale Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Phillips, Steven; Griffin, Brian

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is an effort to research and develop the technologies needed to build a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. It is required that this new launch vehicle be 100 times safer and 10 times cheaper to operate than current launch vehicles. Part of the SLI includes the development of reusable composite and metallic cryotanks. The size of these reusable tanks is far greater than anything ever developed and exceeds the design limits of current manufacturing tools. Several design and manufacturing approaches have been formulated, but many factors must be weighed during the selection process. Among these factors are tooling reachability, cycle times, feasibility, and facility impacts. The manufacturing process simulation capabilities available at NASA.s Marshall Space Flight Center have played a key role in down selecting between the various manufacturing approaches. By creating 3-D manufacturing process simulations, the varying approaches can be analyzed in a virtual world before any hardware or infrastructure is built. This analysis can detect and eliminate costly flaws in the various manufacturing approaches. The simulations check for collisions between devices, verify that design limits on joints are not exceeded, and provide cycle times which aide in the development of an optimized process flow. In addition, new ideas and concerns are often raised after seeing the visual representation of a manufacturing process flow. The output of the manufacturing process simulations allows for cost and safety comparisons to be performed between the various manufacturing approaches. This output helps determine which manufacturing process options reach the safety and cost goals of the SLI. As part of the SLI, The Boeing Company was awarded a basic period contract to research and propose options for both a metallic and a composite cryotank. Boeing then entered into a task agreement with the Marshall Space Flight Center to provide manufacturing

  9. Computer simulation of gear tooth manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri; Huston, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate gear tooth manufacturing procedures is discussed. An analytical basis for the simulation is established for spur gears. The simulation itself, however, is developed not only for spur gears, but for straight bevel gears as well. The applications of the developed procedure extend from the development of finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring the fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms.

  10. 49 CFR 529.6 - Requirements for final-stage manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If the final-stage manufacturer places the portion of the... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (3) The final-stage manufacturer shall attach to the completed automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is...

  11. 49 CFR 529.6 - Requirements for final-stage manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If the final-stage manufacturer places the portion of the... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (3) The final-stage manufacturer shall attach to the completed automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is...

  12. 49 CFR 529.6 - Requirements for final-stage manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If the final-stage manufacturer places the portion of the... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (3) The final-stage manufacturer shall attach to the completed automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is...

  13. 49 CFR 529.6 - Requirements for final-stage manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If the final-stage manufacturer places the portion of the... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (3) The final-stage manufacturer shall attach to the completed automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is...

  14. 49 CFR 529.6 - Requirements for final-stage manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (2) If the final-stage manufacturer places the portion of the... automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600. (3) The final-stage manufacturer shall attach to the completed automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600 a fuel economy label identical to the label that is...

  15. Systematic Classifier OF Manufacturing Processes For Medium Size Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Lasukov, A. A.; Walter, A. V.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some issues of increasing efficiency of manufacturing preparation as a part of manufacturing processes design at a machine building enterprise. A tree of routing manufacturing processes for machining shafts of medium size is described as an example of clustering parts according to their structural and technological characteristics. Processing route for a certain part included into a certain group is developed through choosing machining operations for elementary surfaces of a part from the process route developed for a template representative of the group.

  16. Effects of Manufacturing Processes and In-Service Temperature Variations on the Properties of TRIP Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-04-30

    This paper examines key aspects of the manufacturing process that “Transformation Induced Plasticity” (TRIP) steels would be exposed to, and systematically evaluate how the forming and thermal histories affect final strength and ductility of the material. The paper evaluates in-service temperature variations, such as under hood and hot/cold cyclic conditions, to determine whether these conditions influence final strength, ductility and energy absorption characteristics of several available TRIP steel grades. As part of the manufacturing thermal environment evaluations, stamping process thermal histories are included in the studies. As part of the in-service conditions, different pre-straining levels are also included. Materials from four steel suppliers world wide are examined. The material properties are established over a full range of expected thermal histories and selected loading modes. Establishing these relationships will allow OEM designers to select TRIP steels for proper vehicle applications, and to specify manufacturing process conditions that yield reliable final material property levels.

  17. Manufacturing Process Simulation of Large-Scale Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Phillips, Steven; Griffin, Brian; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is an effort to research and develop the technologies needed to build a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. It is required that this new launch vehicle be 100 times safer and 10 times cheaper to operate than current launch vehicles. Part of the SLI includes the development of reusable composite and metallic cryotanks. The size of these reusable tanks is far greater than anything ever developed and exceeds the design limits of current manufacturing tools. Several design and manufacturing approaches have been formulated, but many factors must be weighed during the selection process. Among these factors are tooling reachability, cycle times, feasibility, and facility impacts. The manufacturing process simulation capabilities available at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center have played a key role in down selecting between the various manufacturing approaches. By creating 3-D manufacturing process simulations, the varying approaches can be analyzed in a virtual world before any hardware or infrastructure is built. This analysis can detect and eliminate costly flaws in the various manufacturing approaches. The simulations check for collisions between devices, verify that design limits on joints are not exceeded, and provide cycle times which aid in the development of an optimized process flow. In addition, new ideas and concerns are often raised after seeing the visual representation of a manufacturing process flow. The output of the manufacturing process simulations allows for cost and safety comparisons to be performed between the various manufacturing approaches. This output helps determine which manufacturing process options reach the safety and cost goals of the SLI.

  18. Environmentally benign manufacturing of compact disc stampers [Final Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-08

    Optical data storage is currently a $10B/yr. business. With the introduction of the high capacity Digital Versatile Disc (D/D) as well as the continued growth of CD-Audio and CD-ROM worldwide sales of optical data products as a whole are growing at rate of more than 10% per year. In North America, more than 2.5 billion optical discs will be sold in 1998. By 1999, the numbers of optical discs produced for the North American market will grow to almost three billion. The optical disc manufacturing industry is dominated by Asian and European companies (e.g. Sony of Japan and Philips of Netherlands). Prism Corporation has created a process that could significantly improve US competitiveness in the business of optical disc production. The objectives of the Phase II STTR project were to build and test an ion machining system (IMS) for stamper fabrication, prove overall manufacturing system feasibility by fabrication stampers and replicas, and evaluate alternative materials and alternative process parameters to optimize the process. During tie period of the Phase II project Prism Corporation was able to meet these objectives. In the course of doing so, adjustments had been made to better the project and in turn the final product. An ion machining system was designed and built that produced stampers ready for the molding process. Also, many control steps in the manufacturing process were studied to improve the current process and make it even more compatible with the industry standards, fitting seamlessly into current manufacturing lines.

  19. 78 FR 18234 - Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Administration (FDA) is amending a final rule that appeared in the Federal Register of April 9, 2007 (72 FR 17397... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United States; Agent Designation; Change of Address...

  20. SDIO producibility and manufacturing intelligent processing programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottlemyer, Greg

    1992-04-01

    SDIO has to fashion a comprehensive strategy to insert the capability of an industrial base into ongoing design tradeoffs. This means that there is not only a need to determine if something can be made to the precision needed to meet system performance, but also what changes need to be made in that industry sector to develop a deterministic approach to fabrication precision components. Developing and introducing advanced production and quality control systems is part of this success. To address this situation, SDIO has developed the MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Labs) program. MODILs were developed into three areas: Survivable Optics, Electronics and Sensors, and Spacecraft Fabrication and Test.

  1. SDIO Producibility and Manufacturing Intelligent Processing Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stottlemyer, Greg

    1992-01-01

    SDIO has to fashion a comprehensive strategy to insert the capability of an industrial base into ongoing design tradeoffs. This means that there is not only a need to determine if something can be made to the precision needed to meet system performance, but also what changes need to be made in that industry sector to develop a deterministic approach to fabrication precision components. Developing and introducing advanced production and quality control systems is part of this success. To address this situation, SDIO has developed the MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Labs) program. MODILs were developed into three areas: Survivable Optics, Electronics and Sensors, and Spacecraft Fabrication and Test.

  2. A Knowledge Database on Thermal Control in Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, Shigeki; Satoh, Isao

    A prototype version of a knowledge database on thermal control in manufacturing processes, specifically, molding, semiconductor manufacturing, and micro-scale manufacturing has been developed. The knowledge database has search functions for technical data, evaluated benchmark data, academic papers, and patents. The database also displays trends and future roadmaps for research topics. It has quick-calculation functions for basic design. This paper summarizes present research topics and future research on thermal control in manufacturing engineering to collate the information to the knowledge database. In the molding process, the initial mold and melt temperatures are very important parameters. In addition, thermal control is related to many semiconductor processes, and the main parameter is temperature variation in wafers. Accurate in-situ temperature measurment of wafers is important. And many technologies are being developed to manufacture micro-structures. Accordingly, the knowledge database will help further advance these technologies.

  3. 47 CFR 301.5 - Manufacturers' technical approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturers' technical approval process. 301.5 Section 301.5 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER BOX COUPON PROGRAM § 301.5 Manufacturers'...

  4. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  5. Characterization of Organic Contamination in Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutsch, A.; Beckhoff, B.; Bedana, G.; Borionetti, G.; Codegoni, D.; Grasso, S.; Guerinoni, G.; Leibold, A.; Müller, M.; Otto, M.; Pfitzner, L.; Polignano, M.-L.; De Simone, D.; Frey, L.

    2009-09-01

    The impact of organic contamination on wafer surfaces on the functionality of nanostructures and advanced microelectronics becomes crucial as the continuously shrinking feature sizes become similar to the dimensions of molecules and clusters of molecules. Especially, manufacturing of highly integrated circuits requires clean surfaces as processes might cause defects involving for example carbon and sulfur. The approach to study organic contamination on wafer samples using different analytical tools enables the detection of the whole range of organic compounds including non-volatile and volatile ones. For the studies the methods used were synchrotron radiation based Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) in the soft X-Ray range at the absorption edges of light elements (e.g. C, N, O, F) combined with reference-free Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis, Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TD-GCMS), and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). TOF-SIMS analysis of the surfaces of wafers from the lithography process after ashing showed sulfur compounds related to resist residues not identified by TD-GCMS. The source of the sulfur is assumed to be a photo acid generator of the resist. It was proven by TD-GCMS and TXRF-NEXAFS that final clean and packaging were the process steps during which detectable organic contamination was transferred to the wafer surface during wafer manufacturing. Multi-criteria evaluation of the TXRF NEXAFS spectra was used to compare the results with TD-GCMS. The TXRF-NEXAFS results are in good agreement with the TD-GCMS results. The advantage of TXRF-NEXAFS and TOF-SIMS are the sensitivity for organic contaminants that are not detectable by TD-GCMS, due to their high boiling point and low vapor pressures.

