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Sample records for maple acer pseudoplatanus

  1. New Gallotannin and other Phytochemicals from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; Niesen, Daniel B; Wang, Hui; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-11-01

    The maple (Acer) genus is a reported source of bioactive (poly)phenols, including gallotannins, but several of its members, such as the sycamore maple (A. pseudoplatanus), remain uninvestigated. Herein, thirty-nine compounds, including a new gallotannin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-6-O-(p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D- glucopyranoside (1), and thirty-eight (2-39) known compounds, consisting of four gallotannins, one ellagitannin, thirteen flavonoids, eight hydroxycinnamic acids, ten benzoic acid derivatives, and two sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from sycamore maple leaves. Their structures were determined based on NMR and mass spectral analyses. The isolates were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the isolates, the gallotannins were the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with thirteen-fold more potent activity compared with the clinical drug, acarbose (IC50 = 16-31 vs. 218 µM). Similarly, the gallotannins showed the highest antioxidant activities, followed by the other phenolic sub-classes, while the sesquiterpenoids were inactive. PMID:26749841

  2. Effect of brefeldin A on the structure of the Golgi apparatus and on the synthesis and secretion of proteins and polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Driouich, A; Zhang, G F; Staehelin, L A

    1993-01-01

    Brefeldin A (BFA), a specific inhibitor of Golgi-mediated secretion in animal cells, has been used to study the organization of the secretory pathway and the function of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells. To this end, we have employed a combination of electron microscopical, immunocytochemical, and biochemical techniques to investigate the effects of this drug on the architecture of the Golgi apparatus as well as on the secretion of proteins and complex cell wall polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells. We have used 2.5 and 7.5 micrograms/mL of BFA, which is comparable to the 1 to 10 micrograms/mL used in experiments with animal cells. Electron micrographs of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted cells show that although BFA causes swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, unlike in animal cells, it does not induce the disassembly of sycamore maple Golgi stacks. Instead, BFA induces the formation of large clusters of Golgi stacks, an increase in the number of trans-like Golgi cisternae, and the accumulation in the cytoplasm of very dense vesicles that appear to be derived from trans Golgi cisternae. These vesicles contain large amounts of xyloglucan (XG), the major hemicellulosic cell wall polysaccharide, as shown by immunocytochemical labeling with anti-XG antibodies. All of these structural changes disappear within 120 min after removal of the drug. In vivo labeling experiments using [3H]leucine demonstrate that protein secretion into the culture medium, but not protein synthesis, is inhibited by approximately 80% in the presence of BFA. In contrast, the incorporation of [3H]fucose into N-linked glycoproteins, which occurs in trans-Golgi cisternae, appears to be affected to a greater extent than the incorporation of [3H]xylose, which has been localized to medial Golgi cisternae. BFA also affects secretion of complex polysaccharides as evidenced by the approximate 50% drop in incorporation of [3H]xylose and

  3. Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.; Xin, Yi )

    1990-05-01

    Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulose polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Biosynthesis of such cell wall polysaccharides is closely linked to the process of plant cell growth and development. Xyloglucan polysaccharides consist of a {beta}-1,4 glucan backbone synthesized by xyloglucan synthase and sidechains of xylose, galactose, and fucose added by other transferase enzymes. Most plant Golgi and plasma membranes also contain glucan synthases I II, which make {beta}-1,4 and {beta}-1,3 glucans, respectively. All of these enzymes have very similar activities. Cell walls on suspension-cultured cells from Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple) were enzymatically softened prior to cell disruption by passing through a 30 {mu}m nylon screen. Cell membranes from homogenates were separated by ultracentrifugation on top-loaded or flotation sucrose density gradients. Samples were collected by gradient fractionation and assayed for membrane markers and xyloglucan and glucan synthase activities. Standard marker assays (cyt. c reductase for eR, IDPase UDPase for Golgi, and eosin 5{prime}-malelmide binding for plasma membrane) showed partial separation of these three membrane types. Golgi and plasma membrane markers overlapped in most gradients. Incorporation of {sup 14}C-labeled sugars from UDP-glucose and UDP-xylose was used to detect xyloglucan synthase, glucan synthases I II, and xylosyl transferase in Golgi membrane fractions. These activities overlapped, although distinct peaks of xyloglucan synthase and xylosyl transferase were found. Ca{sup ++} had a stimulatory effect on glucan synthases I II, while Mn{sup ++} had an inhibitory effect on glucan synthase I in the presence of Ca{sup ++}. The similarity of these various synthase activities demonstrates the need for careful structural characterization of newly synthesized polysaccharides.

  4. Rapid degradation of abnormal proteins in vacuoles from Acer pseudoplatanus L. cells

    SciTech Connect

    Canut, H.; Alibert, G.; Carrasco, A.; Boudet, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    In Acer pseudoplatanus cells, the proteins synthesized in the presence of an amino acid analog ((/sup 14/C)p-fluorophenylalanine), were degraded more rapidly than normal ones ((/sup 14/C)phenylalanine as precursor). The degradation of an important part of these abnormal proteins occurred inside the vacuoles. The degradation process was not apparently associated to a specific proteolytic system but was related to a preferential transfer of these aberrant proteins from the cytoplasm to the vacuole.

  5. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  6. Frequency of inversions affects senescence phenology of Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Christina; Kirchner, Manfred; Jakobi, Gert; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    In mountainous regions, inversion situations with cold-air pools in the valleys occur frequently, especially in fall and winter. With the accumulation of inversion days, trees in lower elevations experience lower temperature sums than those in middle elevations. In a two-year observational study, deciduous trees, such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica, on altitudinal transects responded in their fall leaf senescence phenology. Phenological phases were advanced and senescence duration was shortened by the cold temperatures in the valley. This effect was more distinct for late phases than for early phases since they experienced more inversion days. The higher the inversion frequency, the stronger the signal was. Acer pseudoplatanus proved to be more sensitive to cold temperatures compared to Fagus sylvatica. We conclude that cold-air pools have a considerable impact on the vegetation period of deciduous trees. Considering this effect, trees in the mid hillside slopes gain advantages compared to lower elevations. Our findings will help to improve knowledge about ecological drivers and responses in mountainous forest ecosystems.

  7. Spectrochemical analysis of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) leaves for environmental health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ord, James; Butler, Holly J; McAinsh, Martin R; Martin, Francis L

    2016-05-10

    Terrestrial plants are ideal sentinels of environmental pollution, due to their sedentary nature, abundance and sensitivity to atmospheric changes. However, reliable and sensitive biomarkers of exposure have hitherto been difficult to characterise. Biospectroscopy offers a novel approach to the derivation of biomarkers in the form of discrete molecular alterations detectable within a biochemical fingerprint. We investigated the application of this approach for the identification of biomarkers for pollution exposure using the common sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) as a sentinel species. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to interrogate leaf tissue collected from three sites exposed to different levels of vehicle exhaust emissions. Following multivariate analysis of acquired spectra, significant biochemical alterations were detected between comparable leaves from different sites that may constitute putative biomarkers for pollution-induced stress. These included differences in carbohydrate and nucleic acid conformations, which may be indicative of sub-lethal exposure effects. We also observed several corresponding spectral alterations in both the leaves of A. pseudoplatanus exposed to ozone pollution under controlled environmental conditions and in leaves infected with the fungal pathogen Rhytisma acerinum, indicating that some stress-induced changes are conserved between different stress signatures. These similarities may be indicative of stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, although further work is needed to verify the precise identity of infrared biomarkers and to identify those that are specific to pollution exposure. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that biospectroscopy presents an effective toolkit for the utilisation of higher plants, such as A. pseudoplatanus, as sentinels of environmental pollution. PMID:27068098

  8. Respiratory Response of Acer pseudoplatanus Cells to Pyruvate and 2,4-Dinitrophenol 1

    PubMed Central

    Givan, Curtis V.; Torrey, John G.

    1968-01-01

    The endogenous respiration rate of unstarved cultured cells of Acer pseudo-platanus L. is markedly stimulated by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Pyruvate is also stimulatory but to a lesser degree than dinitrophenol. Exogenously supplied sugars cause no short-term stimulation. Pyruvate does not enhance the elevated rate of O2 uptake in the presence of dinitrophenol but does cause additional CO2 evolution. The endogenous concentration of pyruvate is elevated in the presence of dinitrophenol. These observations suggest that the rate of O2 uptake by the unstarved intact cells is limited by the rate of glycolysis and that rate of glycolysis is regulated by the intracellular concentration of adenine nucleotides or inorganic phosphate. Dinitrophenol stimulation of endogenous respiration is due in part to an indirect acceleration of glycolysis but also to a more direct facilitation of oxidation in the presence of excess mitochondrial substrate. PMID:16656818

  9. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  10. Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Respiration of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, N.; Douce, R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of iron deficiency on cell culture growth, cell respiration, mitochondrial oxidative properties, and the electron transport chain were studied with suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Iron deprivation considerably decreased the initial growth rates and limited the maximum density of the cells. Under these conditions, the cells remained swollen throughout their growth. The absence of iron led to a steady decline in the uncoupled rate of O2 consumption. When the uncoupled rate of O2 uptake closely approximated the respiratory rate, the cells began to collapse. At this stage, the level of all the cytochromes and electron paramagnetic resonance-detectable Fe-S clusters of the mitochondrial inner membrane were dramatically decreased. Nevertheless, it appeared from substrate oxidation measurements that this overall depletion in iron-containing components solely disturbed the functioning of complex II, whereas neither complexes I, III, or IV, nor the machinery involved in ATP synthesis, was apparently impaired in iron-deficient mitochondria. However, our results suggest that the impairment of complex II resulted in a strong reduction of the overall capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which was responsible for determining the rate of endogenous respiration in sycamore cells. Finally, this situation led to a depletion of various energy metabolites that could contribute to the premature cell death. PMID:12232026

  11. Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Martha

    The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.

  12. Interacting effects of warming and drought on regeneration and early growth of Acer pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides.

    PubMed

    Carón, M M; De Frenne, P; Brunet, J; Chabrerie, O; Cousins, S A O; De Backer, L; Decocq, G; Diekmann, M; Heinken, T; Kolb, A; Naaf, T; Plue, J; Selvi, F; Strimbeck, G R; Wulf, M; Verheyen, K

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting on several aspects of plant life cycles, including the sexual reproductive stage, which is considered amongst the most sensitive life-cycle phases. In temperate forests, it is expected that climate change will lead to a compositional change in community structure due to changes in the dominance of currently more abundant forest tree species. Increasing our understanding of the effects of climate change on currently secondary tree species recruitment is therefore important to better understand and forecast population and community dynamics in forests. Here, we analyse the interactive effects of rising temperatures and soil moisture reduction on germination, seedling survival and early growth of two important secondary European tree species, Acer pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides. Additionally, we analyse the effect of the temperature experienced by the mother tree during seed production by collecting seeds of both species along a 2200-km long latitudinal gradient. For most of the responses, A. platanoides showed higher sensitivity to the treatments applied, and especially to its joint manipulation, which for some variables resulted in additive effects while for others only partial compensation. In both species, germination and survival decreased with rising temperatures and/or soil moisture reduction while early growth decreased with declining soil moisture content. We conclude that although A. platanoides germination and survival were more affected after the applied treatments, its initial higher germination and larger seedlings might allow this species to be relatively more successful than A. pseudoplatanus in the face of climate change. PMID:24750437

  13. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Competition for nitrogen (N), particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With inter-specific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to inter-specific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with inter-specific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech. PMID:25983738

  14. INITIAL GROWTH AND ONTOGENY OF BIGLEAF MAPLE (ACER MACROPHYLLUM) IN AN ENRICHED CARBON DIOXIDE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A controlled-environment experiment was initiated to evaluate the influence of CO2 enrichment on the growth and ontogeny of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum). evelopment of seedlings was monitored from seed germination through the first five months of ontogeny in growth chambers ...

  15. Analysis of the embryo proteome of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) seeds reveals a distinct class of proteins regulating dormancy release.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Staszak, Aleksandra Maria

    2016-05-20

    Acer pseudoplatanus seeds are characterized by a deep physiological embryo dormancy that requires a few weeks of cold stratification in order to promote germination. Understanding the function of proteins and their related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in the breaking of seed dormancy, would expand our knowledge pertaining to this process. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the changes occurring in seeds in response to cold stratification, which leads to dormancy release. In addition, the involvement of abscisic (ABA) and gibberellic acids (GA) was also examined. Fifty-three proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. An effect of ABA on protein variation was observed at the beginning of stratification, while the influence of GA on protein abundance was observed during the middle phase of stratification. The majority of proteins associated with dormancy breaking in the presence of only water, and also ABA or GA, were classified as being involved in metabolism and genetic information processing. For metabolic-related proteins, the effect of ABA on protein abundance was stimulatory for half of the proteins and inhibitory for half of the proteins. On the other hand, the effect on genetic information processing related proteins was stimulatory. GA was found to upregulate both metabolic-related and genetic information processing-related proteins. While seed dormancy breaking depends on proteins involved in a variety of processes, proteins associated with methionine metabolism (adenosine kinase, methionine synthase) and glycine-rich RNA binding proteins appear to be of particular importance. PMID:26970688

  16. Regional growth decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its potential causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Daniel A.; Beier, Colin M.; Pederson, Neil; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Stella, John C; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) has experienced poor vigor, regeneration failure, and elevated mortality across much of its range, but there has been relatively little attention to its growth rates. Based on a well-replicated dendrochronological network of range-centered populations in the Adirondack Mountains (USA), which encompassed a wide gradient of soil fertility, we observed that the majority of sugar maple trees exhibited negative growth trends in the last several decades, regardless of age, diameter, or soil fertility. Such growth patterns were unexpected, given recent warming and increased moisture availability, as well as reduced acidic deposition, which should have favored growth. Mean basal area increment was greater on base-rich soils, but these stands also experienced sharp reductions in growth. Growth sensitivity of sugar maple to temperature and precipitation was non-stationary during the last century, with overall weaker relationships than expected. Given the favorable competitive status and age structure of the Adirondack sugar maple populations sampled, evidence of widespread growth reductions raises concern over this ecologically and economically important tree. Further study will be needed to establish whether growth declines of sugar maple are occurring more widely across its range.

  17. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel; Ryser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season. PMID:27135339

  18. Studies of uptake and suppresion of Mn/sup 2 +/ migration in highly vacuolated sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L) cells by /sup 31/P NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, C.; Bligny, R.; Douce, R.; Pfeffer, P.E.

    1987-04-01

    Recent /sup 31/P NMR studies have demonstrated that Mn/sup 2 +/ appears to invade the cells of heterogeneous excised tissue of corn root tips sequentially, first entering the cytoplasmic compartment, where it complexes with nucleotides and P/sub i/. Under aerobic conditions, further migration across the tonoplast, followed by vacoule trapping was visualized through paramagnetic broadening of the vacoular P/sub i/ resonance. Cultured cells such as Acer pseudoplatanus L offer better opportunities for studying cellular activity by /sup 31/P NMR because of their homogeneity and uniformly rapid response to various metabolic disturbances. In contrast to excised root tissue, Mn/sup 2 +/ showed no measurable accumulation in the cytoplasmic compartments of these cells under aerobic conditions. However, a rapid crossing of the large tonoplast resulted in immediate vacuolar metal ion sequestration. Anoxia did not foster leakage of Mn/sup 2 +/ from the vacuole to the cytoplasm, while hypoxia completely halted all movement of Mn/sup 2 +/ across the plasmalema. This disparity in terms of cell and tissue morphology, membrane permeability and possible tissue trapping of metal ions will be discussed.

  19. Induction of tolerance to desiccation and cryopreservation in silver maple (Acer saccharinum) embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Beardmore, T; Whittle, C-A

    2005-08-01

    Twenty percent of of the world's flowering plants produce recalcitrant seeds (i.e., seeds that cannot withstand drying or freezing). We investigated whether the embryonic axis from the normally recalcitrant seeds of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) can be made tolerant to desiccation (10% water content) and low temperature (-196 degrees C, cryopreservation) by pretreatment with ABA or the compound tetcyclacis, which enhances endogenous ABA concentrations. Pretreatment of axes with both ABA and tetcyclacis increased germination after desiccation and freezing to 55% from a control value of zero. Pretreatment of axes with ABA and tetcyclacis increased the ABA content of the axes, as measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and stimulated the synthesis of storage and dehydrin-like proteins, believed to have a role in the desiccation tolerance of orthodox seeds. PMID:15929927

  20. Genetic consequences of selection cutting on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall).

    PubMed

    Graignic, Noémie; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Selection cutting is a treatment that emulates tree-by-tree replacement for forests with uneven-age structures. It creates small openings in large areas and often generates a more homogenous forest structure (fewer large leaving trees and defective trees) that differs from old-growth forest. In this study, we evaluated whether this type of harvesting has an impact on genetic diversity of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall). Genetic diversity among seedlings, saplings, and mature trees was compared between selection cut and old-growth forest stands in Québec, Canada. We found higher observed heterozygosity and a lower inbreeding coefficient in mature trees than in younger regeneration cohorts of both forest types. We detected a recent bottleneck in all stands undergoing selection cutting. Other genetic indices of diversity (allelic richness, observed and expected heterozygosity, and rare alleles) were similar between forest types. We concluded that the effect of selection cutting on the genetic diversity of sugar maple was recent and no evidence of genetic erosion was detectable in Québec stands after one harvest. However, the cumulative effect of recurring applications of selection cutting in bottlenecked stands could lead to fixation of deleterious alleles, and this highlights the need for adopting better forest management practices. PMID:27330554

  1. Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training

  2. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) seedlings in response to heavy metal stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660 nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650 nm. The differences may possibly be due to different water regimes in the two investigations. Previously announced in STAR as N81-29729

  3. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) in response to heavy metal stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650nm. The differences may possible be due to different water regimes in the two investigations.

  4. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    PubMed

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se. PMID:27547326

  5. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C., II

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  6. The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Guller, Bilgin

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and durations. The physical properties of heat-treated samples were compared against controls in order to determine their; oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Three main roughness parameters; mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) obtained from the surface of wood, were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant differences were determined (p>0.05) between surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rmax) at three different temperatures and three periods of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors. PMID:17698357

  7. Field identification of birdseye in sugar maple (acer saccharum marsh. ). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, D.C.; Stokke, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Birdseye grain distortions in sugar maple must be identified to capture the full value of a timber sale throughout the economic range of birdseye's occurrence. Even when relatively common, birdseye veneer typically makes up less than 1 percent of the harvested volume, but may account for one-half of the value of the sale. Field identification of birdseye sugar maple is critical for two principal reasons: (1) it allows for the enumeration of a valuable resource that may influence management decisions, and (2) it may prevent improper manufacturing of logs at the job site. Both factors should help increase overall timber sale return. The objective of the paper is to provide a background on birdseye sugar maples and a detailed sequential methodology for field identification of birdseye in standing trees.

  8. Photosynthesis and water-use efficiency of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in relation to pear thrips defoliation.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, D S; Tyree, M T; Parker, B L; Skinner, M

    1994-06-01

    An experimental introduction of pear thrips (Taeniothrips inconsequens Uzel), a major defoliator in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) forests in northeastern North America, was conducted in a field plantation to determine if compensatory gas exchange occurs in response to feeding damage by this piercing-sucking insect. Sugar maple trees were enclosed in netting (167 micro m mesh) and pear thrips adults were introduced before leaf expansion in the spring. Pear thrips reduced whole-tree leaf area by approximately 23% and reduced leaf size (both mass and area) by 20% in the upper crown. Measurements of net CO(2) assimilation rate (A(net)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were made on tagged foliage that was later analyzed for stable carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) to provide estimates of short- and long-term leaf water use efficiency (WUE). Pear thrips feeding reduced A(net) for fully expanded leaves by approximately 20%, although leaf chlorophyll content and leaf mass per unit area were apparently not affected. Comparison of A(net), g(s), instantaneous WUE and leaf delta(13)C between damaged and control trees as well as visibly undamaged versus moderately damaged foliage on pear thrips-infested trees indicated that there were no effects of pear thrips feeding damage on WUE or leaf delta(13)C. Long-term WUE among sugar maple trees in the field plantation, indicated by leaf delta(13)C analysis, was related to shorter-term estimates of leaf gas exchange behavior such as g(s) and calculated leaf intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)). We conclude that pear thrips feeding has no effect on leaf WUE, but at the defoliation levels in our experiment, it may reduce leaf A(net), as a result of direct tissue damage or through reduced g(s). Therefore, even small reductions in leaf A(net) by pear thrips feeding damage may have an important effect on the seasonal carbon balance of sugar maple when integrated over the entire growing season. PMID:14967678

  9. Effects of maple (Acer) plant part extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic colon cells.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-07-01

    Phenolic-enriched extracts of maple sap and syrup, obtained from the sugar and red maple species (Acer saccharum Marsh, A. rubrum L., respectively), are reported to show anticancer effects. Despite traditional medicinal uses of various other parts of these plants by Native Americans, they have not been investigated for anticancer activity. Here leaves, stems/twigs, barks and sapwoods of both maple species were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and non-tumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cells. Extracts were standardized to total phenolic and ginnalin-A (isolated in our laboratory) levels. Overall, the extracts inhibited the growth of the colon cancer more than normal cells (over two-fold), their activities increased with their ginnalin-A levels, with red > sugar maple extracts. The red maple leaf extract, which contained the highest ginnalin-A content, was the most active extract (IC₅₀  = 35 and 16 µg/mL for extract and ginnalin-A, respectively). The extracts were not cytotoxic nor did they induce apoptosis of the colon cancer cells. However, cell cycle analyses revealed that the antiproliferative effects of the extracts were mediated through cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. The results from the current study suggest that these maple plant part extracts may have potential anticolon cancer effects. PMID:22147441

  10. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins. PMID:22387705

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Embryogenesis and the Acquisition of Seed Dormancy in Norway Maple (Acer platanoides L.)

