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Sample records for maple acer pseudoplatanus

  1. New Gallotannin and other Phytochemicals from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; Niesen, Daniel B; Wang, Hui; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-11-01

    The maple (Acer) genus is a reported source of bioactive (poly)phenols, including gallotannins, but several of its members, such as the sycamore maple (A. pseudoplatanus), remain uninvestigated. Herein, thirty-nine compounds, including a new gallotannin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-6-O-(p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D- glucopyranoside (1), and thirty-eight (2-39) known compounds, consisting of four gallotannins, one ellagitannin, thirteen flavonoids, eight hydroxycinnamic acids, ten benzoic acid derivatives, and two sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from sycamore maple leaves. Their structures were determined based on NMR and mass spectral analyses. The isolates were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the isolates, the gallotannins were the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with thirteen-fold more potent activity compared with the clinical drug, acarbose (IC50 = 16-31 vs. 218 µM). Similarly, the gallotannins showed the highest antioxidant activities, followed by the other phenolic sub-classes, while the sesquiterpenoids were inactive. PMID:26749841

  2. Effect of brefeldin A on the structure of the Golgi apparatus and on the synthesis and secretion of proteins and polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Driouich, A; Zhang, G F; Staehelin, L A

    1993-01-01

    Brefeldin A (BFA), a specific inhibitor of Golgi-mediated secretion in animal cells, has been used to study the organization of the secretory pathway and the function of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells. To this end, we have employed a combination of electron microscopical, immunocytochemical, and biochemical techniques to investigate the effects of this drug on the architecture of the Golgi apparatus as well as on the secretion of proteins and complex cell wall polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells. We have used 2.5 and 7.5 micrograms/mL of BFA, which is comparable to the 1 to 10 micrograms/mL used in experiments with animal cells. Electron micrographs of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted cells show that although BFA causes swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, unlike in animal cells, it does not induce the disassembly of sycamore maple Golgi stacks. Instead, BFA induces the formation of large clusters of Golgi stacks, an increase in the number of trans-like Golgi cisternae, and the accumulation in the cytoplasm of very dense vesicles that appear to be derived from trans Golgi cisternae. These vesicles contain large amounts of xyloglucan (XG), the major hemicellulosic cell wall polysaccharide, as shown by immunocytochemical labeling with anti-XG antibodies. All of these structural changes disappear within 120 min after removal of the drug. In vivo labeling experiments using [3H]leucine demonstrate that protein secretion into the culture medium, but not protein synthesis, is inhibited by approximately 80% in the presence of BFA. In contrast, the incorporation of [3H]fucose into N-linked glycoproteins, which occurs in trans-Golgi cisternae, appears to be affected to a greater extent than the incorporation of [3H]xylose, which has been localized to medial Golgi cisternae. BFA also affects secretion of complex polysaccharides as evidenced by the approximate 50% drop in incorporation of [3H]xylose and

  3. Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.; Xin, Yi )

    1990-05-01

    Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulose polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Biosynthesis of such cell wall polysaccharides is closely linked to the process of plant cell growth and development. Xyloglucan polysaccharides consist of a {beta}-1,4 glucan backbone synthesized by xyloglucan synthase and sidechains of xylose, galactose, and fucose added by other transferase enzymes. Most plant Golgi and plasma membranes also contain glucan synthases I II, which make {beta}-1,4 and {beta}-1,3 glucans, respectively. All of these enzymes have very similar activities. Cell walls on suspension-cultured cells from Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple) were enzymatically softened prior to cell disruption by passing through a 30 {mu}m nylon screen. Cell membranes from homogenates were separated by ultracentrifugation on top-loaded or flotation sucrose density gradients. Samples were collected by gradient fractionation and assayed for membrane markers and xyloglucan and glucan synthase activities. Standard marker assays (cyt. c reductase for eR, IDPase UDPase for Golgi, and eosin 5{prime}-malelmide binding for plasma membrane) showed partial separation of these three membrane types. Golgi and plasma membrane markers overlapped in most gradients. Incorporation of {sup 14}C-labeled sugars from UDP-glucose and UDP-xylose was used to detect xyloglucan synthase, glucan synthases I II, and xylosyl transferase in Golgi membrane fractions. These activities overlapped, although distinct peaks of xyloglucan synthase and xylosyl transferase were found. Ca{sup ++} had a stimulatory effect on glucan synthases I II, while Mn{sup ++} had an inhibitory effect on glucan synthase I in the presence of Ca{sup ++}. The similarity of these various synthase activities demonstrates the need for careful structural characterization of newly synthesized polysaccharides.

  4. Rapid degradation of abnormal proteins in vacuoles from Acer pseudoplatanus L. cells

    SciTech Connect

    Canut, H.; Alibert, G.; Carrasco, A.; Boudet, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    In Acer pseudoplatanus cells, the proteins synthesized in the presence of an amino acid analog ((/sup 14/C)p-fluorophenylalanine), were degraded more rapidly than normal ones ((/sup 14/C)phenylalanine as precursor). The degradation of an important part of these abnormal proteins occurred inside the vacuoles. The degradation process was not apparently associated to a specific proteolytic system but was related to a preferential transfer of these aberrant proteins from the cytoplasm to the vacuole.

  5. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  6. Frequency of inversions affects senescence phenology of Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Christina; Kirchner, Manfred; Jakobi, Gert; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    In mountainous regions, inversion situations with cold-air pools in the valleys occur frequently, especially in fall and winter. With the accumulation of inversion days, trees in lower elevations experience lower temperature sums than those in middle elevations. In a two-year observational study, deciduous trees, such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica, on altitudinal transects responded in their fall leaf senescence phenology. Phenological phases were advanced and senescence duration was shortened by the cold temperatures in the valley. This effect was more distinct for late phases than for early phases since they experienced more inversion days. The higher the inversion frequency, the stronger the signal was. Acer pseudoplatanus proved to be more sensitive to cold temperatures compared to Fagus sylvatica. We conclude that cold-air pools have a considerable impact on the vegetation period of deciduous trees. Considering this effect, trees in the mid hillside slopes gain advantages compared to lower elevations. Our findings will help to improve knowledge about ecological drivers and responses in mountainous forest ecosystems.

  7. Spectrochemical analysis of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) leaves for environmental health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ord, James; Butler, Holly J; McAinsh, Martin R; Martin, Francis L

    2016-05-10

    Terrestrial plants are ideal sentinels of environmental pollution, due to their sedentary nature, abundance and sensitivity to atmospheric changes. However, reliable and sensitive biomarkers of exposure have hitherto been difficult to characterise. Biospectroscopy offers a novel approach to the derivation of biomarkers in the form of discrete molecular alterations detectable within a biochemical fingerprint. We investigated the application of this approach for the identification of biomarkers for pollution exposure using the common sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) as a sentinel species. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to interrogate leaf tissue collected from three sites exposed to different levels of vehicle exhaust emissions. Following multivariate analysis of acquired spectra, significant biochemical alterations were detected between comparable leaves from different sites that may constitute putative biomarkers for pollution-induced stress. These included differences in carbohydrate and nucleic acid conformations, which may be indicative of sub-lethal exposure effects. We also observed several corresponding spectral alterations in both the leaves of A. pseudoplatanus exposed to ozone pollution under controlled environmental conditions and in leaves infected with the fungal pathogen Rhytisma acerinum, indicating that some stress-induced changes are conserved between different stress signatures. These similarities may be indicative of stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, although further work is needed to verify the precise identity of infrared biomarkers and to identify those that are specific to pollution exposure. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that biospectroscopy presents an effective toolkit for the utilisation of higher plants, such as A. pseudoplatanus, as sentinels of environmental pollution. PMID:27068098

  8. Respiratory Response of Acer pseudoplatanus Cells to Pyruvate and 2,4-Dinitrophenol 1

    PubMed Central

    Givan, Curtis V.; Torrey, John G.

    1968-01-01

    The endogenous respiration rate of unstarved cultured cells of Acer pseudo-platanus L. is markedly stimulated by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Pyruvate is also stimulatory but to a lesser degree than dinitrophenol. Exogenously supplied sugars cause no short-term stimulation. Pyruvate does not enhance the elevated rate of O2 uptake in the presence of dinitrophenol but does cause additional CO2 evolution. The endogenous concentration of pyruvate is elevated in the presence of dinitrophenol. These observations suggest that the rate of O2 uptake by the unstarved intact cells is limited by the rate of glycolysis and that rate of glycolysis is regulated by the intracellular concentration of adenine nucleotides or inorganic phosphate. Dinitrophenol stimulation of endogenous respiration is due in part to an indirect acceleration of glycolysis but also to a more direct facilitation of oxidation in the presence of excess mitochondrial substrate. PMID:16656818

  9. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  10. Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Respiration of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, N.; Douce, R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of iron deficiency on cell culture growth, cell respiration, mitochondrial oxidative properties, and the electron transport chain were studied with suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Iron deprivation considerably decreased the initial growth rates and limited the maximum density of the cells. Under these conditions, the cells remained swollen throughout their growth. The absence of iron led to a steady decline in the uncoupled rate of O2 consumption. When the uncoupled rate of O2 uptake closely approximated the respiratory rate, the cells began to collapse. At this stage, the level of all the cytochromes and electron paramagnetic resonance-detectable Fe-S clusters of the mitochondrial inner membrane were dramatically decreased. Nevertheless, it appeared from substrate oxidation measurements that this overall depletion in iron-containing components solely disturbed the functioning of complex II, whereas neither complexes I, III, or IV, nor the machinery involved in ATP synthesis, was apparently impaired in iron-deficient mitochondria. However, our results suggest that the impairment of complex II resulted in a strong reduction of the overall capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which was responsible for determining the rate of endogenous respiration in sycamore cells. Finally, this situation led to a depletion of various energy metabolites that could contribute to the premature cell death. PMID:12232026

  11. Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Martha

    The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.

  12. Interacting effects of warming and drought on regeneration and early growth of Acer pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides.

    PubMed

    Carón, M M; De Frenne, P; Brunet, J; Chabrerie, O; Cousins, S A O; De Backer, L; Decocq, G; Diekmann, M; Heinken, T; Kolb, A; Naaf, T; Plue, J; Selvi, F; Strimbeck, G R; Wulf, M; Verheyen, K

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting on several aspects of plant life cycles, including the sexual reproductive stage, which is considered amongst the most sensitive life-cycle phases. In temperate forests, it is expected that climate change will lead to a compositional change in community structure due to changes in the dominance of currently more abundant forest tree species. Increasing our understanding of the effects of climate change on currently secondary tree species recruitment is therefore important to better understand and forecast population and community dynamics in forests. Here, we analyse the interactive effects of rising temperatures and soil moisture reduction on germination, seedling survival and early growth of two important secondary European tree species, Acer pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides. Additionally, we analyse the effect of the temperature experienced by the mother tree during seed production by collecting seeds of both species along a 2200-km long latitudinal gradient. For most of the responses, A. platanoides showed higher sensitivity to the treatments applied, and especially to its joint manipulation, which for some variables resulted in additive effects while for others only partial compensation. In both species, germination and survival decreased with rising temperatures and/or soil moisture reduction while early growth decreased with declining soil moisture content. We conclude that although A. platanoides germination and survival were more affected after the applied treatments, its initial higher germination and larger seedlings might allow this species to be relatively more successful than A. pseudoplatanus in the face of climate change. PMID:24750437

  13. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Competition for nitrogen (N), particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With inter-specific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to inter-specific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with inter-specific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech. PMID:25983738

  14. INITIAL GROWTH AND ONTOGENY OF BIGLEAF MAPLE (ACER MACROPHYLLUM) IN AN ENRICHED CARBON DIOXIDE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A controlled-environment experiment was initiated to evaluate the influence of CO2 enrichment on the growth and ontogeny of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum). evelopment of seedlings was monitored from seed germination through the first five months of ontogeny in growth chambers ...

  15. Analysis of the embryo proteome of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) seeds reveals a distinct class of proteins regulating dormancy release.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Staszak, Aleksandra Maria

    2016-05-20

    Acer pseudoplatanus seeds are characterized by a deep physiological embryo dormancy that requires a few weeks of cold stratification in order to promote germination. Understanding the function of proteins and their related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in the breaking of seed dormancy, would expand our knowledge pertaining to this process. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the changes occurring in seeds in response to cold stratification, which leads to dormancy release. In addition, the involvement of abscisic (ABA) and gibberellic acids (GA) was also examined. Fifty-three proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. An effect of ABA on protein variation was observed at the beginning of stratification, while the influence of GA on protein abundance was observed during the middle phase of stratification. The majority of proteins associated with dormancy breaking in the presence of only water, and also ABA or GA, were classified as being involved in metabolism and genetic information processing. For metabolic-related proteins, the effect of ABA on protein abundance was stimulatory for half of the proteins and inhibitory for half of the proteins. On the other hand, the effect on genetic information processing related proteins was stimulatory. GA was found to upregulate both metabolic-related and genetic information processing-related proteins. While seed dormancy breaking depends on proteins involved in a variety of processes, proteins associated with methionine metabolism (adenosine kinase, methionine synthase) and glycine-rich RNA binding proteins appear to be of particular importance. PMID:26970688

  16. Regional growth decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its potential causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Daniel A.; Beier, Colin M.; Pederson, Neil; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Stella, John C; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) has experienced poor vigor, regeneration failure, and elevated mortality across much of its range, but there has been relatively little attention to its growth rates. Based on a well-replicated dendrochronological network of range-centered populations in the Adirondack Mountains (USA), which encompassed a wide gradient of soil fertility, we observed that the majority of sugar maple trees exhibited negative growth trends in the last several decades, regardless of age, diameter, or soil fertility. Such growth patterns were unexpected, given recent warming and increased moisture availability, as well as reduced acidic deposition, which should have favored growth. Mean basal area increment was greater on base-rich soils, but these stands also experienced sharp reductions in growth. Growth sensitivity of sugar maple to temperature and precipitation was non-stationary during the last century, with overall weaker relationships than expected. Given the favorable competitive status and age structure of the Adirondack sugar maple populations sampled, evidence of widespread growth reductions raises concern over this ecologically and economically important tree. Further study will be needed to establish whether growth declines of sugar maple are occurring more widely across its range.

  17. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel; Ryser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season. PMID:27135339

  18. Studies of uptake and suppresion of Mn/sup 2 +/ migration in highly vacuolated sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L) cells by /sup 31/P NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, C.; Bligny, R.; Douce, R.; Pfeffer, P.E.

    1987-04-01

    Recent /sup 31/P NMR studies have demonstrated that Mn/sup 2 +/ appears to invade the cells of heterogeneous excised tissue of corn root tips sequentially, first entering the cytoplasmic compartment, where it complexes with nucleotides and P/sub i/. Under aerobic conditions, further migration across the tonoplast, followed by vacoule trapping was visualized through paramagnetic broadening of the vacoular P/sub i/ resonance. Cultured cells such as Acer pseudoplatanus L offer better opportunities for studying cellular activity by /sup 31/P NMR because of their homogeneity and uniformly rapid response to various metabolic disturbances. In contrast to excised root tissue, Mn/sup 2 +/ showed no measurable accumulation in the cytoplasmic compartments of these cells under aerobic conditions. However, a rapid crossing of the large tonoplast resulted in immediate vacuolar metal ion sequestration. Anoxia did not foster leakage of Mn/sup 2 +/ from the vacuole to the cytoplasm, while hypoxia completely halted all movement of Mn/sup 2 +/ across the plasmalema. This disparity in terms of cell and tissue morphology, membrane permeability and possible tissue trapping of metal ions will be discussed.

  19. Induction of tolerance to desiccation and cryopreservation in silver maple (Acer saccharinum) embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Beardmore, T; Whittle, C-A

    2005-08-01

    Twenty percent of of the world's flowering plants produce recalcitrant seeds (i.e., seeds that cannot withstand drying or freezing). We investigated whether the embryonic axis from the normally recalcitrant seeds of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) can be made tolerant to desiccation (10% water content) and low temperature (-196 degrees C, cryopreservation) by pretreatment with ABA or the compound tetcyclacis, which enhances endogenous ABA concentrations. Pretreatment of axes with both ABA and tetcyclacis increased germination after desiccation and freezing to 55% from a control value of zero. Pretreatment of axes with ABA and tetcyclacis increased the ABA content of the axes, as measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and stimulated the synthesis of storage and dehydrin-like proteins, believed to have a role in the desiccation tolerance of orthodox seeds. PMID:15929927

  20. Genetic consequences of selection cutting on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall).

    PubMed

    Graignic, Noémie; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Selection cutting is a treatment that emulates tree-by-tree replacement for forests with uneven-age structures. It creates small openings in large areas and often generates a more homogenous forest structure (fewer large leaving trees and defective trees) that differs from old-growth forest. In this study, we evaluated whether this type of harvesting has an impact on genetic diversity of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall). Genetic diversity among seedlings, saplings, and mature trees was compared between selection cut and old-growth forest stands in Québec, Canada. We found higher observed heterozygosity and a lower inbreeding coefficient in mature trees than in younger regeneration cohorts of both forest types. We detected a recent bottleneck in all stands undergoing selection cutting. Other genetic indices of diversity (allelic richness, observed and expected heterozygosity, and rare alleles) were similar between forest types. We concluded that the effect of selection cutting on the genetic diversity of sugar maple was recent and no evidence of genetic erosion was detectable in Québec stands after one harvest. However, the cumulative effect of recurring applications of selection cutting in bottlenecked stands could lead to fixation of deleterious alleles, and this highlights the need for adopting better forest management practices. PMID:27330554

  1. Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training

  2. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) seedlings in response to heavy metal stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660 nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650 nm. The differences may possibly be due to different water regimes in the two investigations. Previously announced in STAR as N81-29729

  3. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) in response to heavy metal stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650nm. The differences may possible be due to different water regimes in the two investigations.

  4. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    PubMed

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se. PMID:27547326

  5. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C., II

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  6. The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Guller, Bilgin

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and durations. The physical properties of heat-treated samples were compared against controls in order to determine their; oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Three main roughness parameters; mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) obtained from the surface of wood, were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant differences were determined (p>0.05) between surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rmax) at three different temperatures and three periods of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors. PMID:17698357

  7. Field identification of birdseye in sugar maple (acer saccharum marsh. ). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, D.C.; Stokke, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Birdseye grain distortions in sugar maple must be identified to capture the full value of a timber sale throughout the economic range of birdseye's occurrence. Even when relatively common, birdseye veneer typically makes up less than 1 percent of the harvested volume, but may account for one-half of the value of the sale. Field identification of birdseye sugar maple is critical for two principal reasons: (1) it allows for the enumeration of a valuable resource that may influence management decisions, and (2) it may prevent improper manufacturing of logs at the job site. Both factors should help increase overall timber sale return. The objective of the paper is to provide a background on birdseye sugar maples and a detailed sequential methodology for field identification of birdseye in standing trees.