  6. Development of a Launch Vehicle Manufacturing Process. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One of the goals of this chapter is to provide sufficient information so that you can develop a manufacturing process for a potential launch vehicle. With the variety of manufacturing options available, you might ask how this can possibly be done in the span of a single chapter. Actually, it will be quite simple because a basic manufacturing process is nothing more than a set of logical steps that are iterated until they produce a desired product. Although these statements seem simple and logical, don't let this simplicity fool you. Manufacturing problems with launch vehicles and their subassemblies have been the primary cause of project failures because the vehicle concept delivered to the manufacturing floor could not be built as designed.

  7. Enhancing Manufacturing Process Education via Computer Simulation and Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohar, Priyadarshan A.; Acharya, Sushil; Wu, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrially significant metal manufacturing processes such as melting, casting, rolling, forging, machining, and forming are multi-stage, complex processes that are labor, time, and capital intensive. Academic research develops mathematical modeling of these processes that provide a theoretical framework for understanding the process variables…

  8. Workplace Literacy for World Class Manufacturing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, William D.; And Others

    The Ohio State University, Inland Fisher Guide Division of General Motors, and United Auto Workers Local 969 formed a collaborative partnership in 1990 to train employees whose inadequate literacy skills made them unable to respond to the requirements of "synchronous manufacturing" (or "just in time" production). One of the goals is to reduce the…

  9. Manufacturing Technology Continuation Project--FY 92. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL. Richard J. Daley Coll.

    A project to identify metalworking subsectors (multiple spindle screw machining and gears machining) for inclusion in the Manufacturing Technology Preparation Program is the subject of this report. The project accomplished the following: developed five courses in multiple spindle, secured large donations of equipment and tooling, established a…

  10. ECMT31 New Mexico Manufacturing Environmental Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM.

    The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Technology Transfer and Training Initiative (ECMT3I) is a cooperative effort among education and research institutions in New Mexico to analyze problems in transferring environmental technologies from Department of Energy laboratories to small and medium enterprises (SME's). To identify and analyze…

  11. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  12. Manufacturing process of a multifunctional composite panel with nanocharged matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volponi, R.; Spena, P.; De Nicola, F.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.; Vietri, U.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes an effective manufacturing process developed to overcome drawbacks that can occur using a nanofilled resin as matrix in aeronautical composites. Nanoparticles embedded in epoxy resins impregnating carbon fibers are able to improve a composite with new desired functionalities. As soon as the nanoparticles are dispersed in a resin, the viscosity dizzily rises and usually, the traditional manufacturing processes are not suitable to obtain a good quality of the manufactured panels. An alternative method has been developed starting from the Resin Film Infusion (RFI) process. This method has been firstly tested on several flat panels, and then it has been transferred on a more complex shaped panel with three stringers. In this work, a flame resistant resin based on a tetrafunctional epoxy precursor filled with carbon nanotubes to increase electrical conductivity, has been used for the panel manufacturing.

  13. Laser processing for manufacturing nanocarbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Hai Hoang

    CNTs have been considered as the excellent candidate to revolutionize a broad range of applications. There have been many method developed to manipulate the chemistry and the structure of CNTs. Laser with non-contact treatment capability exhibits many processing advantages, including solid-state treatment, extremely fast processing rate, and high processing resolution. In addition, the outstanding monochromatic, coherent, and directional beam generates the powerful energy absorption and the resultant extreme processing conditions. In my research, a unique laser scanning method was developed to process CNTs, controlling the oxidation and the graphitization. The achieved controllability of this method was applied to address the important issues of the current CNT processing methods for three applications. The controllable oxidation of CNTs by laser scanning method was applied to cut CNT films to produce high-performance cathodes for FE devices. The production method includes two important self-developed techniques to produce the cold cathodes: the production of highly oriented and uniformly distributed CNT sheets and the precise laser trimming process. Laser cutting is the unique method to produce the cathodes with remarkable features, including ultrathin freestanding structure (~200 nm), greatly high aspect ratio, hybrid CNT-GNR emitter arrays, even emitter separation, and directional emitter alignment. This unique cathode structure was unachievable by other methods. The developed FE devices successfully solved the screening effect issue encounter by current FE devices. The laser-control oxidation method was further developed to sequentially remove graphitic walls of CNTs. The laser oxidation process was directed to occur along the CNT axes by the laser scanning direction. Additionally, the oxidation was further assisted by the curvature stress and the thermal expansion of the graphitic nanotubes, ultimately opening (namely unzipping) the tubular structure to

  14. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  15. Encapsulation Processing and Manufacturing Yield Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation system is presented. This work is part of the materials baseline needed to demonstrate a 30 year module lifetime capability. Process and compound variables are both being studied along with various module materials. Results have shown that EVA should be stored rolled up, and enclosed in a plastic bag to retard loss of peroxide curing agents. The TBEC curing agent has superior shelf life and processing than the earlier Lupersol-101 curing agent. Analytical methods were developed to test for peroxide content, and experimental methodologies were formalized.

  16. Amorphous solid dispersions: Rational selection of a manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Teófilo; Marques, Sara; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous products and particularly amorphous solid dispersions are currently one of the most exciting areas in the pharmaceutical field. This approach presents huge potential and advantageous features concerning the overall improvement of drug bioavailability. Currently, different manufacturing processes are being developed to produce amorphous solid dispersions with suitable robustness and reproducibility, ranging from solvent evaporation to melting processes. In the present paper, laboratorial and industrial scale processes were reviewed, and guidelines for a rationale selection of manufacturing processes were proposed. This would ensure an adequate development (laboratorial scale) and production according to the good manufacturing practices (GMP) (industrial scale) of amorphous solid dispersions, with further implications on the process validations and drug development pipeline. PMID:26826438

  17. Ramp Technology and Intelligent Processing in Small Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rentz, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    To address the issues of excessive inventories and increasing procurement lead times, the Navy is actively pursuing flexible computer integrated manufacturing (FCIM) technologies, integrated by communication networks to respond rapidly to its requirements for parts. The Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts (RAMP) program, initiated in 1986, is an integral part of this effort. The RAMP program's goal is to reduce the current average production lead times experienced by the Navy's inventory control points by a factor of 90 percent. The manufacturing engineering component of the RAMP architecture utilizes an intelligent processing technology built around a knowledge-based shell provided by ICAD, Inc. Rules and data bases in the software simulate an expert manufacturing planner's knowledge of shop processes and equipment. This expert system can use Product Data Exchange using STEP (PDES) data to determine what features the required part has, what material is required to manufacture it, what machines and tools are needed, and how the part should be held (fixtured) for machining, among other factors. The program's rule base then indicates, for example, how to make each feature, in what order to make it, and to which machines on the shop floor the part should be routed for processing. This information becomes part of the shop work order. The process planning function under RAMP greatly reduces the time and effort required to complete a process plan. Since the PDES file that drives the intelligent processing is 100 percent complete and accurate to start with, the potential for costly errors is greatly diminished.

  18. A DMAIC approach for process capability improvement an engine crankshaft manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa

    2014-05-01

    The define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) approach is a five-strata approach, namely DMAIC. This approach is the scientific approach for reducing the deviations and improving the capability levels of the manufacturing processes. The present work elaborates on DMAIC approach applied in reducing the process variations of the stub-end-hole boring operation of the manufacture of crankshaft. This statistical process control study starts with selection of the critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristic in the define stratum. The next stratum constitutes the collection of dimensional measurement data of the CTQ characteristic identified. This is followed by the analysis and improvement strata where the various quality control tools like Ishikawa diagram, physical mechanism analysis, failure modes effects analysis and analysis of variance are applied. Finally, the process monitoring charts are deployed at the workplace for regular monitoring and control of the concerned CTQ characteristic. By adopting DMAIC approach, standard deviation is reduced from 0.003 to 0.002. The process potential capability index ( C P) values improved from 1.29 to 2.02 and the process performance capability index ( C PK) values improved from 0.32 to 1.45, respectively.

  19. RFID-Based Critical Path Expert System for Agility Manufacture Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haifang; Xiang, Yuli

    This paper presents a critical path expert system for the agility manufacture process management based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The paper explores that the agility manufacture processes can be visible and controllable with RFID. The critical paths or activities can be easily found out and tracked by the RFID tracing technology. And the expert system can optimize the bottle neck of the task process of the agility management with the critical path adjusting and reforming method. Finally, the paper gives a simple application example of the system to discuss how to adjust the critical paths and how to make the process more agility and flexibility with the critical path expert system. With an RFID-based critical path expert system, the agility manufacture process management will be more effective and efficient.

  20. Manufacture of Mould with a High Energy Efficiency Using Rapid Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Dong-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Hyong-Soo

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate into the manufacturing technology of injection mould with a high energy efficiency using rapid manufacturing (RM) process. Two types of injection moulds, including thermally conductive mould with volumetric heat sink and uniform cooling mould with conformal cooling channels, were manufactured from hybrid RM process combining direct metal rapid tooling process with machining process to reduce the cooling time and the used energy in moulding of the plastic parts as well as to improve the product quality. Through the injection moulding experiments using the manufactured moulds, it was shown that the designed moulds can highly reduce the cycle and cooling times in comparison to conventional moulds with only injection tool steel and linear cooling channels. In addition, it was noted that the designed moulds can improve the qualities of the moulded product induced by uniform heat transfer from the mould surface to cooling channels. From these results, it was considered that the two types of injection mould can remarkably improve the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of the injection moulding process.