    PubMed Central

    Staszak, Aleksandra Maria; Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The proteome of zygotic embryos of Acer platanoides L. was analyzed via high-resolution 2D-SDS-PAGE and MS/MS in order to: (1) identify significant physiological processes associated with embryo development; and (2) identify changes in the proteome of the embryo associated with the acquisition of seed dormancy. Seventeen spots were identified as associated with morphogenesis at 10 to 13 weeks after flowering (WAF). Thirty-three spots were associated with maturation of the embryo at 14 to 22 WAF. The greatest changes in protein abundance occurred at 22 WAF, when seeds become fully mature. Overall, the stage of morphogenesis was characterized by changes in the abundance of proteins (tubulins and actin) associated with the growth and development of the embryo. Enzymes related to energy supply were especially elevated, most likely due to the energy demand associated with rapid growth and cell division. The stage of maturation is crucial to the establishment of seed dormancy and is associated with a higher abundance of proteins involved in genetic information processing, energy and carbon metabolism and cellular and antioxidant processes. Results indicated that a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein and proteasome proteins may be directly involved in dormancy acquisition control, and future studies are warranted to verify this association. PMID:24941250

  12. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...

  13. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...

  14. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...

  15. Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Roy A.; Walkington, Noel J.

    1996-06-01

    A knowledge of one or more high level symbolic mathematics programs is rapidly becoming a necessity for mathematics users from all fields of science. The aim of this book is to provide a solid grounding in Maple, one of the best known of these programs. The authors combine efficiency and economy of exposition with a complete coverage of Maple. The book has twelve chapters, of which eight are completely accessible to anyone who has completed calculus and linear sequences as taught in American universities. These chapters cover the great majority of Maple's capabilities. There are also three chapters on Maple programming that can be read without prior programming experience, although knowledge of a high level programming language (Basic, Fortran, C etc.) will help. There is also a chapter on some relevant aspects of algebra. Above all, the book allows the reader to extract value from Maple without wasting time and effort in the learning process. It is the fastest track to expertise for Maple users in mathematics and computer science.

  16. Simulated root dynamics of a 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree with and without ozone exposure using the TREGRO model.

    PubMed

    Retzlaff, W. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Laurence, J. A.; Gollands, B.

    1996-01-01

    Because of difficulties in directly assessing root responses of mature forest trees exposed to atmospheric pollutants, we have used the model TREGRO to analyze the effects of a 3- and a 10-year exposure to ozone (O(3)) on root dynamics of a simulated 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree. We used existing phenological, allometric, and growth data to parameterize TREGRO to produce a simulated 160-year-old tree. Simulations were based on literature values for sugar maple fine root production and senescence and the photosynthetic responses of sugar maple seedlings exposed to O(3) in open-top chambers. In the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3), 2 x ambient atmospheric O(3) concentrations reduced net carbon (C) gain of the 160-year-old tree. This reduction occurred in the C storage pools (total nonstructural carbohydrate, TNC), with most of the reduction occurring in coarse (woody) roots. Total fine root production and senescence were unaffected by the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3). However, extending the simulated O(3) exposure period to 10 years depleted the TNC pools of the coarse roots and reduced total fine root production. Similar reductions in TNC pools have been observed in forest-grown sugar maple trees exhibiting symptoms of stress. We conclude that modeling can aid in evaluating the belowground response of mature forest trees to atmospheric pollution stress and could indicate the potential for gradual deterioration of tree health under conditions of long-term stress, a situation similar to that underlying the decline of sugar maple trees. PMID:14871784

  17. The influence of soil-site factors on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) growth response to climatic change in central Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutten, K.; Gedalof, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, concerns about climatic change and its potential impacts on Canada’s various geographical regions and associated ecological processes have grown steadily, especially among land and resource managers. As these risks transition into tangible outcomes in the field, it will be important for resource managers to understand historical climatic variability and natural ecological trends in order to effectively respond to a changing climate. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is considered a stable endpoint for mature forests in the northern hardwood community of central Ontario, and it tends to be the dominant species, in a beech-ironwood-yellow birch matrix. In North America, this species is used for both hardwood lumber and for maple sugar (syrup) products; where it dominates, large recreational opportunities also exist. There are many biotic and abiotic factors that play a large role in the growth and productivity of sugar maple stands, such as soil pH, moisture regime, and site slope and aspect. This research undertaking aims to add to the body of literature addressing the following question: how do site factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic change? The overall objective of the research is to evaluate how biotic and abiotic factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple annual radial growth to climatic variability. This research will focus on sugar maple growth and productivity in Algonquin Provincial Park, and the impact that climatic variability has had in the past on these stands based on site-specific characteristics. In order to complete this goal, 20 sites were identified in Algonquin Provincial Park based on variability of known soil and site properties. These sites were visited in order to collect biotic and abiotic site data, and to measure annual radial growth increment of trees. Using regional climate records and standard dendrochronological methods, the collected increment growth data will be

  18. Ethyl m-digallate from red maple, Acer rubrum L., as the major resistance factor to forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zaid, M M; Helson, B V; Nozzolillo, C; Arnason, J T

    2001-12-01

    An ethanolic extract of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) leaves (RME) applied to trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves reduced feeding in choice test assays with forest tent caterpillar larvae (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.) (FTC), whereas a trembling aspen foliage extract, similarly applied, stimulated feeding. Compounds isolated from the RME were gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, m-digallate, ethyl m-digallate, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 1-O-galloyl-alpha-L-rhamnose, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside, (-)-epicatechin. (+)-catechin and ellagic acid. All of the gallates, (-)-epicatechin, and kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside deterred feeding on trembling aspen leaf disks when applied at 0.28 mg/cm2. The two digallates deterred feeding by 90% and were the most effective. HPLC analysis indicated that ethyl m-digallate is present in amounts 10-100 x higher in RME (approximately 2.5-250 mg/g) than any other compound. Thus, ethyl m-digallate appears to be the major compound protecting red maple from feeding by FTC, with a minor contribution from other gallates. PMID:11789956

  19. Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Low Soil Moisture on the Physiological Responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) Seedlings to Light

    PubMed Central

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol−1) and elevated (784 µmol mol−1) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (Rd), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and gs did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the Ci/Ca in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable. PMID:24146894

  20. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    PubMed

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable. PMID:24146894

  1. Sapindaceae and Acer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Acer (maples) is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Six species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical and ec...

  2. Determination of DNA methylation associated with Acer rubrum (red maple) adaptation to metals: analysis of global DNA modifications and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Im, Min-Ji; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Red maple (Acer rubum), a common deciduous tree species in Northern Ontario, has shown resistance to soil metal contamination. Previous reports have indicated that this plant does not accumulate metals in its tissue. However, low level of nickel and copper corresponding to the bioavailable levels in contaminated soils in Northern Ontario causes severe physiological damages. No differentiation between metal-contaminated and uncontaminated populations has been reported based on genetic analyses. The main objective of this study was to assess whether DNA methylation is involved in A. rubrum adaptation to soil metal contamination. Global cytosine and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses were carried out in A. rubrum populations from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated sites. The global modified cytosine ratios in genomic DNA revealed a significant decrease in cytosine methylation in genotypes from a metal-contaminated site compared to uncontaminated populations. Other genotypes from a different metal-contaminated site within the same region appear to be recalcitrant to metal-induced DNA alterations even ≥30 years of tree life exposure to nickel and copper. MSAP analysis showed a high level of polymorphisms in both uncontaminated (77%) and metal-contaminated (72%) populations. Overall, 205 CCGG loci were identified in which 127 were methylated in either outer or inner cytosine. No differentiation among populations was established based on several genetic parameters tested. The variations for nonmethylated and methylated loci were compared by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). For methylated loci, molecular variance among and within populations was 1.5% and 13.2%, respectively. These values were low (0.6% for among populations and 5.8% for within populations) for unmethylated loci. Metal contamination is seen to affect methylation of cytosine residues in CCGG motifs in the A. rubrum populations that were analyzed. PMID:27547351

  3. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA.

    PubMed

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Greg B; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor

  4. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the

  5. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J.; Lawrence, Greg B.; Sullivan, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor

  6. First year sugar maple (Acer saccharum, Marsh. ) seedling nutrition, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, physiology, and growth along an acidic deposition gradient in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of foliar amino acid and root reducing sugar accumulations to separate acidic deposition from natural (i.e., soil phosphorus, mycorrhizae, and temperature) ecosystem stressors on first-year sugar maple seedling growth in three Michigan forests. Seedling growth was greatest at the sites exposed to highest levels of acidic deposition. However, sites receiving greatest acidic deposition rates also had high available soil phosphorus contents. No significant differences occurred, suggesting increased nitrogen loadings were not reflected in seedling tissue nitrogen. Seedling root or foliar calcium, magnesium, or potassium also were not significantly different, suggesting those elements were not growth limiting. Significant differences, however, occurred for seedling arginine and glutamine concentrations in foliage and reducing sugar concentrations in roots and were negatively correlated with seedling tissue phosphorus concentrations, suggesting phosphorus was limiting seedling growth at the low acidic deposition site. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of seedling roots was greater at the low acidic deposition site and positively correlated with seedling amino acid and reducing sugar accumulation but negatively correlated with sucrose concentrations in seedling roots, indicating that the fungal partner may have stimulated sucrose degradation to reducing sugars. Both air and soil temperatures were positively correlated with total sugar and sucrose concentrations in seedling roots. High levels of arginine, glutamine, and reducing sugars were negatively correlated with seedling growth indicating that seedlings at the low acidic deposition site were more stressed than seedlings at the sites receiving higher levels of pollutant loads. The results suggest differences in foliar arginine and glutamine and root reducing sugars in the forests in this study are likely due to natural rather than acidic deposition stress.

  7. Norway maple displays greater seasonal growth and phenotypic plasticity to light than native sugar maple.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Alain; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank; Dubois, Karine; Lechowicz, Martin J; Messier, Christian; Posada, Juan M; Valladares, Fernando; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Norway maple (Acer platanoides L), which is among the most invasive tree species in forests of eastern North America, is associated with reduced regeneration of the related native species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and other native flora. To identify traits conferring an advantage to Norway maple, we grew both species through an entire growing season under simulated light regimes mimicking a closed forest understorey vs. a canopy disturbance (gap). Dynamic shade-houses providing a succession of high-intensity direct-light events between longer periods of low, diffuse light were used to simulate the light regimes. We assessed seedling height growth three times in the season, as well as stem diameter, maximum photosynthetic capacity, biomass allocation above- and below-ground, seasonal phenology and phenotypic plasticity. Given the north European provenance of Norway maple, we also investigated the possibility that its growth in North America might be increased by delayed fall senescence. We found that Norway maple had significantly greater photosynthetic capacity in both light regimes and grew larger in stem diameter than sugar maple. The differences in below- and above-ground biomass, stem diameter, height and maximum photosynthesis were especially important in the simulated gap where Norway maple continued extension growth during the late fall. In the gap regime sugar maple had a significantly higher root : shoot ratio that could confer an advantage in the deepest shade of closed understorey and under water stress or browsing pressure. Norway maple is especially invasive following canopy disturbance where the opposite (low root : shoot ratio) could confer a competitive advantage. Considering the effects of global change in extending the potential growing season, we anticipate that the invasiveness of Norway maple will increase in the future. PMID:23076822

  8. Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, M.J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, B.E.; Blair, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p < 0.0001) in areas that had been subjected to moderate-to-severe ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  9. QUALITY ASSURANCE ASPECTS OF THE JOINT USA-CANADA NORTH AMERICAN SUGAR MAPLE DECLINE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North American Sugar Maple Decline Project was implemented in 1988 in response to concerns about the condition of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) in the United States and Canada. ata collection for the project involved at least 15 federal, state, and provincial crews from ...

  10. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Maple Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Nursery-Grown Maples.

    PubMed

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford

    2015-06-01

    Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites. PMID:26470249

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  12. Altered Acer Rubrum Fecundity Induced By Chemical Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, J. L.; Peters, A.

    2014-12-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is becoming the most dominating tree in North American eastern deciduous forests. Concurrently, human activities have altered the chemical climate of terrestrial ecosystems via acidic deposition, which increases the available of nitrogen (N), while decreasing phosphorus (P) availability. Once a minor forest component prior to European settlement, the abundance of red maple may be a symptom of the modern age. The current paradigm explaining red maple's rise to prominence concerns fire suppression that excludes competitors. However, this still does not explain why red maple is unique compared to other functionally similar trees. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactive influence of acid rain mitigation on the fecundity of red maple. Objectives were achieved by measuring flowering, seed production, germination, and growth from red maple on plots that have been experimentally manipulated to increase soil pH, P, or both in three unglaciated eastern deciduous hardwood forests. At least 50% of the red maple population is seed bearing in our control soils, however the median percent of seed-bearing trees declined to zero when mitigating soils from acidic deposition. This can be explained by the curious fact that red maple is polygamodioecious, or has labile sex-expression, in which an individual tree can change its sex-expression in response to the environment. Furthermore, seed-bearing trees in the mitigated plots grew less, produced less seeds, and germinated at lower rates than their counterparts in control soils. Our results provide evidence that chemical climate change could be the primary contributing factor accelerating the dominance of red maple in eastern North American forests. Our observations can provide a boarder conceptual framework for understanding how nutrient limitations can be applied beyond plant productivity towards explaining distribution changes in vegetation.

  13. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  14. Impacts of leaves, roots, and earthworms on soil organic matter composition and distribution in sycamore maple stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, N.; Mueller, K. E.; Mueller, C. W.; Oleksyn, J.; Hale, C.; Freeman, K. H.; Eissenstat, D.

    2009-12-01

    The relative contributions of leaf and root material to soil organic matter (SOM) are poorly understood despite the importance of constraining SOM sources to conceptual and numeric models of SOM dynamics. Selective ingestion and bioturbation of litter and soil by earthworms can alter the fate and spatial distribution of OM in soils, including stabilization pathways of leaf and root litter. However, studies on the contributions of leaves, roots, and earthworms to SOM dynamics are rare. In 3 stands of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) with minimal O horizon development and high earthworm activity, we sampled surface litter (> 2 mm) from the Oi horizon, fine roots (< 2 mm), bulk mineral soils (0-20 cm depth), and earthworm casts from Lumbricus terrestris middens. The chemical composition of these samples was estimated by wet-chemical degradation followed by GC-MS analysis. In addition, elemental analyses (C and N) were performed on bulk soils and earthworm casts, before and after physical fractionation by means of particle size and density. Relative to bulk soils, earthworm casts were highly enriched in organic matter, dominated by large particulate OM, and had lower acid to aldehyde ratios among lignin monomers (a proxy for extent of decomposition), confirming that L. terrestris casts stabilize recent plant litter inputs. Maple fine roots and surface litter were distinguished by different profiles of carboxylic acids estimated by GC-MS, facilitating interpretation of OM sources in bulk soil and earthworm casts. Earthworm casts were characterized by a distribution of carboxylic acids similar to that of surface litter while bulk soils had a carboxylic acid profile much closer to that of roots. These results confirm that L. terrestris is primarily a surface, leaf feeder and suggest that OM in the bulk soil may be dominated by root inputs. In bulk soils, the ratio of lignin to hydroxy- and diacids derived from suberin and cutin was low relative to plant litter

  15. Maple syrup-production, composition, chemistry, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Timothy D; van den Berg, Abby K

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup is made from sap exuded from stems of the genus Acer during the springtime. Sap is a dilute solution of primarily water and sucrose, with varying amounts of amino and organic acids and phenolic substances. When concentrated, usually by heating, a series of complex reactions produce a wide variety of flavor compounds that vary due to processing and other management factors, seasonal changes in sap chemistry, and microbial contamination. Color also forms during thermal evaporation. Flavor and color together are the primary factors determining maple syrup grade, and syrup can range from very light-colored and delicate-flavored to very dark-colored and strong-flavored. PMID:19389608

  16. Evaluation of Systemic Insecticides for Potato Leafhopper Control in Field-Grown Red Maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic insecticides and application methods were evaluated in two tests that began in 2005 and 2006 for control of potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae [Harris]) on four red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivars and rated yearly through 2007. Treatments evaluated in this study included surface drenches o...

  17. MICROBIAL COLONIZATION, RESPIRATION, AND BREAKDOWN OF MAPLE LEAVES ALONG A STREAM-MARSH CONTINUUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate and bacterial colonization, and microbial respiration were measured on decaying maple (Acer saccharum) leaves at three sites along a stream-marsh continuum. Breakdown rates (-k+-SE) were 0.0284+-0.0045 d-1 for leaves in a high-gradient, non-tida...

  18. The possible role of air quality in sugar maple decline

    SciTech Connect

    Linzon, S.N. )

    1987-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum L.) was first reported to occur in North America in 1913. A review of the literature on the occurrence of sugar maple decline and the associated causal agents was made in 1986 based on 189 reports. No single cause for the decline was identified with a number of diverse factors being reported to be involved. These factors included defoliating insects, drought, nutritional deficiencies, improper woodlot management, secondary root rot organisms, road salt and acidic precipitation. In the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada, intensive studies into the occurrence and etiology of sugar maple decline commenced in the early 1980s. Maple syrup producers in both provinces complained that sugar maple trees were declining and dying in greater numbers than usual and suspected that air pollution, including acidic precipitation, was involved. This paper describes the symptoms associated with sugar maple decline, the surveys underway in both provinces, and the field and experimental studies being carried out to determine the role of air quality.

  19. [Maples at the sub-Alpine vegetation belt: a long history].

    PubMed

    David, F; Barbero, M

    2001-02-01

    Pollen analysis was carried out on lacustrine sediment of a small hollow (15 m x 25 m) at the treeless sub-Alpine belt (202 m) of the inner Maurienne valley in the northern French Alps. A 2,500-year-long maple settlement was demonstrared. Three AMS dates of terrestrial plant macroremains support the chronology. First, Betula and Salix spread prior to 9,000 C14 BP. The first pollen grains of Acer, Abies and Pinus cembra are quoted at 8,600 C14 BP. High frequencies of Alnus glutinosa/incana (20%) and Acer (10%) show that mixed communities of Acer and Alnus persisted above the mountainous Abies forest between 7,490 and 5,850 C14 BP. After 5,850 C14 BP, the decrease in Acer stands could be attributed to fire as suggested by the strong increase in Betula and by the delayed expansion of Pinus cembra. PMID:11280048

  20. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  1. ACER 2013-2014 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) is one of the world's leading educational research centres. ACER's mission is to create and promote research-based knowledge, products and services that can be used to improve learning across the life span. This annual report describes ACER's milestones and accomplishments for the 2013-2014…

  2. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  4. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection (ACER CHEMTIC Year 12 Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This publication contains 317 multiple-choice chemistry test items related to topics covered in the Victorian (Australia) Year 12 chemistry course. It allows teachers access to a range of items suitable for diagnostic and achievement purposes, supplementing the ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection--Year 12 (CHEMTIC). The topics covered are: organic…

  5. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  6. Changes in mRNA and protein content of SO sub 2 -fumigated maple leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stinemetz, C.L. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The effect of acute SO{sub 2} fumigation on foliar DNA, RNA, and protein levels in 2-yr-old containerized Acer seedlings was examined. While DNA content did not change appreciably in either SO{sub 2}-sensitive red maple (A. rubrum L.) or SO{sub 2}-tolerant silver maple (A. saccharinum L.), significant reductions in mRNA (35% for red maple; 21% for silver maple) were observed after 54 h fumigation (6 h/day {times} 3 days/wk {times} 3 wk) at 2.5 ppm SO{sub 2}. Reductions in mRNA and protein content were accompanied by a corresponding decline in net photosynthesis (Pn). The data from this study suggest that acute SO{sub 2} fumigation alters Pn in red and silver maple by disrupting molecular events, and that species sensitivity for these particular Acer spp may be related to the degree of change associated with mRNA and total protein content.

  7. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.107 Maple sap. (a) NAP assistance for maple sap is... maple sap. (g) The actual production history for maple sap shall be recorded on the basis of gallons...

  8. Fuel values of stems and branches in post oak and red maple

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In red maple (Acer rubrum), there was n.s.d. in higher heating value (HHV) between stem wood and branch wood or between stem bark and branch bark. In post oak (Quercus stellata) the HHV of stem bark was significantly higher than that of branch bark, but there was n.s.d. between stem wood and branch wood. For both species the wood had a significantly higher HHV than the bark. 1 reference.

  9. CHLORPYRIFOS IMMERSION TO ELIMINATE THIRD INSTAR JAPANESE BEETLE (COLEOPTERA:SCARABAEIDAE) IN BALLED AND BURLAPPED TREES AND SUBSEQUENT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON RED MAPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined chlorpyrifos immersion of balled and burlapped (B&B) root balls for elimination of third instar Japanese beetle (JB) (Popillia japonica Newman) and for phytotoxicity on red maple (Acer rubrum L.). Trees were harvested as 45 and 60 cm diameter B&B and immersed in chlorpyrifos at ...

  10. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches the greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey; where it comprises 60-80% of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses.

  11. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    In many areas of the glaciated northeastern United States, forested wetlands dominated by red maple (Acer rubrum) cover more of the landscape than all other nontidal wetland types combined. Yet surprisingly little of their ecology, functions, or social significance has been documented. Bogs, salt marshes, Atlantic white cedar swamps, and other less common types of wetlands have received considerable attention from scientists, but, except for botanical surveys, red maple swamps have been largely ignored. The report conveys what is known about these common wetlands and identifies topics most in need of investigation. Red maple swamps are so abundant and so widely distributed in the Northeast that their physical, chemical, and biological properties range widely as well, and their values to society are diverse. The central focus of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service community profile series is the plant and animal communities of wetlands and deepwater habitats.