  8. Photosynthesis and water-use efficiency of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in relation to pear thrips defoliation.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, D S; Tyree, M T; Parker, B L; Skinner, M

    1994-06-01

    An experimental introduction of pear thrips (Taeniothrips inconsequens Uzel), a major defoliator in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) forests in northeastern North America, was conducted in a field plantation to determine if compensatory gas exchange occurs in response to feeding damage by this piercing-sucking insect. Sugar maple trees were enclosed in netting (167 micro m mesh) and pear thrips adults were introduced before leaf expansion in the spring. Pear thrips reduced whole-tree leaf area by approximately 23% and reduced leaf size (both mass and area) by 20% in the upper crown. Measurements of net CO(2) assimilation rate (A(net)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were made on tagged foliage that was later analyzed for stable carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) to provide estimates of short- and long-term leaf water use efficiency (WUE). Pear thrips feeding reduced A(net) for fully expanded leaves by approximately 20%, although leaf chlorophyll content and leaf mass per unit area were apparently not affected. Comparison of A(net), g(s), instantaneous WUE and leaf delta(13)C between damaged and control trees as well as visibly undamaged versus moderately damaged foliage on pear thrips-infested trees indicated that there were no effects of pear thrips feeding damage on WUE or leaf delta(13)C. Long-term WUE among sugar maple trees in the field plantation, indicated by leaf delta(13)C analysis, was related to shorter-term estimates of leaf gas exchange behavior such as g(s) and calculated leaf intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)). We conclude that pear thrips feeding has no effect on leaf WUE, but at the defoliation levels in our experiment, it may reduce leaf A(net), as a result of direct tissue damage or through reduced g(s). Therefore, even small reductions in leaf A(net) by pear thrips feeding damage may have an important effect on the seasonal carbon balance of sugar maple when integrated over the entire growing season. PMID:14967678

  9. Effects of maple (Acer) plant part extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic colon cells.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-07-01

    Phenolic-enriched extracts of maple sap and syrup, obtained from the sugar and red maple species (Acer saccharum Marsh, A. rubrum L., respectively), are reported to show anticancer effects. Despite traditional medicinal uses of various other parts of these plants by Native Americans, they have not been investigated for anticancer activity. Here leaves, stems/twigs, barks and sapwoods of both maple species were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and non-tumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cells. Extracts were standardized to total phenolic and ginnalin-A (isolated in our laboratory) levels. Overall, the extracts inhibited the growth of the colon cancer more than normal cells (over two-fold), their activities increased with their ginnalin-A levels, with red > sugar maple extracts. The red maple leaf extract, which contained the highest ginnalin-A content, was the most active extract (IC₅₀  = 35 and 16 µg/mL for extract and ginnalin-A, respectively). The extracts were not cytotoxic nor did they induce apoptosis of the colon cancer cells. However, cell cycle analyses revealed that the antiproliferative effects of the extracts were mediated through cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. The results from the current study suggest that these maple plant part extracts may have potential anticolon cancer effects. PMID:22147441

  10. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins. PMID:22387705

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Embryogenesis and the Acquisition of Seed Dormancy in Norway Maple (Acer platanoides L.)

    PubMed Central

    Staszak, Aleksandra Maria; Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The proteome of zygotic embryos of Acer platanoides L. was analyzed via high-resolution 2D-SDS-PAGE and MS/MS in order to: (1) identify significant physiological processes associated with embryo development; and (2) identify changes in the proteome of the embryo associated with the acquisition of seed dormancy. Seventeen spots were identified as associated with morphogenesis at 10 to 13 weeks after flowering (WAF). Thirty-three spots were associated with maturation of the embryo at 14 to 22 WAF. The greatest changes in protein abundance occurred at 22 WAF, when seeds become fully mature. Overall, the stage of morphogenesis was characterized by changes in the abundance of proteins (tubulins and actin) associated with the growth and development of the embryo. Enzymes related to energy supply were especially elevated, most likely due to the energy demand associated with rapid growth and cell division. The stage of maturation is crucial to the establishment of seed dormancy and is associated with a higher abundance of proteins involved in genetic information processing, energy and carbon metabolism and cellular and antioxidant processes. Results indicated that a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein and proteasome proteins may be directly involved in dormancy acquisition control, and future studies are warranted to verify this association. PMID:24941250

  12. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...

  13. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...

  14. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...

  15. Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Roy A.; Walkington, Noel J.

    1996-06-01

    A knowledge of one or more high level symbolic mathematics programs is rapidly becoming a necessity for mathematics users from all fields of science. The aim of this book is to provide a solid grounding in Maple, one of the best known of these programs. The authors combine efficiency and economy of exposition with a complete coverage of Maple. The book has twelve chapters, of which eight are completely accessible to anyone who has completed calculus and linear sequences as taught in American universities. These chapters cover the great majority of Maple's capabilities. There are also three chapters on Maple programming that can be read without prior programming experience, although knowledge of a high level programming language (Basic, Fortran, C etc.) will help. There is also a chapter on some relevant aspects of algebra. Above all, the book allows the reader to extract value from Maple without wasting time and effort in the learning process. It is the fastest track to expertise for Maple users in mathematics and computer science.

  16. Simulated root dynamics of a 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree with and without ozone exposure using the TREGRO model.

    PubMed

    Retzlaff, W. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Laurence, J. A.; Gollands, B.

    1996-01-01

    Because of difficulties in directly assessing root responses of mature forest trees exposed to atmospheric pollutants, we have used the model TREGRO to analyze the effects of a 3- and a 10-year exposure to ozone (O(3)) on root dynamics of a simulated 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree. We used existing phenological, allometric, and growth data to parameterize TREGRO to produce a simulated 160-year-old tree. Simulations were based on literature values for sugar maple fine root production and senescence and the photosynthetic responses of sugar maple seedlings exposed to O(3) in open-top chambers. In the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3), 2 x ambient atmospheric O(3) concentrations reduced net carbon (C) gain of the 160-year-old tree. This reduction occurred in the C storage pools (total nonstructural carbohydrate, TNC), with most of the reduction occurring in coarse (woody) roots. Total fine root production and senescence were unaffected by the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3). However, extending the simulated O(3) exposure period to 10 years depleted the TNC pools of the coarse roots and reduced total fine root production. Similar reductions in TNC pools have been observed in forest-grown sugar maple trees exhibiting symptoms of stress. We conclude that modeling can aid in evaluating the belowground response of mature forest trees to atmospheric pollution stress and could indicate the potential for gradual deterioration of tree health under conditions of long-term stress, a situation similar to that underlying the decline of sugar maple trees. PMID:14871784

  17. The influence of soil-site factors on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) growth response to climatic change in central Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutten, K.; Gedalof, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, concerns about climatic change and its potential impacts on Canada’s various geographical regions and associated ecological processes have grown steadily, especially among land and resource managers. As these risks transition into tangible outcomes in the field, it will be important for resource managers to understand historical climatic variability and natural ecological trends in order to effectively respond to a changing climate. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is considered a stable endpoint for mature forests in the northern hardwood community of central Ontario, and it tends to be the dominant species, in a beech-ironwood-yellow birch matrix. In North America, this species is used for both hardwood lumber and for maple sugar (syrup) products; where it dominates, large recreational opportunities also exist. There are many biotic and abiotic factors that play a large role in the growth and productivity of sugar maple stands, such as soil pH, moisture regime, and site slope and aspect. This research undertaking aims to add to the body of literature addressing the following question: how do site factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic change? The overall objective of the research is to evaluate how biotic and abiotic factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple annual radial growth to climatic variability. This research will focus on sugar maple growth and productivity in Algonquin Provincial Park, and the impact that climatic variability has had in the past on these stands based on site-specific characteristics. In order to complete this goal, 20 sites were identified in Algonquin Provincial Park based on variability of known soil and site properties. These sites were visited in order to collect biotic and abiotic site data, and to measure annual radial growth increment of trees. Using regional climate records and standard dendrochronological methods, the collected increment growth data will be

  18. Ethyl m-digallate from red maple, Acer rubrum L., as the major resistance factor to forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zaid, M M; Helson, B V; Nozzolillo, C; Arnason, J T

    2001-12-01

    An ethanolic extract of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) leaves (RME) applied to trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves reduced feeding in choice test assays with forest tent caterpillar larvae (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.) (FTC), whereas a trembling aspen foliage extract, similarly applied, stimulated feeding. Compounds isolated from the RME were gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, m-digallate, ethyl m-digallate, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 1-O-galloyl-alpha-L-rhamnose, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside, (-)-epicatechin. (+)-catechin and ellagic acid. All of the gallates, (-)-epicatechin, and kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside deterred feeding on trembling aspen leaf disks when applied at 0.28 mg/cm2. The two digallates deterred feeding by 90% and were the most effective. HPLC analysis indicated that ethyl m-digallate is present in amounts 10-100 x higher in RME (approximately 2.5-250 mg/g) than any other compound. Thus, ethyl m-digallate appears to be the major compound protecting red maple from feeding by FTC, with a minor contribution from other gallates. PMID:11789956

  19. Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Low Soil Moisture on the Physiological Responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) Seedlings to Light

    PubMed Central

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol−1) and elevated (784 µmol mol−1) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (Rd), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and gs did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the Ci/Ca in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable. PMID:24146894

  20. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    PubMed

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable. PMID:24146894

  1. Sapindaceae and Acer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Acer (maples) is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Six species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical and ec...

  2. Determination of DNA methylation associated with Acer rubrum (red maple) adaptation to metals: analysis of global DNA modifications and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Im, Min-Ji; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Red maple (Acer rubum), a common deciduous tree species in Northern Ontario, has shown resistance to soil metal contamination. Previous reports have indicated that this plant does not accumulate metals in its tissue. However, low level of nickel and copper corresponding to the bioavailable levels in contaminated soils in Northern Ontario causes severe physiological damages. No differentiation between metal-contaminated and uncontaminated populations has been reported based on genetic analyses. The main objective of this study was to assess whether DNA methylation is involved in A. rubrum adaptation to soil metal contamination. Global cytosine and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses were carried out in A. rubrum populations from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated sites. The global modified cytosine ratios in genomic DNA revealed a significant decrease in cytosine methylation in genotypes from a metal-contaminated site compared to uncontaminated populations. Other genotypes from a different metal-contaminated site within the same region appear to be recalcitrant to metal-induced DNA alterations even ≥30 years of tree life exposure to nickel and copper. MSAP analysis showed a high level of polymorphisms in both uncontaminated (77%) and metal-contaminated (72%) populations. Overall, 205 CCGG loci were identified in which 127 were methylated in either outer or inner cytosine. No differentiation among populations was established based on several genetic parameters tested. The variations for nonmethylated and methylated loci were compared by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). For methylated loci, molecular variance among and within populations was 1.5% and 13.2%, respectively. These values were low (0.6% for among populations and 5.8% for within populations) for unmethylated loci. Metal contamination is seen to affect methylation of cytosine residues in CCGG motifs in the A. rubrum populations that were analyzed. PMID:27547351

  3. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J.; Lawrence, Greg B.; Sullivan, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor

  4. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA.

    PubMed

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Greg B; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor

  5. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the

  6. First year sugar maple (Acer saccharum, Marsh. ) seedling nutrition, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, physiology, and growth along an acidic deposition gradient in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of foliar amino acid and root reducing sugar accumulations to separate acidic deposition from natural (i.e., soil phosphorus, mycorrhizae, and temperature) ecosystem stressors on first-year sugar maple seedling growth in three Michigan forests. Seedling growth was greatest at the sites exposed to highest levels of acidic deposition. However, sites receiving greatest acidic deposition rates also had high available soil phosphorus contents. No significant differences occurred, suggesting increased nitrogen loadings were not reflected in seedling tissue nitrogen. Seedling root or foliar calcium, magnesium, or potassium also were not significantly different, suggesting those elements were not growth limiting. Significant differences, however, occurred for seedling arginine and glutamine concentrations in foliage and reducing sugar concentrations in roots and were negatively correlated with seedling tissue phosphorus concentrations, suggesting phosphorus was limiting seedling growth at the low acidic deposition site. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of seedling roots was greater at the low acidic deposition site and positively correlated with seedling amino acid and reducing sugar accumulation but negatively correlated with sucrose concentrations in seedling roots, indicating that the fungal partner may have stimulated sucrose degradation to reducing sugars. Both air and soil temperatures were positively correlated with total sugar and sucrose concentrations in seedling roots. High levels of arginine, glutamine, and reducing sugars were negatively correlated with seedling growth indicating that seedlings at the low acidic deposition site were more stressed than seedlings at the sites receiving higher levels of pollutant loads. The results suggest differences in foliar arginine and glutamine and root reducing sugars in the forests in this study are likely due to natural rather than acidic deposition stress.

  7. Norway maple displays greater seasonal growth and phenotypic plasticity to light than native sugar maple.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Alain; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank; Dubois, Karine; Lechowicz, Martin J; Messier, Christian; Posada, Juan M; Valladares, Fernando; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Norway maple (Acer platanoides L), which is among the most invasive tree species in forests of eastern North America, is associated with reduced regeneration of the related native species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and other native flora. To identify traits conferring an advantage to Norway maple, we grew both species through an entire growing season under simulated light regimes mimicking a closed forest understorey vs. a canopy disturbance (gap). Dynamic shade-houses providing a succession of high-intensity direct-light events between longer periods of low, diffuse light were used to simulate the light regimes. We assessed seedling height growth three times in the season, as well as stem diameter, maximum photosynthetic capacity, biomass allocation above- and below-ground, seasonal phenology and phenotypic plasticity. Given the north European provenance of Norway maple, we also investigated the possibility that its growth in North America might be increased by delayed fall senescence. We found that Norway maple had significantly greater photosynthetic capacity in both light regimes and grew larger in stem diameter than sugar maple. The differences in below- and above-ground biomass, stem diameter, height and maximum photosynthesis were especially important in the simulated gap where Norway maple continued extension growth during the late fall. In the gap regime sugar maple had a significantly higher root : shoot ratio that could confer an advantage in the deepest shade of closed understorey and under water stress or browsing pressure. Norway maple is especially invasive following canopy disturbance where the opposite (low root : shoot ratio) could confer a competitive advantage. Considering the effects of global change in extending the potential growing season, we anticipate that the invasiveness of Norway maple will increase in the future. PMID:23076822

  8. Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, M.J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, B.E.; Blair, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p < 0.0001) in areas that had been subjected to moderate-to-severe ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  9. QUALITY ASSURANCE ASPECTS OF THE JOINT USA-CANADA NORTH AMERICAN SUGAR MAPLE DECLINE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North American Sugar Maple Decline Project was implemented in 1988 in response to concerns about the condition of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) in the United States and Canada. ata collection for the project involved at least 15 federal, state, and provincial crews from ...

  10. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Maple Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Nursery-Grown Maples.

    PubMed

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford

    2015-06-01

    Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites. PMID:26470249

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  12. Altered Acer Rubrum Fecundity Induced By Chemical Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, J. L.; Peters, A.

    2014-12-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is becoming the most dominating tree in North American eastern deciduous forests. Concurrently, human activities have altered the chemical climate of terrestrial ecosystems via acidic deposition, which increases the available of nitrogen (N), while decreasing phosphorus (P) availability. Once a minor forest component prior to European settlement, the abundance of red maple may be a symptom of the modern age. The current paradigm explaining red maple's rise to prominence concerns fire suppression that excludes competitors. However, this still does not explain why red maple is unique compared to other functionally similar trees. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactive influence of acid rain mitigation on the fecundity of red maple. Objectives were achieved by measuring flowering, seed production, germination, and growth from red maple on plots that have been experimentally manipulated to increase soil pH, P, or both in three unglaciated eastern deciduous hardwood forests. At least 50% of the red maple population is seed bearing in our control soils, however the median percent of seed-bearing trees declined to zero when mitigating soils from acidic deposition. This can be explained by the curious fact that red maple is polygamodioecious, or has labile sex-expression, in which an individual tree can change its sex-expression in response to the environment. Furthermore, seed-bearing trees in the mitigated plots grew less, produced less seeds, and germinated at lower rates than their counterparts in control soils. Our results provide evidence that chemical climate change could be the primary contributing factor accelerating the dominance of red maple in eastern North American forests. Our observations can provide a boarder conceptual framework for understanding how nutrient limitations can be applied beyond plant productivity towards explaining distribution changes in vegetation.

  13. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  14. Impacts of leaves, roots, and earthworms on soil organic matter composition and distribution in sycamore maple stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, N.; Mueller, K. E.; Mueller, C. W.; Oleksyn, J.; Hale, C.; Freeman, K. H.; Eissenstat, D.

    2009-12-01

    The relative contributions of leaf and root material to soil organic matter (SOM) are poorly understood despite the importance of constraining SOM sources to conceptual and numeric models of SOM dynamics. Selective ingestion and bioturbation of litter and soil by earthworms can alter the fate and spatial distribution of OM in soils, including stabilization pathways of leaf and root litter. However, studies on the contributions of leaves, roots, and earthworms to SOM dynamics are rare. In 3 stands of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) with minimal O horizon development and high earthworm activity, we sampled surface litter (> 2 mm) from the Oi horizon, fine roots (< 2 mm), bulk mineral soils (0-20 cm depth), and earthworm casts from Lumbricus terrestris middens. The chemical composition of these samples was estimated by wet-chemical degradation followed by GC-MS analysis. In addition, elemental analyses (C and N) were performed on bulk soils and earthworm casts, before and after physical fractionation by means of particle size and density. Relative to bulk soils, earthworm casts were highly enriched in organic matter, dominated by large particulate OM, and had lower acid to aldehyde ratios among lignin monomers (a proxy for extent of decomposition), confirming that L. terrestris casts stabilize recent plant litter inputs. Maple fine roots and surface litter were distinguished by different profiles of carboxylic acids estimated by GC-MS, facilitating interpretation of OM sources in bulk soil and earthworm casts. Earthworm casts were characterized by a distribution of carboxylic acids similar to that of surface litter while bulk soils had a carboxylic acid profile much closer to that of roots. These results confirm that L. terrestris is primarily a surface, leaf feeder and suggest that OM in the bulk soil may be dominated by root inputs. In bulk soils, the ratio of lignin to hydroxy- and diacids derived from suberin and cutin was low relative to plant litter

  15. Maple syrup-production, composition, chemistry, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Timothy D; van den Berg, Abby K

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup is made from sap exuded from stems of the genus Acer during the springtime. Sap is a dilute solution of primarily water and sucrose, with varying amounts of amino and organic acids and phenolic substances. When concentrated, usually by heating, a series of complex reactions produce a wide variety of flavor compounds that vary due to processing and other management factors, seasonal changes in sap chemistry, and microbial contamination. Color also forms during thermal evaporation. Flavor and color together are the primary factors determining maple syrup grade, and syrup can range from very light-colored and delicate-flavored to very dark-colored and strong-flavored. PMID:19389608

  16. Evaluation of Systemic Insecticides for Potato Leafhopper Control in Field-Grown Red Maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic insecticides and application methods were evaluated in two tests that began in 2005 and 2006 for control of potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae [Harris]) on four red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivars and rated yearly through 2007. Treatments evaluated in this study included surface drenches o...