  1. Modeling Manufacturing Processes to Mitigate Technological Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Manges, W.W.

    1999-10-24

    An economic model is a tool for determining the justifiable cost of new sensors and subsystems with respect to value and operation. This process balances the R and D costs against the expense of maintaining current operations and allows for a method to calculate economic indices of performance that can be used as control points in deciding whether to continue development or suspend actions. The model can also be used as an integral part of an overall control loop utilizing real-time process data from the sensor groups to make production decisions (stop production and repair machine, continue and warn of anticipated problems, queue for repairs, etc.). This model has been successfully used and deployed in the CAFE Project. The economic model was one of seven (see Fig. 1) elements critical in developing an investment strategy. It has been successfully used in guiding the R and D activities on the CAFE Project, suspending activities on three new sensor technologies, and continuing development o f two others. The model has also been used to justify the development of a new prognostic approach for diagnosing machine health using COTS equipment and a new algorithmic approach. maintaining current operations and allows for a method to calculate economic indices of performance that can be used as control points in deciding whether to continue development or suspend actions. The model can also be used as an integral part of an overall control loop utilizing real-time process data from the sensor groups to make production decisions (stop production and repair machine, continue and warn of anticipated problems, queue for repairs, etc.).

  2. A novel process for manufacture of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-scale reactor is being used to conduct studies of the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol by a novel process. During the last quarter, the effect of potassium methoxide and Cu-chromite loading on the MeOH formation rate was investigated. The rate obtained with Cu-chromite was compared to that using Cu-ZnO as catalyst. Work also continued on the modification of the experimental equipment to permit on-line monitoring of liquid and gas compositions.

  3. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  4. 77 FR 76518 - Certain Paper Shredders, Certain Processes for Manufacturing or Relating to Same and Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Paper Shredders, Certain Processes for Manufacturing or Relating to Same and Certain... Certain Paper Shredders, Certain Processes for Manufacturing or Relating to Same and Certain Products... United States after importation of certain paper shredders, certain processes for manufacturing...

  5. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements... regulations relating to quality and sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing... Change the document, ``Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing;...

  6. Developing the Manufacturing Process for VCE: Binder for Filled Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Eastwood

    2009-11-01

    This topical report presents work completed to re-establish the manufacturing process for poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) terpolymer called VCE. The new VCE formulations meet the material requirements and have lower melt viscosity, which results in improved production for the next assembly. In addition, the reaction conditions were optimized in order to achieve a satisfactory conversion rate to enable production in a single work shift. Several equipment and process changes were made to yield a manufacturing process with improved product quality, yield, efficiency, and worker safety.

  7. Planning and scheduling for agile manufacturers: The Pantex Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Jones, D.A.; List, G.F.; Tumquist, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Effective use of resources that are shared among multiple products or processes is critical for agile manufacturing. This paper describes the development and implementation of a computerized model to support production planning in a complex manufacturing system at the Pantex Plant, a US Department of Energy facility. The model integrates two different production processes (nuclear weapon disposal and stockpile evaluation) that use common facilities and personnel at the plant. The two production processes are characteristic of flow-shop and job shop operations. The model reflects the interactions of scheduling constraints, material flow constraints, and the availability of required technicians and facilities. Operational results show significant productivity increases from use of the model.

  8. Manufacturing Squares: An Integrative Statistical Process Control Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    In the exercise, students in a junior-level operations management class are asked to manufacture a simple product. Given product specifications, they must design a production process, create roles and design jobs for each team member, and develop a statistical process control plan that efficiently and effectively controls quality during…

  9. Process for the manufacture of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Unmuth, E.E.; Mahoney, J.A.

    1987-01-13

    A process is described for reducing the pour point of a hydrocarbon feedstock containing nitrogen and sulfur-containing compounds which comprises: passing the hydrocarbon feedstock to a solvent extraction zone wherein N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is used to extract a portion of the aromatic compounds contained in the hydrocarbon and thereby form an extraction zone raffinate; passing at least a portion of the extraction zone raffinate to a hydrotreating zone wherein hydrogen is contacted with the extraction zone raffinate in the presence of a hydrotreating catalyst at hydrotreating conditions wherein a substantial portion of the nitrogen and sulfur-containing compounds are converted to hydrogen sulfide and ammonia to form a hydrotreating zone effluent; passing at least a portion of the effluent from the hydrotreating zone to a stripping zone wherein hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are removed from the hydrotreating zone effluent to form a stripping zone effluent; and passing at least a portion of the stripping zone effluent to a dewaxing zone wherein hydrogen is contacted with the stripping zone effluent at catalytic dewaxing conditions in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising a shape selective molecular sieve component and a hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of Group VIB and Group VIII metals.

  10. Competitive position of natural gas: Manufacturing automation and process controls

    SciTech Connect

    Karamchetty, S.D.; Kothari, V.S.; Holmes, J.G.; Minsker, B.S. )

    1989-04-01

    In previous GRI studies, the need for improvements in industrial automation and process controls has been mentioned most frequently and ranked highest by industry managers suggesting R D needs for gas equipment. Significant energy savings have been achieved through automation in many applications. Within the manufacturing sector, process heat applications constitute a significant use of natural gas and total energy. Therefore, widespread implementation of manufacturing automation can have significant impacts on gas use in process heat applications. In the study of manufacturing automation, three interacting areas were examined --- industrial processes, process components, and automation components. Taxonomies were developed for each of these areas to focus the analysis. The interactions between automation developments and gas use was studied in detail for five processes --- metal heat treating, steel reheating, forging, glass making, and paper drying. Recent developments reported in the literature were reviewed and within each industry, areas of gas and automation systems, vendors of manufacturing automation systems, and systems designs and integrators were interviewed. Through this approach, current and future developments in automation and their impacts were identified. R D opportunities for the five specific processes studied, and generic areas were also identified. 97 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Integration Framework of Process Planning based on Resource Independent Operation Summary to Support Collaborative Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Wysk, Richard A.; Cho, Hyunbo; Jones, Albert

    2004-06-01

    In today's global manufacturing environment, manufacturing functions are distributed as never before. Design, engineering, fabrication, and assembly of new products are done routinely in many different enterprises scattered around the world. Successful business transactions require the sharing of design and engineering data on an unprecedented scale. This paper describes a framework that facilitates the collaboration of engineering tasks, particularly process planning and analysis, to support such globalized manufacturing activities. The information models of data and the software components that integrate those information models are described. The integration framework uses an Integrated Product and Process Data (IPPD) representation called a Resource Independent Operation Summary (RIOS) to facilitate the communication of business and manufacturing requirements. Hierarchical process modeling, process planning decomposition and an augmented AND/OR directed graph are used in this representation. The Resource Specific Process Planning (RSPP) module assigns required equipment and tools, selects process parameters, and determines manufacturing costs based on two-level hierarchical RIOS data. The shop floor knowledge (resource and process knowledge) and a hybrid approach (heuristic and linear programming) to linearize the AND/OR graph provide the basis for the planning. Finally, a prototype system is developed and demonstrated with an exemplary part. Java and XML (Extensible Markup Language) are used to ensure software and information portability.

  12. Investigations on Manufacturability and Process Reliability of Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, H.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Selective laser melting is a layer-wise manufacturing process that enables the use of complex geometric shapes in part design and production. An infrared laser beam is focused on a thin layer of metallic powder and selectively deflected in order to scan the cross-section of the parts being built. The process quality is dominated by the consolidation of powder particles through laser beam interaction, the part geometry itself and the arrangement of multiple parts. In this paper, the manufacturability is investigated by characterizing single melt tracks and the buildup of thin wall structures consisting of a few aligned scan tracks.

  13. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  14. Clean salt process final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1996-09-30

    A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

  15. Monitoring Chlorfenapyr in Green Tea during the Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kenta

    In order to clarify the change in the leaves of agricultural chemicals during the green tea manufacturing process, we analyzed chlorfenapyr in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage by using an immunoassay. Chlorfenapyr is a novel broad-spectrum insecticide-miticide registered in many countries for the control of various insects and mite pests. Chlorfenapyr is stable and persistent in the environment. Furthermore, it is widely applied for tea cultivation in Japan. Therefore, we selected chlorfenapyr for analysis in this study. In the unrefined tea (Aracha) manufacturing process, the highest level of chlorfenapyr was 16.5 ppm, which was obtained in tea powder separated from leaves at the secondary drying stage. However, the level at the other processing stages in tea leaves was approximately 9 ppm, and no significant difference in the chlorfenapyr level was detected between the processing stages. After Aracha processing, tea leaves are classified on the basis of their size, shape and color; this is the refined tea (Shiagecha) manufacturing process. After this process, although a high level of chlorfenapyr was detected in bud tea (8.1 ppm) and honcha (on-grade tea; 6.2 ppm), the level in the other classified teas was approximately 4.0 ppm. Thus, this paper shows the difference in the chlorfenapyr level in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage. This indicated that there are significant differences in the agricultural chemical levels between the green tea processing stages.

  16. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  17. Development of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Integrated with Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An effort has been initiated to integrate manufacturing process simulations with probabilistic structural analyses in order to capture the important impacts of manufacturing uncertainties on component stress levels and life. Two physics-based manufacturing process models (one for powdered metal forging and the other for annular deformation resistance welding) have been linked to the NESSUS structural analysis code. This paper describes the methodology developed to perform this integration including several examples. Although this effort is still underway, particularly for full integration of a probabilistic analysis, the progress to date has been encouraging and a software interface that implements the methodology has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to report this preliminary development.

  18. Sustainable manufacturing: Effect of material selection and design on the environmental impact in the manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazwan Syafiq Harun, Mohd; Taha, Zahari; Salaam, Hadi Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The environmental impact of a manufacturing process is also dependent on the selection of the material and design of a product. This is because the manufacturing of a product is directly connected to the amount of carbon emitted in consuming the electrical energy for that manufacturing process. The difference in the general properties of materials such as strength, hardness and impact will have significant effect on the power consumption of the machine used to complete the product. In addition the environmental impact can also be reduced if the proposed designs use less material. In this study, an LCA tool called Eco-It is used. Evaluate the environmental impact caused by manufacturing simple jig. A simple jig with 4 parts was used as a case study. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment was to study the environmental effects of different material, and the second experiment was to study the environmental impact of different design. The materials used for the jig are Aluminium and mild steel. The results showed a decrease in the rate of carbon emissions by 60% when Aluminium is use instead from mild steel, and a decrease of 26% when the-design is modified.