  12. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  13. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  14. Assessing the Factors of Regional Growth Decline of Sugar Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, D. A.; Beier, C. M.; Pederson, N.; Lawrence, G. B.; Stella, J. C.; Sullivan, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is among the most ecologically, economically and culturally important trees in North America, but has experienced a decline disease across much of its range. We investigated the climatic and edaphic factors associated with A. saccharum growth in the Adirondack Mountains (USA) using a well-replicated tree-ring network incorporating a range of soil fertility (base cation availability). We found that nearly 3 in 4 A. saccharum trees exhibited declining growth rates during the last several decades, regardless of tree age or size. Although diameter growth was consistently higher on base-rich soils, the negative trends in growth were largely consistent across the soil chemistry gradient. Sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic variability was overall weaker than expected, but were also non-stationary during the 20th century. We observed increasingly positive responses to late-winter precipitation, increasingly negative responses to growing season temperatures, and strong positive responses to moisture availability during the 1960s drought that became much weaker during the recent pluvial. Further study is needed of these factors and their interactions as potential mechanisms for sugar maple growth decline.

  15. The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Maple syrup is one of several high-sugar liquids that humans consume. However, maple syrup is more than just a concentrated sugar solution. Here, we review the chemical composition of maple syrup. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. Using Math With Maple Sugaring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

  17. New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.

    2012-12-01

    A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple

  18. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  2. The Maple Products: An Outdoor Education Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaple, Charles; And Others

    Designed to take advantage of the spring season, this resource packet on maple products centers upon a field lesson in harvesting and making maple syrup. The resources in this packet include: a narrative on the origins of maple sugar; an illustrated description of "old time maple sugarin'"; suggestions for pre-trip activities (history of maple…

  3. Perception of aspen and sun/shade sugar maple leaf soluble extracts by larvae of Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Panzuto, M; Lorenzetti, F; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J

    2001-10-01

    We investigated the behavioral feeding preference and the chemoreception of leaf polar extracts from trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, and from sun and shade sugar maple, Acer saccharum, by larvae of the polyphagous forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, a defoliator of deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Three polar extracts were obtained from each tree species: a total extract, a water fraction, and a methanol fraction. M. disstria larvae were allowed ad libitum access to an artificial diet from eclosion to the fifth instar. Two-choice cafeteria tests were performed comparing the mean (+/-SE) surface area eaten of the total extracts, and the following order of preference was obtained: aspen > sun maple > shade maple. Tests with the other fractions showed that M. disstria larvae preferred the total aspen extract to its water fraction, and the latter to its methanol fraction. The response to sun maple was similar to aspen. However, for the shade maple experiment, there was no difference between the total extract and its water fraction. Electrophysiological recordings for aspen showed that the sugar-sensitive cell elicited more spikes to the water fraction, followed by the total extract, and finally the methanol fraction. Spike activity to stimulations of sun and shade maple extracts revealed a similar trend, where methanol fraction > water fraction > total extract. Our findings are discussed in light of previously known information about this insect's performance on these host plants. PMID:11710605

  4. Variation in mineral content of red maple sap across an atmospheric deposition gradient

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, L.H.

    1997-11-01

    Xylem sap was collected from red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees during the spring of 1988 and 1989 at seven forest sites along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north central Pennsylvania and analyzed for pH and twelve mineral constituents. The objectives of the study were to examine the sources and patterns of variation in red maple sap chemistry across an atmospheric deposition gradient and to assess the feasibility of using sap analysis as an indicator of nutrient bioavailability. For most sap constituents, there was considerable spatial and temporal variation in concentration. Sources of variation included within and between site variation, date, and year of collection. The nature and extent of variation varied for different constituents. Site differences were similar in 1988 and 1989 for most sap constituents and for some constituents corresponded with differences in soil levels.

  5. Parametric Equations, Maple, and Tubeplots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feicht, Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that establishes a graphical foundation for parametric equations by using a graphing output form called tubeplots from the computer program Maple. Provides a comprehensive review and exploration of many previously learned topics. (ASK)

  6. How fresh is maple syrup? Sugar maple trees mobilize carbon stored several years previously during early springtime sap-ascent.

    PubMed

    Muhr, Jan; Messier, Christian; Delagrange, Sylvain; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-03-01

    While trees store substantial amounts of nonstructural carbon (NSC) for later use, storage regulation and mobilization of stored NSC in long-lived organisms like trees are still not well understood. At two different sites with sugar maple (Acer saccharum), we investigated ascending sap (sugar concentration, δ(13) C, Δ(14) C) as the mobilized component of stored stem NSC during early springtime. Using the bomb-spike radiocarbon approach we were able to estimate the average time elapsed since the mobilized carbon (C) was originally fixed from the atmosphere and to infer the turnover time of stem storage. Sites differed in concentration dynamics and overall δ(13) C, indicating different growing conditions. The absence of temporal trends for δ(13) C and Δ(14) C indicated sugar mobilization from a well-mixed pool with average Δ(14) C consistent with a mean turnover time (TT) of three to five years for this pool, with only minor differences between the sites. Sugar maple trees hence appear well buffered against single or even several years of negative plant C balance from environmental stress such as drought or repeated defoliation by insects. Manipulative investigations (e.g. starvation via girdling) combined with Δ(14) C measurements of this mobilized storage pool will provide further new insights into tree storage regulation and functioning. PMID:26639654

  7. Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.

    PubMed

    Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A

    2006-04-01

    At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from < 50 to 51% from pith to cambium, at both the base and top of the boles. In giant sequoia, C was essentially constant at > 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology. PMID:16414925

  8. Simulated herbivory advances autumn phenology in Acer rubrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2014-05-01

    To determine the degree to which herbivory contributes to phenotypic variation in autumn phenology for deciduous trees, red maple ( Acer rubrum) branches were subjected to low and high levels of simulated herbivory and surveyed at the end of the season to assess abscission and degree of autumn coloration. Overall, branches with simulated herbivory abscised ˜7 % more leaves at each autumn survey date than did control branches within trees. While branches subjected to high levels of damage showed advanced phenology, abscission rates did not differ from those of undamaged branches within trees because heavy damage induced earlier leaf loss on adjacent branch nodes in this treatment. Damaged branches had greater proportions of leaf area colored than undamaged branches within trees, having twice the amount of leaf area colored at the onset of autumn and having ˜16 % greater leaf area colored in late October when nearly all leaves were colored. When senescence was scored as the percent of all leaves abscised and/or colored, branches in both treatments reached peak senescence earlier than did control branches within trees: dates of 50 % senescence occurred 2.5 days earlier for low herbivory branches and 9.7 days earlier for branches with high levels of simulated damage. These advanced rates are of the same time length as reported delays in autumn senescence and advances in spring onset due to climate warming. Thus, results suggest that should insect damage increase as a consequence of climate change, it may offset a lengthening of leaf life spans in some tree species.

  9. After the Maples--What Then?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses models to illustrate the possible "migration route" of the sugar maple in response to predicted global climate change. Curriculum activities for students are provided that specifically address the sugar maple forests of the Great Lakes regions. (ZWH)

  10. Effects of cutting time, stump height, parent tree characteristics, and harvest variables on development of bigleaf maple sprout clumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C., II; Zasada, J.; Maxwell, B.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of stump height, year of cutting, parent-tree size, logging damage, and deer browsing on bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) sprout clump development, maple trees were cut to two stump heights at three different times. Stump height had the greatest impact on sprout clump size. Two years after clearcutting, the sprout clump volume for short stumps was significantly less than that for tall stumps. The sprout clump volume, area, and number of sprouts were significantly less for trees cut 1 and 2 yr before harvest than for trees cut at harvest. Sprout clump size was positively correlated with parent tree stem diameter and stump volume, and negatively correlated with the percentage of bark removed during logging. Browsing had no significant impact on average clump size. Uncut trees produced sprout clumps at their base and epicormic branches along the length of their stems; thus their crown volume averaged four to five times that of cut trees. Cutting maple in clearcuts to low stumps may reduce maple competition with Douglas-fir regeneration and still maintain maple in the next stand.

  11. Effects of elevated temperature and elevated CO{sub 2} on foliar senescence of Acer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, J.S.; Norby, R.J. |

    1995-06-01

    An important response mechanism of trees to a warmer, CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere could be an alteration of phenological relationships. Autumn leaf senescence and abscission were tracked in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and red maple (A. rubrum) seedlings growing in open-top chambers in ambient or elevated CO{sub 2} in combination with ambient or elevated temperature. Chlorophyll concentration was estimated weekly with a portable reflectance meter calibrated against conventional analysis of chlorophyll in leaf extracts. Abscission was quantified as the percentage of total plant leaf area that had abscised by certain dates. In both species chlorophyll loss from mid-October to mid-November was retarded in plants grown since May at a constant temperature offset 4{degrees}C higher than ambient. Likewise, leaf abscission began later and progressed more slowly in the warmer chambers. These plants still had 80% of their leaf area attached, and the leaves were still green, at the end of the growing season. Carbon dioxide concentration had little effect on leaf senescence or abscission. The results demonstrate the potential for climate warming to extend the growing season, which could enhance plant productivity. However, delayed senescence could also cause nutrient loss by disrupting retranslocation from leaves prior to the end of the growing season.

  12. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maple sirup. 168.140 Section 168.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  13. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maple sirup. 168.140 Section 168.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  14. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria

    2016-04-01

    Ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) is one of the most invasive species occurring in riparian zones. The invasion is especially effective in disturbed areas, as the plant favours anthropogenic sites. The plant was also observed to be able to penetrate into sandy bars, also those separated from the land, inaccessible to people. It's removal is time-consuming and laborious, often involves damage done to sensitive vegetation and the results are doubtful, as the plant quickly regenerates. The invasion patterns and establishment of ash-leaved maple in natural ecosystems are poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to test how habitat factors such as: light availability, soil characteristics and competition contribute to ash-leaved maple effective colonization of natural sand bars free from anthropogenic pressure. In 2014 sand bars located in Vistula River Valley in Warsaw were inventoried and classified basing on their development stage as 1 - initial, 2 - unstable, 3 - stable. Apart from the occurrence of the invasive ash-leaved maple the plants competing with it were recognized and the percentage of the shoots of shrubs and herbaceous plants was estimated. PAR was measured at ground level and 1 meter above ground, the thickness of organic layer formed on the top of the sand was also measured as the indicator of sand bar development stage. The maple's survival in extremely difficult conditions resembles the strategy of willows and poplars naturally occurring in the riparian zones, which are well adapted to this environment. The success of invasion strongly depends on the plants establishment during sand bars initial stage of development. The seedlings growth correlates with the age of the sand bar (r1=0,41, r2=0,42 i r3=0,57). The colonization lasts for 4-6 years and the individuals start to cluster in bigger parches. After that period the maple turns into the phase of competition for space. Habitat factors such as shading (r2=0,41 i r3=0,51) and organic layer

  15. Graphs and Enhancing Maple Multiplication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2002-01-01

    Description of a technique in Maple programming language that automatically prints all paths of any desired length along with the name of each vertex, proceeding in order from the beginning vertex to the ending vertex for a given graph. (Author/MM)

  16. ACER3 supports development of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Yin, Yancun; Li, Chunling; Chen, Jinliang; Xie, Jingjing; Lu, Zhigang; Li, Minjing; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Cheng Cheng

    2016-09-01

    No new therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been approved for more than 30 years. To effectively treat AML, new molecular targets and therapeutic approaches must be identified. In silico analysis of several databases of AML patients demonstrated that the expression of alkaline ceramidase 3 (ACER3) significantly inversely correlates with the overall survival of AML patients. To determine whether ACER3 supports AML development, we employed an shRNA-encoding lentivirus system to inhibit acer3 expression in human AML cells including NB4, U937, and THP-1 cells. The ACER3 deficiency resulted in decreased cell growth and colony formation, elevated apoptosis, and lower AKT signaling of leukemia cells. Our study indicates that ACER3 contributes to AML pathogenesis, and suggests that alkaline ceramidase inhibition is an option to treat AML. PMID:27470583

  17. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Acer palmatum and comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes under salt stress in two contrasting genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rong, Liping; Li, Qianzhong; Li, Shushun; Tang, Ling; Wen, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Maple (Acer palmatum) is an important species for landscape planting worldwide. Salt stress affects the normal growth of the Maple leaf directly, leading to loss of esthetic value. However, the limited availability of Maple genomic information has hindered research on the mechanisms underlying this tolerance. In this study, we performed comprehensive analyses of the salt tolerance in two genotypes of Maple using RNA-seq. Approximately 146.4 million paired-end reads, representing 181,769 unigenes, were obtained. The N50 length of the unigenes was 738 bp, and their total length over 102.66 Mb. 14,090 simple sequence repeats and over 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which represent useful resources for marker development. Importantly, 181,769 genes were detected in at least one library, and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes. Among these DEGs, 125 were upregulated and 178 were downregulated genes. Two MYB-related proteins and one LEA protein were detected among the first 10 most downregulated genes. Moreover, a methyltransferase-related gene was detected among the first 10 most upregulated genes. The three most significantly enriched pathways were plant hormone signal transduction, arginine and proline metabolism, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis provided a rich genetic resource for gene discovery related to salt tolerance in Maple, and in closely related species. The data will serve as an important public information platform to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in salt tolerance in Maple. PMID:26475609

  18. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  19. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  20. Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghusayni, B.

    2005-01-01

    Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.

  1. Maple sap predominant microbial contaminants are correlated with the physicochemical and sensorial properties of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-03-01

    Maple sap processing and microbial contamination are significant aspects that affect maple syrup quality. In this study, two sample sets from 2005 and 2008 were used to assess the maple syrup quality variation and its relationship to microbial populations, with respect to processing, production site and harvesting period. The abundance of maple sap predominant bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens group and two subgroups, Rahnella spp., Janthinobacterium spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides) and yeast (Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp.,Guehomyces pullulans) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Maple syrup properties were analyzed by physicochemical and sensorial methods. Results indicate that P. fluorescens, Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp. G. pullulans and Rahnella spp. are stable contaminants of maple sap, as they were found for every production site throughout the flow period. Multiple factor analysis reports a link between the relative abundance of P. fluorescens group and Mrakia spp. in maple sap with maple and vanilla odor as well as flavor of maple syrup. This evidence supports the contribution of these microorganisms or a consortium of predominant microbial contaminants to the characteristic properties of maple syrup. PMID:22236761

  2. The Role of Forest Tent Caterpillar Defoliations and Partial Harvest in the Decline and Death of Sugar Maple

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Henrik; Messier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Natural and anthropogenic disturbances can act as stresses on tree vigour. According to Manion's conceptual model of tree disease, the initial vigour of trees decreases as a result of predisposing factors that render these trees more vulnerable to severe inciting stresses, stresses that can then cause final vigour decline and subsequent tree death. This tree disease model was tested in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) by assessing the roles of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in tree decline and death. Methods Radial growth data from 377 sugar maple trees that had undergone both defoliations by insects and partial harvest were used to estimate longitudinal survival probabilities as a proxy for tree vigour. Radial growth rates and survival probabilities were compared among trees subjected to different levels of above- and below-ground disturbances, between periods of defoliation and harvest, and between live and dead trees. Key Results Manion's tree disease model correctly accounts for vigour decline and tree death in sugar maple; tree growth and vigour were negatively affected by a first defoliation, predisposing these trees to death later during the study period due to a second insect outbreak that initiated a final vigour decline. This decline was accelerated by the partial harvest disturbance in 1993. Even the most severe anthropogenic disturbances from partial harvest did not cause, unlike insect defoliation, any growth or vigour declines in live sugar maple. Conclusions Natural disturbances acted as predisposing and inciting stresses in tree sugar maple decline and death. Anthropogenic disturbances from a partial harvest at worst accelerated a decline in trees that were already weakened by predisposing and inciting stresses (i.e. repeated insect defoliations). Favourable climatic conditions just before and after the partial harvest may have alleviated possible negative effects on growth resulting from harvesting. PMID:18660493

  3. Hyperfine structure parametrisation in Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigalas, G.; Scharf, O.; Fritzsche, S.

    2006-02-01

    In hyperfine structure examinations, routine high resolution spectroscopy methods have to be combined with exact fine structure calculations. The so-called magnetic A and electric B factor of the fine structure levels allow to check for a correct fine structure analysis, to find errors in the level designation, to find new levels and to probe the electron wavefunctions and its mixing coefficients. This is done by parametrisation of these factors into different contributions of the subshell electrons, which are split further into their radial and spin-angular part. Due to the routine with which hyperfine structure measurements are done, a tool for keeping the necessary information together, performing checks online with the experiment and deriving standard quantities is of great help. MAPLE [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc.] is a highly-developed symbolic programming language, often referred to as the pocket calculator of the future. Packages for theoretical atomic calculation exist ( RACAH and JUCYS) and the language meets all the requirements to keep and present information accessible for the user in a fast and practical way. We slightly extended the RACAH package [S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 103 (1997) 51] and set up an environment for experimental hyperfine structure calculations, the HFS package. Supplying the fine structure and nuclear data, one is in the position to obtain information about the hyperfine spectrum, the different contributions to the splitting and to perform a least square fit of the radial parameters based on the semiempirical method. Experimentalist as well as theoretical physicist can do a complete hyperfine structure analysis using MAPLE. Program summaryTitle of program: H FS Catalogue number: ADXD Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXD Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computers for which the program is designed

  4. Biogeochemical features of maple and dandelion in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    Today more than half of world population and 73% of population in Russia live in cities. Moscow is the only one megacity in Russia with the population more than 11 million. The main source of technogenic impact in Moscow is transport. Plants can be used as indicators of urban environment heavy metals and metalloids (HM) pollution. Large scale biogeochemical research was done in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow. Apart from transport there are many industrial sources of pollution: metalworking, mechanical engineering, chemical, energetic and incinerator. This study focuses on detection of HM composition of woody plant leaves (maple - Acer platanoides) and herbaceous species leaves (dandelion - Taraxacum officinale). Plant material was collected on a regular greed with a step of 500-700 m. Background plants were sampled at 40 km west away from the city. Determination of Fe, Mn, Mo, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, Sb in plants was done using atomic absorption spectrometry after washing, drying and digestion with HNO3+H2O2. It was revealed that dandelion accumulates (index - concentration factors CF relatively background) Mo13Fe6Pb5Cd4.5As4Sb3, while maple Sb13As5.5Fe3Mo2Pb,Zn1.5. Geochemical specialization of plants in functional zones (industrial, transport, recreational, agricultural, residential areas with high-, middle- and low-rise buildings) was identified. The highest CF were determined for Mo in dandelion of all zones except industrial. In which the most accumulated elements are Fe and Mo, as well as Pb10As6Sb5Cu2. Arsenic is accumulated by dandelion in all zones. Copper is not concentrated by herbaceous species because of antagonism between Mo and Cu. The highest CF were determined for HM in maple of industrial zone. There trees concentrate Sb and As9Fe7Mo6Pb3Zn2. In the other zones levels of CF are lower in 2-5 times. Dandelion and maple don't accumulate Mn because of antagonism between Zn, Mo and Mn. Urban plants condition is estimated by the ratio between

  5. Detecting sulfur dioxide stress in red maple foliage by changes in membrane permeability and ethylene evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, J.H. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M.

    1989-04-01

    Two-yr-old seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) pollution at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 ppm 8 hr daily for two 3-day periods spaced 3 days apart. Alterations in membrane permeability caused by SO{sub 2} stress were measured by electrolyte leakage of incubated leaf discs, and changes in ethylene biosynthesis were determined by gas chromatography using intact leaves. Ethylene increased 62% as SO{sub 2} concentration changed from 0 to 0.5 ppm, suggesting that ethylene may be a useful indicator for determining the onset of acute SO{sub 2} stress in maple. Membrane permeability was not as sensitive to the onset of SO{sub 2} stress but exhibited incremental changes associated with increasing levels of SO{sub 2}. These data suggest that membrane permeability may serve as a useful index for monitoring changes caused by SO{sub 2} at the cellular level.

  6. A numerical study of a freely-falling maple seed with autorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Injae; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    Many single winged seeds such as those of maples exploit autorotation to decrease the descending velocity and increase the dispersal distance for the conservation of species. In this study, a numerical simulation is conducted for flow around a freely-falling maple seed (Acer palmatum) at the Reynolds number of 1186 (based on the mean chord length and characteristic terminal velocity). We use an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame (Kim & Choi, JCP, 2006) for the simulation. After a transient period, the seed reaches the steady autorotation with a stable leading edge vortex attached on the surface of the wing at which the descending velocity significantly decreases. At steady autorotation, the descending velocity is proportional to the square root of disc loading. We also study the effect of the initial position of the seeds on the timing of autorotation, and show that the autorotation occurs earlier when the wing leading edge or nut is initially positioned upward. Supported by NRF-2011-0028032.

  7. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  8. Toward an improved model of maple sap exudation: the location and role of osmotic barriers in sugar maple, butternut and white birch.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Damián; Jagels, Richard; Tyree, Melvin T

    2008-08-01

    Two theories have been proposed to explain how high positive pressures are developed in sugar maple stems when temperatures fluctuate around freezing. The Milburn-O'Malley theory proposes that pressure development is purely physical and does not require living cells or sucrose. The osmotic theory invokes the involvement of living cells and sucrose to generate an osmotic pressure difference between fibers and vessels, which are assumed to be separated by an osmotic barrier. We analyzed wood of Acer saccharum Marsh., Juglans cinerea L. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. (all generate positive pressures) examining three critical components of the osmotic model: pits in cell walls, selectivity of the osmotic barrier and stability of air bubbles under positive xylem pressure. We examined the distribution and type of pits directly by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and indirectly by perfusion of branch segments with fluorescent dyes with molecular masses similar to sucrose. The latter approach allowed us to use osmotic surrogates for sucrose that could be tracked by epifluorescence. Infusion experiments were used to assess the compartmentalization of sucrose and to determine the behavior of gas bubbles as predicted by Fick's and Henry's laws. The SEM images of sugar maple revealed a lack of pitting between fibers and vessels but connections between fiber-tracheids and vessels were present. Fluorescein-perfusion experiments demonstrated that large molecules do not diffuse into libriform fibers but are confined within the domain of vessels, parenchyma and fiber-tracheids. Results of the infusion experiments were in agreement with those of the fluorescein perfusions and further indicated the necessity of a compartmentalized osmolyte to drive stem pressure, as well as the inability of air bubbles to maintain such pressure because of instability. These results support the osmotic model and demonstrate that the secondary cell wall is an effective osmotic barrier for

  9. Biosensor Applications of MAPLE Deposited Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Valeria; Bloisi, Francesco; Aronne, Antonio; Federici, Stefania; Nasti, Libera; Depero, Laura E.; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc.) materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest) molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix). Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis. PMID:25587426

  10. Tapping the Sugar Maple--Learning and Appreciating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Charles

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses how to tap a maple tree. Tapping a maple tree to produce maple syrup can: (1) lead to better understanding in many subject areas, (2) develop skills through participation in a rewarding activity, and (3) help students appreciate the many important roles that trees play in our environment and daily lives. (NQ)

  11. Calculus of One and More Variables with Maple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samkova, Libuse

    2012-01-01

    This is a guide to using Maple in teaching fundamental calculus of one, two and three variables (limits, derivatives, integrals, etc.), also suitable for Maple beginners. It outlines one of the ways to effective use of computers in the teaching process. It scans advantages and disadvantages of using Maple in relation to students and teacher. The…

  12. Relationship between leaf optical properties, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment changes in senescing Acer saccharum leaves.