  17. MICROBIAL COLONIZATION, RESPIRATION, AND BREAKDOWN OF MAPLE LEAVES ALONG A STREAM-MARSH CONTINUUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate and bacterial colonization, and microbial respiration were measured on decaying maple (Acer saccharum) leaves at three sites along a stream-marsh continuum. Breakdown rates (-k+-SE) were 0.0284+-0.0045 d-1 for leaves in a high-gradient, non-tida...

  18. The possible role of air quality in sugar maple decline

    SciTech Connect

    Linzon, S.N. )

    1987-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum L.) was first reported to occur in North America in 1913. A review of the literature on the occurrence of sugar maple decline and the associated causal agents was made in 1986 based on 189 reports. No single cause for the decline was identified with a number of diverse factors being reported to be involved. These factors included defoliating insects, drought, nutritional deficiencies, improper woodlot management, secondary root rot organisms, road salt and acidic precipitation. In the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada, intensive studies into the occurrence and etiology of sugar maple decline commenced in the early 1980s. Maple syrup producers in both provinces complained that sugar maple trees were declining and dying in greater numbers than usual and suspected that air pollution, including acidic precipitation, was involved. This paper describes the symptoms associated with sugar maple decline, the surveys underway in both provinces, and the field and experimental studies being carried out to determine the role of air quality.

  19. [Maples at the sub-Alpine vegetation belt: a long history].

    PubMed

    David, F; Barbero, M

    2001-02-01

    Pollen analysis was carried out on lacustrine sediment of a small hollow (15 m x 25 m) at the treeless sub-Alpine belt (202 m) of the inner Maurienne valley in the northern French Alps. A 2,500-year-long maple settlement was demonstrared. Three AMS dates of terrestrial plant macroremains support the chronology. First, Betula and Salix spread prior to 9,000 C14 BP. The first pollen grains of Acer, Abies and Pinus cembra are quoted at 8,600 C14 BP. High frequencies of Alnus glutinosa/incana (20%) and Acer (10%) show that mixed communities of Acer and Alnus persisted above the mountainous Abies forest between 7,490 and 5,850 C14 BP. After 5,850 C14 BP, the decrease in Acer stands could be attributed to fire as suggested by the strong increase in Betula and by the delayed expansion of Pinus cembra. PMID:11280048

  20. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  1. ACER 2013-2014 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) is one of the world's leading educational research centres. ACER's mission is to create and promote research-based knowledge, products and services that can be used to improve learning across the life span. This annual report describes ACER's milestones and accomplishments for the 2013-2014…

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  3. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  4. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection (ACER CHEMTIC Year 12 Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This publication contains 317 multiple-choice chemistry test items related to topics covered in the Victorian (Australia) Year 12 chemistry course. It allows teachers access to a range of items suitable for diagnostic and achievement purposes, supplementing the ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection--Year 12 (CHEMTIC). The topics covered are: organic…

  5. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  6. Changes in mRNA and protein content of SO sub 2 -fumigated maple leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stinemetz, C.L. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The effect of acute SO{sub 2} fumigation on foliar DNA, RNA, and protein levels in 2-yr-old containerized Acer seedlings was examined. While DNA content did not change appreciably in either SO{sub 2}-sensitive red maple (A. rubrum L.) or SO{sub 2}-tolerant silver maple (A. saccharinum L.), significant reductions in mRNA (35% for red maple; 21% for silver maple) were observed after 54 h fumigation (6 h/day {times} 3 days/wk {times} 3 wk) at 2.5 ppm SO{sub 2}. Reductions in mRNA and protein content were accompanied by a corresponding decline in net photosynthesis (Pn). The data from this study suggest that acute SO{sub 2} fumigation alters Pn in red and silver maple by disrupting molecular events, and that species sensitivity for these particular Acer spp may be related to the degree of change associated with mRNA and total protein content.

  7. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.107 Maple sap. (a) NAP assistance for maple sap is... maple sap. (g) The actual production history for maple sap shall be recorded on the basis of gallons...

  8. Fuel values of stems and branches in post oak and red maple

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In red maple (Acer rubrum), there was n.s.d. in higher heating value (HHV) between stem wood and branch wood or between stem bark and branch bark. In post oak (Quercus stellata) the HHV of stem bark was significantly higher than that of branch bark, but there was n.s.d. between stem wood and branch wood. For both species the wood had a significantly higher HHV than the bark. 1 reference.

  9. CHLORPYRIFOS IMMERSION TO ELIMINATE THIRD INSTAR JAPANESE BEETLE (COLEOPTERA:SCARABAEIDAE) IN BALLED AND BURLAPPED TREES AND SUBSEQUENT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON RED MAPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined chlorpyrifos immersion of balled and burlapped (B&B) root balls for elimination of third instar Japanese beetle (JB) (Popillia japonica Newman) and for phytotoxicity on red maple (Acer rubrum L.). Trees were harvested as 45 and 60 cm diameter B&B and immersed in chlorpyrifos at ...

  10. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches the greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey; where it comprises 60-80% of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses.

  11. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    In many areas of the glaciated northeastern United States, forested wetlands dominated by red maple (Acer rubrum) cover more of the landscape than all other nontidal wetland types combined. Yet surprisingly little of their ecology, functions, or social significance has been documented. Bogs, salt marshes, Atlantic white cedar swamps, and other less common types of wetlands have received considerable attention from scientists, but, except for botanical surveys, red maple swamps have been largely ignored. The report conveys what is known about these common wetlands and identifies topics most in need of investigation. Red maple swamps are so abundant and so widely distributed in the Northeast that their physical, chemical, and biological properties range widely as well, and their values to society are diverse. The central focus of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service community profile series is the plant and animal communities of wetlands and deepwater habitats.

  12. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  13. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  14. Assessing the Factors of Regional Growth Decline of Sugar Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, D. A.; Beier, C. M.; Pederson, N.; Lawrence, G. B.; Stella, J. C.; Sullivan, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is among the most ecologically, economically and culturally important trees in North America, but has experienced a decline disease across much of its range. We investigated the climatic and edaphic factors associated with A. saccharum growth in the Adirondack Mountains (USA) using a well-replicated tree-ring network incorporating a range of soil fertility (base cation availability). We found that nearly 3 in 4 A. saccharum trees exhibited declining growth rates during the last several decades, regardless of tree age or size. Although diameter growth was consistently higher on base-rich soils, the negative trends in growth were largely consistent across the soil chemistry gradient. Sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic variability was overall weaker than expected, but were also non-stationary during the 20th century. We observed increasingly positive responses to late-winter precipitation, increasingly negative responses to growing season temperatures, and strong positive responses to moisture availability during the 1960s drought that became much weaker during the recent pluvial. Further study is needed of these factors and their interactions as potential mechanisms for sugar maple growth decline.

  15. The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Maple syrup is one of several high-sugar liquids that humans consume. However, maple syrup is more than just a concentrated sugar solution. Here, we review the chemical composition of maple syrup. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. Using Math With Maple Sugaring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

  17. New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.

    2012-12-01

    A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple

  18. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  19. The Maple Products: An Outdoor Education Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaple, Charles; And Others

    Designed to take advantage of the spring season, this resource packet on maple products centers upon a field lesson in harvesting and making maple syrup. The resources in this packet include: a narrative on the origins of maple sugar; an illustrated description of "old time maple sugarin'"; suggestions for pre-trip activities (history of maple…

  20. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  3. Perception of aspen and sun/shade sugar maple leaf soluble extracts by larvae of Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Panzuto, M; Lorenzetti, F; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J

    2001-10-01

    We investigated the behavioral feeding preference and the chemoreception of leaf polar extracts from trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, and from sun and shade sugar maple, Acer saccharum, by larvae of the polyphagous forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, a defoliator of deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Three polar extracts were obtained from each tree species: a total extract, a water fraction, and a methanol fraction. M. disstria larvae were allowed ad libitum access to an artificial diet from eclosion to the fifth instar. Two-choice cafeteria tests were performed comparing the mean (+/-SE) surface area eaten of the total extracts, and the following order of preference was obtained: aspen > sun maple > shade maple. Tests with the other fractions showed that M. disstria larvae preferred the total aspen extract to its water fraction, and the latter to its methanol fraction. The response to sun maple was similar to aspen. However, for the shade maple experiment, there was no difference between the total extract and its water fraction. Electrophysiological recordings for aspen showed that the sugar-sensitive cell elicited more spikes to the water fraction, followed by the total extract, and finally the methanol fraction. Spike activity to stimulations of sun and shade maple extracts revealed a similar trend, where methanol fraction > water fraction > total extract. Our findings are discussed in light of previously known information about this insect's performance on these host plants. PMID:11710605

  4. Variation in mineral content of red maple sap across an atmospheric deposition gradient

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, L.H.

    1997-11-01

    Xylem sap was collected from red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees during the spring of 1988 and 1989 at seven forest sites along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north central Pennsylvania and analyzed for pH and twelve mineral constituents. The objectives of the study were to examine the sources and patterns of variation in red maple sap chemistry across an atmospheric deposition gradient and to assess the feasibility of using sap analysis as an indicator of nutrient bioavailability. For most sap constituents, there was considerable spatial and temporal variation in concentration. Sources of variation included within and between site variation, date, and year of collection. The nature and extent of variation varied for different constituents. Site differences were similar in 1988 and 1989 for most sap constituents and for some constituents corresponded with differences in soil levels.

  5. Parametric Equations, Maple, and Tubeplots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feicht, Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that establishes a graphical foundation for parametric equations by using a graphing output form called tubeplots from the computer program Maple. Provides a comprehensive review and exploration of many previously learned topics. (ASK)

  6. How fresh is maple syrup? Sugar maple trees mobilize carbon stored several years previously during early springtime sap-ascent.

    PubMed

    Muhr, Jan; Messier, Christian; Delagrange, Sylvain; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-03-01

    While trees store substantial amounts of nonstructural carbon (NSC) for later use, storage regulation and mobilization of stored NSC in long-lived organisms like trees are still not well understood. At two different sites with sugar maple (Acer saccharum), we investigated ascending sap (sugar concentration, δ(13) C, Δ(14) C) as the mobilized component of stored stem NSC during early springtime. Using the bomb-spike radiocarbon approach we were able to estimate the average time elapsed since the mobilized carbon (C) was originally fixed from the atmosphere and to infer the turnover time of stem storage. Sites differed in concentration dynamics and overall δ(13) C, indicating different growing conditions. The absence of temporal trends for δ(13) C and Δ(14) C indicated sugar mobilization from a well-mixed pool with average Δ(14) C consistent with a mean turnover time (TT) of three to five years for this pool, with only minor differences between the sites. Sugar maple trees hence appear well buffered against single or even several years of negative plant C balance from environmental stress such as drought or repeated defoliation by insects. Manipulative investigations (e.g. starvation via girdling) combined with Δ(14) C measurements of this mobilized storage pool will provide further new insights into tree storage regulation and functioning. PMID:26639654

  7. Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.

    PubMed

    Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A

    2006-04-01

    At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from < 50 to 51% from pith to cambium, at both the base and top of the boles. In giant sequoia, C was essentially constant at > 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology. PMID:16414925

  8. Simulated herbivory advances autumn phenology in Acer rubrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2014-05-01

    To determine the degree to which herbivory contributes to phenotypic variation in autumn phenology for deciduous trees, red maple ( Acer rubrum) branches were subjected to low and high levels of simulated herbivory and surveyed at the end of the season to assess abscission and degree of autumn coloration. Overall, branches with simulated herbivory abscised ˜7 % more leaves at each autumn survey date than did control branches within trees. While branches subjected to high levels of damage showed advanced phenology, abscission rates did not differ from those of undamaged branches within trees because heavy damage induced earlier leaf loss on adjacent branch nodes in this treatment. Damaged branches had greater proportions of leaf area colored than undamaged branches within trees, having twice the amount of leaf area colored at the onset of autumn and having ˜16 % greater leaf area colored in late October when nearly all leaves were colored. When senescence was scored as the percent of all leaves abscised and/or colored, branches in both treatments reached peak senescence earlier than did control branches within trees: dates of 50 % senescence occurred 2.5 days earlier for low herbivory branches and 9.7 days earlier for branches with high levels of simulated damage. These advanced rates are of the same time length as reported delays in autumn senescence and advances in spring onset due to climate warming. Thus, results suggest that should insect damage increase as a consequence of climate change, it may offset a lengthening of leaf life spans in some tree species.

  9. After the Maples--What Then?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses models to illustrate the possible "migration route" of the sugar maple in response to predicted global climate change. Curriculum activities for students are provided that specifically address the sugar maple forests of the Great Lakes regions. (ZWH)

  10. Effects of cutting time, stump height, parent tree characteristics, and harvest variables on development of bigleaf maple sprout clumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C., II; Zasada, J.; Maxwell, B.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of stump height, year of cutting, parent-tree size, logging damage, and deer browsing on bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) sprout clump development, maple trees were cut to two stump heights at three different times. Stump height had the greatest impact on sprout clump size. Two years after clearcutting, the sprout clump volume for short stumps was significantly less than that for tall stumps. The sprout clump volume, area, and number of sprouts were significantly less for trees cut 1 and 2 yr before harvest than for trees cut at harvest. Sprout clump size was positively correlated with parent tree stem diameter and stump volume, and negatively correlated with the percentage of bark removed during logging. Browsing had no significant impact on average clump size. Uncut trees produced sprout clumps at their base and epicormic branches along the length of their stems; thus their crown volume averaged four to five times that of cut trees. Cutting maple in clearcuts to low stumps may reduce maple competition with Douglas-fir regeneration and still maintain maple in the next stand.

  11. Effects of elevated temperature and elevated CO{sub 2} on foliar senescence of Acer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, J.S.; Norby, R.J. |

    1995-06-01

    An important response mechanism of trees to a warmer, CO{sub 2}-enriched atmosphere could be an alteration of phenological relationships. Autumn leaf senescence and abscission were tracked in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and red maple (A. rubrum) seedlings growing in open-top chambers in ambient or elevated CO{sub 2} in combination with ambient or elevated temperature. Chlorophyll concentration was estimated weekly with a portable reflectance meter calibrated against conventional analysis of chlorophyll in leaf extracts. Abscission was quantified as the percentage of total plant leaf area that had abscised by certain dates. In both species chlorophyll loss from mid-October to mid-November was retarded in plants grown since May at a constant temperature offset 4{degrees}C higher than ambient. Likewise, leaf abscission began later and progressed more slowly in the warmer chambers. These plants still had 80% of their leaf area attached, and the leaves were still green, at the end of the growing season. Carbon dioxide concentration had little effect on leaf senescence or abscission. The results demonstrate the potential for climate warming to extend the growing season, which could enhance plant productivity. However, delayed senescence could also cause nutrient loss by disrupting retranslocation from leaves prior to the end of the growing season.

  12. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maple sirup. 168.140 Section 168.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  13. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maple sirup. 168.140 Section 168.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  14. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria

    2016-04-01

    Ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) is one of the most invasive species occurring in riparian zones. The invasion is especially effective in disturbed areas, as the plant favours anthropogenic sites. The plant was also observed to be able to penetrate into sandy bars, also those separated from the land, inaccessible to people. It's removal is time-consuming and laborious, often involves damage done to sensitive vegetation and the results are doubtful, as the plant quickly regenerates. The invasion patterns and establishment of ash-leaved maple in natural ecosystems are poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to test how habitat factors such as: light availability, soil characteristics and competition contribute to ash-leaved maple effective colonization of natural sand bars free from anthropogenic pressure. In 2014 sand bars located in Vistula River Valley in Warsaw were inventoried and classified basing on their development stage as 1 - initial, 2 - unstable, 3 - stable. Apart from the occurrence of the invasive ash-leaved maple the plants competing with it were recognized and the percentage of the shoots of shrubs and herbaceous plants was estimated. PAR was measured at ground level and 1 meter above ground, the thickness of organic layer formed on the top of the sand was also measured as the indicator of sand bar development stage. The maple's survival in extremely difficult conditions resembles the strategy of willows and poplars naturally occurring in the riparian zones, which are well adapted to this environment. The success of invasion strongly depends on the plants establishment during sand bars initial stage of development. The seedlings growth correlates with the age of the sand bar (r1=0,41, r2=0,42 i r3=0,57). The colonization lasts for 4-6 years and the individuals start to cluster in bigger parches. After that period the maple turns into the phase of competition for space. Habitat factors such as shading (r2=0,41 i r3=0,51) and organic layer

  15. Graphs and Enhancing Maple Multiplication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2002-01-01

    Description of a technique in Maple programming language that automatically prints all paths of any desired length along with the name of each vertex, proceeding in order from the beginning vertex to the ending vertex for a given graph. (Author/MM)

  16. ACER3 supports development of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Yin, Yancun; Li, Chunling; Chen, Jinliang; Xie, Jingjing; Lu, Zhigang; Li, Minjing; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Cheng Cheng

    2016-09-01

    No new therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been approved for more than 30 years. To effectively treat AML, new molecular targets and therapeutic approaches must be identified. In silico analysis of several databases of AML patients demonstrated that the expression of alkaline ceramidase 3 (ACER3) significantly inversely correlates with the overall survival of AML patients. To determine whether ACER3 supports AML development, we employed an shRNA-encoding lentivirus system to inhibit acer3 expression in human AML cells including NB4, U937, and THP-1 cells. The ACER3 deficiency resulted in decreased cell growth and colony formation, elevated apoptosis, and lower AKT signaling of leukemia cells. Our study indicates that ACER3 contributes to AML pathogenesis, and suggests that alkaline ceramidase inhibition is an option to treat AML. PMID:27470583

  17. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Acer palmatum and comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes under salt stress in two contrasting genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rong, Liping; Li, Qianzhong; Li, Shushun; Tang, Ling; Wen, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Maple (Acer palmatum) is an important species for landscape planting worldwide. Salt stress affects the normal growth of the Maple leaf directly, leading to loss of esthetic value. However, the limited availability of Maple genomic information has hindered research on the mechanisms underlying this tolerance. In this study, we performed comprehensive analyses of the salt tolerance in two genotypes of Maple using RNA-seq. Approximately 146.4 million paired-end reads, representing 181,769 unigenes, were obtained. The N50 length of the unigenes was 738 bp, and their total length over 102.66 Mb. 14,090 simple sequence repeats and over 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which represent useful resources for marker development. Importantly, 181,769 genes were detected in at least one library, and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes. Among these DEGs, 125 were upregulated and 178 were downregulated genes. Two MYB-related proteins and one LEA protein were detected among the first 10 most downregulated genes. Moreover, a methyltransferase-related gene was detected among the first 10 most upregulated genes. The three most significantly enriched pathways were plant hormone signal transduction, arginine and proline metabolism, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis provided a rich genetic resource for gene discovery related to salt tolerance in Maple, and in closely related species. The data will serve as an important public information platform to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in salt tolerance in Maple. PMID:26475609

  18. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  19. Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghusayni, B.