  19. Incorporating manufacturability constraints into the design process of heterogeneous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuna; Blouin, Vincent Y.; Fadel, Georges M.

    2004-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, such as Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM), can be used to fabricate heterogeneous objects with gradient variations in material composition. These objects are generally characterized by enhanced functional performance. Past research on the design of such objects has focused on representation, modeling, and functional performance. However, the inherent constraints in RP processes, such as system capability and processing time, lead to heterogeneous objects that may not meet the designer's original intent. To overcome this situation, the research presented in this paper focuses on the identification and implementation of manufacturing constraints into the design process. A node-based finite element modeling technique is used for the representation and analysis and the multicriteria design problem corresponds to finding the nodal material compositions that minimize structural weight and maximize thermal performance. The optimizer used in this research is a real-valued Evolutionary Strategies (ES), which is well suited for this type of multi-modal problem. Two limitations of the LENS manufacturing process, which have an impact on the design process, are identified and implemented. One of them is related to the manufacturing time, which is considered as an additional criterion to be minimized in the design problem for a preselected tool path. A brake disc rotor made of two materials, aluminum for lightweight and steel for superior thermal characteristics, is used to illustrate the tradeoff between manufacturability and functionality.

  20. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-18

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  1. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-01

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  2. Assessment of VOC emissions and their control from baker's yeast manufacturing facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, R.; Williamson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Control Technology Center (CTC) conducted a study to obtain information on the baker's yeast manufacturing industry. Baker's yeast is produced by a fermentation process that generates large quantities of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Currently, 13 facilities produce baker's yeast in the United States. The volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate from a typical facility is estimated at 82 megagrams per year (90 tons per year). The majority of these emissions occurs in the final trade fermentations. The VOC emission alternatives that were evaluated during the study were process control measures to reduce the formation of VOC emissions as well as wet scrubbers, carbon adsorbers, incinerators, condensers, and biological filters to control VOC emissions. Of these approaches, it appears that process control measures, catalytic incinerators, or a combination of add-on control techniques (e.g., wet scrubbers followed by an incinerator or a biological filter) are the most feasible approaches for controlling yeast process emissions. Based on the results of the study, the control efficiency associated with the add-on control systems is estimated to be 95 to 98 percent. The report contains information on the baker's yeast fermentation process, the number and locations of yeast plants, the potential emissions from the process, and an evaluation of potential emission control options.

  3. Incorporating VIBE into the precision optics manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Gould, Alan; Klinger, Charles; Mandina, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The VIBE™ process is a full-aperture, conformal polishing process incorporating high frequency and random motion designed to rapidly remove sub-surface damage in a VIBE pre-polish step and eliminate mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors in a VIBE finishing step. The VIBE process has potential to be introduced in two areas of today's modern optics manufacturing process. The first instance is replacing the conventional pre-polishing step with the rapid VIBE pre-polish step. Results will be discussed in this paper that show 10 - 50x higher removal rates compared to conventional polishing for a variety of optical materials. High removal rates combined with the compliant lap results in damage-free surfaces that have the same form that was generated by the CNC generation process for spherical and non-spherical surfaces. The second potential area to incorporate VIBE into today's modern optics manufacturing process is as a finishing step after deterministic sub-aperture polishing to remove mid-spatial frequency errors. By selectively altering the compliant properties of the VIBE pad, and adjusting the frequency of the VIBE motion, VIBE finishing can reduce the mid-spatial frequencies caused from sub-aperture polishing processes while maintaining the desired corrected surface form. This paper will serve as an in-depth review of the VIBE process and how it complements other modern CNC optics manufacturing technologies, as well as highlighting recent VIBE advances specifically in the area of conformal optic fabrication.

  4. NICE3 SO3 Cleaning Process in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This fact sheet explains how Anon, Inc., has developed a novel method of removing photoresist--a light-sensitive material used to produce semiconductor wafers for computers--from the computer manufacturing process at reduced cost and greater efficiency. The new technology is technically superior to existing semiconductor cleaning methods and results in reduced use of hazardous chemicals.

  5. 21 CFR 1005.25 - Service of process on manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Service of process on manufacturers. 1005.25 Section 1005.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Radiation Control of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (formerly the Radiation Control for Health...

  6. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G; Joshi, Pooran C; List III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E; Armstrong, Beth L; Ivanov, Ilia N; Jacobs, Christopher B; Graham, David E; Moon, Ji Won

    2015-08-01

    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  7. Relational-database model for improving quality assurance and process control in a composite manufacturing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Jeffery D.

    2000-05-01

    A relational database is a powerful tool for collecting and analyzing the vast amounts of inner-related data associated with the manufacture of composite materials. A relational database contains many individual database tables that store data that are related in some fashion. Manufacturing process variables as well as quality assurance measurements can be collected and stored in database tables indexed according to lot numbers, part type or individual serial numbers. Relationships between manufacturing process and product quality can then be correlated over a wide range of product types and process variations. This paper presents details on how relational databases are used to collect, store, and analyze process variables and quality assurance data associated with the manufacture of advanced composite materials. Important considerations are covered including how the various types of data are organized and how relationships between the data are defined. Employing relational database techniques to establish correlative relationships between process variables and quality assurance measurements is then explored. Finally, the benefits of database techniques such as data warehousing, data mining and web based client/server architectures are discussed in the context of composite material manufacturing.

  8. The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sames, William J.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Pannala, Sreekanth; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-03-07

    Here, additive Manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a method of manufacturing that forms parts from powder, wire, or sheets in a process that proceeds layer-by-layer.Many techniques (using many different names) have been developed to accomplish this via melting or solid - state joining. In this review, these techniques for producing metal parts are explored, with a focus on the science of metal AM: processing defects, heat transfer, solidification, solid- state precipitation, mechanical properties, and post-processing metallurgy. The various metal AM techniques are compared, with analysis of the strengths and limitations of each. Few alloys have been developedmore » for commercial production, but recent development efforts are presented as a path for the ongoing development of new materials for AM processes.« less

  9. The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, William J.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Pannala, Sreekanth; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Here, additive Manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a method of manufacturing that forms parts from powder, wire, or sheets in a process that proceeds layer-by-layer.Many techniques (using many different names) have been developed to accomplish this via melting or solid - state joining. In this review, these techniques for producing metal parts are explored, with a focus on the science of metal AM: processing defects, heat transfer, solidification, solid- state precipitation, mechanical properties, and post-processing metallurgy. The various metal AM techniques are compared, with analysis of the strengths and limitations of each. Few alloys have been developed for commercial production, but recent development efforts are presented as a path for the ongoing development of new materials for AM processes.

  10. Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, Richard J.

    2008-10-01

    Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness.

  11. Infrared Signature Analysis: Real Time Monitoring Of Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangs, Edmund R.

    1988-01-01

    The ability to monitor manufacturing processes in an adaptive control mode and perform an inspection in real time is of interest to fabricators in the pressure vessel, aerospace, automotive, nuclear and shipbuilding industries. Results of a series of experiments using infrared thermography as the principal sensing mode are presented to show how artificial intelligence contained in infrared isotherm, contains vast critical process variables. Image processing computer software development has demonstrated in a spot welding application how the process can be monitored and controlled in real time. The IR vision sensor program is now under way. Research thus far has focused on fusion welding, resistance spot welding and metal removal.

  12. Scaling up of manufacturing processes of recycled carpet based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, feasibility of recycling post-consumer carpets using a modified vacuum assisted resisted molding process into large-scale components was successfully demonstrated. The scale up also included the incorporation of nano-clay films in the carpet composites. It is expected that the films will enhance the ability of the composite to withstand environmental degradation and also serve as a fire retardant. Low-cost resins were used to fabricate the recycled carpet-based composites. The scale up in terms of process was achieved by manufacturing composites without a hot press and thereby saving additional equipment cost. Mechanical and physical properties were evaluated. Large-scale samples demonstrated mechanical properties that were different from results from small samples. Acoustic tests indicate good sound absorption of the carpet composite. Cost analysis of the composite material based on the cost of the raw materials and the manufacturing process has been presented.

  13. Influence of Manufacturing Processes and Microstructures on the Performance and Manufacturability of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-01

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are performance-based steel grades and their global material properties can be achieved with various steel chemistries and manufacturing processes, leading to various microstructures. In this paper, we investigate the influence of supplier variation and resulting microstructure difference on the overall mechanical properties as well as local formability behaviors of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). For this purpose, we first examined the basic material properties and the transformation kinetics of TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) 800 steels from three different suppliers under different testing temperatures. The experimental results show that there is a significant supplier (i.e., manufacturing process) dependency of the TRIP 800 steel mechanical and microstructure properties. Next, we examined the local formability of two commercial Dual Phase (DP) 980 steels during stamping process. The two commercial DP 980 steels also exhibit noticeably different formability during stamping process in the sense that one of them shows severe tendency for shear fracture. Microstructure-based finite element analyses are carried out next to simulate the localized deformation process with the two DP 980 microstructures, and the results suggest that the possible reason for the difference in formability lies in the morphology of the hard martensite phase in the DP microstructure.