    PubMed

    Junker, Laura Verena; Ensminger, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    The ability of plants to sequester carbon is highly variable over the course of the year and reflects seasonal variation in photosynthetic efficiency. This seasonal variation is most prominent during autumn, when leaves of deciduous tree species such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) undergo senescence, which is associated with downregulation of photosynthesis and a change of leaf color. The remote sensing of leaf color by spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images is increasingly used to improve models of growing season length and seasonal variation in carbon sequestration. Vegetation indices derived from spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images might not adequately reflect photosynthetic efficiency of red-senescing tree species during autumn due to the changes in foliar pigment content associated with autumn phenology. In this study, we aimed to assess how effectively several widely used vegetation indices capture autumn phenology and reflect the changes in physiology and photosynthetic pigments during autumn. Chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment content of green, yellow, orange and red leaves were measured to represent leaf senescence during autumn and used as a reference to validate and compare vegetation indices derived from leaf-level spectral reflectance measurements and color analysis of digital images. Vegetation indices varied in their suitability to track the decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content despite increasing anthocyanin content. Commonly used spectral reflectance indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and photochemical reflectance index showed major constraints arising from a limited representation of gradual decreases in chlorophyll content and an influence of high foliar anthocyanin levels. The excess green index and green-red vegetation index were more suitable to assess the process of senescence. Similarly, digital image analysis revealed that vegetation

  13. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant "Jingling Huangfeng" turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration. PMID:26788511

  14. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant “Jingling Huangfeng” turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration. PMID:26788511

  15. Applications of Maple To Algebraic Cryptography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Neil P.

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of technology to enhance the appreciation of applications involving abstract algebra. The symbolic manipulator Maple can perform computations required for a linear cryptosystem. One major benefit of this process is that students can encipher and decipher messages using a linear cryptosystem without becoming confused and…

  16. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  17. Engineering Mathematics Assessment Using "MapleTA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian S.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of degree level engineering mathematics students using the computer-aided assessment package MapleTA is discussed. Experience of academic and practical issues for both online coursework and examination assessments is presented, hopefully benefiting other academics in this novel area of activity. (Contains 6 figures and 1 table.)

  18. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.

  19. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition.

    PubMed

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas; Manusadžianas, Levonas

    2013-02-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N(tot), ammonium and generating higher BOD(7). Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. PMID:23202636

  20. Technetium-99 cycling in maple trees: Characterization of changes in chemical form

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D. )

    1989-08-01

    Prior field studies near an old radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge, TN, indicated that following root uptake, metabolism by deciduous trees rendered 99Tc less biogeochemically mobile than expected, based on chemistry of the pertechnetate (TcO-4) anion. Subsequently, the form of technetium (Tc) in maple tree (Acer sp.) sap, leaves, wood and forest leaf litter was characterized using one or more of the following methods: dialysis, physical fractionation, chemical extraction, gel permeation chromatography, enzymatic extraction, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of TcO-4 incubated in vitro with tree sap showed it to behave similar to TcO-4 anion. When labeled wood and leaf tissues were processed using a tissue homogenizer, 15% and 40%, respectively, of the Tc was solubilized into phosphate buffer. Most (65% to 80%) of the solubilized Tc passing a 0.45-micron filter also passed through an ultrafiltration membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 atomic mass units (amu). A majority (72% to 80%) of the Tc in wood could be chemically removed by successive extractions with ethanol, water and weak mineral acid. These same extractants removed only 23% to 31% of the Tc from maple leaves or forest floor leaf litter. Most of the Tc in leaves and leaf litter was removed only by strongly alkaline reagents typically used to release structural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) from plant tissues. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of the ethanol-water extract from wood and the alkaline extract from leaves demonstrated that Tc in these extracts was not principally TcO-4 but was complexed with molecules greater than 1000 amu. Incubations of leaf and wood homogenates with protease approximately doubled the amount of Tc released from contaminated tissues.

  1. In vivo and in situ rhizosphere respiration in Acer saccharum and Betula alleghaniensis seedlings grown in contrasting light regimes.

    PubMed

    Delagrange, Sylvain; Huc, Frédéric; Messier, Christian; Dizengremel, Pierre; Dreyer, Erwin

    2006-07-01

    A perfusive method combined with an open-system carbon dioxide measurement system was used to assess rhizosphere respiration of Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple) and Betula alleghaniensis Britton (yellow birch) seedlings grown in 8-l pots filled with coarse sand. We compared in vivo and in situ rhizosphere respiration between species, among light regimes (40, 17 and 6% of full daylight) and at different times during the day. To compute specific rhizosphere respiration, temperature corrections were made with either species-specific coefficients (Q10) based on the observed change in respiration rate between 15 and 21 degrees C or an arbitrarily assigned Q10 of 2. Estimated, species-specific Q10 values were 3.0 and 3.4 for A. saccharum and B. alleghaniensis, respectively, and did not vary with light regime. Using either method of temperature correction, specific rhizosphere respiration did not differ either between A. saccharum and B. alleghaniensis, or among light regimes except in A. saccharum at 6% of full daylight. At this irradiance, seedlings were smaller than in the other light treatments, with a larger fine root fraction of total root dry mass, resulting in higher respiration rates. Specific rhizosphere respiration was significantly higher during the afternoon than at other times of day when temperature-corrected on the basis of an arbitrary Q10 of 2, suggesting the possibility of diurnal variation in a temperature-independent component of rhizosphere respiration. PMID:16585038

  2. The Arabidopsis ceramidase AtACER functions in disease resistance and salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Xin; Li, Jian; Liu, Zhe; Yin, Jian; Chang, Zhen-Yi; Rong, Chan; Wu, Jia-Li; Bi, Fang-Cheng; Yao, Nan

    2015-03-01

    Ceramidases hydrolyze ceramide into sphingosine and fatty acids. In mammals, ceramidases function as key regulators of sphingolipid homeostasis, but little is known about their roles in plants. Here we characterize the Arabidopsis ceramidase AtACER, a homolog of human alkaline ceramidases. The acer-1 T-DNA insertion mutant has pleiotropic phenotypes, including reduction of leaf size, dwarfing and an irregular wax layer, compared with wild-type plants. Quantitative sphingolipid profiling showed that acer-1 mutants and the artificial microRNA-mediated silenced line amiR-ACER-1 have high ceramide levels and decreased long chain bases. AtACER localizes predominantly to the endoplasmic reticulum, and partially to the Golgi complex. Furthermore, we found that acer-1 mutants and AtACER RNAi lines showed increased sensitivity to salt stress, and lines overexpressing AtACER showed increased tolerance to salt stress. Reduction of AtACER also increased plant susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae. Our data highlight the key biological functions of ceramidases in biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:25619405

  3. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  4. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  5. Molecular characterization and differential expression of two duplicated dorant receptor genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, in Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Du, Haiyan; Ma, Weihua; Tian, Songhao; Jiang, Yusuo

    2014-04-01

    Insects use olfaction to recognize a wide range of volatile cues, to locate food sources, mates, hosts and oviposition sites. These chemical volatiles are perceived by odorant receptors (ORs) expressed on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons, most of which are housed within the chemosensilla of antennae. Most insect ORs are tandemly arrayed on chromosomes and some of them are formed by gene duplication. Here, we identified a pair of duplicated Or genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, and reported their molecular characterization and temporal expression profiles. The results showed that these two genes shared high similarity both in sequence and the gene structure. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of temporal expression pattern indicated that in drones the expression pattern of these two genes were very similar. The transcripts expressed weakly in larvae and pupae, then increased gradually in adults. In workers, the expression level of AcerOr1 changed more drastically and expressed higher than that of AcerOr3. However, both reached their highest expression level in one-day-old adults. In addition, the expression profiles between different sexes revealed that AcerOr3 appear to be expressed biased in male antennae. These results suggest that AcerOr1 may perceive odours of floral scents, while AcerOr3 may detect odours critical to male behaviour, such as the queen substance cues. PMID:24840823

  6. Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Valman, H. B.; Patrick, A. D.; Seakins, J. W. T.; Platt, J. W.; Gompertz, D.

    1973-01-01

    A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development. Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the keto and hydroxy acids characteristic of maple syrup urine disease, and thin layer chromatography of the plasma and urine showed greatly increased concentrations of the branched chain amino acids. The urine and plasma of the surviving child was chromatographically normal between episodes. The leucocyte branched chain keto acid decarboxylase activity in this patient and her father was reduced. The range of features in this family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease illustrates the necessity for prompt and careful investigation of metabolic acidosis of unknown aetiology. PMID:4693464

  7. Seasonal variability of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of Acer platanoides and Tilia platyphyllos in central Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of maple (Acer platanoides-Ap) and linden (Tilia platyphyllos-Tp) collected in four periods of the growing season of trees, i.e. in April (IV), June (VI), August (VIII) and November (IX) in 2013, from the area of Poznań city (Poland). The highest average concentration of mercury for 88 samples was determined in soils and it equaled 65.8 ± 41.7 ng g(-1) (range 14.5-238.9 ng g(-1)); lower average concentration was found in Ap samples (n = 66): 55.4 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) (range 26.5-106.9 ng g(-1)); in Tp samples 50.4 ± 15.8 ng g(-1) (range 23.1-88.7 ng g(-1)) and in 22 samples of Tp buds 40.8 ± 22.7 ng g(-1) (range 12.4-98.7 ng g(-1)) and Ap buds 28.2 ± 13.6 ng g(-1) (range 8.0-59.5 ng g(-1)). Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the highest concentration of mercury in soils occurred in the centre of Poznań city (95.5 ± 39.1 ng g(-1)), and it was two times higher than the concentration of mercury in other parts of the city. Similar dependencies were not observed for the leaf samples of Ap and Tp. It was found that mercury concentrations in the soil and leaves of maple and linden were different depending on the period of the growing season (April to November). Mercury content in the examined samples was higher in the first two research periods (April IV, June VI), and then, in the following periods, the accumulation of mercury decreased both in soil and leaf samples of the two tree species. There was no correlation found between mercury concentration in leaves and mercury concentration in soils during the four research periods (April-November). When considering the transfer coefficient, it was observed that the main source of mercury in leaves is the mercury coming from the atmosphere. PMID:26846237

  8. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronne, Antonio; Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Fanelli, Esther; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-11-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  9. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on Leaf Optical Properties and Chlorophyll Content in Acer saccharum (Marsh.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Bahadur, Raj; Norby, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 pressure and numerous causes of plant stress often result in decreased leaf chlorophyll contents and thus would be expected to alter leaf optical properties. Hypotheses that elevated carbon dioxide pressure and air temperature would alter leaf optical properties were tested for sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the middle of its fourth growing season under treatment. The saplings had been growing since 1994 in open-top chambers at Oak Ridge, Tennessee under the following treatments: 1) Ambient CO2 pressure and air temperature (control); 2) CO2 pressure approximately 30 Pa above ambient; 3) Air temperatures 3 C above ambient; 4) Elevated CO2 and air temperature. Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance in the visible spectrum (400-720 nm) did not change significantly (rho = 0.05) in response to any treatment compared with control values. Although reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance at 700 nm correlated strongly with leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll content was not altered significantly by the treatments. The lack of treatment effects on pigmentation explained the non-significant change in optical properties in the visible spectrum. Optical properties in the near-infrared (721-850 nm) were similarly unresponsive to treatment with the exception of an increased absorptance in leaves that developed under elevated air temperature alone. This response could not be explained by the data, but might have resulted from effects of air temperature on leaf internal structure. Results indicated no significant potential for detecting leaf optical responses to elevated CO2 or temperature by the remote sensing of reflected radiation in the 400-850 nm spectrum.

  10. Sex Change Towards Female in Dying Acer rufinerve Trees

    PubMed Central

    NANAMI, SATOSHI; KAWAGUCHI, HIDEYUKI; YAMAKURA, TAKUO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes. • Methods Sex expression, growth rate and mortality of A. rufinerve trees in a natural population were monitored from 1992 to 1997. • Key Results Three types of sex expression were observed among A. rufinerve: male, female and bisexual. Among the three types of sex expression, sex changes occurred in all directions. In the growing season of 1994, precipitation was reduced. Stem growth rate decreased and mortality was high in 1994. In the spring of 1995, a drastic sex change from male to female or to bisexual occurred. As a result, the sex ratio became female‐biased in 1995, although it had been male‐biased from 1992 to 1994. In 1996 and 1997, the proportion of males in the population increased, partly as a result of female mortality and partly as a result of female‐to‐male sex changes. Sex expression of A. rufinerve was associated with their growth rate and mortality. The growth rate decreased for trees whose sex changed from male to female or to bisexual, and increased for trees whose sex changed from female to male or to bisexual. Dead trees reproduced as females before they died, except for those that died as males in 1994. • Conclusions One explanation for the sex change towards increasing femaleness for this A. rufinerve population in 1995 was the deterioration of plant health in the previous growing season, because of reduced precipitation. Sex changes of unhealthy and dying A. rufinerve towards femaleness may facilitate re‐occupancy by offspring in gaps created by the death of A. rufinerve trees. PMID:15102611

  11. Siring Success and Paternal Effects in Heterodichogamous Acer opalus

    PubMed Central

    Gleiser, Gabriela; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Pannell, John Richard; Verdú, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Heterodichogamy (a dimorphic breeding system comprising protandrous and protogynous individuals) is a potential starting point in the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. In the genus Acer, previous work suggests that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy through an initial spread of unisexual males. Here, the question is asked as to whether the different morphs in Acer opalus, a species in which males co-exist with heterodichogamous hermaphrodites, differ in various components of male in fitness. Methods Several components of male fertility were analysed. Pollination rates in the male phase were recorded across one flowering period. Pollen viability was compared among morphs through hand pollinations both with pollen from a single sexual morph and also simulating a situation of pollen competition; in the latter experiment, paternity was assessed with microsatellite markers. It was also determined whether effects of genetic relatedness between pollen donors and recipients could influence the siring success. Finally, paternal effects occurring beyond the fertilization process were tested for by measuring the height reached by seedlings with different sires over three consecutive growing seasons. Key Results The males and protandrous morphs had higher pollination rates than the protogynous morph, and the seedlings they sired grew taller. No differences in male fertility were found between males and protandrous individuals. Departures from random mating due to effects of genetic relatedness among sires and pollen recipients were also ruled out. Conclusions Males and protandrous individuals are probably better sires than protogynous individuals, as shown by the higher pollination rates and the differential growth of the seedlings sired by these morphs. In contrast, the fertility of males was not higher than the male fertility of the protandrous morph. While the appearance of males in sexually specialized heterodichogamous populations is possible

  12. Definite Integrals, Some Involving Residue Theory Evaluated by Maple Code

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2010-01-01

    The calculus of residue is applied to evaluate certain integrals in the range (-{infinity} to {infinity}) using the Maple symbolic code. These integrals are of the form {integral}{sub -{infinity}}{sup {infinity}} cos(x)/[(x{sup 2} + a{sup 2})(x{sup 2} + b{sup 2}) (x{sup 2} + c{sup 2})]dx and similar extensions. The Maple code is also applied to expressions in maximum likelihood estimator moments when sampling from the negative binomial distribution. In general the Maple code approach to the integrals gives correct answers to specified decimal places, but the symbolic result may be extremely long and complex.

  13. Laser transfer of biomaterials: Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and MAPLE Direct Write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P. K.; Ringeisen, B. R.; Krizman, D. B.; Frondoza, C. G.; Brooks, M.; Bubb, D. M.; Auyeung, R. C. Y.; Piqué, A.; Spargo, B.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2003-04-01

    Two techniques for transferring biomaterial using a pulsed laser beam were developed: matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and MAPLE direct write (MDW). MAPLE is a large-area vacuum based technique suitable for coatings, i.e., antibiofouling, and MDW is a localized deposition technique capable of fast prototyping of devices, i.e., protein or tissue arrays. Both techniques have demonstrated the capability of transferring large (mol wt>100 kDa) molecules in different forms, e.g., liquid and gel, and preserving their functions. They can deposit patterned films with spatial accuracy and resolution of tens of μm and layering on a variety of substrate materials and geometries. MDW can dispense volumes less than 100 pl, transfer solid tissues, fabricate a complete device, and is computed aided design/computer aided manufacturing compatible. They are noncontact techniques and can be integrated with other sterile processes. These attributes are substantiated by films and arrays of biomaterials, e.g., polymers, enzymes, proteins, eucaryotic cells, and tissue, and a dopamine sensor. These examples, the instrumentation, basic mechanisms, a comparison with other techniques, and future developments are discussed.

  14. Technetium-99 cycling in maple trees: characterization of changes in chemical form

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Lomax, Ronny D

    1989-08-01

    Prior field studies near an old radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge, TN, indicated that following root uptake, metabolism by deciduous trees rendered 99Tc less biogeochemically mobile than expected, based on chemistry of the pertechnetate (TcO4-) anion. Subsequently, the form of technetium (Tc) in maple tree (Acer sp.) sap, leaves, wood and forest leaf litter was characterized using one or more of the following methods: dialysis, physical fractionation, chemical extraction, gel permeation chromatography, enzymatic extraction, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of TcO4- incubated in vitro with tree sap showed it to behave similar to TcO4- anion. When labeled wood and leaf tissues were processed using a tissue homogenizer, 15% and 40%, respectively, of the Tc was solubilized into phosphate buffer. Most (65% to 80%) of the solubilized Tc passing a 0.45-micron filter also passed through an ultrafiltration membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 atomic mass units (amu). A majority (72% to 80%) of the Tc in wood could be chemically removed by successive extractions with ethanol, water and weak mineral acid. These same extractants removed only 23% to 31% of the Tc from maple leaves or forest floor leaf litter. Most of the Tc in leaves and leaf litter was removed only by strongly alkaline reagents typically used to release structural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) from plant tissues. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of the ethanol-water extract from wood and the alkaline extract from leaves demonstrated that Tc in these extracts was not principally TcO4- but was complexed with molecules > 1000 amu. Incubations of leaf and wood homogenates with protease approximately doubled the amount of Tc released from contaminated tissues. Ultrafiltration of protease-solubilized Tc from leaves and wood showed that 40% and 93%, respectively, of the Tc was >10,000 amu. TLC of the <10,000 amu fraction indicated the

  15. The effects of ozone-exposed sugar maple seedlings on the biological performance and the feeding preference of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.).

    PubMed

    Fortin, M; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J

    1997-01-01

    The effects of exposure of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) to ozone on the entire larval stage of a native insect have not been previously investigated. This study reports the effects of sugar maple seedlings exposed to different ozone concentrations on the relative performance and the feeding preference of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.). Three-year-old seedlings were set in nine open-top field chambers in the spring of 1992 and 1993. Three ozone concentrations were generated: charcoal-filtered ambient air (0x), ambient air (1x) and three times ambient air (3x). In 1992, female and male larval development time did not differ among ozone treatments. In 1993, female larvae reared on 3x developed faster than those on 0x and 1x, while male larvae were not affected. Ozone treatments did not influence pupal weights except for males in 1993 where pupae reared on 0x were heavier than 1x but did not differ from 3x. Larval and pupal survival rates were not affected by ozone in either year. Finally, 4th and 5th instar larvae showed a significant feeding preference for 3x foliage in 1993 but not in 1992. The response of the forest tent caterpillar to ozone exposed seedlings varied between years and could be more sensitive to annual climatic variations than ozone. PMID:15093369

  16. Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Shows how the computer software programs Mathematica and Maple can be used to obtain chemical equations to represent the stoichiometry of a reacting system. Specific examples are included. Contains 10 references. (DKM)

  17. Collophora aceris, a novel antimycotic producing endophyte associated with Douglas Maple.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Strobel, Gary A; Mends, Morgan T; Hilmer, Jonathan; Nigg, Jared; Geary, Brad

    2013-11-01

    A novel endophyte designated Collophora aceris, was obtained from stem tissues of Douglas Maple (Acer glabrum var. douglasii) in a Pacific Northwest temperate rainforest. Colonies were slow growing, white, creamy, moist, and translucent to opaque on potato dextrose agar and other media with few aerial hyphae. It also produced solid, dark sclerotia (200-400 μm) on oatmeal agar and no evidence of pseudopycnidia as per other Collophora spp. Conidia were rod-like in the size ranging from 2.2-8.4 × 0.8-1.8 μm and produced holoblastically on conidiogenous cells by budding with no collarette at the budding site. Phylogenetic analyses, based on 18S rDNA sequence data, showed that C. aceris possessed 99 % similarity to other Collophora spp. However, ITS-5.8S rDNA sequence data indicated that the organism was potentially related to Allantophomopsis spp. Finally, combined morphological, physiological, and molecular genetics data indicated that this organism is most like Collophora spp. but it is distinctly unique when compared to all other fungi in this group. It is to be noted that this is the first report of any member of this genus existing as an endophyte. This fungus makes a wide spectrum antimycotic agent (Collophorin) with biological activity against such pathogenic fungi as Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora palmivora, and Rhizoctonia solani. Collophorin was purified to homogeneity and shown to have a unique mass of 120.0639, an empirical formula of C8H8O1, and UV absorption bands at 260 and 378 nm. This work also indicates that C. aceris possesses the biological potential to provide protection of its host against an array of common plant pathogens. PMID:23996143

  18. Dynamics of the inverse MAPLE nanoparticle deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthew A.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is a processing technique by which laser-sensitive materials are dissolved or placed into colloidal solution with a strongly absorbing sacrificial solvent, which when frozen into a solid target and irradiated under vacuum disperses the undamaged solute material onto a desired substrate. We present an inversion of the original MAPLE process, where the irradiation of metal-based acetate precursors in solution with UV transparent water results in the deposition of inorganic nanoparticles. A theory is forwarded to explain the underlying multiscale sequence of events that control the inverse MAPLE process from acetate decomposition to nanoparticle formation and subsequent ejection. Support for this theory is provided through the analysis of deposited nanoparticles and by novel characterization of MAPLE targets post-irradiation via cryostage scanning electron microscopy. Ejection is shown to proceed through the same phase-explosion mechanism that drives conventional MAPLE, relating the two techniques and advancing the broader understanding of MAPLE deposition processes.