    2005-01-01

    Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.

  20. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  1. Maple sap predominant microbial contaminants are correlated with the physicochemical and sensorial properties of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-03-01

    Maple sap processing and microbial contamination are significant aspects that affect maple syrup quality. In this study, two sample sets from 2005 and 2008 were used to assess the maple syrup quality variation and its relationship to microbial populations, with respect to processing, production site and harvesting period. The abundance of maple sap predominant bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens group and two subgroups, Rahnella spp., Janthinobacterium spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides) and yeast (Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp.,Guehomyces pullulans) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Maple syrup properties were analyzed by physicochemical and sensorial methods. Results indicate that P. fluorescens, Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp. G. pullulans and Rahnella spp. are stable contaminants of maple sap, as they were found for every production site throughout the flow period. Multiple factor analysis reports a link between the relative abundance of P. fluorescens group and Mrakia spp. in maple sap with maple and vanilla odor as well as flavor of maple syrup. This evidence supports the contribution of these microorganisms or a consortium of predominant microbial contaminants to the characteristic properties of maple syrup. PMID:22236761

  2. The Role of Forest Tent Caterpillar Defoliations and Partial Harvest in the Decline and Death of Sugar Maple

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Henrik; Messier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Natural and anthropogenic disturbances can act as stresses on tree vigour. According to Manion's conceptual model of tree disease, the initial vigour of trees decreases as a result of predisposing factors that render these trees more vulnerable to severe inciting stresses, stresses that can then cause final vigour decline and subsequent tree death. This tree disease model was tested in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) by assessing the roles of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in tree decline and death. Methods Radial growth data from 377 sugar maple trees that had undergone both defoliations by insects and partial harvest were used to estimate longitudinal survival probabilities as a proxy for tree vigour. Radial growth rates and survival probabilities were compared among trees subjected to different levels of above- and below-ground disturbances, between periods of defoliation and harvest, and between live and dead trees. Key Results Manion's tree disease model correctly accounts for vigour decline and tree death in sugar maple; tree growth and vigour were negatively affected by a first defoliation, predisposing these trees to death later during the study period due to a second insect outbreak that initiated a final vigour decline. This decline was accelerated by the partial harvest disturbance in 1993. Even the most severe anthropogenic disturbances from partial harvest did not cause, unlike insect defoliation, any growth or vigour declines in live sugar maple. Conclusions Natural disturbances acted as predisposing and inciting stresses in tree sugar maple decline and death. Anthropogenic disturbances from a partial harvest at worst accelerated a decline in trees that were already weakened by predisposing and inciting stresses (i.e. repeated insect defoliations). Favourable climatic conditions just before and after the partial harvest may have alleviated possible negative effects on growth resulting from harvesting. PMID:18660493

  3. Hyperfine structure parametrisation in Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigalas, G.; Scharf, O.; Fritzsche, S.

    2006-02-01

    In hyperfine structure examinations, routine high resolution spectroscopy methods have to be combined with exact fine structure calculations. The so-called magnetic A and electric B factor of the fine structure levels allow to check for a correct fine structure analysis, to find errors in the level designation, to find new levels and to probe the electron wavefunctions and its mixing coefficients. This is done by parametrisation of these factors into different contributions of the subshell electrons, which are split further into their radial and spin-angular part. Due to the routine with which hyperfine structure measurements are done, a tool for keeping the necessary information together, performing checks online with the experiment and deriving standard quantities is of great help. MAPLE [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc.] is a highly-developed symbolic programming language, often referred to as the pocket calculator of the future. Packages for theoretical atomic calculation exist ( RACAH and JUCYS) and the language meets all the requirements to keep and present information accessible for the user in a fast and practical way. We slightly extended the RACAH package [S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 103 (1997) 51] and set up an environment for experimental hyperfine structure calculations, the HFS package. Supplying the fine structure and nuclear data, one is in the position to obtain information about the hyperfine spectrum, the different contributions to the splitting and to perform a least square fit of the radial parameters based on the semiempirical method. Experimentalist as well as theoretical physicist can do a complete hyperfine structure analysis using MAPLE. Program summaryTitle of program: H FS Catalogue number: ADXD Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXD Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computers for which the program is designed

  4. Biogeochemical features of maple and dandelion in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    Today more than half of world population and 73% of population in Russia live in cities. Moscow is the only one megacity in Russia with the population more than 11 million. The main source of technogenic impact in Moscow is transport. Plants can be used as indicators of urban environment heavy metals and metalloids (HM) pollution. Large scale biogeochemical research was done in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow. Apart from transport there are many industrial sources of pollution: metalworking, mechanical engineering, chemical, energetic and incinerator. This study focuses on detection of HM composition of woody plant leaves (maple - Acer platanoides) and herbaceous species leaves (dandelion - Taraxacum officinale). Plant material was collected on a regular greed with a step of 500-700 m. Background plants were sampled at 40 km west away from the city. Determination of Fe, Mn, Mo, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, Sb in plants was done using atomic absorption spectrometry after washing, drying and digestion with HNO3+H2O2. It was revealed that dandelion accumulates (index - concentration factors CF relatively background) Mo13Fe6Pb5Cd4.5As4Sb3, while maple Sb13As5.5Fe3Mo2Pb,Zn1.5. Geochemical specialization of plants in functional zones (industrial, transport, recreational, agricultural, residential areas with high-, middle- and low-rise buildings) was identified. The highest CF were determined for Mo in dandelion of all zones except industrial. In which the most accumulated elements are Fe and Mo, as well as Pb10As6Sb5Cu2. Arsenic is accumulated by dandelion in all zones. Copper is not concentrated by herbaceous species because of antagonism between Mo and Cu. The highest CF were determined for HM in maple of industrial zone. There trees concentrate Sb and As9Fe7Mo6Pb3Zn2. In the other zones levels of CF are lower in 2-5 times. Dandelion and maple don't accumulate Mn because of antagonism between Zn, Mo and Mn. Urban plants condition is estimated by the ratio between

  5. A numerical study of a freely-falling maple seed with autorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Injae; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    Many single winged seeds such as those of maples exploit autorotation to decrease the descending velocity and increase the dispersal distance for the conservation of species. In this study, a numerical simulation is conducted for flow around a freely-falling maple seed (Acer palmatum) at the Reynolds number of 1186 (based on the mean chord length and characteristic terminal velocity). We use an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame (Kim & Choi, JCP, 2006) for the simulation. After a transient period, the seed reaches the steady autorotation with a stable leading edge vortex attached on the surface of the wing at which the descending velocity significantly decreases. At steady autorotation, the descending velocity is proportional to the square root of disc loading. We also study the effect of the initial position of the seeds on the timing of autorotation, and show that the autorotation occurs earlier when the wing leading edge or nut is initially positioned upward. Supported by NRF-2011-0028032.

  6. Detecting sulfur dioxide stress in red maple foliage by changes in membrane permeability and ethylene evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, J.H. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M.

    1989-04-01

    Two-yr-old seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) pollution at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 ppm 8 hr daily for two 3-day periods spaced 3 days apart. Alterations in membrane permeability caused by SO{sub 2} stress were measured by electrolyte leakage of incubated leaf discs, and changes in ethylene biosynthesis were determined by gas chromatography using intact leaves. Ethylene increased 62% as SO{sub 2} concentration changed from 0 to 0.5 ppm, suggesting that ethylene may be a useful indicator for determining the onset of acute SO{sub 2} stress in maple. Membrane permeability was not as sensitive to the onset of SO{sub 2} stress but exhibited incremental changes associated with increasing levels of SO{sub 2}. These data suggest that membrane permeability may serve as a useful index for monitoring changes caused by SO{sub 2} at the cellular level.

  7. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  8. Toward an improved model of maple sap exudation: the location and role of osmotic barriers in sugar maple, butternut and white birch.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Damián; Jagels, Richard; Tyree, Melvin T

    2008-08-01

    Two theories have been proposed to explain how high positive pressures are developed in sugar maple stems when temperatures fluctuate around freezing. The Milburn-O'Malley theory proposes that pressure development is purely physical and does not require living cells or sucrose. The osmotic theory invokes the involvement of living cells and sucrose to generate an osmotic pressure difference between fibers and vessels, which are assumed to be separated by an osmotic barrier. We analyzed wood of Acer saccharum Marsh., Juglans cinerea L. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. (all generate positive pressures) examining three critical components of the osmotic model: pits in cell walls, selectivity of the osmotic barrier and stability of air bubbles under positive xylem pressure. We examined the distribution and type of pits directly by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and indirectly by perfusion of branch segments with fluorescent dyes with molecular masses similar to sucrose. The latter approach allowed us to use osmotic surrogates for sucrose that could be tracked by epifluorescence. Infusion experiments were used to assess the compartmentalization of sucrose and to determine the behavior of gas bubbles as predicted by Fick's and Henry's laws. The SEM images of sugar maple revealed a lack of pitting between fibers and vessels but connections between fiber-tracheids and vessels were present. Fluorescein-perfusion experiments demonstrated that large molecules do not diffuse into libriform fibers but are confined within the domain of vessels, parenchyma and fiber-tracheids. Results of the infusion experiments were in agreement with those of the fluorescein perfusions and further indicated the necessity of a compartmentalized osmolyte to drive stem pressure, as well as the inability of air bubbles to maintain such pressure because of instability. These results support the osmotic model and demonstrate that the secondary cell wall is an effective osmotic barrier for

  9. Biosensor Applications of MAPLE Deposited Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Valeria; Bloisi, Francesco; Aronne, Antonio; Federici, Stefania; Nasti, Libera; Depero, Laura E.; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc.) materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest) molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix). Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis. PMID:25587426

  10. Calculus of One and More Variables with Maple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samkova, Libuse

    2012-01-01

    This is a guide to using Maple in teaching fundamental calculus of one, two and three variables (limits, derivatives, integrals, etc.), also suitable for Maple beginners. It outlines one of the ways to effective use of computers in the teaching process. It scans advantages and disadvantages of using Maple in relation to students and teacher. The…

  11. Tapping the Sugar Maple--Learning and Appreciating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Charles

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses how to tap a maple tree. Tapping a maple tree to produce maple syrup can: (1) lead to better understanding in many subject areas, (2) develop skills through participation in a rewarding activity, and (3) help students appreciate the many important roles that trees play in our environment and daily lives. (NQ)

  12. Relationship between leaf optical properties, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment changes in senescing Acer saccharum leaves.

    PubMed

    Junker, Laura Verena; Ensminger, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    The ability of plants to sequester carbon is highly variable over the course of the year and reflects seasonal variation in photosynthetic efficiency. This seasonal variation is most prominent during autumn, when leaves of deciduous tree species such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) undergo senescence, which is associated with downregulation of photosynthesis and a change of leaf color. The remote sensing of leaf color by spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images is increasingly used to improve models of growing season length and seasonal variation in carbon sequestration. Vegetation indices derived from spectral reflectance measurements and digital repeat images might not adequately reflect photosynthetic efficiency of red-senescing tree species during autumn due to the changes in foliar pigment content associated with autumn phenology. In this study, we aimed to assess how effectively several widely used vegetation indices capture autumn phenology and reflect the changes in physiology and photosynthetic pigments during autumn. Chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment content of green, yellow, orange and red leaves were measured to represent leaf senescence during autumn and used as a reference to validate and compare vegetation indices derived from leaf-level spectral reflectance measurements and color analysis of digital images. Vegetation indices varied in their suitability to track the decrease of photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content despite increasing anthocyanin content. Commonly used spectral reflectance indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and photochemical reflectance index showed major constraints arising from a limited representation of gradual decreases in chlorophyll content and an influence of high foliar anthocyanin levels. The excess green index and green-red vegetation index were more suitable to assess the process of senescence. Similarly, digital image analysis revealed that vegetation

  13. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant “Jingling Huangfeng” turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration. PMID:26788511

  14. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant "Jingling Huangfeng" turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration. PMID:26788511

  15. Engineering Mathematics Assessment Using "MapleTA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian S.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of degree level engineering mathematics students using the computer-aided assessment package MapleTA is discussed. Experience of academic and practical issues for both online coursework and examination assessments is presented, hopefully benefiting other academics in this novel area of activity. (Contains 6 figures and 1 table.)

  16. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  17. Applications of Maple To Algebraic Cryptography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Neil P.

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of technology to enhance the appreciation of applications involving abstract algebra. The symbolic manipulator Maple can perform computations required for a linear cryptosystem. One major benefit of this process is that students can encipher and decipher messages using a linear cryptosystem without becoming confused and…

  18. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.

  19. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition.

    PubMed

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas; Manusadžianas, Levonas

    2013-02-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N(tot), ammonium and generating higher BOD(7). Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. PMID:23202636

  20. Technetium-99 cycling in maple trees: Characterization of changes in chemical form

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D. )

    1989-08-01

    Prior field studies near an old radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge, TN, indicated that following root uptake, metabolism by deciduous trees rendered 99Tc less biogeochemically mobile than expected, based on chemistry of the pertechnetate (TcO-4) anion. Subsequently, the form of technetium (Tc) in maple tree (Acer sp.) sap, leaves, wood and forest leaf litter was characterized using one or more of the following methods: dialysis, physical fractionation, chemical extraction, gel permeation chromatography, enzymatic extraction, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of TcO-4 incubated in vitro with tree sap showed it to behave similar to TcO-4 anion. When labeled wood and leaf tissues were processed using a tissue homogenizer, 15% and 40%, respectively, of the Tc was solubilized into phosphate buffer. Most (65% to 80%) of the solubilized Tc passing a 0.45-micron filter also passed through an ultrafiltration membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 atomic mass units (amu). A majority (72% to 80%) of the Tc in wood could be chemically removed by successive extractions with ethanol, water and weak mineral acid. These same extractants removed only 23% to 31% of the Tc from maple leaves or forest floor leaf litter. Most of the Tc in leaves and leaf litter was removed only by strongly alkaline reagents typically used to release structural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) from plant tissues. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of the ethanol-water extract from wood and the alkaline extract from leaves demonstrated that Tc in these extracts was not principally TcO-4 but was complexed with molecules greater than 1000 amu. Incubations of leaf and wood homogenates with protease approximately doubled the amount of Tc released from contaminated tissues.

  1. In vivo and in situ rhizosphere respiration in Acer saccharum and Betula alleghaniensis seedlings grown in contrasting light regimes.

    PubMed

    Delagrange, Sylvain; Huc, Frédéric; Messier, Christian; Dizengremel, Pierre; Dreyer, Erwin

    2006-07-01

    A perfusive method combined with an open-system carbon dioxide measurement system was used to assess rhizosphere respiration of Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple) and Betula alleghaniensis Britton (yellow birch) seedlings grown in 8-l pots filled with coarse sand. We compared in vivo and in situ rhizosphere respiration between species, among light regimes (40, 17 and 6% of full daylight) and at different times during the day. To compute specific rhizosphere respiration, temperature corrections were made with either species-specific coefficients (Q10) based on the observed change in respiration rate between 15 and 21 degrees C or an arbitrarily assigned Q10 of 2. Estimated, species-specific Q10 values were 3.0 and 3.4 for A. saccharum and B. alleghaniensis, respectively, and did not vary with light regime. Using either method of temperature correction, specific rhizosphere respiration did not differ either between A. saccharum and B. alleghaniensis, or among light regimes except in A. saccharum at 6% of full daylight. At this irradiance, seedlings were smaller than in the other light treatments, with a larger fine root fraction of total root dry mass, resulting in higher respiration rates. Specific rhizosphere respiration was significantly higher during the afternoon than at other times of day when temperature-corrected on the basis of an arbitrary Q10 of 2, suggesting the possibility of diurnal variation in a temperature-independent component of rhizosphere respiration. PMID:16585038

  2. The Arabidopsis ceramidase AtACER functions in disease resistance and salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Xin; Li, Jian; Liu, Zhe; Yin, Jian; Chang, Zhen-Yi; Rong, Chan; Wu, Jia-Li; Bi, Fang-Cheng; Yao, Nan

    2015-03-01

    Ceramidases hydrolyze ceramide into sphingosine and fatty acids. In mammals, ceramidases function as key regulators of sphingolipid homeostasis, but little is known about their roles in plants. Here we characterize the Arabidopsis ceramidase AtACER, a homolog of human alkaline ceramidases. The acer-1 T-DNA insertion mutant has pleiotropic phenotypes, including reduction of leaf size, dwarfing and an irregular wax layer, compared with wild-type plants. Quantitative sphingolipid profiling showed that acer-1 mutants and the artificial microRNA-mediated silenced line amiR-ACER-1 have high ceramide levels and decreased long chain bases. AtACER localizes predominantly to the endoplasmic reticulum, and partially to the Golgi complex. Furthermore, we found that acer-1 mutants and AtACER RNAi lines showed increased sensitivity to salt stress, and lines overexpressing AtACER showed increased tolerance to salt stress. Reduction of AtACER also increased plant susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae. Our data highlight the key biological functions of ceramidases in biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. PMID:25619405

  3. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  4. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  5. Molecular characterization and differential expression of two duplicated dorant receptor genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, in Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Du, Haiyan; Ma, Weihua; Tian, Songhao; Jiang, Yusuo

    2014-04-01

    Insects use olfaction to recognize a wide range of volatile cues, to locate food sources, mates, hosts and oviposition sites. These chemical volatiles are perceived by odorant receptors (ORs) expressed on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons, most of which are housed within the chemosensilla of antennae. Most insect ORs are tandemly arrayed on chromosomes and some of them are formed by gene duplication. Here, we identified a pair of duplicated Or genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, and reported their molecular characterization and temporal expression profiles. The results showed that these two genes shared high similarity both in sequence and the gene structure. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of temporal expression pattern indicated that in drones the expression pattern of these two genes were very similar. The transcripts expressed weakly in larvae and pupae, then increased gradually in adults. In workers, the expression level of AcerOr1 changed more drastically and expressed higher than that of AcerOr3. However, both reached their highest expression level in one-day-old adults. In addition, the expression profiles between different sexes revealed that AcerOr3 appear to be expressed biased in male antennae. These results suggest that AcerOr1 may perceive odours of floral scents, while AcerOr3 may detect odours critical to male behaviour, such as the queen substance cues. PMID:24840823

  6. Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Valman, H. B.; Patrick, A. D.; Seakins, J. W. T.; Platt, J. W.; Gompertz, D.