  14. Model based control of polymer composite manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potaraju, Sairam

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools that help process engineers design, analyze and control polymeric composite manufacturing processes to achieve higher productivity and cost reduction. Current techniques for process design and control of composite manufacturing suffer from the paucity of good process models that can accurately represent these non-linear systems. Existing models developed by researchers in the past are designed to be process and operation specific, hence generating new simulation models is time consuming and requires significant effort. To address this issue, an Object Oriented Design (OOD) approach is used to develop a component-based model building framework. Process models for two commonly used industrial processes (Injected Pultrusion and Autoclave Curing) are developed using this framework to demonstrate the flexibility. Steady state and dynamic validation of this simulator is performed using a bench scale injected pultrusion process. This simulator could not be implemented online for control due to computational constraints. Models that are fast enough for online implementation, with nearly the same degree of accuracy are developed using a two-tier scheme. First, lower dimensional models that captures essential resin flow, heat transfer and cure kinetics important from a process monitoring and control standpoint are formulated. The second step is to reduce these low dimensional models to Reduced Order Models (ROM) suited for online model based estimation, control and optimization. Model reduction is carried out using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique in conjunction with a Galerkin formulation procedure. Subsequently, a nonlinear model-based estimation and inferential control scheme based on the ROM is implemented. In particular, this research work contributes in the following general areas: (1) Design and implementation of versatile frameworks for modeling and simulation of manufacturing processes using object

  15. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocelík, V.; Janssen, N.; Smith, S. N.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-07-01

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with different amounts of aluminum prepared by arc melting were investigated and compared with the laser beam remelted HEAs with the same composition. Attempts to form HEAs coatings with a direct laser deposition from the mixture of elemental powders were made for AlCoCrFeNi and AlCrFeNiTa composition. A strong influence of solidification rate on the amounts of face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phase, their chemical composition, and spatial distribution was detected for two-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEAs. It is concluded that a high-power laser is a versatile tool to synthesize interesting HEAs with additive manufacturing processing. Critical issues are related to the rate of (re)solidification, the dilution with the substrate, powder efficiency during cladding, and differences in melting points of clad powders making additive manufacturing processing from a simple mixture of elemental powders a challenging approach.

  16. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocelík, V.; Janssen, N.; Smith, S. N.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-04-01

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with different amounts of aluminum prepared by arc melting were investigated and compared with the laser beam remelted HEAs with the same composition. Attempts to form HEAs coatings with a direct laser deposition from the mixture of elemental powders were made for AlCoCrFeNi and AlCrFeNiTa composition. A strong influence of solidification rate on the amounts of face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic phase, their chemical composition, and spatial distribution was detected for two-phase AlCoCrFeNi HEAs. It is concluded that a high-power laser is a versatile tool to synthesize interesting HEAs with additive manufacturing processing. Critical issues are related to the rate of (re)solidification, the dilution with the substrate, powder efficiency during cladding, and differences in melting points of clad powders making additive manufacturing processing from a simple mixture of elemental powders a challenging approach.

  17. Development and characterization of a cell culture manufacturing process using quality by design (QbD) principles.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Daniel M; Gao, Jinxin; Griffiths, Kristi; Froggatt, Christopher; Wang, Tongtong; Wei, Gan

    2014-01-01

    The principles of quality by design (QbD) have been applied in cell culture manufacturing process development and characterization in the biotech industry. Here we share our approach and practice in developing and characterizing a cell culture manufacturing process using QbD principles for establishing a process control strategy. Process development and characterization start with critical quality attribute identification, followed by process parameter and incoming raw material risk assessment, design of experiment, and process parameter classification, and conclude with a design space construction. Finally, a rational process control strategy is established and documented. PMID:23828505

  18. 15 CFR 400.33 - Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on manufacturing and...-TRADE ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.33 Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity. (a) In general. In approving manufacturing or processing activity for a...

  19. 15 CFR 400.33 - Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on manufacturing and...-TRADE ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.33 Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity. (a) In general. In approving manufacturing or processing activity for a...

  20. 15 CFR 400.33 - Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions on manufacturing and...-TRADE ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.33 Restrictions on manufacturing and processing activity. (a) In general. In approving manufacturing or processing activity for a...

  1. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. Thismore » symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.« less

  2. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.

  3. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  4. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, Charles; Heidel, Donna; Sayes, Christie; Hodson, Laura; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne; Brenner, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles that includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial. PMID:26435688

  5. Media fill for validation of a good manufacturing practice-compliant cell production process.

    PubMed

    Serra, Marta; Roseti, Livia; Bassi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Regulation EC 1394/2007, the clinical use of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products, such as Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells expanded for the regeneration of bone tissue or Chondrocytes for Autologous Implantation, requires the development of a process in compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices. The Media Fill test, consisting of a simulation of the expansion process by using a microbial growth medium instead of the cells, is considered one of the most effective ways to validate a cell production process. Such simulation, in fact, allows to identify any weakness in production that can lead to microbiological contamination of the final cell product as well as qualifying operators. Here, we report the critical aspects concerning the design of a Media Fill test to be used as a tool for the further validation of the sterility of a cell-based Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant production process. PMID:25096172

  6. Manufacturing process and material selection in concurrent collaborative design of MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Xuan F.; Du, H.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present knowledge of an intensive approach and system for selecting suitable manufacturing processes and materials for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices in concurrent collaborative design environment. In the paper, fundamental issues on MEMS manufacturing process and material selection such as concurrent design framework, manufacturing process and material hierarchies, and selection strategy are first addressed. Then, a fuzzy decision support scheme for a multi-criteria decision-making problem is proposed for estimating, ranking and selecting possible manufacturing processes, materials and their combinations. A Web-based prototype advisory system for the MEMS manufacturing process and material selection, WebMEMS-MASS, is developed based on the client-knowledge server architecture and framework to help the designer find good processes and materials for MEMS devices. The system, as one of the important parts of an advanced simulation and modeling tool for MEMS design, is a concept level process and material selection tool, which can be used as a standalone application or a Java applet via the Web. The running sessions of the system are inter-linked with webpages of tutorials and reference pages to explain the facets, fabrication processes and material choices, and calculations and reasoning in selection are performed using process capability and material property data from a remote Web-based database and interactive knowledge base that can be maintained and updated via the Internet. The use of the developed system including operation scenario, use support, and integration with an MEMS collaborative design system is presented. Finally, an illustration example is provided.

  7. Recommendations for composite manufacturing pultrusion process and equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R. L.; Cole, J. D.; Strong, A. B.; Todd, R. H.

    1992-10-01

    Pultrusion is an important composite manufacturing process that holds great potential for reducing the cost of composite parts. However, pultrusion machine manufacturers and those using this continuous process have generally worked in relative isolation from each other and have, therefore, repeated many of the same errors. This paper reports the findings of a research program involving input from 15 pultruder manufacturers who have contributed non-proprietary information for the "best" design for the pultrusion machine. Key areas of design difficulty have been identified and some suggested remedies given. The results of this program will be used to construct a "state-of-the-art" pultrusion machine in the authors' laboratory. The initial findings provided input for a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) study which is basis for the functional specification for the pultrusion machine. By using QFD, capabilities of existing machines were determined and design requirements for an improved state-of-the-art machine were established. The QFD exercise provided an in-depth look at the relationship between desired machine capabilities and machine design requirements.

  8. Green tea flavour determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Flavour determinants in tea infusions and their changes during manufacturing processes were studied using Camellia sinensis cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') possessing significant floral scents and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD') with common green tea odour. Metabolite profiling based on odour activity threshold revealed that 'BAS' contained higher levels of the active odorants β-ionone, linalool and its two oxides, geraniol, epoxylinalool, decanal and taste determinant catechins than 'FUD' (p<0.05). Enhanced transcription of some terpenoid and catechin biosynthetic genes in 'BAS' suggested genetically enhanced production of those flavour compounds. Due to manufacturing processes, the levels of linalool and geraniol decreased whereas those of β-ionone, linalool oxides, indole and cis-jasmone increased. Compared with pan-fire treatment, steam treatment reduced the levels of catechins and proportion of geraniol, linalool and its derivatives, consequently, reducing catechin-related astringency and monoterpenol-related floral scent. Our study suggests that flavour determinant targeted modulation could be made through genotype and manufacturing improvements. PMID:27374591

  9. A process monitoring strategy for a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System

    SciTech Connect

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F.; Hebble, T.L.; Williams, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    For a number of years, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in an endeavor which is described as a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System (PFMS). The objective of this project is to enhance the existing manufacturing operations for the production of precision hemispherical workpieces. The present fabrication process uses T-base lathes, similar to the one shown in figure 1, which are equipped with a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) system. The CNC systems are coupled to a host computer over a local area network (LAN). Currently, this link is used to download machining part programs and upload limited process information. While the enhanced system will use the same machine tools and LAN, additional capabilities will be provided to perform automatic tool changing, part and fixture handling, on-machine gagging, and chip control. The project's quality goals are to automatically manufacture workpieces to tolerances of +/- 0.0005 in. on contour and +/- 0.001 in. on wall thickness with a 3 to 5 sigma level of confidence. The parts will range from 4 to 10 in. in diameter with a wall thickness as large as one inch. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Wear processes in manufacturing. ASTM special technical publication 1362

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadur, S.B.; Magee, J.

    1998-07-01

    The importance of tribological phenomena in engineering has long been recognized. The evidence for this lies in the extensive studies on tool wear performed over many decades. The same is the case with studies related to the friction and lubrication in deformation processing as evidenced by a number of conferences and related publications. In spite of this, the interaction between the tribologists and manufacturing researchers has not been great. The objective of this symposium was to provide a forum for these researchers for a mutually beneficial interaction. The collection of papers published in this volume may be grouped into the following categories. These categories are: abrasion in ceramic grinding, wear of cutting tools, friction in vibratory conveyers, and erosion in manufacturing. Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 papers.

  11. A senior manufacturing laboratory for determining injection molding process capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Plocinski, David

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to further understanding of materials science. This subject material is directed at an upper level undergraduate/graduate student in an Engineering or Engineering Technology program. It is assumed that the student has a thorough understanding of the process and quality control. The format of this laboratory does not follow that which is normally recommended because of the nature of process capability and that of the injection molding equipment and tooling. This laboratory is instead developed to be used as a point of departure for determining process capability for any process in either a quality control laboratory or a manufacturing environment where control charts, process capability, and experimental or product design are considered important topics.