  19. Effects of soil freezing and drought stress on abscisic acid content of sugar maple sap and leaves.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, A; Robitaille, G; Nadeau, P; Boutin, R

    1994-04-01

    In 1991 and 1992, mature maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were freeze-stressed or drought-stressed by preventing precipitation (snow or rain) from reaching the forest floor under selected trees. Lack of snow cover caused a decrease in soil temperature to well below 0 degrees C from December to April and a lowering of the soil water content to 10%. The abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in the spring sap of deep-soil frost-stressed trees was significantly higher than in control or drought-stressed trees. The increase in ABA concentration in the xylem sap in the spring of 1991 and 1992 preceded symptoms of canopy decline and a decrease in leaf area that were observed during the summers of 1991 and 1992. These results suggest a role for ABA in root-to-shoot communication in response to environmental stress. The largest differences in ABA concentration induced by the treatments was found in sap collected at the end of sap flow. The increase in ABA concentration in spring sap at the end of the sap flow could be used as an early indicator of stress suffered by trees during the winter. Not only did the increase in ABA concentration occur before any visible symptoms of tree decline appeared, but the trees that showed the most evident decline had the highest ABA concentrations in the spring sap. Leaf ABA concentration was not a good indicator of induced stress. PMID:14967696

  20. Fine roots are the dominant source of recalcitrant plant litter in sugar maple-dominated northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengxue; Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2015-11-01

    Most studies of forest litter dynamics examine the biochemical characteristics and decomposition of leaf litter, but fine roots are also a large source of litter in forests. We quantified the concentrations of eight biochemical fractions and nitrogen (N) in leaf litter and fine roots at four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated hardwood forests in the north-central United States. We combined these results with litter production data to estimate ecosystem biochemical fluxes to soil. We also compared how leaf litter and fine root biochemistry responded to long-term simulated N deposition. Compared with leaf litter, fine roots contained 2.9-fold higher acid-insoluble fraction (AIF) and 2.3-fold more condensed tannins; both are relatively difficult to decompose. Comparatively, leaf litter had greater quantities of more labile components: nonstructural carbohydrates, cellulose and soluble phenolics. At an ecosystem scale, fine roots contributed over two-thirds of the fluxes of AIF and condensed tannins to soil. Fine root biochemistry was also less responsive than leaf litter to long-term simulated N deposition. Fine roots were the dominant source of difficult-to-decompose plant carbon fractions entering the soil at our four study sites. Based on our synthesis of the literature, this pattern appears to be widespread in boreal and temperate forests. PMID:26073624

  1. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1α subunit of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated. PMID:21098507

  2. Using Maple to Implement eLearning Integrated with Computer Aided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Bill; Labovic, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Advanced mathematics courses have been developed and refined by the first author, using an action research methodology, for more than a decade. These courses use the computer algebra system (CAS) Maple in an "immersion mode" where all presentations and student work are done using Maple. Assignments and examinations are Maple files downloaded from…

  3. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  4. The Multiple Pendulum Problem via Maple[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, K. L.; Knight, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    The way in which computer algebra systems, such as Maple, have made the study of physical problems of some considerable complexity accessible to mathematicians and scientists with modest computational skills is illustrated by solving the multiple pendulum problem. A solution is obtained for four pendulums with no restriction on the size of the…

  5. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  6. Student's Lab Assignments in PDE Course with MAPLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponidi, B. Alhadi

    Computer-aided software has been used intensively in many mathematics courses, especially in computational subjects, to solve initial value and boundary value problems in Partial Differential Equations (PDE). Many software packages were used in student lab assignments such as FORTRAN, PASCAL, MATLAB, MATHEMATICA, and MAPLE in order to accelerate…

  7. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:26563847

  8. Whole-plant water flux in understory red maple exposed to altered precipitation regimes.

    PubMed

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Hanson, Paul J.; Tschaplinski, Tim J.

    1998-02-01

    Sap flow gauges were used to estimate whole-plant water flux for five stem-diameter classes of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) growing in the understory of an upland oak forest and exposed to one of three large-scale (0.64 ha) manipulations of soil water content. This Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) used subcanopy troughs to intercept roughly 30% of the throughfall on a "dry" plot and a series of pipes to move this collected precipitation across an "ambient" plot and onto a "wet" plot. Saplings with a stem diameter larger than 10 cm lost water at rates 50-fold greater than saplings with a stem diameter of 1 to 2 cm (326 versus 6.4 mol H(2)O tree(-1) day(-1)). These size-class differences were driven largely by differences in leaf area and cross-sectional sapwood area, because rates of water flux expressed per unit leaf area (6.90 mol H(2)O m(-2) day(-1)) or sapwood area (288 mol H(2)O dm(-2) day(-1)) were similar among saplings of the five size classes. Daily and hourly rates of transpiration expressed per unit leaf area varied throughout much of the season, as did soil matrix potentials, and treatment differences due to the TDE were observed during two of the seven sampling periods. On July 6, midday rates of transpiration averaged 1.88 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "wet" plot, 1.22 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "ambient" plot, and 0.76 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "dry" plot. During the early afternoon of August 28, transpiration rates were sevenfold lower for saplings in the "dry" plot compared to saplings in the "wet" plot and 2.5-fold lower compared to saplings in the "ambient" plot. Treatment differences in crown conductance followed a pattern similar to that of transpiration, with values that averaged 60% lower for saplings in the "dry" plot compared to saplings in the "wet" plot and 35% lower compared to saplings in the "ambient" plot. Stomatal and boundary layer conductances were roughly equal in magnitude

  9. Development of the teneral adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): time to initiate and completely bore out of maple wood.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, V; Keena, M A

    2013-02-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is an introduced invasive pest with the potential to devastate hardwood forests in North America. Using artificial pupal chambers, we documented the time required by teneral adults at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30 °C), 60-80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h to initiate boring after eclosion and subsequently bore completely through a 7-mm (range, 3-11 mm) layer of Norway maple wood (Acer platanoides L.). In total, 218 laboratory-reared pupae from the Chicago, IL, or Inner Mongolia, China, populations were used in the study. Females (1.54 ± 0.03 g) weighed significantly more than males (1.12 ± 0.03 g), but the average weights of the beetles emerging in each temperature did not differ. Adult weight was positively correlated with exit hole diameter (diameter [mm] = 2.2 * weight [g] + 7.9). The rate at which beetles bored through the wood (136, 178, and 168 mm(3)/d at 20, 25 and 30 °C, respectively) significantly differed between temperatures but did not differ with beetle weight. Temperature had a significant effect on the time it took adults to initiate boring (7, 5, and 4 d at 20, 25, and 30 °C, respectively) and subsequently to complete boring to emerge (5, 4, and 4 d at 20, 25, and 30 °C, respectively). This suggests that beetles require more than a week to progress from eclosion to emergence in wood, even at summer temperatures. This information on A. glabripennis basic biology is critical for developing phenology models that are used to time exclusion and eradication methodologies. PMID:23339780

  10. Binomial and Poisson Mixtures, Maximum Likelihood, and Maple Code

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o; Shenton, LR

    2006-01-01

    The bias, variance, and skewness of maximum likelihoood estimators are considered for binomial and Poisson mixture distributions. The moments considered are asymptotic, and they are assessed using the Maple code. Question of existence of solutions and Karl Pearson's study are mentioned, along with the problems of valid sample space. Large samples to reduce variances are not unusual; this also applies to the size of the asymptotic skewness.

  11. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy. PMID:25647359

  12. Acylated Triterpene Saponins from the Stem Bark of Acer nikoense (Aceraceae).

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Sasaki, Yu F; Suyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Three new acylated triterpene saponins, acernikoenosides A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Acer nikoense, together with a known sterol glucoside. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. This study provided the first example of triterpene saponins isolated from this plant. The anti-genotoxic activity of 1, 3 and 4 against ultraviolet irradiation was evaluated by comet assay. PMID:27373647

  13. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2016-05-01

    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied (15)N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species. PMID:26786538

  14. America's Native Sweet: Chippewa Treaties and the Right to Harvest Maple Sugar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Argues in favor of a Chippewa right to harvest maple sap from trees on federal land. Discusses the history of Indian production of and trade in maple sugar, examines relevant treaties, and draws parallels with tribal rights to fish and harvest wild rice. Contains 91 references. (SV)

  15. Passive Maple-Seed Robotic Fliers for Education, Research and Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, D. M.; Abu-Ageel, A.; Alfatlawi, M.; Varney, M. W.; Thompson, C. M.; Aslam, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    As inspirations from flora and fauna have led to many advances in modern technology, the concept of drawing ideas from nature for design should be reflected in engineering education. This paper focuses on a maple-seed robotic flier (MRF) with various complexities, a robotic platform modeled after the samaras of maple or ash trees, to teach STEM…

  16. MAPLE Procedures For Boson Fields System On Curved Space - Time

    SciTech Connect

    Murariu, Gabriel

    2007-04-23

    Systems of interacting boson fields are an important subject in the last years. From the problem of dark matter to boson stars' study, boson fields are involved. In the general configuration, it is considered a Klein-Gordon-Maxwell-Einstein fields system for a complex scalar field minimally coupled to a gravitational one. The necessity of studying a larger number of space-time configurations and the huge volume of computations for each particular situation are some reasons for building a MAPLE procedures set for this kind of systems.

  17. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan T; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:27391424

  18. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan T.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:27391424

  19. Combinatorial MAPLE gradient thin film assemblies signalling to human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Axente, Emanuel; Sima, Felix; Elena Sima, Livia; Erginer, Merve; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Serban, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Petrescu, Stefana M; Toksoy Oner, Ebru; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2014-09-01

    There is increased interest in smart bioactive materials to control tissue regeneration for the engineering of cell instructive scaffolds. We introduced combinatorial matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (C-MAPLE) as a new method for the fabrication of organic thin films with a compositional gradient. Synchronized C-MAPLE of levan and oxidized levan was employed to assemble a two-compound biopolymer film structure. The gradient of the film composition was validated by fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we investigated the cell response induced by the compositional gradient using imaging of early osteoblast attachment and analysis of signalling phosphoprotein expression. Cells attached along the gradient in direct proportion to oxidized levan concentration. During this process distinct areas of the binary gradient have been shown to modulate the osteoblasts' extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling with different propensity. The proposed fabrication method results in the preparation of a new bioactive material, which could control the cell signalling response. This approach can be extended to screen new bioactive interfaces for tissue regeneration. PMID:24867882

  20. Red edge spectral measurements from sugar maple leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge portion (680-750 nm) of the spectrum among the various samples and populations of leaves. These included differences in the red edge inflection point (REIP), a ratio of reflectance at 740-720 nm (RE3/RE2), and a ratio of first derivative values at 715-705 nm (D715/D705). All three red edge parameters were highly correlated with variation in total chlorophyll content. Other spectral measures, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Simple Vegetation Index Ratio (VI), also varied among populations and over the growing season, but did not correlate well with total chlorophyll content. Leaf stacking studies on light and dark backgrounds indicated REIP, RE3/RE2 and D715/D705 to be much less influenced by differences in green leaf biomass and background condition than either NDVI or VI.

  1. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    PubMed Central

    Wesley-Smith, James; Walters, Christina; Pammenter, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than −180 °C using liquid nitrogen. It has previously been shown that intracellular ice forms in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum (silver maple) but this is not necessarily lethal when ice crystals are small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Methods Embryonic axes of A. saccharinum, not subjected to dehydration or cryoprotection treatments (water content was 1·9 g H2O g−1 dry mass), were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures using two methods: plunging into nitrogen slush to achieve a cooling rate of 97 °C s−1 or programmed cooling at 3·3 °C s−1. Samples were thawed rapidly (177 °C s−1) and cell structure was examined microscopically immediately, and at intervals up to 72 h in vitro. Survival was assessed after 4 weeks in vitro. Axes were processed conventionally for optical microscopy and ultrastructural examination. Key Results Immediately following thaw after cryogenic exposure, cells from axes did not show signs of damage at an ultrastructural level. Signs that cells had been damaged were apparent after several hours of in vitro culture and appeared as autophagic decomposition. In surviving tissues, dead cells were sloughed off and pockets of living cells were the origin of regrowth. In roots, regrowth occurred from the ground meristem and procambium, not the distal meristem, which became lethally damaged. Regrowth of shoots occurred from isolated pockets of surviving cells of peripheral and pith meristems. The size of these pockets may determine the possibility for, the extent of and the vigour of regrowth. Conclusions Autophagic degradation and ultimately autolysis of cells following

  2. Alkaline Ceramidase 2 (ACER2) and Its Product Dihydrosphingosine Mediate the Cytotoxicity of N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide in Tumor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhehao; Sun, Wei; Xu, Ruijuan; Novgorodov, Sergei; Szulc, Zdzislaw M.; Bielawski, Jacek; Obeid, Lina M.; Mao, Cungui

    2010-01-01

    Increased generation of dihydrosphingosine (DHS), a bioactive sphingolipid, has been implicated in the cytotoxicity of the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) in tumor cells. However, how 4-HPR increases DHS remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that 4-HPR increases the expression of ACER2, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of dihydroceramides to generate DHS, and that ACER2 up-regulation plays a key role in mediating the 4-HPR-induced generation of DHS as well as the cytotoxicity of 4-HPR in tumor cells. Treatment with 4-HPR induced the accumulation of dihydroceramides (DHCs) in tumor cells by inhibiting dihydroceramide desaturase (DES) activity, which catalyzes the conversion of DHCs to ceramides. Treatment with 4-HPR also increased ACER2 expression through a retinoic acid receptor-independent and caspase-dependent manner. Overexpression of ACER2 augmented the 4-HPR-induced generation of DHS as well as 4-HPR cytotoxicity, and 4-HPR-induced death in tumor cells, whereas knocking down ACER2 had the opposite effects. ACER2 overexpression, along with treatment with GT11, another DES inhibitor, markedly increased cellular DHS, leading to tumor cell death, whereas ACER2 overexpression or GT11 treatment alone failed to do so, suggesting that both ACER2 up-regulation and DES inhibition are necessary and sufficient to mediate 4-HPR-induced DHS accumulation, cytotoxicity, and death in tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulation of the ACER2/DHS pathway mediates the cytotoxicity of 4-HPR in tumor cells and that up-regulating or activating ACER2 may improve the anti-cancer activity of 4-HRR and other DHC-inducing agents. PMID:20628055

  3. The chemical identity of intervessel pit membranes in Acer challenges hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Klepsch, Matthias M.; Schmitt, Marco; Paul Knox, J.; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of xylem tissue (i.e. the ionic effect) has been reported for various angiosperm species. One explanation of the ionic effect is that it is caused by the swelling and shrinking of intervessel pit membranes due to the presence of pectins and/or other cell-wall matrix polymers such as heteroxylans or arabinogalactan–proteins (AGPs) that may contain acidic sugars. Here, we examined the ionic effect for six Acer species and their pit membrane chemistry using immunocytochemistry, including antibodies against glycoproteins. Moreover, anatomical features related to the bordered pit morphology and vessel dimensions were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The ionic effect varied from 18 % (± 9) to 32 % (± 13). Epitopes of homogalacturonan (LM18) and xylan (LM11) were not detected in intervessel pit membranes. Negative results were also obtained for glycoproteins (extensin: LM1, JIM20; AGP glycan: LM2), although AGP (JIM13)-related epitopes were detected in parenchyma cells. The mean vessel length was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the ionic effect, unlike other pit or vessel-related characteristics. Our results suggest that intervessel pit membranes of Acer are unlikely to contain pectic or other acidic polysaccharides. Therefore, alternative explanations should be tested to clarify the ionic effect. PMID:27354661

  4. The chemical identity of intervessel pit membranes in Acer challenges hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic conductivity.

    PubMed

    Klepsch, Matthias M; Schmitt, Marco; Paul Knox, J; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of xylem tissue (i.e. the ionic effect) has been reported for various angiosperm species. One explanation of the ionic effect is that it is caused by the swelling and shrinking of intervessel pit membranes due to the presence of pectins and/or other cell-wall matrix polymers such as heteroxylans or arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) that may contain acidic sugars. Here, we examined the ionic effect for six Acer species and their pit membrane chemistry using immunocytochemistry, including antibodies against glycoproteins. Moreover, anatomical features related to the bordered pit morphology and vessel dimensions were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The ionic effect varied from 18 % (± 9) to 32 % (± 13). Epitopes of homogalacturonan (LM18) and xylan (LM11) were not detected in intervessel pit membranes. Negative results were also obtained for glycoproteins (extensin: LM1, JIM20; AGP glycan: LM2), although AGP (JIM13)-related epitopes were detected in parenchyma cells. The mean vessel length was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the ionic effect, unlike other pit or vessel-related characteristics. Our results suggest that intervessel pit membranes of Acer are unlikely to contain pectic or other acidic polysaccharides. Therefore, alternative explanations should be tested to clarify the ionic effect. PMID:27354661

  5. A Maple package for improved global mapping forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, H.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2014-03-01

    We present a Maple implementation of the well known global approach to time series analysis and some further developments designed to improve the computational efficiency of the forecasting capabilities of the approach. This global approach can be summarized as being a reconstruction of the phase space, based on a time ordered series of data obtained from the system. After that, using the reconstructed vectors, a portion of this space is used to produce a mapping, a polynomial fitting, through a minimization procedure, that represents the system and can be employed to forecast further entries for the series. In the present implementation, we introduce a set of commands, tools, in order to perform all these tasks. For example, the command VecTS deals mainly with the reconstruction of the vector in the phase space. The command GfiTS deals with producing the minimization and the fitting. ForecasTS uses all these and produces the prediction of the next entries. For the non-standard algorithms, we here present two commands: IforecasTS and NiforecasTS that, respectively deal with the one-step and the N-step forecasting. Finally, we introduce two further tools to aid the forecasting. The commands GfiTS and AnalysTS, basically, perform an analysis of the behavior of each portion of a series regarding the settings used on the commands just mentioned above. Catalogue identifier: AERW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3001 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 95018 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14. Computer: Any capable of running Maple Operating system: Any capable of running Maple. Tested on Windows ME, Windows XP, Windows 7. RAM: 128 MB

  6. Intellectual performance of children with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, C; Awiszus, D; Wendel, U

    1993-02-01

    The intellectual performance of 22 children aged 3-16 years with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was assessed and compared to a group of early treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and normal subjects matched by age, sex, nationality, and socio-economic status. All subjects were tested by one examiner only using the age related versions of the non-verbal Snijders-Oomen intelligence test. The mean IQ (+/- SD) score was 74 +/- 14 (range 50-103) in patients with MSUD, 101 +/- 12 (range 87-125) in early treated PKU patients, and 107 +/- 9 (range 90-122) in normal subjects. Intercorrelations indicated that length of time after birth that plasma leucine concentration remained > 1 mmol/l and quality of long-term metabolic control have important influences on IQ. PMID:8444223

  7. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality. PMID:21569942

  8. Leafhopper control in filed-grown red maples with systemic insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red maple, a popular landscape tree, can be susceptible to foliar damage caused by potato leafhopper feeding. Typical potato leafhopper injury includes distorted leaf tissue and reduced shoot growth. This research identified systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, Allectus and Discus, which controlled...