    1973-01-01

    A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development. Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the keto and hydroxy acids characteristic of maple syrup urine disease, and thin layer chromatography of the plasma and urine showed greatly increased concentrations of the branched chain amino acids. The urine and plasma of the surviving child was chromatographically normal between episodes. The leucocyte branched chain keto acid decarboxylase activity in this patient and her father was reduced. The range of features in this family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease illustrates the necessity for prompt and careful investigation of metabolic acidosis of unknown aetiology. PMID:4693464

  7. Seasonal variability of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of Acer platanoides and Tilia platyphyllos in central Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of maple (Acer platanoides-Ap) and linden (Tilia platyphyllos-Tp) collected in four periods of the growing season of trees, i.e. in April (IV), June (VI), August (VIII) and November (IX) in 2013, from the area of Poznań city (Poland). The highest average concentration of mercury for 88 samples was determined in soils and it equaled 65.8 ± 41.7 ng g(-1) (range 14.5-238.9 ng g(-1)); lower average concentration was found in Ap samples (n = 66): 55.4 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) (range 26.5-106.9 ng g(-1)); in Tp samples 50.4 ± 15.8 ng g(-1) (range 23.1-88.7 ng g(-1)) and in 22 samples of Tp buds 40.8 ± 22.7 ng g(-1) (range 12.4-98.7 ng g(-1)) and Ap buds 28.2 ± 13.6 ng g(-1) (range 8.0-59.5 ng g(-1)). Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the highest concentration of mercury in soils occurred in the centre of Poznań city (95.5 ± 39.1 ng g(-1)), and it was two times higher than the concentration of mercury in other parts of the city. Similar dependencies were not observed for the leaf samples of Ap and Tp. It was found that mercury concentrations in the soil and leaves of maple and linden were different depending on the period of the growing season (April to November). Mercury content in the examined samples was higher in the first two research periods (April IV, June VI), and then, in the following periods, the accumulation of mercury decreased both in soil and leaf samples of the two tree species. There was no correlation found between mercury concentration in leaves and mercury concentration in soils during the four research periods (April-November). When considering the transfer coefficient, it was observed that the main source of mercury in leaves is the mercury coming from the atmosphere. PMID:26846237

  8. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronne, Antonio; Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Fanelli, Esther; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-11-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  9. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on Leaf Optical Properties and Chlorophyll Content in Acer saccharum (Marsh.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Bahadur, Raj; Norby, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 pressure and numerous causes of plant stress often result in decreased leaf chlorophyll contents and thus would be expected to alter leaf optical properties. Hypotheses that elevated carbon dioxide pressure and air temperature would alter leaf optical properties were tested for sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the middle of its fourth growing season under treatment. The saplings had been growing since 1994 in open-top chambers at Oak Ridge, Tennessee under the following treatments: 1) Ambient CO2 pressure and air temperature (control); 2) CO2 pressure approximately 30 Pa above ambient; 3) Air temperatures 3 C above ambient; 4) Elevated CO2 and air temperature. Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance in the visible spectrum (400-720 nm) did not change significantly (rho = 0.05) in response to any treatment compared with control values. Although reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance at 700 nm correlated strongly with leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll content was not altered significantly by the treatments. The lack of treatment effects on pigmentation explained the non-significant change in optical properties in the visible spectrum. Optical properties in the near-infrared (721-850 nm) were similarly unresponsive to treatment with the exception of an increased absorptance in leaves that developed under elevated air temperature alone. This response could not be explained by the data, but might have resulted from effects of air temperature on leaf internal structure. Results indicated no significant potential for detecting leaf optical responses to elevated CO2 or temperature by the remote sensing of reflected radiation in the 400-850 nm spectrum.

  10. Siring Success and Paternal Effects in Heterodichogamous Acer opalus

    PubMed Central

    Gleiser, Gabriela; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Pannell, John Richard; Verdú, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Heterodichogamy (a dimorphic breeding system comprising protandrous and protogynous individuals) is a potential starting point in the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. In the genus Acer, previous work suggests that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy through an initial spread of unisexual males. Here, the question is asked as to whether the different morphs in Acer opalus, a species in which males co-exist with heterodichogamous hermaphrodites, differ in various components of male in fitness. Methods Several components of male fertility were analysed. Pollination rates in the male phase were recorded across one flowering period. Pollen viability was compared among morphs through hand pollinations both with pollen from a single sexual morph and also simulating a situation of pollen competition; in the latter experiment, paternity was assessed with microsatellite markers. It was also determined whether effects of genetic relatedness between pollen donors and recipients could influence the siring success. Finally, paternal effects occurring beyond the fertilization process were tested for by measuring the height reached by seedlings with different sires over three consecutive growing seasons. Key Results The males and protandrous morphs had higher pollination rates than the protogynous morph, and the seedlings they sired grew taller. No differences in male fertility were found between males and protandrous individuals. Departures from random mating due to effects of genetic relatedness among sires and pollen recipients were also ruled out. Conclusions Males and protandrous individuals are probably better sires than protogynous individuals, as shown by the higher pollination rates and the differential growth of the seedlings sired by these morphs. In contrast, the fertility of males was not higher than the male fertility of the protandrous morph. While the appearance of males in sexually specialized heterodichogamous populations is possible

  11. Sex Change Towards Female in Dying Acer rufinerve Trees

    PubMed Central

    NANAMI, SATOSHI; KAWAGUCHI, HIDEYUKI; YAMAKURA, TAKUO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes. • Methods Sex expression, growth rate and mortality of A. rufinerve trees in a natural population were monitored from 1992 to 1997. • Key Results Three types of sex expression were observed among A. rufinerve: male, female and bisexual. Among the three types of sex expression, sex changes occurred in all directions. In the growing season of 1994, precipitation was reduced. Stem growth rate decreased and mortality was high in 1994. In the spring of 1995, a drastic sex change from male to female or to bisexual occurred. As a result, the sex ratio became female‐biased in 1995, although it had been male‐biased from 1992 to 1994. In 1996 and 1997, the proportion of males in the population increased, partly as a result of female mortality and partly as a result of female‐to‐male sex changes. Sex expression of A. rufinerve was associated with their growth rate and mortality. The growth rate decreased for trees whose sex changed from male to female or to bisexual, and increased for trees whose sex changed from female to male or to bisexual. Dead trees reproduced as females before they died, except for those that died as males in 1994. • Conclusions One explanation for the sex change towards increasing femaleness for this A. rufinerve population in 1995 was the deterioration of plant health in the previous growing season, because of reduced precipitation. Sex changes of unhealthy and dying A. rufinerve towards femaleness may facilitate re‐occupancy by offspring in gaps created by the death of A. rufinerve trees. PMID:15102611

  12. Definite Integrals, Some Involving Residue Theory Evaluated by Maple Code

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2010-01-01

    The calculus of residue is applied to evaluate certain integrals in the range (-{infinity} to {infinity}) using the Maple symbolic code. These integrals are of the form {integral}{sub -{infinity}}{sup {infinity}} cos(x)/[(x{sup 2} + a{sup 2})(x{sup 2} + b{sup 2}) (x{sup 2} + c{sup 2})]dx and similar extensions. The Maple code is also applied to expressions in maximum likelihood estimator moments when sampling from the negative binomial distribution. In general the Maple code approach to the integrals gives correct answers to specified decimal places, but the symbolic result may be extremely long and complex.

  13. Laser transfer of biomaterials: Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and MAPLE Direct Write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P. K.; Ringeisen, B. R.; Krizman, D. B.; Frondoza, C. G.; Brooks, M.; Bubb, D. M.; Auyeung, R. C. Y.; Piqué, A.; Spargo, B.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2003-04-01

    Two techniques for transferring biomaterial using a pulsed laser beam were developed: matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and MAPLE direct write (MDW). MAPLE is a large-area vacuum based technique suitable for coatings, i.e., antibiofouling, and MDW is a localized deposition technique capable of fast prototyping of devices, i.e., protein or tissue arrays. Both techniques have demonstrated the capability of transferring large (mol wt>100 kDa) molecules in different forms, e.g., liquid and gel, and preserving their functions. They can deposit patterned films with spatial accuracy and resolution of tens of μm and layering on a variety of substrate materials and geometries. MDW can dispense volumes less than 100 pl, transfer solid tissues, fabricate a complete device, and is computed aided design/computer aided manufacturing compatible. They are noncontact techniques and can be integrated with other sterile processes. These attributes are substantiated by films and arrays of biomaterials, e.g., polymers, enzymes, proteins, eucaryotic cells, and tissue, and a dopamine sensor. These examples, the instrumentation, basic mechanisms, a comparison with other techniques, and future developments are discussed.

  14. Technetium-99 cycling in maple trees: characterization of changes in chemical form

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Lomax, Ronny D

    1989-08-01

    Prior field studies near an old radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge, TN, indicated that following root uptake, metabolism by deciduous trees rendered 99Tc less biogeochemically mobile than expected, based on chemistry of the pertechnetate (TcO4-) anion. Subsequently, the form of technetium (Tc) in maple tree (Acer sp.) sap, leaves, wood and forest leaf litter was characterized using one or more of the following methods: dialysis, physical fractionation, chemical extraction, gel permeation chromatography, enzymatic extraction, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of TcO4- incubated in vitro with tree sap showed it to behave similar to TcO4- anion. When labeled wood and leaf tissues were processed using a tissue homogenizer, 15% and 40%, respectively, of the Tc was solubilized into phosphate buffer. Most (65% to 80%) of the solubilized Tc passing a 0.45-micron filter also passed through an ultrafiltration membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 atomic mass units (amu). A majority (72% to 80%) of the Tc in wood could be chemically removed by successive extractions with ethanol, water and weak mineral acid. These same extractants removed only 23% to 31% of the Tc from maple leaves or forest floor leaf litter. Most of the Tc in leaves and leaf litter was removed only by strongly alkaline reagents typically used to release structural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) from plant tissues. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of the ethanol-water extract from wood and the alkaline extract from leaves demonstrated that Tc in these extracts was not principally TcO4- but was complexed with molecules > 1000 amu. Incubations of leaf and wood homogenates with protease approximately doubled the amount of Tc released from contaminated tissues. Ultrafiltration of protease-solubilized Tc from leaves and wood showed that 40% and 93%, respectively, of the Tc was >10,000 amu. TLC of the <10,000 amu fraction indicated the

  15. The effects of ozone-exposed sugar maple seedlings on the biological performance and the feeding preference of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.).

    PubMed

    Fortin, M; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J

    1997-01-01

    The effects of exposure of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) to ozone on the entire larval stage of a native insect have not been previously investigated. This study reports the effects of sugar maple seedlings exposed to different ozone concentrations on the relative performance and the feeding preference of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.). Three-year-old seedlings were set in nine open-top field chambers in the spring of 1992 and 1993. Three ozone concentrations were generated: charcoal-filtered ambient air (0x), ambient air (1x) and three times ambient air (3x). In 1992, female and male larval development time did not differ among ozone treatments. In 1993, female larvae reared on 3x developed faster than those on 0x and 1x, while male larvae were not affected. Ozone treatments did not influence pupal weights except for males in 1993 where pupae reared on 0x were heavier than 1x but did not differ from 3x. Larval and pupal survival rates were not affected by ozone in either year. Finally, 4th and 5th instar larvae showed a significant feeding preference for 3x foliage in 1993 but not in 1992. The response of the forest tent caterpillar to ozone exposed seedlings varied between years and could be more sensitive to annual climatic variations than ozone. PMID:15093369

  16. Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Shows how the computer software programs Mathematica and Maple can be used to obtain chemical equations to represent the stoichiometry of a reacting system. Specific examples are included. Contains 10 references. (DKM)

  17. Collophora aceris, a novel antimycotic producing endophyte associated with Douglas Maple.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Strobel, Gary A; Mends, Morgan T; Hilmer, Jonathan; Nigg, Jared; Geary, Brad

    2013-11-01

    A novel endophyte designated Collophora aceris, was obtained from stem tissues of Douglas Maple (Acer glabrum var. douglasii) in a Pacific Northwest temperate rainforest. Colonies were slow growing, white, creamy, moist, and translucent to opaque on potato dextrose agar and other media with few aerial hyphae. It also produced solid, dark sclerotia (200-400 μm) on oatmeal agar and no evidence of pseudopycnidia as per other Collophora spp. Conidia were rod-like in the size ranging from 2.2-8.4 × 0.8-1.8 μm and produced holoblastically on conidiogenous cells by budding with no collarette at the budding site. Phylogenetic analyses, based on 18S rDNA sequence data, showed that C. aceris possessed 99 % similarity to other Collophora spp. However, ITS-5.8S rDNA sequence data indicated that the organism was potentially related to Allantophomopsis spp. Finally, combined morphological, physiological, and molecular genetics data indicated that this organism is most like Collophora spp. but it is distinctly unique when compared to all other fungi in this group. It is to be noted that this is the first report of any member of this genus existing as an endophyte. This fungus makes a wide spectrum antimycotic agent (Collophorin) with biological activity against such pathogenic fungi as Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora palmivora, and Rhizoctonia solani. Collophorin was purified to homogeneity and shown to have a unique mass of 120.0639, an empirical formula of C8H8O1, and UV absorption bands at 260 and 378 nm. This work also indicates that C. aceris possesses the biological potential to provide protection of its host against an array of common plant pathogens. PMID:23996143

  18. Dynamics of the inverse MAPLE nanoparticle deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthew A.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is a processing technique by which laser-sensitive materials are dissolved or placed into colloidal solution with a strongly absorbing sacrificial solvent, which when frozen into a solid target and irradiated under vacuum disperses the undamaged solute material onto a desired substrate. We present an inversion of the original MAPLE process, where the irradiation of metal-based acetate precursors in solution with UV transparent water results in the deposition of inorganic nanoparticles. A theory is forwarded to explain the underlying multiscale sequence of events that control the inverse MAPLE process from acetate decomposition to nanoparticle formation and subsequent ejection. Support for this theory is provided through the analysis of deposited nanoparticles and by novel characterization of MAPLE targets post-irradiation via cryostage scanning electron microscopy. Ejection is shown to proceed through the same phase-explosion mechanism that drives conventional MAPLE, relating the two techniques and advancing the broader understanding of MAPLE deposition processes.

  19. Effects of soil freezing and drought stress on abscisic acid content of sugar maple sap and leaves.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, A; Robitaille, G; Nadeau, P; Boutin, R

    1994-04-01

    In 1991 and 1992, mature maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were freeze-stressed or drought-stressed by preventing precipitation (snow or rain) from reaching the forest floor under selected trees. Lack of snow cover caused a decrease in soil temperature to well below 0 degrees C from December to April and a lowering of the soil water content to 10%. The abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in the spring sap of deep-soil frost-stressed trees was significantly higher than in control or drought-stressed trees. The increase in ABA concentration in the xylem sap in the spring of 1991 and 1992 preceded symptoms of canopy decline and a decrease in leaf area that were observed during the summers of 1991 and 1992. These results suggest a role for ABA in root-to-shoot communication in response to environmental stress. The largest differences in ABA concentration induced by the treatments was found in sap collected at the end of sap flow. The increase in ABA concentration in spring sap at the end of the sap flow could be used as an early indicator of stress suffered by trees during the winter. Not only did the increase in ABA concentration occur before any visible symptoms of tree decline appeared, but the trees that showed the most evident decline had the highest ABA concentrations in the spring sap. Leaf ABA concentration was not a good indicator of induced stress. PMID:14967696

  20. Fine roots are the dominant source of recalcitrant plant litter in sugar maple-dominated northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengxue; Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2015-11-01

    Most studies of forest litter dynamics examine the biochemical characteristics and decomposition of leaf litter, but fine roots are also a large source of litter in forests. We quantified the concentrations of eight biochemical fractions and nitrogen (N) in leaf litter and fine roots at four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated hardwood forests in the north-central United States. We combined these results with litter production data to estimate ecosystem biochemical fluxes to soil. We also compared how leaf litter and fine root biochemistry responded to long-term simulated N deposition. Compared with leaf litter, fine roots contained 2.9-fold higher acid-insoluble fraction (AIF) and 2.3-fold more condensed tannins; both are relatively difficult to decompose. Comparatively, leaf litter had greater quantities of more labile components: nonstructural carbohydrates, cellulose and soluble phenolics. At an ecosystem scale, fine roots contributed over two-thirds of the fluxes of AIF and condensed tannins to soil. Fine root biochemistry was also less responsive than leaf litter to long-term simulated N deposition. Fine roots were the dominant source of difficult-to-decompose plant carbon fractions entering the soil at our four study sites. Based on our synthesis of the literature, this pattern appears to be widespread in boreal and temperate forests. PMID:26073624

  1. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1α subunit of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated. PMID:21098507

  2. Using Maple to Implement eLearning Integrated with Computer Aided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Bill; Labovic, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Advanced mathematics courses have been developed and refined by the first author, using an action research methodology, for more than a decade. These courses use the computer algebra system (CAS) Maple in an "immersion mode" where all presentations and student work are done using Maple. Assignments and examinations are Maple files downloaded from…

  3. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  4. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. The Multiple Pendulum Problem via Maple[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, K. L.; Knight, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    The way in which computer algebra systems, such as Maple, have made the study of physical problems of some considerable complexity accessible to mathematicians and scientists with modest computational skills is illustrated by solving the multiple pendulum problem. A solution is obtained for four pendulums with no restriction on the size of the…

  6. Student's Lab Assignments in PDE Course with MAPLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponidi, B. Alhadi

    Computer-aided software has been used intensively in many mathematics courses, especially in computational subjects, to solve initial value and boundary value problems in Partial Differential Equations (PDE). Many software packages were used in student lab assignments such as FORTRAN, PASCAL, MATLAB, MATHEMATICA, and MAPLE in order to accelerate…

  7. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:26563847

  8. Whole-plant water flux in understory red maple exposed to altered precipitation regimes.

    PubMed

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Hanson, Paul J.; Tschaplinski, Tim J.