  12. FAME: Freeform Active Mirrors Experiment: manufacturing process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challita, Zalpha; Hugot, Emmanuel; Venema, Lars; Schnetler, Hermine; Ferrari, Marc; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Extreme freeform mirrors couple a non-axisymmetrical shape and an extreme asphericity, i.e. more than one millimeter of deviation from the best fit sphere. In astronomical instrumentation, such a large asphericity allows compact instruments, using less optical components. However, the lack of freeform mirrors manufacturing facilities is a real issue. We present the concept and development of an innovative manufacturing process based on plasticity forming which allow imprinting permanent deformations on mirrors, following a pre-defined mold. The aim of this activity, pursued in the frame of the OPTICON-FAME (Freeform Active Mirrors Experiment) project, is to demonstrate the suitability of this method for VIS/NIR/MIR applications. The process developed can operate on thin and flat polished initial substrates. Three study cases have been highlighted by FEA (Finite Element Analysis) and the real tests associated were performed on thin substrates in AISI420b stainless steel with 100 mm optical diameter. A comparison between FEA and tests is performed to study the evolution of the mechanical behaviour and the optical quality. The opto-mechanical results will allow a fine tuning of FEA parameters to optimize the residual form errors obtained through this process to converge toward an innovative and recurrent process.

  13. MIDAS: a framework for integrated design and manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Moon Jung; Kwon, Patrick; Pentland, Brian

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, we present a development of a framework for managing design and manufacturing process in a distributed environment. The framework offers the following facilities: (1) to represent the complicated engineering design processes (2) to coordinate design activities and execute the process in a distributed environment and (3) to support a collaborative design by sharing data and processes. In this paper, the process flow graphs, which consist in tasks and the corresponding input and output data, are used to depict the engineering design process on a process modeling browser. The engineering activities in the represented processes can be executed in a distributed environment through the cockpit of the framework. The communication among the related engineers to support a collaborative design is made on the collaborative design browser with SML underlying data structures of representing process information to make the framework extensible and platform- independent. The formal and flexible approach of the proposed framework to integrate the engineering design processes can be also effectively applied to coordinate concurrent engineering activities in a distributed environment.

  14. Thermally stable booster explosive and process for manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Quinlin, William T.; Thorpe, Raymond; Lightfoot, James M.

    2006-03-21

    A thermally stable booster explosive and process for the manufacture of the explosive. The product explosive is 2,4,7,9-tetranitro-10H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-b]indole (TNBFI). A reactant/solvent such as n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) or dimethyl formamide (DMF) is made slightly basic. The solution is heated to reduce the water content. The solution is cooled and hexanitrostilbene is added. The solution is heated to a predetermined temperature for a specific time period, cooled, and the product is collected by filtration.

  15. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  17. Process to manufacture effervescent tablets: air forced oven melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Yanze, F M; Duru, C; Jacob, M

    2000-12-01

    In the present study we apply melt granulation in an air forced oven, called "are forced oven melt granulation" to the single-stage manufacture of effervescent granules consisting of anhydrous citric acid (43.2%) and sodium bicarbonate (56.8%) in order to make tablets. This study established that process parameters such as concentration of PEG 6000, residence time in the air forced oven, fineness of PEG 6000, fineness of the initial effervescent mix and efficiency of two lubricants markedly influenced several granule and tablet characteristics. The granules ready to be compressed into tablets were stable for 7 days at 60% RH/18 degrees C. It is a dry, simple, rapid, effective, economical, reproducible process particularly well suited to the manufacture of effervescent granules which are easily compressed into effervescent tablets. Of all the formulations tested, only formulations B2 and E2 melt granulated for 30 minutes gave tablets which had optimum compression characteristics without processing problems during compression. PMID:11189868

  18. Final Design And Manufacturing of the PEP II High Energy Ring Arc Bellows Module

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, Nadine R.; Kulikov, Artem; Corlett, John; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-09-01

    A novel RF shield bellows module developed at SLAC has been successfully manufactured and installed in the PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER). Tests indicate that the module meets its performance and operational requirements. The primary function of the bellows module is to allow for thermal expansion of the chambers and for lateral, longitudinal and angular offsets due to tolerances and alignment, while providing RF continuity between adjoining chambers. An update on the Arc bellows module for the PEP-II High Energy Ring is presented. Final design, manufacturing issues, material and coating selection, and tribological and RF testing are discussed. Performance and operational requirements are also reviewed. The RF shield design has been proven during assembly to allow for large manufacturing tolerances without reducing the mechanical spring force below required values. In addition, the RF shield maintains electrical contact even with large misalignments across the module.

  19. Mixing processes following the final stratospheric warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Peter G.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is made of the dynamics responsible for the mixing and dissolution of the polar vortex during the final stratospheric warmings. The dynamics and transport during a Northern Hemisphere final stratospheric warming are simulated via a GCM and an associated offline N2O transport model. The results are compared with those obtained from LIMS data for the final warming of 1979, with emphasis on the potential vorticity evolution in the two datasets, the modeled N2O evolution, and the observed O3 evolution. Following each warming, the remnants of the originally intact vortex are found to gradually homogenize with the atmosphere at large. Two processes leading to this homogenization are identified following the final warmings, namely, the potential vorticity field becomes decorrelated from that of the chemical tracer, and the vortex remnants begin to tilt dramatically in a vertical direction.

  20. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs... Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition...

  1. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements... relating to quality and sanitation requirements for the production and processing of manufacturing grade.... The requirements of Executive Order 13132, Federalism, were considered in developing this notice,...

  2. Hot-gas filter manufacturing assessments: Volume 5. Final report, April 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of advanced filtration media for advanced fossil-fueled power generating systems is a critical step in meeting the performance and emissions requirements for these systems. While porous metal and ceramic candle-filters have been available for some time, the next generation of filters will include ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), intermetallic alloys, and alternate filter geometries. The goal of this effort was to perform a cursory review of the manufacturing processes used by 5 companies developing advanced filters from the perspective of process repeatability and the ability for their processes to be scale-up to production volumes. It was found that all of the filter manufacturers had a solid understanding of the product development path. Given that these filters are largely developmental, significant additional work is necessary to understand the process-performance relationships and projecting manufacturing costs. While each organization had specific needs, some common among all of the filter manufacturers were access to performance testing of the filters to aide process/product development, a better understanding of the stresses the filters will see in service for use in structural design of the components, and a strong process sensitivity study to allow optimization of processing.

  3. Manufacturing Industrial Development for the Alternative Energy Systems-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chuck Ryan, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences; Dr. Dawn White, Accio Energy; Mr. Duncan Pratt, General Electric Global Research

    2013-01-30

    NCMS identified and developed critical manufacturing technology assessments vital to the affordable manufacturing of alternative-energy systems. NCMS leveraged technologies from other industrial sectors and worked with our extensive member organizations to provide DOE with two projects with far-reaching impact on the generation of wind energy. In the response for a call for project ideas, 26 project teams submitted ideas. Following a detailed selection criteria, two projects were chosen for development: Advanced Manufacturing for Modular Electro-kinetic (E-K) Wind Energy Conversion Technology - The goal of this project was to demonstrate that a modular wind energy technology based on electrohydrodynamic wind energy principles and employing automotive heritage high volume manufacturing techniques and modular platform design concepts can result in significant cost reductions for wind energy systems at a range of sizes from 100KW to multi-MW. During this program, the Accio/Boeing team made major progress on validating the EHD wind energy technology as commercially viable in the wind energy sector, and moved along the manufacturing readiness axis with a series of design changes that increased net system output. Hybrid Laser Arc Welding for Manufacture of Wind Towers - The goal of this research program was to reduce the cost of manufacturing wind towers through the introduction of hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) into the supply chain for manufacturing wind towers. HLAW has the potential to enhance productivity while reducing energy consumption to offset the foreign low-cost labor advantage and thereby enhance U.S. competitiveness. HLAW technology combines laser welding and arc welding to produce an energy efficient, high productivity, welding process for heavy manufacturing. This process leverages the ability of a laser to produce deep weld penetration and the ability of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) to deposit filler material, thereby producing stable, high quality

  4. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1. Final technical report, 1 May 1991--10 May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report describes subcontracted research by the Chronar Corporation, prepared by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) for Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Development project. Amorphous silicon is chosen as the PV technology that Chronar Corporation and APS believe offers the greatest potential for manufacturing improvements, which, in turn, will result in significant cost reductions and performance improvements in photovoltaic products. The APS ``Eureka`` facility was chosen as the manufacturing system that can offer the possibility of achieving these production enhancements. The relationship of the ``Eureka`` facility to Chronar`s ``batch`` plants is discussed. Five key areas are also identified that could meet the objectives of manufacturing potential that could lead to improved performance, reduced manufacturing costs, and significantly increased production. The projected long-term potential benefits of these areas are discussed, as well as problems that may impede the achievement of the hoped-for developments. A significant number of the problems discussed are of a generic nature and could be of general interest to the industry. The final section of this document addresses the cost and time estimates for achieving the solutions to the problems discussed earlier. Emphasis is placed on the number, type, and cost of the human resources required for the project.

  5. Practical Framework: Implementing OEE Method in Manufacturing Process Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maideen, N. C.; Sahudin, S.; Mohd Yahya, N. H.; Norliawati, A. O.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing process environment requires reliable machineries in order to be able to satisfy the market demand. Ideally, a reliable machine is expected to be operated and produce a quality product at its maximum designed capability. However, due to some reason, the machine usually unable to achieved the desired performance. Since the performance will affect the productivity of the system, a measurement technique should be applied. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a good method to measure the performance of the machine. The reliable result produced from OEE can then be used to propose a suitable corrective action. There are a lot of published paper mentioned about the purpose and benefit of OEE that covers what and why factors. However, the how factor not yet been revealed especially the implementation of OEE in manufacturing process environment. Thus, this paper presents a practical framework to implement OEE and a case study has been discussed to explain in detail each steps proposed. The proposed framework is beneficial to the engineer especially the beginner to start measure their machine performance and later improve the performance of the machine.