  9. mMaple: A Photoconvertible Fluorescent Protein for Use in Multiple Imaging Modalities

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Ann L.; Hoi, Hiofan; Bates, Mark; Platonova, Evgenia; Cranfill, Paula J.; Baird, Michelle A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Ewers, Helge; Liphardt, Jan; Campbell, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have extended the spatial resolution to the nanometer scale. Here, we report an engineered photoconvertible fluorescent protein (pcFP) variant, designated as mMaple, that is suited for use in multiple conventional and super-resolution imaging modalities, specifically, widefield and confocal microscopy, structured illumination microscopy (SIM), and single-molecule localization microscopy. We demonstrate the versatility of mMaple by obtaining super-resolution images of protein organization in Escherichia coli and conventional fluorescence images of mammalian cells. Beneficial features of mMaple include high photostability of the green state when expressed in mammalian cells and high steady state intracellular protein concentration of functional protein when expressed in E. coli. mMaple thus enables both fast live-cell ensemble imaging and high precision single molecule localization for a single pcFP-containing construct. PMID:23240015

  10. A validated method for quantifying hypoglycin A in whole blood by UHPLC-HRMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Moreau, Cécile; Boyer, Baptiste; Bévalot, Fabien; Fanton, Laurent; Habyarimana, Jean; Gault, Gilbert; Gaillard, Yvan

    2015-01-26

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) is the toxic principle in ackee (Blighia sapida Koenig), a nutritious and readily available fruit which is a staple of the Jamaican working-class and rural population. The aril of the unripe fruit has high concentrations of HGA, the cause of Jamaican vomiting sickness, which is very often fatal. HGA is also present in the samara of several species of maple (Acer spp.) which are suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy in Europe, often fatal for horses. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantifying HGA in blood that would be sensitive enough to provide toxicological evidence of ackee or maple poisoning. Analysis was carried out using solid-phase extraction (HILIC cartridges), dansyl derivatization and UHPLC-HRMS/MS detection. The method was validated in whole blood with a detection limit of 0.35 μg/L (range: 0.8-500 μg/L). This is the first method applicable in forensic toxicology for quantifying HGA in whole blood. HGA was quantified in two serum samples from horses suffering from atypical myopathy. The concentrations were 446.9 and 87.8 μg/L. HGA was also quantified in dried arils of unripe ackee fruit (Suriname) and seeds of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) (France). The concentrations were 7.2 and 0.74 mg/g respectively. PMID:25531872

  11. Deposition of H15NO3 vapour to white oak, red maple and loblolly pine foliage: experimental observations and a generalized model

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Paul J; Garten Jr, Charles T

    1992-10-01

    Nitric acid vapour enriched with {sup 15}N (H{sup 15}NO{sub 3}) was volatilized into the cuvette of an open-flow gas exchange system containing red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling shoots to facilitate direct measurements of total foliar deposition, and subsequent assessments of the rate of HNO{sub 3} movement across the cuticle (transcuticular uptake). Total H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} vapour deposition to foliar surfaces ranged from <5 to 27 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} the variability being largely accounted for by differences in HNO{sub 3} concentrations and leaf conductance. Mean whole-leaf conductance to HNO{sub 3} ranged between 0.9 and 3.4 mm s{sup -1} for hardwoods and between 6 and 34 mm s{sup -1} for loblolly pine. Of the total H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} vapour deposited to leaves, an average of 39 to 48% was immediately 'bound' into hardwood foliage whereas only 3% was bound to loblolly pine needles. This implies that rain events might extract greater amounts of HNO{sub 3}-derived nitrate in throughfall from conifer canopies as compared to hardwood canopies. Post-exposure H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} uptake rates across the leaf cuticle increased with surface nitrate concentrations, but were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower (O06 to 0.24 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) than total HNO{sub 3}, deposition during exposures. A generalized leaf-level model of HNO{sub 3} deposition to foliage capable of simulating deposition pathways to sorption sites on the leaf surface, and to the metabolically active leaf interior via transcuticular or stomatal pathways is formulated and suggested for use in planning future work on HNO{sub 3} deposition.

  12. HIQA's CEA of Breast Screening: Pragmatic Policy Recommendations are Welcome, but ACERs Reported as ICERs are Not.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, James F; Normand, Charles

    2015-12-01

    The Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA) is Ireland's statutory cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) agency. It recently published a CEA of screening strategies for women at elevated risk of breast cancer. Although the strategies recommended by HIQA exceed Ireland's cost-effectiveness threshold, they can reasonably be welcomed as a pragmatic response to constraints on disinvestment and are expected to improve screening cost-effectiveness. What is not welcome, however, is HIQA's reporting of average cost-effectiveness ratios (ACERs) as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The distinction between ACERs and ICERs is well understood in CEA, as is the fact that ICERs not ACERs are the appropriate metric to determine cost-effectiveness. This article critiques HIQA's reporting, considering the implications for the particular case of breast cancer screening and the broader context of consistency of and confidence in CEA as a guide to resource allocation in Ireland. The reporting of ACERs as ICERs is unlikely to be of any great significance in the particular case of screening women at elevated risk of breast cancer, given likely constraints on disinvestment. Despite this, ICERs still need to be reported correctly. If thresholds are exceeded in certain cases, then it is important that decision makers appreciate by how much. More generally, using ACERs in some cases and ICERs in others raises concerns that methods are being applied inconsistently, which risks compromising confidence in CEA in Ireland. As Ireland's statutory CEA authority, HIQA has a special onus of responsibility to ensure established methods are applied correctly. PMID:26686777

  13. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25757438

  14. Fluorescence intensities ratio F685/F740 for maple leaves during seasonal color changes and with fungal infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.

    2014-01-01

    The work is devoted to the spectral measurements of maple leaves. Fresh green leaves of maple were investigated in spring and summer, healthy leaves and leaves affected by fungal diseases - during the fall color change. F685/F740 parameter values for healthy and diseased maple leaves were found, as well as the change of this parameter during the growing season. The concentration of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids in ethanol extracts of maple leaves with different pigmentation were calculated by absorption spectroscopy and the ratio of Chl a / Chl b was found.

  15. Becoming less tolerant with age: sugar maple, shade, and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Sendall, Kerrie M; Lusk, Christopher H; Reich, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Although shade tolerance is often assumed to be a fixed trait, recent work suggests ontogenetic changes in the light requirements of tree species. We determined the influence of gas exchange, biomass distribution, and self-shading on ontogenetic variation in the instantaneous aboveground carbon balance of Acer saccharum. We quantified the aboveground biomass distributions of 18 juveniles varying in height and growing in low light in a temperate forest understory in Minnesota, USA. Gas exchange rates of leaf and stem tissues were measured, and the crown architecture of each individual was quantified. The YPLANT program was used to estimate the self-shaded fraction of each crown and to model net leaf-level carbon gain. Leaf respiration and photosynthesis per gram of leaf tissue increased with plant size. In contrast, stem respiration rates per gram of stem tissue declined, reflecting a shift in the distribution of stem diameter sizes from smaller (with higher respiration) to larger diameter classes. However, these trends were outweighed by ontogenetic increases in self-shading (which reduces the net photosynthesis realized) and stem mass fraction (which increases the proportion of purely respiratory tissue) in terms of influence on net carbon exchange. As a result, net carbon gain per gram of aboveground plant tissue declined with increasing plant size, and the instantaneous aboveground light compensation point increased. When estimates of root respiration were included to model whole-plant carbon gain and light compensation points, relationships with plant size were even more pronounced. Our findings show how an interplay of gas exchange, self-shading, and biomass distribution shapes ontogenetic changes in shade tolerance. PMID:26318296

  16. Sugar Maple Phenology: Anthocyanin Production During Leaf Senescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, E.; Rock, B.

    2007-12-01

    The Northeastern United States is known for its brilliant fall foliage colors. Foliage is responsible for a billion dollar tourism industry. Many comment that past years have not resulted in the amazing color displays seen historically. As sugar maple trees senesce they contribute bright red leaves to the mural of oranges, yellows, and greens. The pigment that produces the red color, anthocyanin, is synthesized in the fall as chlorophyll slowly degrades. Remote sensing data from LandSat during fall senescence can help investigate this event by quantifying color change and intensity. This data can then be compared to ground validation efforts in several study plots. The results will help answer the question, "Why do leaves turn red?" One hypothesis is that this pigment acts as a photoprotectant and screens leaves from UV light. It is possible that an increase in tropospheric ozone has negatively affected fall foliage due to the increased reflection of UV light before it reaches the trees; thereby reducing the leaves need to produce anthocyanin. Another hypothesis is that production of anthocyanin is linked to temperature, with maximum synthesis occurring during cold evenings and moderate days. Temperature changes caused by climate change could also be affecting anthocyanin. Through observing these changes by remote sensing and ground experiments, more can be learned about this phenological stage and why it happens.

  17. Development of a more efficient maple syrup evaporator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D.

    1982-11-30

    The goal of this project was to retrofit a traditional wood-fired maple syrup evaporator to make more efficient use of the wood fuel. A sap preheater was constructed that used waste heat from the steam to preheat the incoming sap. The preheater was tested on the evaporator and 8% more water was processed. There were some problems that will be discussed in the body of the report. A sap pan with fins incorporated into the bottom (described in the 1st and 2nd quarterly reports) was built but was not tested because the fins could not be properly sealed at the ends. Put more simply, it leaked. The bulk of time and energy was spent designing, building, and installing the forced draft and heat exchanger system (refer to 3rd quarterly report). A squirrel cage blower forced fresh air through twelve pipes that were arranged in the stack to the firebox and a draft inducer was mounted on top of the stack. With this arrangement plus the preheater 27% more water was processed than the original rig with the same amount of wood.

  18. Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica in an infant with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Flores, K; Chikowski, R; Morrell, D S

    2016-08-01

    Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica (AD) is a rare, newly termed, and poorly understood disease that appears to be clinically similar to acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). Both diseases are characterized by the triad of periorificial and acral dermatitis, diarrhoea, and alopecia. Unlike AE, which is caused by zinc deficiency, AD is caused by numerous metabolic disorders. One such disorder is maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a genetic deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, the enzyme that degrades the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) isoleucine, leucine and valine. Treatment involves restricting BCAAs to prevent accumulation. We report a case of an infant being treated for MSUD, who developed the triad of AE/AD after a period of poor BCAA formula intake. The child was found to have low isoleucine and normal zinc levels. Increasing the isoleucine dose improved the eruption, thus the diagnosis of AD secondary to isoleucine deficiency was made. This case emphasizes the importance of carefully balancing BCAA levels while treating MSUD, as deficiency can precipitate AD. PMID:27334242

  19. Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Muelly, Emilie R.; Moore, Gregory J.; Bunce, Scott C.; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C.; Morton, D. Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5–35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409

  20. Biogeochemical Drivers of Sugar Maple Mortality at the Species-Range Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. H.; Zimmerman, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    The decline of sugar maple in the northern United States is causing concern in the resource management community, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees (Hallett et al. 2006; Horsley et al. 2000; Long et al. 2009; St.Clair et al. 2008). Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies tends to be purposive in nature; soil properties generally are assessed only on those plots where dead trees are observed. In this study, we used more than 200 plots from the USDA Forest Service's FIADB (USDA Forest Service 2012; Woudenberg et al. 2010), including the phase 3 soils data (O'Neill et al. 2005; Woodall et al. 2010), to analyze a broader population of sugar maple (alive and dead) across a wide range of soil types. This population of plots has a highly skewed, zero-inflated distribution: the number of plots in the sample without dead trees is an order of magnitude greater than the number of plots with dead trees. One effective method of analysis is a two-stage approach. In the first stage, the response variable is the presence or absence of dead sugar maple; the inferential space is the entire population of plots with sugar maple trees. The second stage uses the relative abundance of dead sugar maple as the response variable; in this case, inference is restricted to those plots where dead sugar maple trees are observed. In both sets of models, basal area and geology are significant predictors of dead sugar maple. The most significant soil variables vary between these two inferential spaces. Our model of the presence/absence of sugar maple death included the molar ratio of Mg:Mn; when conditional on the presence of dead sugar maple, our model includes the molar ratio of Ca:Al, along with exchangeable Na and Mg percentages. Multimodel inference (Burnham and Anderson 2002) assists the assessment of predictors within and between the two stages.

  1. RIR-MAPLE deposition of conjugated polymers and hybrid nanocomposites for application to optoelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Pate, Ryan; McCormick, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.

    2012-07-30

    Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) is a variation of pulsed laser deposition that is useful for organic-based thin films because it reduces material degradation by selective absorption of infrared radiation in the host matrix. A unique emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE approach has been developed that reduces substrate exposure to solvents and provides controlled and repeatable organic thin film deposition. In order to establish emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a preferred deposition technique for conjugated polymer or hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices, studies have been conducted to demonstrate the value added by the approach in comparison to traditional solution-based deposition techniques, and this work will be reviewed. The control of hybrid nanocomposite thin film deposition, and the photoconductivity in such materials deposited using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE, will also be reviewed. The overall result of these studies is the demonstration of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a viable option for the fabrication of conjugated polymer and hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices that could yield improved device performance.

  2. Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D. )

    1990-04-01

    Constant infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H5)phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis (3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1) and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis.

  3. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens levansucrase-catalyzed the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides, oligolevan and levan in maple syrup-based reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengxi; Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2015-11-20

    Maple syrups with selected degree Brix (°Bx) (15, 30, 60) were investigated as reaction systems for levansucrase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The enzymatic conversion of sucrose present in the maple syrup and the production of the transfructosylation products were assessed over a time course of 48h. At 30°C, the use of maple syrup 30°Bx led to the highest levansucrase activity (427.53μmol/mg protein/min), while maple syrup 66°Bx led to the highest converted sucrose concentration (1.53M). In maple syrup 30°Bx, oligolevans (1080%). In maple syrup 66°Bx, the most abundant products were oligolevans at 30°C and levans (DP≥30) at 8°C. The acceptor specificity study revealed the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens levansucrase to synthesize a variety of hetero-fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) in maple syrups 15°Bx and 30°Bx enriched with various disaccharides, with lactose being the preferred fructosyl acceptor. The current study is the first to investigate maple-syrup-based reaction systems for the synthesis of FOSs/oligolevans/levans. PMID:26344273

  4. The Changing Colors of Maple Hills: Intersections of Culture, Race, Language, and Exceptionality in a Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This case describes Maple Hills Elementary, a K-8 school in a rural farming community of the Midwest. As a community, Maple Hills has historically experienced a narrow range of diversity across race, ethnicity, language, and religion. Residents have predominantly been White, with German and English heritage, speak English as a mother tongue, and…

  5. 75 FR 57016 - Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Maple Analytics, LLC's application for market-based...

  6. Effects of pesticide application on arthropod pests of nursery-grown maples.

    PubMed

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Sadof, Clifford

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides used against potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), have been reported to cause problems with maple spider mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), on nursery-grown 'Red Sunset' red maple and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple. To test this, we conducted two experiments on field-grown trees in nurseries. In the first, the effects of early-season pesticide applications were examined during 2009. The second experiment was conducted in 2010 to compare effects of using threshold levels of one, three, or six leafhoppers per branch to time applications. Pesticide applications reduced abundance and damage by leafhoppers in both cultivars, but increased populations of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze during 2009. In contrast, on Red Sunset, populations of O. aceris did not increase after insecticide applications. In 2010, insecticide applications did not increase abundance of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze because use of treatment thresholds to manage leafhoppers greatly reduced numbers of trees requiring treatment for leafhoppers. Two phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) and Typhlodromus caudiglans (Schuster), and one stigmaeid, Zetzellia mali (Ewing), were identified as the principal predators of O. aceris on maple leaves. Insecticide applications had no significant effects on the total abundance of predatory mites on either Red Sunset or Autumn Blaze maples in 2009 or 2010. However, populations of predator Z. mali were higher during both years on Red Sunset than on Autumn Blaze. These results suggest that both early-season pesticide use and cultivar can affect the likelihood of secondary outbreaks of spider mites on maples. PMID:24772553

  7. Response of sugar maple to calcium addition to northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Juice, Stephanie M; Fahey, Timothy J; Siccama, Thomas G; Driscoll, Charles T; Denny, Ellen G; Eagar, Christopher; Cleavitt, Natalie L; Minocha, Rakesh; Richardson, Andrew D

    2006-05-01

    Watershed budget studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, have demonstrated high calcium depletion of soil during the 20th century due, in part, to acid deposition. Over the past 25 years, tree growth (especially for sugar maple) has declined on the experimental watersheds at the HBEF. In October 1999, 0.85 Mg Ca/ha was added to Watershed 1 (W1) at the HBEF in the form of wollastonite (CaSiO3), a treatment that, by summer 2002, had raised the pH in the Oie horizon from 3.8 to 5.0 and, in the Oa horizon, from 3.9 to 4.2. We measured the response of sugar maple to the calcium fertilization treatment on W1. Foliar calcium concentration of canopy sugar maples in W1 increased markedly beginning the second year after treatment, and foliar manganese declined in years four and five. By 2005, the crown condition of sugar maple was much healthier in the treated watershed as compared with the untreated reference watershed (W6). Following high seed production in 2000 and 2002, the density of sugar maple seedlings increased significantly on W1 in comparison with W6 in 2001 and 2003. Survivorship of the 2003 cohort through July 2005 was much higher on W1 (36.6%) than W6 (10.2%). In 2003, sugar maple germinants on W1 were approximately 50% larger than those in reference plots, and foliar chlorophyll concentrations were significantly greater (0.27 g/m2 vs. 0.23 g/m2 leaf area). Foliage and fine-root calcium concentrations were roughly twice as high, and manganese concentrations twice as low in the treated than the reference seedlings in 2003 and 2004. Mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings was also much greater in the treated (22.4% of root length) than the reference sites (4.4%). A similar, though less dramatic, difference was observed for mycorrhizal colonization of mature sugar maples (56% vs. 35%). These results reinforce and extend other regional observations that sugar maple decline in the northeastern United States and southern Canada is

  8. Testing the 'rare pit' hypothesis for xylem cavitation resistance in three species of Acer.

    PubMed

    Christman, Mairgareth A; Sperry, John S; Adler, Frederick R

    2009-01-01

    Eudicot angiosperms with greater vulnerability to xylem cavitation tend to have vessels with greater total area of inter-vessel pits, which inspired the 'rare pit' hypothesis: the more pits per vessel, by chance the leakier will be the vessel's single air-seeding pit and the lower the air-seeding threshold for cavitation to spread between vessels. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the hypothesis, using probability theory to model the axial propagation of air through air-injected stems. In the presence of rare, leaky pits, air-seeding pressures through short stems with few vessel ends in series should be low; pressures should increase in longer stems as more end-walls must be breached. Measurements on three Acer species conformed closely to model predictions, confirming the rare presence of leaky pits. The model indicated that pits air-seeding at or below the mean cavitation pressure (MCP) occurred at similarly low frequencies in all species. Average end-wall air-seeding pressures predicted by the model closely matched species' MCPs. Differences in species' vulnerability were primarily attributed to differences in frequency of the leakiest pits rather than pit number or area per vessel. Adjustments in membrane properties and extent of pitting per vessel apparently combine to influence cavitation resistance across species. PMID:19434805

  9. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate within Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii.

    PubMed

    Royer, Dana L; McElwain, Jennifer C; Adams, Jonathan M; Wilf, Peter

    2008-01-01

    * Variation in the size and shape (physiognomy) of leaves has long been correlated to climate, and paleobotanists have used these correlations to reconstruct paleo-climate. Most studies focus on site-level means of largely nonoverlapping species sets. The sensitivity of leaf shape to climate within species is poorly known, which limits our general understanding of leaf-climate relationships and the value of intraspecific patterns for paleoclimate reconstructions. * The leaf physiognomy of two species whose native North American ranges span large climatic gradients (Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii) was quantified and correlated to mean annual temperature (MAT). Quercus kelloggii was sampled across a wide elevation range, but A. rubrum was sampled in strictly lowland areas. * Within A. rubrum, leaf shape correlates with MAT in a manner that is largely consistent with previous site-level studies; leaves from cold climates are toothier and more highly dissected. By contrast, Q. kelloggii is largely insensitive to MAT; instead, windy conditions with ample plant-available water may explain the preponderance of small teeth at high elevation sites, independent of MAT. * This study highlights the strong correspondence between leaf form and climate within some species, and demonstrates that intraspecific patterns may contribute useful information towards reconstructing paleoclimate. PMID:18507771

  10. Productivity responses of Acer rubrum and Taxodium distichum seedlings to elevated CO2 and flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vann, C.D.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are expected to increase photosynthetic rates of C3 tree species, but it is uncertain whether this will result in an increase in wetland seedling productivity. Separate short-term experiments (12 and 17 weeks) were performed on two wetland tree species, Taxodium distichum and Acer rubrum, to determine if elevated CO2 would influence the biomass responses of seedlings to flooding. T. distichum were grown in replicate glasshouses (n = 2) at CO2 concentrations of 350 or 700 ppm, and A. rubrum were grown in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 422 or 722 ppm. Both species were grown from seed. The elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with two water table treatments, flooded and non-flooded. Elevated CO2 increased leaf-level photosynthesis, whole-plant photosynthesis, and trunk diameter of T. distichum in both flooding treatments, but did not increase biomass of T. distichum or A. rubrum. Flooding severely reduced biomass, height, and leaf area of both T. distichum and A. rubrum. Our results suggest that the absence of a CO2-induced increase in growth may have been due to an O2 limitation on root production even though there was a relatively deep (??? 10 cm) aerobic soil surface in the non-flooded treatment. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Test for Pre-Adapted Phenotypic Plasticity in the Invasive Tree Acer negundo L.

    PubMed Central

    Lamarque, Laurent J.; Porté, Annabel J.; Eymeric, Camille; Lasnier, Jean-Baptiste; Lortie, Christopher J.; Delzon, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key mechanism associated with the spread of exotic plants and previous studies have found that invasive species are generally more plastic than co-occurring species. Comparatively, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plant invasion has received less attention, and in particular, the genetic basis of plasticity is largely unexamined. Native from North America, Acer negundo L. is aggressively impacting the riparian forests of southern and eastern Europe thanks to higher plasticity relative to co-occurring native species. We therefore tested here whether invasive populations have evolved increased plasticity since introduction. The performance of 1152 seedlings from 8 native and 8 invasive populations was compared in response to nutrient availability. Irrespective of nutrients, invasive populations had higher growth and greater allocation to above-ground biomass relative to their native conspecifics. More importantly, invasive genotypes did not show increased plasticity in any of the 20 traits examined. This result suggests that the high magnitude of plasticity to nutrient variation of invasive seedlings might be pre-adapted in the native range. Invasiveness of A. negundo could be explained by higher mean values of traits due to genetic differentiation rather than by evolution of increased plasticity. PMID:24040212

  12. Effects of CO₂ on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Ribeiro, H; Abreu, I; Cruz, A; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric gaseous pollutants can induce qualitative and quantitative changes in airborne pollen characteristics. In this work, it was investigated the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates. Pollen was collected directly from the anthers and in vitro exposed to three CO2 levels (500, 1000, and 3000 ppm) for 6 and 24 h in an environmental chamber. Pollen fertility was determined using viability and germination assays, total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunological techniques using patients' sera. Also, pollen fructose, sucrose, and glucose values were determined. Carbon dioxide exposure affected negatively pollen fertility, total soluble protein content, and fructose content. The patient sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo pollen exposed to increasing levels of the pollutant. No changes were detected in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles and in sucrose and glucose levels. Our results indicate that increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can have a negative influence of some features of A. negundo airborne pollen that can influence the reproductive processes as well as respiratory pollen allergies in the future. PMID:25471717

  13. Application of sugar maple and black locust to the biomass/energy plantation concept. Interim report, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981. [Sugar Maples, Black Locusts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the research program is to determine the feasibility of converting existing pole-size maple stands to biomass/energy plantations using black locust as an interplanted species. Toward this end, progress has been made in quantifying sprout biomass. Significant differences have been identified in productivity by site, species, time of fertilizer application, and diameter and damage of stumps. Rhizobium strains for black locust have been identified which are tolerant of low pH and phosphorous and high aluminum levels. Frost-hardy black locust seed sources have been identified for future work. Methods for sampling and equations for young natural stands of maple have been developed. Detailed characterization of sugar and red maple sprouts by physical, chemical and thermal analysis were compared to those of old, mature trees. The results are discussed in terms of seasonal moisture content variation, effects of tree age on specific gravity, extractive contents, ash content, major cell wall components, heating values and thermal behavior. 7 references, 5 figures, 17 tables.