    1998-02-01

    Sap flow gauges were used to estimate whole-plant water flux for five stem-diameter classes of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) growing in the understory of an upland oak forest and exposed to one of three large-scale (0.64 ha) manipulations of soil water content. This Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) used subcanopy troughs to intercept roughly 30% of the throughfall on a "dry" plot and a series of pipes to move this collected precipitation across an "ambient" plot and onto a "wet" plot. Saplings with a stem diameter larger than 10 cm lost water at rates 50-fold greater than saplings with a stem diameter of 1 to 2 cm (326 versus 6.4 mol H(2)O tree(-1) day(-1)). These size-class differences were driven largely by differences in leaf area and cross-sectional sapwood area, because rates of water flux expressed per unit leaf area (6.90 mol H(2)O m(-2) day(-1)) or sapwood area (288 mol H(2)O dm(-2) day(-1)) were similar among saplings of the five size classes. Daily and hourly rates of transpiration expressed per unit leaf area varied throughout much of the season, as did soil matrix potentials, and treatment differences due to the TDE were observed during two of the seven sampling periods. On July 6, midday rates of transpiration averaged 1.88 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "wet" plot, 1.22 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "ambient" plot, and 0.76 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "dry" plot. During the early afternoon of August 28, transpiration rates were sevenfold lower for saplings in the "dry" plot compared to saplings in the "wet" plot and 2.5-fold lower compared to saplings in the "ambient" plot. Treatment differences in crown conductance followed a pattern similar to that of transpiration, with values that averaged 60% lower for saplings in the "dry" plot compared to saplings in the "wet" plot and 35% lower compared to saplings in the "ambient" plot. Stomatal and boundary layer conductances were roughly equal in magnitude

  9. Development of the teneral adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): time to initiate and completely bore out of maple wood.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, V; Keena, M A

    2013-02-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is an introduced invasive pest with the potential to devastate hardwood forests in North America. Using artificial pupal chambers, we documented the time required by teneral adults at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30 °C), 60-80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h to initiate boring after eclosion and subsequently bore completely through a 7-mm (range, 3-11 mm) layer of Norway maple wood (Acer platanoides L.). In total, 218 laboratory-reared pupae from the Chicago, IL, or Inner Mongolia, China, populations were used in the study. Females (1.54 ± 0.03 g) weighed significantly more than males (1.12 ± 0.03 g), but the average weights of the beetles emerging in each temperature did not differ. Adult weight was positively correlated with exit hole diameter (diameter [mm] = 2.2 * weight [g] + 7.9). The rate at which beetles bored through the wood (136, 178, and 168 mm(3)/d at 20, 25 and 30 °C, respectively) significantly differed between temperatures but did not differ with beetle weight. Temperature had a significant effect on the time it took adults to initiate boring (7, 5, and 4 d at 20, 25, and 30 °C, respectively) and subsequently to complete boring to emerge (5, 4, and 4 d at 20, 25, and 30 °C, respectively). This suggests that beetles require more than a week to progress from eclosion to emergence in wood, even at summer temperatures. This information on A. glabripennis basic biology is critical for developing phenology models that are used to time exclusion and eradication methodologies. PMID:23339780

  10. Binomial and Poisson Mixtures, Maximum Likelihood, and Maple Code

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o; Shenton, LR

    2006-01-01

    The bias, variance, and skewness of maximum likelihoood estimators are considered for binomial and Poisson mixture distributions. The moments considered are asymptotic, and they are assessed using the Maple code. Question of existence of solutions and Karl Pearson's study are mentioned, along with the problems of valid sample space. Large samples to reduce variances are not unusual; this also applies to the size of the asymptotic skewness.

  11. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy. PMID:25647359

  12. Acylated Triterpene Saponins from the Stem Bark of Acer nikoense (Aceraceae).

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Sasaki, Yu F; Suyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Three new acylated triterpene saponins, acernikoenosides A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Acer nikoense, together with a known sterol glucoside. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. This study provided the first example of triterpene saponins isolated from this plant. The anti-genotoxic activity of 1, 3 and 4 against ultraviolet irradiation was evaluated by comet assay. PMID:27373647

  13. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2016-05-01

    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied (15)N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species. PMID:26786538

  14. America's Native Sweet: Chippewa Treaties and the Right to Harvest Maple Sugar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Argues in favor of a Chippewa right to harvest maple sap from trees on federal land. Discusses the history of Indian production of and trade in maple sugar, examines relevant treaties, and draws parallels with tribal rights to fish and harvest wild rice. Contains 91 references. (SV)

  15. Passive Maple-Seed Robotic Fliers for Education, Research and Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, D. M.; Abu-Ageel, A.; Alfatlawi, M.; Varney, M. W.; Thompson, C. M.; Aslam, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    As inspirations from flora and fauna have led to many advances in modern technology, the concept of drawing ideas from nature for design should be reflected in engineering education. This paper focuses on a maple-seed robotic flier (MRF) with various complexities, a robotic platform modeled after the samaras of maple or ash trees, to teach STEM…

  16. MAPLE Procedures For Boson Fields System On Curved Space - Time

    SciTech Connect

    Murariu, Gabriel

    2007-04-23

    Systems of interacting boson fields are an important subject in the last years. From the problem of dark matter to boson stars' study, boson fields are involved. In the general configuration, it is considered a Klein-Gordon-Maxwell-Einstein fields system for a complex scalar field minimally coupled to a gravitational one. The necessity of studying a larger number of space-time configurations and the huge volume of computations for each particular situation are some reasons for building a MAPLE procedures set for this kind of systems.

  17. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan T; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:27391424

  18. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan T.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:27391424

  19. Combinatorial MAPLE gradient thin film assemblies signalling to human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Axente, Emanuel; Sima, Felix; Elena Sima, Livia; Erginer, Merve; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Serban, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Petrescu, Stefana M; Toksoy Oner, Ebru; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2014-09-01

    There is increased interest in smart bioactive materials to control tissue regeneration for the engineering of cell instructive scaffolds. We introduced combinatorial matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (C-MAPLE) as a new method for the fabrication of organic thin films with a compositional gradient. Synchronized C-MAPLE of levan and oxidized levan was employed to assemble a two-compound biopolymer film structure. The gradient of the film composition was validated by fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we investigated the cell response induced by the compositional gradient using imaging of early osteoblast attachment and analysis of signalling phosphoprotein expression. Cells attached along the gradient in direct proportion to oxidized levan concentration. During this process distinct areas of the binary gradient have been shown to modulate the osteoblasts' extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling with different propensity. The proposed fabrication method results in the preparation of a new bioactive material, which could control the cell signalling response. This approach can be extended to screen new bioactive interfaces for tissue regeneration. PMID:24867882

  20. Red edge spectral measurements from sugar maple leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge portion (680-750 nm) of the spectrum among the various samples and populations of leaves. These included differences in the red edge inflection point (REIP), a ratio of reflectance at 740-720 nm (RE3/RE2), and a ratio of first derivative values at 715-705 nm (D715/D705). All three red edge parameters were highly correlated with variation in total chlorophyll content. Other spectral measures, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Simple Vegetation Index Ratio (VI), also varied among populations and over the growing season, but did not correlate well with total chlorophyll content. Leaf stacking studies on light and dark backgrounds indicated REIP, RE3/RE2 and D715/D705 to be much less influenced by differences in green leaf biomass and background condition than either NDVI or VI.

  1. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    PubMed Central

    Wesley-Smith, James; Walters, Christina; Pammenter, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than −180 °C using liquid nitrogen. It has previously been shown that intracellular ice forms in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum (silver maple) but this is not necessarily lethal when ice crystals are small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Methods Embryonic axes of A. saccharinum, not subjected to dehydration or cryoprotection treatments (water content was 1·9 g H2O g−1 dry mass), were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures using two methods: plunging into nitrogen slush to achieve a cooling rate of 97 °C s−1 or programmed cooling at 3·3 °C s−1. Samples were thawed rapidly (177 °C s−1) and cell structure was examined microscopically immediately, and at intervals up to 72 h in vitro. Survival was assessed after 4 weeks in vitro. Axes were processed conventionally for optical microscopy and ultrastructural examination. Key Results Immediately following thaw after cryogenic exposure, cells from axes did not show signs of damage at an ultrastructural level. Signs that cells had been damaged were apparent after several hours of in vitro culture and appeared as autophagic decomposition. In surviving tissues, dead cells were sloughed off and pockets of living cells were the origin of regrowth. In roots, regrowth occurred from the ground meristem and procambium, not the distal meristem, which became lethally damaged. Regrowth of shoots occurred from isolated pockets of surviving cells of peripheral and pith meristems. The size of these pockets may determine the possibility for, the extent of and the vigour of regrowth. Conclusions Autophagic degradation and ultimately autolysis of cells following

  2. Alkaline Ceramidase 2 (ACER2) and Its Product Dihydrosphingosine Mediate the Cytotoxicity of N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide in Tumor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhehao; Sun, Wei; Xu, Ruijuan; Novgorodov, Sergei; Szulc, Zdzislaw M.; Bielawski, Jacek; Obeid, Lina M.; Mao, Cungui

    2010-01-01

    Increased generation of dihydrosphingosine (DHS), a bioactive sphingolipid, has been implicated in the cytotoxicity of the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) in tumor cells. However, how 4-HPR increases DHS remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that 4-HPR increases the expression of ACER2, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of dihydroceramides to generate DHS, and that ACER2 up-regulation plays a key role in mediating the 4-HPR-induced generation of DHS as well as the cytotoxicity of 4-HPR in tumor cells. Treatment with 4-HPR induced the accumulation of dihydroceramides (DHCs) in tumor cells by inhibiting dihydroceramide desaturase (DES) activity, which catalyzes the conversion of DHCs to ceramides. Treatment with 4-HPR also increased ACER2 expression through a retinoic acid receptor-independent and caspase-dependent manner. Overexpression of ACER2 augmented the 4-HPR-induced generation of DHS as well as 4-HPR cytotoxicity, and 4-HPR-induced death in tumor cells, whereas knocking down ACER2 had the opposite effects. ACER2 overexpression, along with treatment with GT11, another DES inhibitor, markedly increased cellular DHS, leading to tumor cell death, whereas ACER2 overexpression or GT11 treatment alone failed to do so, suggesting that both ACER2 up-regulation and DES inhibition are necessary and sufficient to mediate 4-HPR-induced DHS accumulation, cytotoxicity, and death in tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulation of the ACER2/DHS pathway mediates the cytotoxicity of 4-HPR in tumor cells and that up-regulating or activating ACER2 may improve the anti-cancer activity of 4-HRR and other DHC-inducing agents. PMID:20628055

  3. The chemical identity of intervessel pit membranes in Acer challenges hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Klepsch, Matthias M.; Schmitt, Marco; Paul Knox, J.; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of xylem tissue (i.e. the ionic effect) has been reported for various angiosperm species. One explanation of the ionic effect is that it is caused by the swelling and shrinking of intervessel pit membranes due to the presence of pectins and/or other cell-wall matrix polymers such as heteroxylans or arabinogalactan–proteins (AGPs) that may contain acidic sugars. Here, we examined the ionic effect for six Acer species and their pit membrane chemistry using immunocytochemistry, including antibodies against glycoproteins. Moreover, anatomical features related to the bordered pit morphology and vessel dimensions were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The ionic effect varied from 18 % (± 9) to 32 % (± 13). Epitopes of homogalacturonan (LM18) and xylan (LM11) were not detected in intervessel pit membranes. Negative results were also obtained for glycoproteins (extensin: LM1, JIM20; AGP glycan: LM2), although AGP (JIM13)-related epitopes were detected in parenchyma cells. The mean vessel length was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the ionic effect, unlike other pit or vessel-related characteristics. Our results suggest that intervessel pit membranes of Acer are unlikely to contain pectic or other acidic polysaccharides. Therefore, alternative explanations should be tested to clarify the ionic effect. PMID:27354661

  4. The chemical identity of intervessel pit membranes in Acer challenges hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic conductivity.

    PubMed

    Klepsch, Matthias M; Schmitt, Marco; Paul Knox, J; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of xylem tissue (i.e. the ionic effect) has been reported for various angiosperm species. One explanation of the ionic effect is that it is caused by the swelling and shrinking of intervessel pit membranes due to the presence of pectins and/or other cell-wall matrix polymers such as heteroxylans or arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) that may contain acidic sugars. Here, we examined the ionic effect for six Acer species and their pit membrane chemistry using immunocytochemistry, including antibodies against glycoproteins. Moreover, anatomical features related to the bordered pit morphology and vessel dimensions were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The ionic effect varied from 18 % (± 9) to 32 % (± 13). Epitopes of homogalacturonan (LM18) and xylan (LM11) were not detected in intervessel pit membranes. Negative results were also obtained for glycoproteins (extensin: LM1, JIM20; AGP glycan: LM2), although AGP (JIM13)-related epitopes were detected in parenchyma cells. The mean vessel length was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the ionic effect, unlike other pit or vessel-related characteristics. Our results suggest that intervessel pit membranes of Acer are unlikely to contain pectic or other acidic polysaccharides. Therefore, alternative explanations should be tested to clarify the ionic effect. PMID:27354661

  5. Intellectual performance of children with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, C; Awiszus, D; Wendel, U

    1993-02-01

    The intellectual performance of 22 children aged 3-16 years with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was assessed and compared to a group of early treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and normal subjects matched by age, sex, nationality, and socio-economic status. All subjects were tested by one examiner only using the age related versions of the non-verbal Snijders-Oomen intelligence test. The mean IQ (+/- SD) score was 74 +/- 14 (range 50-103) in patients with MSUD, 101 +/- 12 (range 87-125) in early treated PKU patients, and 107 +/- 9 (range 90-122) in normal subjects. Intercorrelations indicated that length of time after birth that plasma leucine concentration remained > 1 mmol/l and quality of long-term metabolic control have important influences on IQ. PMID:8444223

  6. A Maple package for improved global mapping forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, H.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2014-03-01

    We present a Maple implementation of the well known global approach to time series analysis and some further developments designed to improve the computational efficiency of the forecasting capabilities of the approach. This global approach can be summarized as being a reconstruction of the phase space, based on a time ordered series of data obtained from the system. After that, using the reconstructed vectors, a portion of this space is used to produce a mapping, a polynomial fitting, through a minimization procedure, that represents the system and can be employed to forecast further entries for the series. In the present implementation, we introduce a set of commands, tools, in order to perform all these tasks. For example, the command VecTS deals mainly with the reconstruction of the vector in the phase space. The command GfiTS deals with producing the minimization and the fitting. ForecasTS uses all these and produces the prediction of the next entries. For the non-standard algorithms, we here present two commands: IforecasTS and NiforecasTS that, respectively deal with the one-step and the N-step forecasting. Finally, we introduce two further tools to aid the forecasting. The commands GfiTS and AnalysTS, basically, perform an analysis of the behavior of each portion of a series regarding the settings used on the commands just mentioned above. Catalogue identifier: AERW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3001 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 95018 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14. Computer: Any capable of running Maple Operating system: Any capable of running Maple. Tested on Windows ME, Windows XP, Windows 7. RAM: 128 MB

  7. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality. PMID:21569942

  8. Leafhopper control in filed-grown red maples with systemic insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red maple, a popular landscape tree, can be susceptible to foliar damage caused by potato leafhopper feeding. Typical potato leafhopper injury includes distorted leaf tissue and reduced shoot growth. This research identified systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, Allectus and Discus, which controlled...

  9. mMaple: A Photoconvertible Fluorescent Protein for Use in Multiple Imaging Modalities

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Ann L.; Hoi, Hiofan; Bates, Mark; Platonova, Evgenia; Cranfill, Paula J.; Baird, Michelle A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Ewers, Helge; Liphardt, Jan; Campbell, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have extended the spatial resolution to the nanometer scale. Here, we report an engineered photoconvertible fluorescent protein (pcFP) variant, designated as mMaple, that is suited for use in multiple conventional and super-resolution imaging modalities, specifically, widefield and confocal microscopy, structured illumination microscopy (SIM), and single-molecule localization microscopy. We demonstrate the versatility of mMaple by obtaining super-resolution images of protein organization in Escherichia coli and conventional fluorescence images of mammalian cells. Beneficial features of mMaple include high photostability of the green state when expressed in mammalian cells and high steady state intracellular protein concentration of functional protein when expressed in E. coli. mMaple thus enables both fast live-cell ensemble imaging and high precision single molecule localization for a single pcFP-containing construct. PMID:23240015

  10. A validated method for quantifying hypoglycin A in whole blood by UHPLC-HRMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Moreau, Cécile; Boyer, Baptiste; Bévalot, Fabien; Fanton, Laurent; Habyarimana, Jean; Gault, Gilbert; Gaillard, Yvan

    2015-01-26

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) is the toxic principle in ackee (Blighia sapida Koenig), a nutritious and readily available fruit which is a staple of the Jamaican working-class and rural population. The aril of the unripe fruit has high concentrations of HGA, the cause of Jamaican vomiting sickness, which is very often fatal. HGA is also present in the samara of several species of maple (Acer spp.) which are suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy in Europe, often fatal for horses. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantifying HGA in blood that would be sensitive enough to provide toxicological evidence of ackee or maple poisoning. Analysis was carried out using solid-phase extraction (HILIC cartridges), dansyl derivatization and UHPLC-HRMS/MS detection. The method was validated in whole blood with a detection limit of 0.35 μg/L (range: 0.8-500 μg/L). This is the first method applicable in forensic toxicology for quantifying HGA in whole blood. HGA was quantified in two serum samples from horses suffering from atypical myopathy. The concentrations were 446.9 and 87.8 μg/L. HGA was also quantified in dried arils of unripe ackee fruit (Suriname) and seeds of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) (France). The concentrations were 7.2 and 0.74 mg/g respectively. PMID:25531872

  11. Deposition of H15NO3 vapour to white oak, red maple and loblolly pine foliage: experimental observations and a generalized model

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Paul J; Garten Jr, Charles T

    1992-10-01

    Nitric acid vapour enriched with {sup 15}N (H{sup 15}NO{sub 3}) was volatilized into the cuvette of an open-flow gas exchange system containing red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling shoots to facilitate direct measurements of total foliar deposition, and subsequent assessments of the rate of HNO{sub 3} movement across the cuticle (transcuticular uptake). Total H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} vapour deposition to foliar surfaces ranged from <5 to 27 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} the variability being largely accounted for by differences in HNO{sub 3} concentrations and leaf conductance. Mean whole-leaf conductance to HNO{sub 3} ranged between 0.9 and 3.4 mm s{sup -1} for hardwoods and between 6 and 34 mm s{sup -1} for loblolly pine. Of the total H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} vapour deposited to leaves, an average of 39 to 48% was immediately 'bound' into hardwood foliage whereas only 3% was bound to loblolly pine needles. This implies that rain events might extract greater amounts of HNO{sub 3}-derived nitrate in throughfall from conifer canopies as compared to hardwood canopies. Post-exposure H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} uptake rates across the leaf cuticle increased with surface nitrate concentrations, but were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower (O06 to 0.24 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) than total HNO{sub 3}, deposition during exposures. A generalized leaf-level model of HNO{sub 3} deposition to foliage capable of simulating deposition pathways to sorption sites on the leaf surface, and to the metabolically active leaf interior via transcuticular or stomatal pathways is formulated and suggested for use in planning future work on HNO{sub 3} deposition.