  6. Application of low intensity ultrasonics to cheese manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Gonzalez, R; Mulet, A

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasound has been used to non-destructively assess the quality of many foods such as meat, fish, vegetables and dairy products. This paper addresses the applications of low intensity ultrasonics in the cheese manufacturing processes and highlights the areas where ultrasonics could be successfully implemented in the future. The decrease of ultrasonic attenuation during the renneting process can be used to determine the optimum cut time for cheese making. The ultrasonic velocity increases during maturation for those types of cheese that become harder during this manufacturing stage, thus being an indicator of the maturity degree. Moreover, ultrasonic measurements could be linked to sensory parameters. From the ultrasonic velocity measurements at two different temperatures, it is possible to assess cheese composition, thus allowing an improvement in the quality and uniformity of cheese commercialization. In addition, in pulse-echo mode it is possible to detect cracked pieces due to abnormal fermentations and also to assess the distance of the crack from the surface. PMID:12159930

  7. Optimisation of Shape Parameters and Process Manufacturing for an Automotive Safety Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildemyn, Eric; Dal Santo, Philippe; Potiron, Alain; Saïdane, Delphine

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, the weight and the cost of automotive vehicles have considerably increased due to the importance devoted to safety systems. It is therefore necessary to reduce the weight and the production cost of components by improving their shape and manufacturing process. This work deals with a numerical approach for optimizing the manufacturing process parameters of a safety belt anchor using a genetic algorithm (NSGA II). This type of component is typically manufactured in three stages: blanking, rounding of the edges by punching and finally, bending with a 90° angle. In this study, only the rounding and the bending will be treated. The numerical model is linked to the genetic algorithm in order to optimize the process parameters. This is implemented by using ABAQUSscript files developed in the Python programming language. The algorithm modifies the script files and restarts the FEM analysis automatically. Lemaitre's damage model is introduced in the material behaviour laws and implemented in the FEM analysis by using a FORTRAN subroutine. The influence of two process parameters (die radius and the rounding punch radius) and five shape parameters were investigated. The objective functions are (i) the material damage state at the end of the forming process, (ii) the stress field and (iii) the maximum Von Mises stress in the folded zone.

  8. Silicon Valley's Processing Needs versus San Jose State University's Manufacturing Systems Processing Component: Implications for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing professionals within universities tend to view manufacturing systems from a global perspective. This perspective tends to assume that manufacturing processes are employed equally in every manufacturing enterprise, irrespective of the geography and the needs of the people in those diverse regions. But in reality local and societal…

  9. 77 FR 31875 - Certain Rubber Resins and Processes for Manufacturing Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... COMMISSION Certain Rubber Resins and Processes for Manufacturing Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled Certain Rubber Resins and Processes for Manufacturing Same, DN 2897; the Commission is... importation of certain rubber resins and processes for manufacturing same. The complaint names as...

  10. 40 CFR 761.80 - Manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manufacturing, processing and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Exemptions § 761.80 Manufacturing, processing...

  11. 21 CFR 201.122 - Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing... for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A drug in a bulk package, except tablets, capsules, or... manufacturing, processing, or repacking”; and if in substantially all dosage forms in which it may be...

  12. 21 CFR 201.122 - Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing... for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A drug in a bulk package, except tablets, capsules, or... manufacturing, processing, or repacking”; and if in substantially all dosage forms in which it may be...

  13. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 801.122 Section 801.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... act if its label bears the statement “Caution: For manufacturing, processing, or repacking”....

  14. 40 CFR 761.80 - Manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manufacturing, processing and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Exemptions § 761.80 Manufacturing, processing...

  15. 21 CFR 201.122 - Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing... for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A drug in a bulk package, except tablets, capsules, or... manufacturing, processing, or repacking”; and if in substantially all dosage forms in which it may be...

  16. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 801.122 Section 801.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... act if its label bears the statement “Caution: For manufacturing, processing, or repacking”....

  17. 21 CFR 201.122 - Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing... for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A drug in a bulk package, except tablets, capsules, or... manufacturing, processing, or repacking”; and if in substantially all dosage forms in which it may be...

  18. 21 CFR 201.122 - Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing... for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A drug in a bulk package, except tablets, capsules, or... manufacturing, processing, or repacking”; and if in substantially all dosage forms in which it may be...

  19. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 801.122 Section 801.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... act if its label bears the statement “Caution: For manufacturing, processing, or repacking”....

  20. 40 CFR 761.80 - Manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manufacturing, processing and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Exemptions § 761.80 Manufacturing, processing...

  1. 40 CFR 761.80 - Manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manufacturing, processing and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Exemptions § 761.80 Manufacturing, processing...

  2. 40 CFR 761.80 - Manufacturing, processing and distribution in commerce exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturing, processing and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Exemptions § 761.80 Manufacturing, processing...

  3. Carbon dioxide capture from a cement manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Blount, Gerald C.; Falta, Ronald W.; Siddall, Alvin A.

    2011-07-12

    A process of manufacturing cement clinker is provided in which a clean supply of CO.sub.2 gas may be captured. The process also involves using an open loop conversion of CaO/MgO from a calciner to capture CO.sub.2 from combustion flue gases thereby forming CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2. The CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2 is then returned to the calciner where CO.sub.2 gas is evolved. The evolved CO.sub.2 gas, along with other evolved CO.sub.2 gases from the calciner are removed from the calciner. The reactants (CaO/MgO) are feed to a high temperature calciner for control of the clinker production composition.

  4. Applications Of Laser Processing For Automotive Manufacturing In Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masashi; Ueda, Katsuhiko; Takagi, Soya

    1986-11-01

    Recently in Japan, laser processing is increasingly being employed for production, so that laser cutting, laser welding and other laser material processing have begun to be used in various industries. As a result, the number of lasers sold has been increasing year by year in Japan. In the Japanese automotive industry, a number applications have been introduced in laboratories and production lines. In this paper, several current instances of such laser applications will be introduced. In the case of welding, studies have been conducted on applying laser welding to automatic transmission components, in place of electron beam welding. Another example of application, the combination of lasers and robots to form highly flexible manufacturing systems, has been adopted for trimming steel panel and plastic components.

  5. A Digital Methodology for the Design Process of Aerospace Assemblies with Sustainable Composite Processes & Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, W.; Butterfield, J.

    2011-05-01

    The well established benefits of composite materials are driving a significant shift in design and manufacture strategies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Thermoplastic composites have advantages over the traditional thermosetting materials with regards to sustainability and environmental impact, features which are becoming increasingly pertinent in the aerospace arena. However, when sustainability and environmental impact are considered as design drivers, integrated methods for part design and product development must be developed so that any benefits of sustainable composite material systems can be assessed during the design process. These methods must include mechanisms to account for process induced part variation and techniques related to re-forming, recycling and decommissioning, which are in their infancy. It is proposed in this paper that predictive techniques related to material specification, part processing and product cost of thermoplastic composite components, be integrated within a Through Life Management (TLM) product development methodology as part of a larger strategy of product system modeling to improve disciplinary concurrency, realistic part performance, and to place sustainability at the heart of the design process. This paper reports the enhancement of digital manufacturing tools as a means of drawing simulated part manufacturing scenarios, real time costing mechanisms, and broader lifecycle performance data capture into the design cycle. The work demonstrates predictive processes for sustainable composite product manufacture and how a Product-Process-Resource (PPR) structure can be customised and enhanced to include design intent driven by `Real' part geometry and consequent assembly. your paper.

  6. Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J. M.; Kerscher, W. J. III; Smith, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

  7. Statistics-enhanced multistage process models for integrated design &manufacturing of poly (vinyl alcohol) treated buckypaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kan

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered a promising engineering material because of its exceptional mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Buckypaper (BP), a thin sheet of assembled CNTs, is an effective way to handle CNTs in macro scale. Pristine BP is a fragile material which is held together by weak van der Waals attractions among CNTs. This dissertation introduces a modified filtration based manufacturing process which uses poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to treat BP. This treatment greatly improves the handleability of BP, reduces the spoilage during transferring, and shortens the production time. The multistage manufacturing process of PVA-treated BP is discussed in this dissertation, and process models are developed to predict the nanostructure of final products from the process parameters. Based on the nanostructure, a finite element based physical model for prediction of Young's modulus is also developed. This accuracy of this physical model is further improved by statistical methods. The aim of this study is to investigate and improve the scalability of the manufacturing process of PVA-treated BP. To achieve this goal, various statistical tools are employed. The unique issues in nanomanufacturing also motivate the development of new statistical tools and modification of existing tools. Those issues include the uncertainties in nanostructure characterization due to the scale, limited number experimental data due to high cost of raw materials, large variation in final product due to the random nature in structure, and the high complexity in physical models due to the small scale of structural building blocks. This dissertation addresses those issues by combining engineering field knowledge and statistical methods. The resulting statistics-enhanced physical model provides an approach to design the manufacturing process of PVA-treated BP for a targeting property and tailor the robustness of the final product by manipulating the process parameters. In addition

  8. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  9. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  10. Continuous, Automated Manufacturing of String Ribbon Si PV Modules: Final Report, 21 May 1998 - 20 May 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Hanoka, J. I.

    2001-08-01

    This report summarizes the work done under a three-year PVMaT Phase 5A2 program. The overall goal was to attain a continuous, highly automated, fully integrated PV production line. In crystal growth, advances were made that resulted in lower substrate costs, higher yields, and lower capital and labor costs. A new string material was developed and implemented. Following this development, better control of the edge meniscus was achieved. A completely new furnace design was accomplished, and this became the standard platform in our new factory. Automation included ribbon thickness control and laser cutting of String Ribbon strips. Characterization of Evergreen's String Ribbon silicon was done with extensive help from the NREL laboratories, and this work provided a foundation for higher efficiency cells in the future. Advances in cell manufacturing included the development of high-speed printing and drying methods for Evergreen's unique cell making method and the design and building of a completely automated cell line from the beginning of front-contact application to the final tabbing of the cells. A so-called no-etch process whereby substrates from crystal growth go directly into p-n junction formation and emerge from this sequence without needing to go in and out of plastic carriers for any wet-chemical processing was developed. Process development as well as automation were brought to bear on improvements in soldering technology and cell interconnection in general. Using state-of-the-art manufacturing science, the Fraunhofer USA Center for Manufacturing Innovation at Boston University facilitated layout and process flow for the operation of our new factory. Evergreen Solar's new factory began operations in the second quarter of 2001. A good measure of the significant impact of this PVMaT subcontract is that virtually all of the manufacturing developments stemming from this project have been incorporated in this new factory.