  14. Use of a Colony of Cooperating Agents and MAPLE To Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrieri, Bruno

    This paper reviews an approach for finding optimal solutions to the traveling salesman problem, a well-known problem in combinational optimization, and describes implementing the approach using the MAPLE computer algebra system. The method employed in this approach to the problem is similar to the way ant colonies manage to establish shortest…

  15. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  16. Student Organizations in Canada and Quebec's "Maple Spring"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bégin-Caouette, Olivier; Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two major objectives: to describe the structure of the student movement in Canada and the formal role of students in higher education governance, and to describe and analyze the "Maple Spring," the dramatic mobilization of students in opposition to proposed tuition fee increases in Quebec that eventually led to a…

  17. The Minnesota Maple Series: Community-Generated Knowledge Delivered through an Extension Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David S.; Miedtke, Juile A.; Sagor, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Extension continuously seeks novel and effective approaches to outreach and education. The recent retirement of a longtime content specialist catalyzed members of University of Minnesota Extension's Forestry team to reflect on our instructional capacity (internal and external) and educational design in the realm of maple syrup production. We…

  18. Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

  19. Maple (Computer Algebra System) in Teaching Pre-Calculus: Example of Absolute Value Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuluk, Güler

    2014-01-01

    Modules in Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) make Mathematics interesting and easy to understand. The present study focused on the implementation of the algebraic, tabular (numerical), and graphical approaches used for the construction of the concept of absolute value function in teaching mathematical content knowledge along with Maple 9. The study…

  20. MICROBIAL COLONIZATION, RESPIRATION AND BREAKDOWN OF MAPLE LEAVES ALONG A STREAM-MARSH CONTINUUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate and bacterial colonization, and microbial respiration were measured on decaying maple leaves at three sites along a stream-marsh continuum. Breakdown rates were 0.0284+/-0.0045 d-1 for leaves in a high-gradient, non-tidal stream; 0.0112 +/- 0.0...

  1. Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, I. S.

    2008-01-01

    The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…

  2. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  3. The Effects of Maple Integrated Strategy on Engineering Technology Students' Understanding of Integral Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a learning strategy using Maple in integral calculus. This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. One hundred engineering technology students at a technical university were chosen at random. The effectiveness of the learning…

  4. Symbiotic maple saps minimize disruption of the mice intestinal microbiota after oral antibiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Barbeau, Julie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo impact of new symbiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%), were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 2-4 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1). The experiments started with intra-gastric administration of antibiotic (kanamycin 40 mg in 0.1 cc) (to induce microbiota disturbance and/or diarrhea) to 3-to-5-week-old C57BL/6 female mice followed by a combination of prebiotic and probiotics included in the maple sap or its concentrate for a week. The combination inulin and probiotics in maple sap and concentrate appeared to minimize the antibiotic-induced breakdown of mice microbiota with a marked effect on bifidobacterium and bacteroides levels, thus permitting a more rapid re-establishment of the baseline microbiota levels. Results suggest that maple sap and its concentrate represent good candidates for the production of non-dairy functional foods. PMID:26218660

  5. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  6. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Peter J.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (ΔPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on 3-year-old potted A. rubrum plants also had no effect on whole plant transpiration. A separate study made on mature A. rubrum trees showed that 3.0 and 5.5 MPa of ΔPpit values resulted in an immediate 100% loss in hydraulic conductance (PLC) in petioles. However, the observed change in PLC was short lived, and significant hydraulic recovery occurred within 5–10 min post air-pressurization treatments. Similar experiments conducted on S. nigra plants exposed to ΔPpit of 3 MPa resulted in a rapid decline in whole plant transpiration followed by leaf wilting and eventual plant death, showing that this species lacks the ability to recover from induced embolism. A survey that measured the effect of air-pressurization treatments on seven other species showed that some species are very sensitive to induction of embolism resulting in leaf wilting and branch death while others show minimal to no effect despite that in each case, the applied ΔPpit of 5.5 MPa significantly exceeded any native stress that these plants would experience naturally. PMID:24069025

  7. Protective effect of Acer mono Max. sap on water immersion restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Son, Hyung-U; Son, Minsik; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-09-01

    Acer mono Max. sap (AmMs) is called 'Gol-Li-Su' or 'Go-Lo-Soe' in Korean, which means 'water beneficial to the bones'. It is reported that the sap contains several types of minerals and sugars. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap is 36.5 times higher than that of commercial mineral water. Apart from its anti-osteoporosis effect, no reports have addressed the biological activities of AmMs against degenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether AmMs alleviates gastric ulcer-related symptoms in a stress-induced mouse model. To assess the effect of AmMs on gastric ulcer-like symptoms, we carried out a water immersion restraint (WIRE) test and found that AmMs has potential in alleviating gastric ulcers in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the nutritional factors of the sap mitigate the gastric ulcer-related symptoms caused by stress-induced gastric lesions in mice. AmMs-treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in the ulcer index as compared to those treated with omeprazole or L-arginine. To examine one potential mechanism underlying this effect, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to ascertain whether molecular markers were associated with the mitigation of the gastric lesions. Epithelial and/or tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was assessed to determine whether or not the genes were down-regulated dose-dependently by the sap. The levels of these enzymes were found to be lower in the tissue samples treated with AmMs compared with the levels in the control samples. These findings collectively suggest that AmMs significantly protects the gastric mucosa against WIRE stress-induced gastric lesions, at least in part, by alleviating inducible NOS and/or neuronal NOS expression. PMID:22977586

  8. Development and UFLC-MS/MS Characterization of a Product-Specific Standard for Phenolic Quantification of Maple-Derived Foods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqiang; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P

    2016-05-01

    The phenolic contents of plant foods are commonly quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay based on gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). However, this may lead to inaccuracies because gallic acid is not always representative of the structural heterogeneity of plant phenolics. Therefore, product-specific standards have been developed for the phenolic quantification of several foods. Currently, maple-derived foods (syrup, sugar, sap/water, and extracts) are quantified for phenolic contents based on GAEs. Because lignans are the predominant phenolics present in maple, herein, a maple phenolic lignan-enriched standard (MaPLES) was purified (by chromatography) and characterized (by UFLC-MS/MS with lignans previously isolated from maple syrup). Using MaPLES and secoisolariciresinol (a commercially available lignan), the phenolic contents of the maple-derived foods increased 3-fold compared to GAEs. Therefore, lignan-based standards are more appropriate for phenolic quantification of maple-derived foods versus GAEs. Also, MaPLES can be utilized for the authentication and detection of fake label claims on maple products. PMID:27101225

  9. Material properties and applications of blended organic thin films with nanoscale domains deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; McCormick, Ryan D.; Ge, Wangyao

    2015-03-01

    Resonant-infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit blended, organic thin-films with nanoscale domain sizes of constituent polymers, small molecules, or colloidal nanoparticles. In the emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE process, the target contains a nonpolar, organic solvent phase and a polar, water phase. The emulsion properties have a direct impact on the nanoscale morphology of single-component organic thin films, while the morphology of blended, organic thin films also depends on the RIR-MAPLE deposition mode. In addition to these fundamental aspects, applications of blended organic films (organic solar cells, anti-reflection coatings, and multi-functional surfaces) deposited by emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE are presented. Importantly, domain sizes in the blended films are critical to thin-film functionality.

  10. Quantification of metal loading to Silver Creek through the Silver Maple Claims area, Park City, Utah, May 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Runkel, Robert L.; Steiger, Judy I.

    2004-01-01

    The Silver Maple Claims area along Silver Creek, near Park City, Utah, is administered by the Bureau of Land Management. To quantify possible sources of elevated zinc concentrations in Silver Creek that exceed water-quality standards, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a mass-loading study in May 2002 along a 1,400-meter reach of Silver Creek that included the Silver Maple Claims area. Additional samples were collected upstream and downstream from the injection reach to investigate other possible sources of zinc and other metals to the stream. Many metals were investigated in the study, but zinc is of particular concern for water-quality standards. The total loading of zinc along the study reach from Park City to Wanship, Utah, was about 49 kilograms per day. The Silver Maple Claims area contributed about 38 percent of this load. The Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe, which empties just inside the Silver Maple Claims area, contributed more than half the load of the Silver Maple Claims area. Substantial zinc loads also were added to Silver Creek downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area. Ground-water discharge upstream from the waste-water treatment plant contributed 20 percent of the total zinc load, and another 17 percent was contributed near the waste-water treatment plant. By identifying the specific areas where zinc and other metal loads are contributed to Silver Creek, it is possible to assess the needs of a remediation plan. For example, removing the tailings from the Silver Maple Claims area could contribute to lowering the zinc concentration in Silver Creek, but without also addressing the loading from the Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe and the ground-water discharge farther downstream, the zinc concentration could not be lowered enough to meet water-quality standards. Additional existing sources of zinc loading downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area could complicate the process of lowering zinc concentration to meet water

  11. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: < 0.1 - 45.2 cm h-1) during 3 years of measurements. In addition, nocturnal/diurnal ratios of volumetric sap flows were significantly higher in the drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the

  12. Processing of functional polymers and organic thin films by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, A.; Wu, P.; Ringeisen, B. R.; Bubb, D. M.; Melinger, J. S.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2002-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique has been successfully used to deposit highly uniform thin films of various functional materials such as non-linear optical (NLO) organic materials, conductive polymers, luminescent organic molecules and several types of proteinaceous compounds. MAPLE is a laser evaporation technique for growing thin films of organic and polymeric materials which involves directing a pulsed laser beam (λ=193 nm; fluence=0.01-0.5 J cm -2) onto a frozen target (-40 to -160 °C) consisting of a solute polymeric or organic compound dissolved in a solvent matrix. Using MAPLE, thin films of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-( L)-prolinol or NPP, an NLO material; polypyrrole, a conductive polymer; and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum or Alq3, a luminescent organic compound, have been separately deposited with minor (in the case of Alq3) or no degradation (for the NPP and polypyrrole) to their optical and electrical properties. The MAPLE process has also been used to deposit discrete thin film micro-arrays of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). The deposited BSA films, after washing with a blocking protein and fluorescently tagged streptavidin, fluoresce when exposed to UV. This fluorescence indicates that the biochemical specificity of the transferred biotinylated protein is unaffected by the MAPLE process. These results demonstrate that the MAPLE technique can be used for growing thin films of functional polymer and active biomaterials.

  13. Maple Syrup Decreases TDP-43 Proteotoxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Aaron, Catherine; Beaudry, Gabrielle; Parker, J Alex; Therrien, Martine

    2016-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease causing death of the motor neurons. Proteotoxicity caused by TDP-43 protein is an important aspect of ALS pathogenesis, with TDP-43 being the main constituent of the aggregates found in patients. We have previously tested the effect of different sugars on the proteotoxicity caused by the expression of mutant TDP-43 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we tested maple syrup, a natural compound containing many active molecules including sugars and phenols, for neuroprotective activity. Maple syrup decreased several age-dependent phenotypes caused by the expression of TDP-43(A315T) in C. elegans motor neurons and requires the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 to be effective. PMID:27071850

  14. Dosimetry aspects of the new Canadian MAPLE-X10 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstone, R.F.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is building the 10-MW{sub t} MAPLE-X10 reactor facility as a dedicated producer of medical and industrial radioisotopes. Dosimetry aspects of the MAPLE-X10 nuclear design include the calculated thermal and fast neutron flux distributions throughout the reactor assembly and the rate of heat generation in reactor materials and components. Examples of the resolution of design issues are also presented, such as the use of fission counters and ion chambers to provide diverse methods of detecting neutron flux levels and the use of the difference between photon and neutron signals to guard against the effects of downgrading of the heavy-water reflector. Computer codes employed in the calculations include MCNP, ONEDANT, WIMS-AECL, and 3DDT.

  15. MAPLE fabrication of thin films based on kanamycin functionalized magnetite nanoparticles with anti-pathogenic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Stănculescu, Anca; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2015-05-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of kanamycin functionalized 5 nm-magnetite (Fe3O4@KAN) nanoparticles thin films deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A laser deposition regime was established in order to stoichiometrically transfer Fe3O4@KAN thin films on silicone and glass substrates. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of powders and coatings were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, AFM and IR microscopy (IRM). Our nanostructured thin films have proved efficiency in the prevention of microbial adhesion and mature biofilms development as a result of antibiotic release in its active form. Furthermore, kanamycin functionalized nanostructures exhibit a good biocompatibility, both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating their potential for implants application. This is the first study reporting the assessment of the in vivo biocompatibility of a magnetite-antimicrobial thin films produced by MAPLE technique.

  16. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Atwal, P.S.; Macmurdo, C.; Grimm, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods. PMID:26937409

  17. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Atwal, P S; Macmurdo, C; Grimm, P C

    2015-09-01

    Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods. PMID:26937409

  18. Parametric Decay of Pump Waves into two Linear Modes in SINP MaPLE Device

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Subir; Pal, Rabindranath

    2010-11-23

    Parametric decay of incident waves of ion cyclotron frequency range into linear modes is observed in experiment performed in the SINP MaPLE device where nitrogen plasma produced by ECR discharge. Along with a mode in drift wave frequency range, sideband of the incident waves are observed when amplitude of the exciter signal goes above a threshold value. Sideband of the second harmonic is also seen. Preliminary studies point towards excitation of ion Bernstein wave. Details of the experimental results are presented.

  19. Parametric Decay of Pump Waves into two Linear Modes in SINP MaPLE Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subir; Pal, Rabindranath

    2010-11-01

    Parametric decay of incident waves of ion cyclotron frequency range into linear modes is observed in experiment performed in the SINP MaPLE device where nitrogen plasma produced by ECR discharge. Along with a mode in drift wave frequency range, sideband of the incident waves are observed when amplitude of the exciter signal goes above a threshold value. Sideband of the second harmonic is also seen. Preliminary studies point towards excitation of ion Bernstein wave. Details of the experimental results are presented.

  20. Sugar Maple Pigments Through the Fall and the Role of Anthocyanin as an Analytical Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, E.; Rock, B.; Middleton, E.; Aber, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sugar maple habitat is projected to almost disappear in future climate scenarios. In fact, many institutions state that these trees are already in decline. Being able to detect sugar maple health could prove to be a useful analytical tool to monitor changes in phenology. Anthocyanin, a red pigment found in sugar maples, is thought to be a universal indicator of plant stress. It is very prominent in the spring during the first flush of leaves, as well as in the fall as leaves senesce. Determining an anthocyanin index that could be used with satellite systems will provide a greater understanding of tree phenology and the distribution of plant stress, both over large areas as well as changes over time. The utilization of anthocyanin for one of it's functions, prevention of oxidative stress, may fluctuate in response to changing climatic conditions that occur during senescence or vary from year to year. By monitoring changes in pigment levels and antioxidant capacity through the fall, one may be able to draw conclusions about the ability to detect anthocyanin remotely from space-based systems, and possibly determine a more specific function for anthocyanin during fall senescence. These results could then be applied to track changes in tree stress.

  1. Insects attracted to Maple Sap: Observations from Prince Edward Island, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The collection of maple sap for the production of maple syrup is a large commercial enterprise in Canada and the United States. In Canada, which produces 85% of the world’s supply, it has an annual value of over $168 million CAD. Over 38 million trees are tapped annually, 6.5% of which use traditional buckets for sap collection. These buckets attract significant numbers of insects. Despite this, there has been very little investigation of the scale of this phenomenon and the composition of insects that are attracted to this nutrient source. The present paper reports the results of a preliminary study conducted on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Trichoptera were found in maple sap buckets, 19 of which are known to be attracted to saps and nectars. The physiological role of sap feeding is discussed with reference to moths of the tribe Xylenini, which are active throughout the winter, and are well documented as species that feed on sap flows. Additionally, 18 of the 28 species found in this study are newly recorded in Prince Edward Island. PMID:21594122

  2. Polyphenolic Extract from Maple Syrup Potentiates Antibiotic Susceptibility and Reduces Biofilm Formation of Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Maisuria, Vimal B.; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960

  3. Polyphenolic extract from maple syrup potentiates antibiotic susceptibility and reduces biofilm formation of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maisuria, Vimal B; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960

  4. Fungi in Ontario maple syrup & some factors that determine the presence of mold damage.

    PubMed

    Frasz, Samantha L; Miller, J David

    2015-08-17

    Maple syrup is a high value artisanal product produced mainly in Canada and a number of States primarily in the northeast USA. Mold growth (Wallemia sebi) on commercial product was first reported in syrup in 1908. Since then, few data have been published. We conducted a systematic examination for fungi in maple syrup from 68 producers from all of the syrup-producing areas of Ontario, Canada. The mean pH of the samples was pH 6.82, sugar content averaged 68.0±0.89 °Brix and aw averaged 0.841±0.011. Some 23 species of fungi were isolated based on morphology and molecular techniques. The most common fungus in the maple syrup samples was Eurotium herbariorum, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor and two species of Wallemia. Cladosporium cladosporioides was also common but only recovered when fungi known from high sugar substrates were also present in the mold damaged sample. The rarely reported yeast Citeromyces matrinsis was found in samples from three producers. There appear to be three potential causes for mold damage observed. High aw was associated with about one third of the mold damage. Independently, cold packing (bottling at ~25 °C) was a risk factor. However, syrup of good quality and quite low aw values was contaminated. We hypothesize that sanitation in the bottling line and other aspects of the bottling process may be partial explanations. Clarifying this requires further study. PMID:26001061

  5. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular ice formed in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum and was not necessarily lethal when ice crystals were small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Embryonic a...

  6. The allometry of root production and loss in seedlings of Acer rubrum (aceraceae) and betula papyrifera (Betulacaae): Implications for root dynamics in elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Berntson, G.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1996-05-01

    Total root production ({Sigma}P), total root loss ({Sigma}L), net root production (NP), and biomass production were determined for seedlings of Betula papyrifera and Acer rubrum in ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} environments. {Sigma}P, {Sigma}L, and NP were calculated from sequential, independent observations of root length production through plexiglass windows. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased {Sigma}P, {Sigma}L, and NP in seedlings of Betula papyrifera but not Acer rubrum. Root production and loss were qualitatively similar to whole-plant growth responses to elevated CO{sub 2}. Betula showed enhanced {Sigma}P, {Sigma}L, and biomass with elevated CO{sub 2} but Acer did not. However, the observed effects of CO{sub 2} on root production and loss did not alter the allometric relationship between root production and root loss for either Acer or Betula. Thus, in this experiment, elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the relationship between root production and root loss. The results of this study have important implications for the potential effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on root dynamics. Elevated CO{sub 2} may lead to increases in root production and in root loss (turnover) where the changes in root turnover are largely a function of the magnitude of root production increases. 56 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.; West, A. G.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F/M ≈ 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F/M ≈ 0.6). Spatial segregation between sexes may develop because of the higher reproductive cost in females compared to males. If so, female Acer negundo trees would be under stronger selection to maximize resource uptake, and would therefore likely occur at greater frequencies in high resources sites (i.e., along streamsides), and increase rates of resource acquisition (i.e., water and nutrients). The spatial segregation of the sexes leads to the hypothesis that male and female individuals have varying influence on ecosystem evapotranspiration. To address this, stem sap flux was measured on mature streamside (≤1 m from stream channel) and nonstreamside (>1 m from stream channel) male and female Acer negundo trees occurring in Red Butte Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah, during the 2004 growing season. Despite having similar predawn and midday water potentials, sap flux density was 76% higher in streamside female trees than in males (P < 0.0001), while sap flux density was 19% greater in nonstreamside female trees compared to males (P < 0.0001). Mean daily sap flux density of all A. negundo populations was highly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit (P < 0.0001), and was moderately correlated with mean daily photosynthetic active radiation (P = 0.0263). At the watershed scale, nonstreamside male and female A. negundo trees contributed 20 and 21% respectively to the estimated 1.7 mm d-1 transpiration flux from dominant riparian vegetation away from streamsides (estimated from scaled sap flux measurements of all dominant riparian tree species in Red Butte Canyon). Male and female A. negundo trees contributed 31 and 46% respectively of the estimated 8.0 mm d-1 transpiration

  8. MAPLE-deposited PFO films: influence of the laser fluence and repetition rate on the film emission and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Anni, M.; Cesaria, M.; Lattante, S.; Leggieri, G.; Leo, C.; Martino, M.; Perulli, A.; Resta, V.

    2015-06-01

    The Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique is emerging as an alternative route to the conventional methods for depositing organic materials, although the MAPLE-deposited films very often present high surface roughness and characteristic morphological features. Films of the blue-emitting polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)—PFO, have been deposited by MAPLE to investigate the influence of the laser fluence and repetition rate on both their topography and emission properties. The laser fluence has been changed from 150 up to 450 mJ/cm2, while laser repetition rates of 2 and 10 Hz have been considered. The interplay/relationship between the topography and the emission properties of the MAPLE-deposited films has been studied by confocal microscopy, photoluminescence spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that under high irradiation (fluence of 450 mJ/cm2) conditions, the sample surface is characterized by bubbles presenting the intrinsic PFO blue emission. Instead, while improvements in the film morphology can be observed for lowered fluence and laser repetition rate, green emission becomes predominant in such conditions. Such result is very interesting to better understand the MAPLE ablation mechanism, which is discussed in this study.