  12. HIQA's CEA of Breast Screening: Pragmatic Policy Recommendations are Welcome, but ACERs Reported as ICERs are Not.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, James F; Normand, Charles

    2015-12-01

    The Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA) is Ireland's statutory cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) agency. It recently published a CEA of screening strategies for women at elevated risk of breast cancer. Although the strategies recommended by HIQA exceed Ireland's cost-effectiveness threshold, they can reasonably be welcomed as a pragmatic response to constraints on disinvestment and are expected to improve screening cost-effectiveness. What is not welcome, however, is HIQA's reporting of average cost-effectiveness ratios (ACERs) as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The distinction between ACERs and ICERs is well understood in CEA, as is the fact that ICERs not ACERs are the appropriate metric to determine cost-effectiveness. This article critiques HIQA's reporting, considering the implications for the particular case of breast cancer screening and the broader context of consistency of and confidence in CEA as a guide to resource allocation in Ireland. The reporting of ACERs as ICERs is unlikely to be of any great significance in the particular case of screening women at elevated risk of breast cancer, given likely constraints on disinvestment. Despite this, ICERs still need to be reported correctly. If thresholds are exceeded in certain cases, then it is important that decision makers appreciate by how much. More generally, using ACERs in some cases and ICERs in others raises concerns that methods are being applied inconsistently, which risks compromising confidence in CEA in Ireland. As Ireland's statutory CEA authority, HIQA has a special onus of responsibility to ensure established methods are applied correctly. PMID:26686777

  13. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25757438

  14. Fluorescence intensities ratio F685/F740 for maple leaves during seasonal color changes and with fungal infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.

    2014-01-01

    The work is devoted to the spectral measurements of maple leaves. Fresh green leaves of maple were investigated in spring and summer, healthy leaves and leaves affected by fungal diseases - during the fall color change. F685/F740 parameter values for healthy and diseased maple leaves were found, as well as the change of this parameter during the growing season. The concentration of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids in ethanol extracts of maple leaves with different pigmentation were calculated by absorption spectroscopy and the ratio of Chl a / Chl b was found.

  15. Becoming less tolerant with age: sugar maple, shade, and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Sendall, Kerrie M; Lusk, Christopher H; Reich, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Although shade tolerance is often assumed to be a fixed trait, recent work suggests ontogenetic changes in the light requirements of tree species. We determined the influence of gas exchange, biomass distribution, and self-shading on ontogenetic variation in the instantaneous aboveground carbon balance of Acer saccharum. We quantified the aboveground biomass distributions of 18 juveniles varying in height and growing in low light in a temperate forest understory in Minnesota, USA. Gas exchange rates of leaf and stem tissues were measured, and the crown architecture of each individual was quantified. The YPLANT program was used to estimate the self-shaded fraction of each crown and to model net leaf-level carbon gain. Leaf respiration and photosynthesis per gram of leaf tissue increased with plant size. In contrast, stem respiration rates per gram of stem tissue declined, reflecting a shift in the distribution of stem diameter sizes from smaller (with higher respiration) to larger diameter classes. However, these trends were outweighed by ontogenetic increases in self-shading (which reduces the net photosynthesis realized) and stem mass fraction (which increases the proportion of purely respiratory tissue) in terms of influence on net carbon exchange. As a result, net carbon gain per gram of aboveground plant tissue declined with increasing plant size, and the instantaneous aboveground light compensation point increased. When estimates of root respiration were included to model whole-plant carbon gain and light compensation points, relationships with plant size were even more pronounced. Our findings show how an interplay of gas exchange, self-shading, and biomass distribution shapes ontogenetic changes in shade tolerance. PMID:26318296

  16. Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Muelly, Emilie R.; Moore, Gregory J.; Bunce, Scott C.; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C.; Morton, D. Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5–35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409

  17. Development of a more efficient maple syrup evaporator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D.

    1982-11-30

    The goal of this project was to retrofit a traditional wood-fired maple syrup evaporator to make more efficient use of the wood fuel. A sap preheater was constructed that used waste heat from the steam to preheat the incoming sap. The preheater was tested on the evaporator and 8% more water was processed. There were some problems that will be discussed in the body of the report. A sap pan with fins incorporated into the bottom (described in the 1st and 2nd quarterly reports) was built but was not tested because the fins could not be properly sealed at the ends. Put more simply, it leaked. The bulk of time and energy was spent designing, building, and installing the forced draft and heat exchanger system (refer to 3rd quarterly report). A squirrel cage blower forced fresh air through twelve pipes that were arranged in the stack to the firebox and a draft inducer was mounted on top of the stack. With this arrangement plus the preheater 27% more water was processed than the original rig with the same amount of wood.

  18. Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica in an infant with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Flores, K; Chikowski, R; Morrell, D S

    2016-08-01

    Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica (AD) is a rare, newly termed, and poorly understood disease that appears to be clinically similar to acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). Both diseases are characterized by the triad of periorificial and acral dermatitis, diarrhoea, and alopecia. Unlike AE, which is caused by zinc deficiency, AD is caused by numerous metabolic disorders. One such disorder is maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a genetic deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, the enzyme that degrades the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) isoleucine, leucine and valine. Treatment involves restricting BCAAs to prevent accumulation. We report a case of an infant being treated for MSUD, who developed the triad of AE/AD after a period of poor BCAA formula intake. The child was found to have low isoleucine and normal zinc levels. Increasing the isoleucine dose improved the eruption, thus the diagnosis of AD secondary to isoleucine deficiency was made. This case emphasizes the importance of carefully balancing BCAA levels while treating MSUD, as deficiency can precipitate AD. PMID:27334242

  19. Sugar Maple Phenology: Anthocyanin Production During Leaf Senescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, E.; Rock, B.

    2007-12-01

    The Northeastern United States is known for its brilliant fall foliage colors. Foliage is responsible for a billion dollar tourism industry. Many comment that past years have not resulted in the amazing color displays seen historically. As sugar maple trees senesce they contribute bright red leaves to the mural of oranges, yellows, and greens. The pigment that produces the red color, anthocyanin, is synthesized in the fall as chlorophyll slowly degrades. Remote sensing data from LandSat during fall senescence can help investigate this event by quantifying color change and intensity. This data can then be compared to ground validation efforts in several study plots. The results will help answer the question, "Why do leaves turn red?" One hypothesis is that this pigment acts as a photoprotectant and screens leaves from UV light. It is possible that an increase in tropospheric ozone has negatively affected fall foliage due to the increased reflection of UV light before it reaches the trees; thereby reducing the leaves need to produce anthocyanin. Another hypothesis is that production of anthocyanin is linked to temperature, with maximum synthesis occurring during cold evenings and moderate days. Temperature changes caused by climate change could also be affecting anthocyanin. Through observing these changes by remote sensing and ground experiments, more can be learned about this phenological stage and why it happens.

  20. Biogeochemical Drivers of Sugar Maple Mortality at the Species-Range Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. H.; Zimmerman, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    The decline of sugar maple in the northern United States is causing concern in the resource management community, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees (Hallett et al. 2006; Horsley et al. 2000; Long et al. 2009; St.Clair et al. 2008). Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies tends to be purposive in nature; soil properties generally are assessed only on those plots where dead trees are observed. In this study, we used more than 200 plots from the USDA Forest Service's FIADB (USDA Forest Service 2012; Woudenberg et al. 2010), including the phase 3 soils data (O'Neill et al. 2005; Woodall et al. 2010), to analyze a broader population of sugar maple (alive and dead) across a wide range of soil types. This population of plots has a highly skewed, zero-inflated distribution: the number of plots in the sample without dead trees is an order of magnitude greater than the number of plots with dead trees. One effective method of analysis is a two-stage approach. In the first stage, the response variable is the presence or absence of dead sugar maple; the inferential space is the entire population of plots with sugar maple trees. The second stage uses the relative abundance of dead sugar maple as the response variable; in this case, inference is restricted to those plots where dead sugar maple trees are observed. In both sets of models, basal area and geology are significant predictors of dead sugar maple. The most significant soil variables vary between these two inferential spaces. Our model of the presence/absence of sugar maple death included the molar ratio of Mg:Mn; when conditional on the presence of dead sugar maple, our model includes the molar ratio of Ca:Al, along with exchangeable Na and Mg percentages. Multimodel inference (Burnham and Anderson 2002) assists the assessment of predictors within and between the two stages.

  1. RIR-MAPLE deposition of conjugated polymers and hybrid nanocomposites for application to optoelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Pate, Ryan; McCormick, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.

    2012-07-30

    Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) is a variation of pulsed laser deposition that is useful for organic-based thin films because it reduces material degradation by selective absorption of infrared radiation in the host matrix. A unique emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE approach has been developed that reduces substrate exposure to solvents and provides controlled and repeatable organic thin film deposition. In order to establish emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a preferred deposition technique for conjugated polymer or hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices, studies have been conducted to demonstrate the value added by the approach in comparison to traditional solution-based deposition techniques, and this work will be reviewed. The control of hybrid nanocomposite thin film deposition, and the photoconductivity in such materials deposited using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE, will also be reviewed. The overall result of these studies is the demonstration of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a viable option for the fabrication of conjugated polymer and hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices that could yield improved device performance.

  2. Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D. )

    1990-04-01

    Constant infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H5)phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis (3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1) and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis.

  3. 75 FR 57016 - Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Maple Analytics, LLC's application for market-based...

  4. The Changing Colors of Maple Hills: Intersections of Culture, Race, Language, and Exceptionality in a Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This case describes Maple Hills Elementary, a K-8 school in a rural farming community of the Midwest. As a community, Maple Hills has historically experienced a narrow range of diversity across race, ethnicity, language, and religion. Residents have predominantly been White, with German and English heritage, speak English as a mother tongue, and…

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens levansucrase-catalyzed the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides, oligolevan and levan in maple syrup-based reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengxi; Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2015-11-20

    Maple syrups with selected degree Brix (°Bx) (15, 30, 60) were investigated as reaction systems for levansucrase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The enzymatic conversion of sucrose present in the maple syrup and the production of the transfructosylation products were assessed over a time course of 48h. At 30°C, the use of maple syrup 30°Bx led to the highest levansucrase activity (427.53μmol/mg protein/min), while maple syrup 66°Bx led to the highest converted sucrose concentration (1.53M). In maple syrup 30°Bx, oligolevans (1080%). In maple syrup 66°Bx, the most abundant products were oligolevans at 30°C and levans (DP≥30) at 8°C. The acceptor specificity study revealed the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens levansucrase to synthesize a variety of hetero-fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) in maple syrups 15°Bx and 30°Bx enriched with various disaccharides, with lactose being the preferred fructosyl acceptor. The current study is the first to investigate maple-syrup-based reaction systems for the synthesis of FOSs/oligolevans/levans. PMID:26344273

  6. Effects of pesticide application on arthropod pests of nursery-grown maples.

    PubMed

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Sadof, Clifford

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides used against potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), have been reported to cause problems with maple spider mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), on nursery-grown 'Red Sunset' red maple and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple. To test this, we conducted two experiments on field-grown trees in nurseries. In the first, the effects of early-season pesticide applications were examined during 2009. The second experiment was conducted in 2010 to compare effects of using threshold levels of one, three, or six leafhoppers per branch to time applications. Pesticide applications reduced abundance and damage by leafhoppers in both cultivars, but increased populations of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze during 2009. In contrast, on Red Sunset, populations of O. aceris did not increase after insecticide applications. In 2010, insecticide applications did not increase abundance of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze because use of treatment thresholds to manage leafhoppers greatly reduced numbers of trees requiring treatment for leafhoppers. Two phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) and Typhlodromus caudiglans (Schuster), and one stigmaeid, Zetzellia mali (Ewing), were identified as the principal predators of O. aceris on maple leaves. Insecticide applications had no significant effects on the total abundance of predatory mites on either Red Sunset or Autumn Blaze maples in 2009 or 2010. However, populations of predator Z. mali were higher during both years on Red Sunset than on Autumn Blaze. These results suggest that both early-season pesticide use and cultivar can affect the likelihood of secondary outbreaks of spider mites on maples. PMID:24772553

  7. Response of sugar maple to calcium addition to northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Juice, Stephanie M; Fahey, Timothy J; Siccama, Thomas G; Driscoll, Charles T; Denny, Ellen G; Eagar, Christopher; Cleavitt, Natalie L; Minocha, Rakesh; Richardson, Andrew D

    2006-05-01

    Watershed budget studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, have demonstrated high calcium depletion of soil during the 20th century due, in part, to acid deposition. Over the past 25 years, tree growth (especially for sugar maple) has declined on the experimental watersheds at the HBEF. In October 1999, 0.85 Mg Ca/ha was added to Watershed 1 (W1) at the HBEF in the form of wollastonite (CaSiO3), a treatment that, by summer 2002, had raised the pH in the Oie horizon from 3.8 to 5.0 and, in the Oa horizon, from 3.9 to 4.2. We measured the response of sugar maple to the calcium fertilization treatment on W1. Foliar calcium concentration of canopy sugar maples in W1 increased markedly beginning the second year after treatment, and foliar manganese declined in years four and five. By 2005, the crown condition of sugar maple was much healthier in the treated watershed as compared with the untreated reference watershed (W6). Following high seed production in 2000 and 2002, the density of sugar maple seedlings increased significantly on W1 in comparison with W6 in 2001 and 2003. Survivorship of the 2003 cohort through July 2005 was much higher on W1 (36.6%) than W6 (10.2%). In 2003, sugar maple germinants on W1 were approximately 50% larger than those in reference plots, and foliar chlorophyll concentrations were significantly greater (0.27 g/m2 vs. 0.23 g/m2 leaf area). Foliage and fine-root calcium concentrations were roughly twice as high, and manganese concentrations twice as low in the treated than the reference seedlings in 2003 and 2004. Mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings was also much greater in the treated (22.4% of root length) than the reference sites (4.4%). A similar, though less dramatic, difference was observed for mycorrhizal colonization of mature sugar maples (56% vs. 35%). These results reinforce and extend other regional observations that sugar maple decline in the northeastern United States and southern Canada is

  8. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate within Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii.

    PubMed

    Royer, Dana L; McElwain, Jennifer C; Adams, Jonathan M; Wilf, Peter

    2008-01-01

    * Variation in the size and shape (physiognomy) of leaves has long been correlated to climate, and paleobotanists have used these correlations to reconstruct paleo-climate. Most studies focus on site-level means of largely nonoverlapping species sets. The sensitivity of leaf shape to climate within species is poorly known, which limits our general understanding of leaf-climate relationships and the value of intraspecific patterns for paleoclimate reconstructions. * The leaf physiognomy of two species whose native North American ranges span large climatic gradients (Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii) was quantified and correlated to mean annual temperature (MAT). Quercus kelloggii was sampled across a wide elevation range, but A. rubrum was sampled in strictly lowland areas. * Within A. rubrum, leaf shape correlates with MAT in a manner that is largely consistent with previous site-level studies; leaves from cold climates are toothier and more highly dissected. By contrast, Q. kelloggii is largely insensitive to MAT; instead, windy conditions with ample plant-available water may explain the preponderance of small teeth at high elevation sites, independent of MAT. * This study highlights the strong correspondence between leaf form and climate within some species, and demonstrates that intraspecific patterns may contribute useful information towards reconstructing paleoclimate. PMID:18507771

  9. Productivity responses of Acer rubrum and Taxodium distichum seedlings to elevated CO2 and flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vann, C.D.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are expected to increase photosynthetic rates of C3 tree species, but it is uncertain whether this will result in an increase in wetland seedling productivity. Separate short-term experiments (12 and 17 weeks) were performed on two wetland tree species, Taxodium distichum and Acer rubrum, to determine if elevated CO2 would influence the biomass responses of seedlings to flooding. T. distichum were grown in replicate glasshouses (n = 2) at CO2 concentrations of 350 or 700 ppm, and A. rubrum were grown in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 422 or 722 ppm. Both species were grown from seed. The elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with two water table treatments, flooded and non-flooded. Elevated CO2 increased leaf-level photosynthesis, whole-plant photosynthesis, and trunk diameter of T. distichum in both flooding treatments, but did not increase biomass of T. distichum or A. rubrum. Flooding severely reduced biomass, height, and leaf area of both T. distichum and A. rubrum. Our results suggest that the absence of a CO2-induced increase in growth may have been due to an O2 limitation on root production even though there was a relatively deep (??? 10 cm) aerobic soil surface in the non-flooded treatment. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing the 'rare pit' hypothesis for xylem cavitation resistance in three species of Acer.

    PubMed

    Christman, Mairgareth A; Sperry, John S; Adler, Frederick R

    2009-01-01

    Eudicot angiosperms with greater vulnerability to xylem cavitation tend to have vessels with greater total area of inter-vessel pits, which inspired the 'rare pit' hypothesis: the more pits per vessel, by chance the leakier will be the vessel's single air-seeding pit and the lower the air-seeding threshold for cavitation to spread between vessels. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the hypothesis, using probability theory to model the axial propagation of air through air-injected stems. In the presence of rare, leaky pits, air-seeding pressures through short stems with few vessel ends in series should be low; pressures should increase in longer stems as more end-walls must be breached. Measurements on three Acer species conformed closely to model predictions, confirming the rare presence of leaky pits. The model indicated that pits air-seeding at or below the mean cavitation pressure (MCP) occurred at similarly low frequencies in all species. Average end-wall air-seeding pressures predicted by the model closely matched species' MCPs. Differences in species' vulnerability were primarily attributed to differences in frequency of the leakiest pits rather than pit number or area per vessel. Adjustments in membrane properties and extent of pitting per vessel apparently combine to influence cavitation resistance across species. PMID:19434805

  11. Effects of CO₂ on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Ribeiro, H; Abreu, I; Cruz, A; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric gaseous pollutants can induce qualitative and quantitative changes in airborne pollen characteristics. In this work, it was investigated the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates. Pollen was collected directly from the anthers and in vitro exposed to three CO2 levels (500, 1000, and 3000 ppm) for 6 and 24 h in an environmental chamber. Pollen fertility was determined using viability and germination assays, total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunological techniques using patients' sera. Also, pollen fructose, sucrose, and glucose values were determined. Carbon dioxide exposure affected negatively pollen fertility, total soluble protein content, and fructose content. The patient sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo pollen exposed to increasing levels of the pollutant. No changes were detected in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles and in sucrose and glucose levels. Our results indicate that increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can have a negative influence of some features of A. negundo airborne pollen that can influence the reproductive processes as well as respiratory pollen allergies in the future. PMID:25471717

  12. A Test for Pre-Adapted Phenotypic Plasticity in the Invasive Tree Acer negundo L.

    PubMed Central

    Lamarque, Laurent J.; Porté, Annabel J.; Eymeric, Camille; Lasnier, Jean-Baptiste; Lortie, Christopher J.; Delzon, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key mechanism associated with the spread of exotic plants and previous studies have found that invasive species are generally more plastic than co-occurring species. Comparatively, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plant invasion has received less attention, and in particular, the genetic basis of plasticity is largely unexamined. Native from North America, Acer negundo L. is aggressively impacting the riparian forests of southern and eastern Europe thanks to higher plasticity relative to co-occurring native species. We therefore tested here whether invasive populations have evolved increased plasticity since introduction. The performance of 1152 seedlings from 8 native and 8 invasive populations was compared in response to nutrient availability. Irrespective of nutrients, invasive populations had higher growth and greater allocation to above-ground biomass relative to their native conspecifics. More importantly, invasive genotypes did not show increased plasticity in any of the 20 traits examined. This result suggests that the high magnitude of plasticity to nutrient variation of invasive seedlings might be pre-adapted in the native range. Invasiveness of A. negundo could be explained by higher mean values of traits due to genetic differentiation rather than by evolution of increased plasticity. PMID:24040212

  13. Application of sugar maple and black locust to the biomass/energy plantation concept. Interim report, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981. [Sugar Maples, Black Locusts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the research program is to determine the feasibility of converting existing pole-size maple stands to biomass/energy plantations using black locust as an interplanted species. Toward this end, progress has been made in quantifying sprout biomass. Significant differences have been identified in productivity by site, species, time of fertilizer application, and diameter and damage of stumps. Rhizobium strains for black locust have been identified which are tolerant of low pH and phosphorous and high aluminum levels. Frost-hardy black locust seed sources have been identified for future work. Methods for sampling and equations for young natural stands of maple have been developed. Detailed characterization of sugar and red maple sprouts by physical, chemical and thermal analysis were compared to those of old, mature trees. The results are discussed in terms of seasonal moisture content variation, effects of tree age on specific gravity, extractive contents, ash content, major cell wall components, heating values and thermal behavior. 7 references, 5 figures, 17 tables.