  11. Process for manufacturing a lithium alloy electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, William R.

    1992-10-13

    A process for manufacturing a lithium alloy, metal sulfide cell tape casts slurried alloy powders in an organic solvent containing a dissolved thermoplastic organic binder onto casting surfaces. The organic solvent is then evaporated to produce a flexible tape removable adhering to the casting surface. The tape is densified to increase its green strength and then peeled from the casting surface. The tape is laminated with a separator containing a lithium salt electrolyte and a metal sulfide electrode to form a green cell. The binder is evaporated from the green cell at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the lithium salt electrolyte. Lithium alloy, metal sulfide and separator powders may be tape cast.

  12. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  13. Process monitoring of additive manufacturing by using optical tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zenzinger, Guenter E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Bamberg, Joachim E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Ladewig, Alexander E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Hess, Thomas E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Henkel, Benjamin E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de; Satzger, Wilhelm E-mail: alexander.ladewig@mtu.de

    2015-03-31

    Parts fabricated by means of additive manufacturing are usually of complex shape and owing to the fabrication procedure by using selective laser melting (SLM), potential defects and inaccuracies are often very small in lateral size. Therefore, an adequate quality inspection of such parts is rather challenging, while non-destructive-techniques (NDT) are difficult to realize, but considerable efforts are necessary in order to ensure the quality of SLM-parts especially used for aerospace components. Thus, MTU Aero Engines is currently focusing on the development of an Online Process Control system which monitors and documents the complete welding process during the SLM fabrication procedure. A high-resolution camera system is used to obtain images, from which tomographic data for a 3dim analysis of SLM-parts are processed. From the analysis, structural irregularities and structural disorder resulting from any possible erroneous melting process become visible and may be allocated anywhere within the 3dim structure. Results of our optical tomography (OT) method as obtained on real defects are presented.

  14. Process monitoring of additive manufacturing by using optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenzinger, Guenter; Bamberg, Joachim; Ladewig, Alexander; Hess, Thomas; Henkel, Benjamin; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Parts fabricated by means of additive manufacturing are usually of complex shape and owing to the fabrication procedure by using selective laser melting (SLM), potential defects and inaccuracies are often very small in lateral size. Therefore, an adequate quality inspection of such parts is rather challenging, while non-destructive-techniques (NDT) are difficult to realize, but considerable efforts are necessary in order to ensure the quality of SLM-parts especially used for aerospace components. Thus, MTU Aero Engines is currently focusing on the development of an Online Process Control system which monitors and documents the complete welding process during the SLM fabrication procedure. A high-resolution camera system is used to obtain images, from which tomographic data for a 3dim analysis of SLM-parts are processed. From the analysis, structural irregularities and structural disorder resulting from any possible erroneous melting process become visible and may be allocated anywhere within the 3dim structure. Results of our optical tomography (OT) method as obtained on real defects are presented.

  15. Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelson, T. S.; Barth, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The relative manufacturing costs were estimated for large high technology fan blades prepared by advanced composite fabrication methods using seven candidate materials/process systems. These systems were identified as laminated resin matrix composite, filament wound resin matrix composite, superhybrid solid laminate, superhybrid spar/shell, metal matrix composite, metal matrix composite with a spar and shell, and hollow titanium. The costs were calculated utilizing analytical process models and all cost data are presented as normalized relative values where 100 was the cost of a conventionally forged solid titanium fan blade whose geometry corresponded to a size typical of 42 blades per disc. Four costs were calculated for each of the seven candidate systems to relate the variation of cost on blade size. Geometries typical of blade designs at 24, 30, 36 and 42 blades per disc were used. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  16. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  17. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  18. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  19. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  20. ATAC Process Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    Researchers at INL with funding from the Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) evaluated a novel approach for near real-time consumption of threat intelligence. Demonstration testing in an industry environment supported the development of this new process to assist the electric sector in securing their critical networks. This report provides the reader with an understanding of the methods used during this proof of concept project. The processes and templates were further advanced with an industry partner during an onsite assessment. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these materials for use by industry.

  1. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K.; Brucher, H.G.

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  2. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing... records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing inadvertently generated PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or...

  3. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing... records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing inadvertently generated PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or...

  4. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing... records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing inadvertently generated PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or...

  5. Application of Resin Transfer Molding to the Manufacture of Wind Turbine Blade Substructures. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, C. W.; Ritter, W. J.; Ashwill, T.

    2001-07-26

    The U.S. has generally lacked the capability for an iterative process of detailed structural design, manufacturing, and testing at the full blade level to achieve specific structural performance, cost, and weight targets. This project examined the effects that different composites processing methods had on the performance of representative blade substructures. In addition, the results of the testing of these substructures was used to validate NuMAD, the design tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  6. Data quality and processing for decision making: divergence between corporate strategy and manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Ronald D.; Miele, Renato; Shaul, Dennis

    2000-10-01

    Information technology is driving improvements in manufacturing systems. Results are higher productivity and quality. However, corporate strategy is driven by a number of factors and includes data and pressure from multiple stakeholders, which includes employees, managers, executives, stockholders, boards, suppliers and customers. It is also driven by information about competitors and emerging technology. Much information is based on processing of data and the resulting biases of the processors. Thus, stakeholders can base inputs on faulty perceptions, which are not reality based. Prior to processing, data used may be inaccurate. Sources of data and information may include demographic reports, statistical analyses, intelligence reports (e.g., marketing data), technology and primary data collection. The reliability and validity of data as well as the management of sources and information is critical element to strategy formulation. The paper explores data collection, processing and analyses from secondary and primary sources, information generation and report presentation for strategy formulation and contrast this with data and information utilized to drive internal process such as manufacturing. The hypothesis is that internal process, such as manufacturing, are subordinate to corporate strategies. The impact of possible divergence in quality of decisions at the corporate level on IT driven, quality-manufacturing processes based on measurable outcomes is significant. Recommendations for IT improvements at the corporate strategy level are given.

  7. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth (and Final) Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted jointly by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing; windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems; airborne windshear detection systems; certification and regulatory issues; development and applications of sensors for wake vortex detection; and synthetic and enhanced vision systems.

  8. Low-cost mirror substrates: manufacturing process evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosala, Francois; Meyer, Michele; Bes de Berc, Jean-Sebastien; Roussel, Andre; Beriot, Emmanuel

    1997-12-01

    In the framework of the Megajoule Laser project driven by the French Atomic Energy Board, one of the most valuable optical programs in term of material volume as well as in term of component size, the actual glasses and production means appear to be inconsistent with the economical objectives. Corning proposed an alternative, based on the use of a low cost glass, together with an evolution of the production process. Combining its experience in quality optical glasses manufacturing and its mastery of forming processes, Corning conducted a production cost reduction program; the objective of this program was to validate the concept of large slab melting (about 2000 kg each), where blocks are cut off, versus the conventional single block (about 100 kg) melting. Economical improvements are based on a reduction of lost time (mold change) and production lead- time by increasing the feeding yield, on a better glass utilization, and a reduced number of molds. The technical issues were: increase the feeding yield maintaining a given glass quality level, reduce the glass allowance, improve the materials of the molds, reinforce the thermal process control, automatism of critical operations, especially at the start-up and at the end of the mold feeding. Despite the long production cycle, about 3 months including melting and annealing, the first results carry the technological options set-up.

  9. Low-cost mirror substrates: manufacturing process evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosala, Francois; Meyer, Michele; Bes de Berc, Jean-Sebastien; Roussel, Andre; Beriot, Emmanuel

    1996-08-01

    In the framework of the megajoule laser project driven by the french atomic energy board, one of the most valuable optical programs in terms of material volume as well as in terms of component size, the actual glasses and production means appear to be inconsistent with the economical objectives. Corning proposed an alternative, based on the use of a low cost glass, together with an evolution of the production process. Combining its experience in quality optical glasses manufacturing and its mastery of forming processes, Corning conducted a production cost reduction program; the objective of this program was to validate the concept of large slab melting, where blocks are cut off, versus the conventional single block melting. Economical improvements are based on a reduction of lost time and production lead-time by increasing the feeding yield, on a better glass utilization, and a reduced number of molds. The technical issues were: increase the feeding yield maintaining a given glass quality level, reduce the glass allowance, improve the materials of the molds, reinforce the thermal process control, automatism of critical operations, especially at the start-up and at the end of the mold feeding.

  10. Additive manufacturing of stretchable tactile sensors: Processes, materials, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatani, Morteza

    3D printing technology is becoming more ubiquitous every day especially in the area of smart structures. However, fabrication of multi-material, functional, and smart structures is problematic because of the process and material limitations. This thesis sought to develop a Direct Print Photopolymerization (DPP) fabrication technique that appreciably extends the manufacturing space for the 3D smart structures. This method employs a robotically controlled micro-extrusion of a filament equipped with a photopolymerization process. The ability to use polymers and ultimately their nanocomposites in this process is the advantage of the proposed process over the current fabrication methods in the fabrication of 3D structures featuring mechanical, physical, and electrical functionalities. In addition, this study focused to develop a printable, conductive, and stretchable nanocomposite based on a photocurable and stretchable liquid resin filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). This nanocomposite exhibited piezoresistivity, means its resistivity changes as it deforms. This property is a favorable factor in developing resistance based tactile sensors. They were also able to resist high tensile strains while they showed conductivity. Furthermore, this study offered a possible and low-cost method to have a unique and highly stretchable pressure sensitive polymer. This disruptive pressure sensitive polymer composed of an Ionic Liquid (IL) and a stretchable photopolymer embedded between two layers of Carbon Nanotube (CNTs) based stretchable electrodes. The developed IL-polymer showed both field effect property and piezoresistivity that can detect large tensile strains up 30%. In summary, this research study focused to present feasible methods and materials for printing a 3D smart structure especially in the context of flexible tactile sensors. This study provides a foundation for the future efforts in fabrication of skin like tactile sensors in three-dimensional motifs