  9. Sapling herbivory, invertebrate herbivores and predators across a natural tree diversity gradient in Germany's largest connected deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Stephanie; Scherber, Christoph; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2009-05-01

    Tree species-rich forests are hypothesised to be less susceptible to insect herbivores, but so far herbivory-diversity relationships have rarely been tested for tree saplings, and no such study has been published for deciduous forests in Central Europe. We expected that diverse tree communities reduce the probability of detection of host plants and increase abundance of predators, thereby reducing herbivory. We examined levels of herbivory suffered by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and maple saplings (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L.) across a tree species diversity gradient within Germany's largest remaining deciduous forest area, and investigated whether simple beech or mixed stands were less prone to damage caused by herbivorous insects. Leaf area loss and the frequency of galls and mines were recorded for 1,040 saplings (>13,000 leaves) in June and August 2006. In addition, relative abundance of predators was assessed to test for potential top-down control. Leaf area loss was generally higher in the two species of maple compared to beech saplings, while only beech showed a decline in damage caused by leaf-chewing herbivores across the tree diversity gradient. No significant patterns were found for galls and mines. Relative abundance of predators on beech showed a seasonal response and increased on species-rich plots in June, suggesting higher biological control. We conclude that, in temperate deciduous forests, herbivory-tree diversity relationships are significant, but are tree species-dependent with bottom-up and top-down control as possible mechanisms. In contrast to maple, beech profits from growing in a neighbourhood of higher tree richness, which implies that species identity effects may be of greater importance than tree diversity effects per se. Hence, herbivory on beech appeared to be mediated bottom-up by resource concentration in the sampled forest stands, as well as regulated top-down through biocontrol by natural enemies. PMID:19238448

  10. Management of a Woman With Maple Syrup Urine Disease During Pregnancy, Delivery, and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Ann E; Mogensen, Kris M; Rohr, Frances; Erick, Miriam; Neilan, Edward G; Chopra, Sameer; Levy, Harvey L; Gray, Kathryn J; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Berry, Gerard T

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Complications of acute elevation in plasma leucine include ketoacidosis and risk of cerebral edema, which can be fatal. Individuals with MSUD are at risk of metabolic crisis throughout life, especially at times of physiological stress. We present a case of successful management of a woman with MSUD through pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, and lactation, including nutrition therapy using modified parenteral nutrition. PMID:24618664

  11. Variation and correlation of properties in different grades of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amritpal S; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K

    2014-03-01

    Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products. PMID:24408861

  12. Effect of substrate temperature on MAPLE deposition of synthetic eumelanin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloisi, F.; Pezzella, A.; Barra, M.; Alfè, M.; Chiarella, F.; Cassinese, A.; Vicari, L.

    2011-11-01

    Eumelanin is an important pigment almost ubiquitous in animals and plants exhibiting interesting charge transport capabilities. Its poor solubility in common solvents represents a severe limitation for preparing thin films. It was recently demonstrated that eumelanin films can be successfully deposited with the MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique starting from a frozen water suspension, using infrared laser radiation. The low laser absorption of ice together with the high absorption of eumelanin suggests that the target ablation is due to laser energy absorbed by the eumelanin molecules, followed by thermal energy transfer, and ejection of ice/water/vapor containing undamaged eumelanin molecules and supramolecular structures. Here, we report on the deposition of eumelanin thin films on substrates at different temperatures eventually followed by in-situ annealing. Structural characterization (UV-VIS, FTIR, AP-MALDI) confirms that the deposited films maintain the characteristics of the eumelanin biopolymer. Morphological characterization (AFM) shows that surface roughness increases with increasing substrate temperature during MAPLE deposition, but is not influenced by annealing. Preliminary electrical characterization shows that eumelanin films seem to obey Ohm's law without evidence that charge injection from gold electrodes is affected by the presence of significant energy barriers. Moreover, charge transport is drastically reduced in vacuum, even if the phenomenon is at least partially reversible.

  13. MAPLE deposition of polypyrrole-based composite layers for bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Acasandrei, Adriana Maria; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Ion, Valentin; Mihailescu, Mona; Vasile, Eugenia; Dinescu, Maria

    2015-12-01

    We report on biocompatible, electrically conductive layers of polypyrrole (PPy)-based composites obtained by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) for envisioned bone regeneration. In order to preserve the conductivity of the PPy while overcoming its lack of biodegradability and low mechanical resilience, conductive PPy nanograins were embedded in two biocompatible, insulating polymeric matrices, i.e. poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) and polyurethane (PU). PLGA offers the advantage of full biodegradability into non-toxic products, while PU provides toughness and elasticity. The PPy nanograins formed micro-domains and networks within the PLGA and PU matrices, in a compact spatial arrangement favorable for electrical percolation. The proposed approach allowed us to obtain PPy-based composite layers with biologically meaningful conductivities up to 10-2 S/cm for PPy loadings as low as 1:10 weight ratios. Fluorescent staining and viability assays showed that the MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured on the PPy-based layers deposited by MAPLE were viable and retained their capacity to proliferate. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated by quantitative evaluation of the calcium phosphate deposits from the cultured cells, as indicative for cell mineralization. Electrical stimulation using 200 μA currents passing through the PPy-based layers, during a time interval of 4 h, enhanced the osteogenesis in the cultured cells. Despite their lowest conductivity, the PPy/PU layers showed the best biocompatibility and the highest osteogenic potential.

  14. A Maple Program That Illustrates the Effect of pH on Peptide Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolik, Charles W.

    1998-11-01

    One topic covered early in an introductory biochemistry course is acid-base chemistry and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (buffer equation). Using this equation a biochemistry student can determine the partial charges of amino acids in a peptide chain. This is an important concept to master for a student who is learning the structure-function relationship in proteins. The program described in this paper, written for Maple V, release 3 (Waterloo Maple Software, Waterloo, ON, Canada), uses the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the partial charges of individual amino acids and the net charge of a peptide over the pH range 0 to 14. The amino acid sequence of a peptide is entered and an animated histogram is displayed illustrating the partial charge of the amino acids over the pH range. A graph showing the net charge of the peptide from pH 0 to 14 is also given. The program has been used with success in an introductory biochemistry course as an in-class demonstration as well as for individual homework assignments. The program is available through the Web page of the Journal of Chemical Education.

  15. Flexible heterostructures based on metal phthalocyanines thin films obtained by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Stavarache, I.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, G.; Gherendi, F.; Grumezescu, V.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Girtan, M.; Stefan, N.

    2016-06-01

    Heterostructures based on zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyrydil)21H,23H-porphine (TPyP) were deposited on ITO flexible substrates by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Organic heterostructures containing (TPyP/ZnPc(MgPc)) stacked or (ZnPc(MgPc):TPyP) mixed layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction-XRD, photoluminescence-PL, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. No chemical decomposition of the initial materials was observed. The investigated structures present a large spectral absorption in the visible range making them suitable for organic photovoltaics applications (OPV). Scanning electron microscopy-SEM and atomic force microscopy-AFM revealed morphologies typical for the films prepared by MAPLE. The current-voltage characteristics of the investigated structures, measured in dark and under light, present an improvement in the current value (∼3 order of magnitude larger) for the structure based on the mixed layer (Al/MgPc:TPyP/ITO) in comparison with the stacked layer (Al/MgPc//TPyP/ITO). A photogeneration process was evidenced in the case of structures Al/ZnPc:TPyP/ITO with mixed layers.

  16. MAPLE prepared heterostructures with arylene based polymer active layer for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, F.; Rasoga, O.; Catargiu, A. M.; Vacareanu, L.; Socol, M.; Breazu, C.; Preda, N.; Socol, G.; Stanculescu, A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents some studies about the preparation by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique of heterostructures with single layer of arylene based polymer, poly[N-(2-ethylhexyl)2.7-carbazolyl vinylene]/AMC16 and poly[N-(2-ethylhexyl)2.7-carbazolyl 1.4-phenylene ethynylene]/AMC22, and with layers of these polymers mixed with Buckminsterfullerene/C60 in the weight ratio of 1:2 (AMC16:C60) and 1:3 (AMC22:C60). The deposited layers have been characterized by spectroscopic (UV-Vis-NIR, PL, FTIR) and microscopic (SEM, AFM) methods. The effect of the polymer particularities on the optical and electrical properties of the structures based on polymer and polymer:C60 mixed layer has been analyzed. The study of the electrical properties has revealed typical solar cell behavior for the heterostructure prepared by MAPLE on glass/ITO/PEDOT-PSS with AMC16, AMC22 and AMC22:C60 layer, confirming that this method is adequate for the preparation of polymeric and mixed active layers for solar cells applications. The highest photovoltaic effect was shown by the solar cell structure realized with single layer of AMC16 polymer: glass/ITO/PEDOT-PSS/AMC16/Al.

  17. DNA damage in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O S; Borges, Gabriela D; Munhoz, Bruna P; Leffa, Daniela D; Andrade, Vanessa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a severe deficiency of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Neurological dysfunction is a common finding in patients with maple syrup urine disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain damage in this disorder are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether acute or chronic administration of a branched chain amino acid pool (leucine, isoleucine and valine) causes transient DNA damage, as determined by the alkaline comet assay, in the brain and blood of rats during development and whether antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by branched chain amino acids. Our results showed that the acute administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in the hippocampus. However, the chronic administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in both the hippocampus and the striatum, and the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum. The present study demonstrated that metabolite accumulation in MSUD induces DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum and that it may be implicated in the neuropathology observed in the affected patients. We demonstrated that the effect of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine) prevented DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in DNA damage. PMID:22560665

  18. Spring leaf phenology and the diurnal temperature range in a temperate maple forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanes, Jonathan M.

    2014-03-01

    Spring leaf phenology in temperate climates is intricately related to numerous aspects of the lower atmosphere [e.g., surface energy balance, carbon flux, humidity, the diurnal temperature range (DTR)]. To further develop and improve the accuracy of ecosystem and climate models, additional investigations of the specific nature of the relationships between spring leaf phenology and various ecosystem and climate processes are required in different environments. This study used visual observations of maple leaf phenology, below-canopy light intensities, and micrometeorological data collected during the spring seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010 to examine the potential influence of leaf phenology on a seasonal transition in the trend of the DTR. The timing of a reversal in the DTR trend occurred near the time when the leaves were unfolding and expanding. The results suggest that the spring decline in the DTR can be attributed primarily to the effect of canopy closure on daily maximum temperature. These findings improve our understanding of the relationship between leaf phenology and the diurnal temperature range in temperate maple forests during the spring. They also demonstrate the necessity of incorporating accurate phenological data into ecosystem and climate models and warrant a careful examination of the extent to which canopy phenology is currently incorporated into existing models.

  19. Lipase immobilization for catalytic applications obtained using fumed silica deposited with MAPLE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloisi, Francesco; Califano, Valeria; Perretta, Giuseppe; Nasti, Libera; Aronne, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Auriemma, Finizia; De Rosa, Claudio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Lipases are enzymes used for catalyzing reactions of acylglycerides in biodiesel production from lipids, where enzyme immobilization on a substrate is required. Silica nanoparticles in different morphologies and configurations are currently used in conjunction with biological molecules for drug delivery and catalysis applications, but up to date their use for triglycerides has been limited by the large size of long-chain lipid molecules. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), a laser deposition technique using a frozen solution/suspension as a target, is widely used for deposition of biomaterials and other delicate molecules. We have carried out a MAPLE deposition starting from a frozen mixture containing fumed silica and lipase in water. Deposition parameters were chosen in order to increase surface roughness and to promote the formation of complex structures. Both the target (a frozen thickened mixture of nanoparticles/catalyst in water) and the deposition configuration (a small target to substrate distance) are unusual and have been adopted in order to increase surface contact of catalyst and to facilitate access to long-chain molecules. The resulting innovative film morphology (fumed silica/lipase cluster level aggregation) and the lipase functionality (for catalytic biodiesel production) have been studied by FESEM, FTIR and transesterification tests.

  20. MAPLE deposition of 3D micropatterned polymeric substrates for cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Mihailescu, Mona; Calenic, Bogdan; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Greabu, Maria; Dinescu, Maria

    2013-08-01

    3D micropatterned poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/polyurethane (PLGA/PU) substrates were produced by MAPLE deposition through masks and used for regulating the behavior of oral keratinocyte stem cells in response to topography. Flat PLGA/PU substrates were produced for comparison. 3D imaging of the PLGA/PU substrates and of the cultured cells was performed by Digital Holographic Microscopy. The micropatterns were in the shape of squares of 50 × 50 and 80 × 80 μm2 areas, ~1.8 μm in height and separated by 20 μm wide channels. It was found that substrate topography guided the adhesion of the cultured cells: on the smooth substrates the cells adhered randomly and showed no preferred orientation; in contrast, on the micropatterned substrates the cells adhered preferentially onto the squares and not in the separating channels. Furthermore, key properties of the cells (size, viability, proliferation rate and stem cell marker expression) did not show any dependence on substrate topography. The size of the cultured cells, their viability, the proportions of actively/slow proliferating cells, as well as the stem cell markers expressions, were similar for both flat and micropatterned substrates. Finally, it was found that the cells cultured on the PLGA/PU substrates deposited by MAPLE exhibited similar properties as the controls (i.e. cells cultured on glass slides), indicating the capability of the former to preserve the properties of the keratinocyte stem cells.

  1. Biofilm formation and biocides sensitivity of Pseudomonas marginalis isolated from a maple sap collection system.

    PubMed

    Lagacé, L; Jacques, M; Mafu, A A; Roy, D

    2006-10-01

    The susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm cells of Pseudomonas marginalis toward four commonly used biocides at different temperatures (15 and 30 degrees C) and biofilm growth times (24 and 48 h) was assessed. Using the MBEC biofilm device, biofilm production in maple sap was shown to be highly reproducible for each set of conditions tested. Biofilm formation was influenced by growth temperature and time. A temperature of 15 degrees C and incubation time of 24 h yielded fewer CFU per peg and showed fewer adhered cells and typical biofilm structures, based on scanning electron microscopy observations as compared with other conditions. Minimal biofilm eradication concentration values for P. marginalis were significantly greater (P. < 0.001) than were MBCs for planktonic cells and for every biocide tested, with the exception of minimal biofilm eradication concentration values for peracetic acid at 15 degrees C and 24 h. Sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid sanitizers were able to eliminate P. marginalis biofilms at lower concentrations as compared with hydrogen peroxide- and quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers (P < 0.001). According to the results obtained, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid sanitizers would be more appropriate for maple sap collection system sanitation. PMID:17066920

  2. Maple Bark Biochar Affects Rhizoctonia solani Metabolism and Increases Damping-Off Severity.

    PubMed

    Copley, Tanya R; Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the effect of biochar on plant yield, nutrient uptake, and soil microbial populations; however, little work has been done on its effect on soilborne plant diseases. To determine the effect of maple bark biochar on Rhizoctonia damping-off, 11 plant species were grown in a soilless potting substrate amended with different concentrations of biochar and inoculated or not with Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4. Additionally, the effect of biochar amendment on R. solani growth and metabolism in vitro was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of maple bark biochar increased Rhizoctonia damping-off of all 11 plant species. Using multivariate analyses, we observed positive correlations between biochar amendments, disease severity and incidence, abundance of culturable bacterial communities, and physicochemical parameters. Additionally, biochar amendment significantly increased R. solani growth and hyphal extension in vitro, and altered its primary metabolism, notably the mannitol and tricarboxylic acid cycles and the glycolysis pathway. One or several organic compounds present in the biochar, as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, may be metabolized by R. solani. Taken together, these results indicate that future studies on biochar should focus on the effect of its use as an amendment on soilborne plant pathogens before applying it to soils. PMID:25938176

  3. Born total ionisation cross sections: An algebraic computing program using Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Stelbovics, Andris T.

    2003-08-01

    The software described in this paper uses the Maple algebraic computing environment to calculate an analytic form for the matrix element of the plane-wave Born approximation of the electron-impact ionisation of an atomic orbital, with arbitrary orbital and angular momentum quantum numbers. The atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater functions, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, made orthogonal to all occupied orbitals of the target atom. Clenshaw-Curtis integration techniques are then used to calculate the total ionisation cross-section. For improved performance, the numerical integrations are performed using FORTRAN by automatically converting the analytic matrix element for each orbital into a FORTRAN subroutine. The results compare favourably with experimental data for a wide range of elements, including the transition metals, with excellent convergence at high energies. Program summaryTitle of program: BIX Catalogue identifier:ADRZ Program summary URL:http://www.cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADRZ Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Platform independent Operating systems: Tested on DEC Alpha Unix, Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP Professional Edition Programming language used: Maple V Release 5.1 and FORTRAN 90 Memory required: 256 MB No. of processors used: 1 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:61754 Distributed format:tar gzip file Keywords: Born approximation, electron-impact ionisation cross-section, Maple, Hartree-Fock Nature of physical problem: Calculates the total electron impact ionisation cross-section for neutral and ionised atomic species using the first-Born approximation. The scattered electron is modelled by a plane wave, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, which is made orthogonal to all occupied atomic orbitals, and the atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater

  4. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    PubMed

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes. PMID:26809744

  5. Very low roughness MAPLE-deposited films of a light emitting polymer: an alternative to spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Leo, C.; Mazzeo, M.; Genco, A.; Carallo, S.; Tunno, T.; Massafra, A.; Gigli, G.; Martino, M.

    2015-04-01

    The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique is emerging as an alternative route to conventional deposition methods of organic materials (solution-phase and thermal evaporation approaches). However, the high surface roughness of the films deposited by MAPLE makes this technique not compatible with applications in electronics and photonics. In this paper we report the deposition of MAPLE-films of a green light emitting polymer, commercially named ADS125GE, with remarkable low roughness values, down to about 10 nm at the thickness conventionally used in photonic devices (~40 nm). This issue is discussed as a function of polymer concentration, target-substrate distance and substrate rotation based on AFM topography images, roughness estimation and optical (absorption and luminescent) measurements. In addition we have fabricated an organic light emitting diode with this technique using the best deposition parameters which guarantee the lowest roughness. These results open the way to MAPLE applications in organic photonics and opto-electronics.

  6. Anagenetic speciation in Ullung Island, Korea: genetic diversity and structure in the island endemic species, Acer takesimense (Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; Sun, Byung-Yun; Stuessy, Tod F

    2013-05-01

    Anagenetic speciation is an important mode of speciation in oceanic islands; one-fourth of the endemic plants are estimated to have been derived via this process. Few studies, however, have critically examined the genetic consequences of anagenesis in comparison with cladogenesis (involved with adaptive radiation). We hypothesize that endemic species originating via anagenetic speciation in a relatively uniform environment should accumulate genetic variation with limited populational differentiation. We undertook a population genetic analysis using nine nuclear microsatellite loci of Acer takesimense, an anagenetically derived species endemic to Ullung Island, Korea, and its continental progenitor A. pseudosieboldianum on the Korean Peninsula. Microsatellite data reveal a clear genetic distinction between the two species. A high F value in the cluster of A. takesimense was found by Bayesian clustering analysis, suggesting a strong episode of genetic drift during colonization and speciation. In comparison with A. pseudosieboldianum, A. takesimense has slightly lower genetic diversity and possesses less than half the number of private and rare alleles. Consistent with predictions, weak geographical genetic structure within the island was found in A. takesimense. These results imply that anagenetic speciation leads to a different pattern of specific and genetic diversity than often seen with cladogenesis. PMID:23090156

  7. Imaging findings of anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aw-Zoretic, Jessie; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Lulla, Rishi R; Rishi, Lulla R; Ryan, Maura E

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which usually presents in childhood with encephalopathy due to cerebral edema and dysmyelination. Even with treatment, metabolic stressors may precipitate later episodes of acute decompensation. Changes related to cerebral and white matter edema have been described by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging can aid in both initial diagnosis and evaluation of decompensation. To date, there are no published known reports of cancer in patients with MSUD. Here, we present the first case report of an anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with MSUD, with a discussion of imaging findings and the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to help distinguish between tumor and metabolic changes. PMID:26084772

  8. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Chin, H L; Aw, M M; Quak, S H; Huang, J; Hart, C E; Prabhakaran, K; Goh, D L

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410

  9. [GENETIC AND METABOLIC URGENCIES IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Páez Rojas, Paola Liliana; Suarez Obando, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a hereditary disorder of branched chain amino/keto acid metabolism, caused by a decreased activity of the branched-chain alpha- ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD), which leads to abnormal elevated plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) clinically manifested as a heavy burden for Central Nervous system. The toxic accumulation of substrates promotes the development of a severe and rapidly progressive neonatal encephalopathy if treatment is not immediately given. This disorder has a specific medical management in acute phase in order to minimize mortality and morbidity. For all those reasons, it is important to include the MSUD as a possible diagnosis in a encephalopathic newborn. We present a colombian newborn with classical MSUD with fatal outcome as an example of metabolic emergency and a differential diagnosis in the encephalopathic newborn. PMID:26262748

  10. MAPLE preparation and characterization of mixed arylenevinylene based oligomers:C60 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Socol, G.; Vacareanu, L.; Socol, M.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Girtan, M.; Stanculescu, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents some studies about the preparation by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of mixed layers based on two arylenevinylene oligomers, 1,4-bis [4-(N,N‧-diphenylamino)phenylvinyl] benzene (L78) and 3,3‧-bis(N-hexylcarbazole)vinylbenzene (L13) as donor and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as acceptor, blended in three different weight ratios: 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The optical, morphological, structural and electrical properties of these mixed layers have been investigated emphasizing the effect of the layer composition and of the significant degree of disorder. I-V characteristics have revealed typically solar cell behaviour for the heterostructures prepared with mixed layers containing L78 (L13) and fullerene blended in a weight ratio of 1:2. The solar cell structure glass/ITO/L13:C60/Al has shown the best parameters.