  14. Maple (Computer Algebra System) in Teaching Pre-Calculus: Example of Absolute Value Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuluk, Güler

    2014-01-01

    Modules in Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) make Mathematics interesting and easy to understand. The present study focused on the implementation of the algebraic, tabular (numerical), and graphical approaches used for the construction of the concept of absolute value function in teaching mathematical content knowledge along with Maple 9. The study…

  15. MICROBIAL COLONIZATION, RESPIRATION AND BREAKDOWN OF MAPLE LEAVES ALONG A STREAM-MARSH CONTINUUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate and bacterial colonization, and microbial respiration were measured on decaying maple leaves at three sites along a stream-marsh continuum. Breakdown rates were 0.0284+/-0.0045 d-1 for leaves in a high-gradient, non-tidal stream; 0.0112 +/- 0.0...

  16. Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, I. S.

    2008-01-01

    The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…

  17. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  18. The Effects of Maple Integrated Strategy on Engineering Technology Students' Understanding of Integral Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a learning strategy using Maple in integral calculus. This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. One hundred engineering technology students at a technical university were chosen at random. The effectiveness of the learning…

  19. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  20. Student Organizations in Canada and Quebec's "Maple Spring"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bégin-Caouette, Olivier; Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two major objectives: to describe the structure of the student movement in Canada and the formal role of students in higher education governance, and to describe and analyze the "Maple Spring," the dramatic mobilization of students in opposition to proposed tuition fee increases in Quebec that eventually led to a…

  1. The Minnesota Maple Series: Community-Generated Knowledge Delivered through an Extension Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David S.; Miedtke, Juile A.; Sagor, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Extension continuously seeks novel and effective approaches to outreach and education. The recent retirement of a longtime content specialist catalyzed members of University of Minnesota Extension's Forestry team to reflect on our instructional capacity (internal and external) and educational design in the realm of maple syrup production. We…

  2. Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

  3. Symbiotic maple saps minimize disruption of the mice intestinal microbiota after oral antibiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Barbeau, Julie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo impact of new symbiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%), were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 2-4 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1). The experiments started with intra-gastric administration of antibiotic (kanamycin 40 mg in 0.1 cc) (to induce microbiota disturbance and/or diarrhea) to 3-to-5-week-old C57BL/6 female mice followed by a combination of prebiotic and probiotics included in the maple sap or its concentrate for a week. The combination inulin and probiotics in maple sap and concentrate appeared to minimize the antibiotic-induced breakdown of mice microbiota with a marked effect on bifidobacterium and bacteroides levels, thus permitting a more rapid re-establishment of the baseline microbiota levels. Results suggest that maple sap and its concentrate represent good candidates for the production of non-dairy functional foods. PMID:26218660

  4. Use of a Colony of Cooperating Agents and MAPLE To Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrieri, Bruno

    This paper reviews an approach for finding optimal solutions to the traveling salesman problem, a well-known problem in combinational optimization, and describes implementing the approach using the MAPLE computer algebra system. The method employed in this approach to the problem is similar to the way ant colonies manage to establish shortest…

  5. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Peter J.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (ΔPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on 3-year-old potted A. rubrum plants also had no effect on whole plant transpiration. A separate study made on mature A. rubrum trees showed that 3.0 and 5.5 MPa of ΔPpit values resulted in an immediate 100% loss in hydraulic conductance (PLC) in petioles. However, the observed change in PLC was short lived, and significant hydraulic recovery occurred within 5–10 min post air-pressurization treatments. Similar experiments conducted on S. nigra plants exposed to ΔPpit of 3 MPa resulted in a rapid decline in whole plant transpiration followed by leaf wilting and eventual plant death, showing that this species lacks the ability to recover from induced embolism. A survey that measured the effect of air-pressurization treatments on seven other species showed that some species are very sensitive to induction of embolism resulting in leaf wilting and branch death while others show minimal to no effect despite that in each case, the applied ΔPpit of 5.5 MPa significantly exceeded any native stress that these plants would experience naturally. PMID:24069025

  6. Protective effect of Acer mono Max. sap on water immersion restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Son, Hyung-U; Son, Minsik; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-09-01

    Acer mono Max. sap (AmMs) is called 'Gol-Li-Su' or 'Go-Lo-Soe' in Korean, which means 'water beneficial to the bones'. It is reported that the sap contains several types of minerals and sugars. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap is 36.5 times higher than that of commercial mineral water. Apart from its anti-osteoporosis effect, no reports have addressed the biological activities of AmMs against degenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether AmMs alleviates gastric ulcer-related symptoms in a stress-induced mouse model. To assess the effect of AmMs on gastric ulcer-like symptoms, we carried out a water immersion restraint (WIRE) test and found that AmMs has potential in alleviating gastric ulcers in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the nutritional factors of the sap mitigate the gastric ulcer-related symptoms caused by stress-induced gastric lesions in mice. AmMs-treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in the ulcer index as compared to those treated with omeprazole or L-arginine. To examine one potential mechanism underlying this effect, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to ascertain whether molecular markers were associated with the mitigation of the gastric lesions. Epithelial and/or tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was assessed to determine whether or not the genes were down-regulated dose-dependently by the sap. The levels of these enzymes were found to be lower in the tissue samples treated with AmMs compared with the levels in the control samples. These findings collectively suggest that AmMs significantly protects the gastric mucosa against WIRE stress-induced gastric lesions, at least in part, by alleviating inducible NOS and/or neuronal NOS expression. PMID:22977586

  7. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  8. Development and UFLC-MS/MS Characterization of a Product-Specific Standard for Phenolic Quantification of Maple-Derived Foods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqiang; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P

    2016-05-01

    The phenolic contents of plant foods are commonly quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay based on gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). However, this may lead to inaccuracies because gallic acid is not always representative of the structural heterogeneity of plant phenolics. Therefore, product-specific standards have been developed for the phenolic quantification of several foods. Currently, maple-derived foods (syrup, sugar, sap/water, and extracts) are quantified for phenolic contents based on GAEs. Because lignans are the predominant phenolics present in maple, herein, a maple phenolic lignan-enriched standard (MaPLES) was purified (by chromatography) and characterized (by UFLC-MS/MS with lignans previously isolated from maple syrup). Using MaPLES and secoisolariciresinol (a commercially available lignan), the phenolic contents of the maple-derived foods increased 3-fold compared to GAEs. Therefore, lignan-based standards are more appropriate for phenolic quantification of maple-derived foods versus GAEs. Also, MaPLES can be utilized for the authentication and detection of fake label claims on maple products. PMID:27101225

  9. Material properties and applications of blended organic thin films with nanoscale domains deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; McCormick, Ryan D.; Ge, Wangyao

    2015-03-01

    Resonant-infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit blended, organic thin-films with nanoscale domain sizes of constituent polymers, small molecules, or colloidal nanoparticles. In the emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE process, the target contains a nonpolar, organic solvent phase and a polar, water phase. The emulsion properties have a direct impact on the nanoscale morphology of single-component organic thin films, while the morphology of blended, organic thin films also depends on the RIR-MAPLE deposition mode. In addition to these fundamental aspects, applications of blended organic films (organic solar cells, anti-reflection coatings, and multi-functional surfaces) deposited by emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE are presented. Importantly, domain sizes in the blended films are critical to thin-film functionality.

  10. Quantification of metal loading to Silver Creek through the Silver Maple Claims area, Park City, Utah, May 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Runkel, Robert L.; Steiger, Judy I.

    2004-01-01

    The Silver Maple Claims area along Silver Creek, near Park City, Utah, is administered by the Bureau of Land Management. To quantify possible sources of elevated zinc concentrations in Silver Creek that exceed water-quality standards, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a mass-loading study in May 2002 along a 1,400-meter reach of Silver Creek that included the Silver Maple Claims area. Additional samples were collected upstream and downstream from the injection reach to investigate other possible sources of zinc and other metals to the stream. Many metals were investigated in the study, but zinc is of particular concern for water-quality standards. The total loading of zinc along the study reach from Park City to Wanship, Utah, was about 49 kilograms per day. The Silver Maple Claims area contributed about 38 percent of this load. The Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe, which empties just inside the Silver Maple Claims area, contributed more than half the load of the Silver Maple Claims area. Substantial zinc loads also were added to Silver Creek downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area. Ground-water discharge upstream from the waste-water treatment plant contributed 20 percent of the total zinc load, and another 17 percent was contributed near the waste-water treatment plant. By identifying the specific areas where zinc and other metal loads are contributed to Silver Creek, it is possible to assess the needs of a remediation plan. For example, removing the tailings from the Silver Maple Claims area could contribute to lowering the zinc concentration in Silver Creek, but without also addressing the loading from the Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe and the ground-water discharge farther downstream, the zinc concentration could not be lowered enough to meet water-quality standards. Additional existing sources of zinc loading downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area could complicate the process of lowering zinc concentration to meet water

  11. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: < 0.1 - 45.2 cm h-1) during 3 years of measurements. In addition, nocturnal/diurnal ratios of volumetric sap flows were significantly higher in the drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the

  12. Processing of functional polymers and organic thin films by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, A.; Wu, P.; Ringeisen, B. R.; Bubb, D. M.; Melinger, J. S.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2002-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique has been successfully used to deposit highly uniform thin films of various functional materials such as non-linear optical (NLO) organic materials, conductive polymers, luminescent organic molecules and several types of proteinaceous compounds. MAPLE is a laser evaporation technique for growing thin films of organic and polymeric materials which involves directing a pulsed laser beam (λ=193 nm; fluence=0.01-0.5 J cm -2) onto a frozen target (-40 to -160 °C) consisting of a solute polymeric or organic compound dissolved in a solvent matrix. Using MAPLE, thin films of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-( L)-prolinol or NPP, an NLO material; polypyrrole, a conductive polymer; and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum or Alq3, a luminescent organic compound, have been separately deposited with minor (in the case of Alq3) or no degradation (for the NPP and polypyrrole) to their optical and electrical properties. The MAPLE process has also been used to deposit discrete thin film micro-arrays of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). The deposited BSA films, after washing with a blocking protein and fluorescently tagged streptavidin, fluoresce when exposed to UV. This fluorescence indicates that the biochemical specificity of the transferred biotinylated protein is unaffected by the MAPLE process. These results demonstrate that the MAPLE technique can be used for growing thin films of functional polymer and active biomaterials.

  13. Dosimetry aspects of the new Canadian MAPLE-X10 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstone, R.F.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is building the 10-MW{sub t} MAPLE-X10 reactor facility as a dedicated producer of medical and industrial radioisotopes. Dosimetry aspects of the MAPLE-X10 nuclear design include the calculated thermal and fast neutron flux distributions throughout the reactor assembly and the rate of heat generation in reactor materials and components. Examples of the resolution of design issues are also presented, such as the use of fission counters and ion chambers to provide diverse methods of detecting neutron flux levels and the use of the difference between photon and neutron signals to guard against the effects of downgrading of the heavy-water reflector. Computer codes employed in the calculations include MCNP, ONEDANT, WIMS-AECL, and 3DDT.

  14. MAPLE fabrication of thin films based on kanamycin functionalized magnetite nanoparticles with anti-pathogenic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Stănculescu, Anca; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2015-05-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of kanamycin functionalized 5 nm-magnetite (Fe3O4@KAN) nanoparticles thin films deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A laser deposition regime was established in order to stoichiometrically transfer Fe3O4@KAN thin films on silicone and glass substrates. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of powders and coatings were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, AFM and IR microscopy (IRM). Our nanostructured thin films have proved efficiency in the prevention of microbial adhesion and mature biofilms development as a result of antibiotic release in its active form. Furthermore, kanamycin functionalized nanostructures exhibit a good biocompatibility, both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating their potential for implants application. This is the first study reporting the assessment of the in vivo biocompatibility of a magnetite-antimicrobial thin films produced by MAPLE technique.

  15. Maple Syrup Decreases TDP-43 Proteotoxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Aaron, Catherine; Beaudry, Gabrielle; Parker, J Alex; Therrien, Martine

    2016-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease causing death of the motor neurons. Proteotoxicity caused by TDP-43 protein is an important aspect of ALS pathogenesis, with TDP-43 being the main constituent of the aggregates found in patients. We have previously tested the effect of different sugars on the proteotoxicity caused by the expression of mutant TDP-43 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we tested maple syrup, a natural compound containing many active molecules including sugars and phenols, for neuroprotective activity. Maple syrup decreased several age-dependent phenotypes caused by the expression of TDP-43(A315T) in C. elegans motor neurons and requires the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 to be effective. PMID:27071850

  16. Parametric Decay of Pump Waves into two Linear Modes in SINP MaPLE Device

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Subir; Pal, Rabindranath

    2010-11-23

    Parametric decay of incident waves of ion cyclotron frequency range into linear modes is observed in experiment performed in the SINP MaPLE device where nitrogen plasma produced by ECR discharge. Along with a mode in drift wave frequency range, sideband of the incident waves are observed when amplitude of the exciter signal goes above a threshold value. Sideband of the second harmonic is also seen. Preliminary studies point towards excitation of ion Bernstein wave. Details of the experimental results are presented.

  17. Parametric Decay of Pump Waves into two Linear Modes in SINP MaPLE Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subir; Pal, Rabindranath

    2010-11-01

    Parametric decay of incident waves of ion cyclotron frequency range into linear modes is observed in experiment performed in the SINP MaPLE device where nitrogen plasma produced by ECR discharge. Along with a mode in drift wave frequency range, sideband of the incident waves are observed when amplitude of the exciter signal goes above a threshold value. Sideband of the second harmonic is also seen. Preliminary studies point towards excitation of ion Bernstein wave. Details of the experimental results are presented.

  18. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Atwal, P.S.; Macmurdo, C.; Grimm, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods. PMID:26937409

  19. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Atwal, P S; Macmurdo, C; Grimm, P C

    2015-09-01

    Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods. PMID:26937409

  20. Polyphenolic extract from maple syrup potentiates antibiotic susceptibility and reduces biofilm formation of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maisuria, Vimal B; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960

  1. Fungi in Ontario maple syrup & some factors that determine the presence of mold damage.

    PubMed

    Frasz, Samantha L; Miller, J David

    2015-08-17

    Maple syrup is a high value artisanal product produced mainly in Canada and a number of States primarily in the northeast USA. Mold growth (Wallemia sebi) on commercial product was first reported in syrup in 1908. Since then, few data have been published. We conducted a systematic examination for fungi in maple syrup from 68 producers from all of the syrup-producing areas of Ontario, Canada. The mean pH of the samples was pH 6.82, sugar content averaged 68.0±0.89 °Brix and aw averaged 0.841±0.011. Some 23 species of fungi were isolated based on morphology and molecular techniques. The most common fungus in the maple syrup samples was Eurotium herbariorum, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor and two species of Wallemia. Cladosporium cladosporioides was also common but only recovered when fungi known from high sugar substrates were also present in the mold damaged sample. The rarely reported yeast Citeromyces matrinsis was found in samples from three producers. There appear to be three potential causes for mold damage observed. High aw was associated with about one third of the mold damage. Independently, cold packing (bottling at ~25 °C) was a risk factor. However, syrup of good quality and quite low aw values was contaminated. We hypothesize that sanitation in the bottling line and other aspects of the bottling process may be partial explanations. Clarifying this requires further study. PMID:26001061

  2. Sugar Maple Pigments Through the Fall and the Role of Anthocyanin as an Analytical Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, E.; Rock, B.; Middleton, E.; Aber, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sugar maple habitat is projected to almost disappear in future climate scenarios. In fact, many institutions state that these trees are already in decline. Being able to detect sugar maple health could prove to be a useful analytical tool to monitor changes in phenology. Anthocyanin, a red pigment found in sugar maples, is thought to be a universal indicator of plant stress. It is very prominent in the spring during the first flush of leaves, as well as in the fall as leaves senesce. Determining an anthocyanin index that could be used with satellite systems will provide a greater understanding of tree phenology and the distribution of plant stress, both over large areas as well as changes over time. The utilization of anthocyanin for one of it's functions, prevention of oxidative stress, may fluctuate in response to changing climatic conditions that occur during senescence or vary from year to year. By monitoring changes in pigment levels and antioxidant capacity through the fall, one may be able to draw conclusions about the ability to detect anthocyanin remotely from space-based systems, and possibly determine a more specific function for anthocyanin during fall senescence. These results could then be applied to track changes in tree stress.

  3. Insects attracted to Maple Sap: Observations from Prince Edward Island, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The collection of maple sap for the production of maple syrup is a large commercial enterprise in Canada and the United States. In Canada, which produces 85% of the world’s supply, it has an annual value of over $168 million CAD. Over 38 million trees are tapped annually, 6.5% of which use traditional buckets for sap collection. These buckets attract significant numbers of insects. Despite this, there has been very little investigation of the scale of this phenomenon and the composition of insects that are attracted to this nutrient source. The present paper reports the results of a preliminary study conducted on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Trichoptera were found in maple sap buckets, 19 of which are known to be attracted to saps and nectars. The physiological role of sap feeding is discussed with reference to moths of the tribe Xylenini, which are active throughout the winter, and are well documented as species that feed on sap flows. Additionally, 18 of the 28 species found in this study are newly recorded in Prince Edward Island. PMID:21594122

  4. Polyphenolic Extract from Maple Syrup Potentiates Antibiotic Susceptibility and Reduces Biofilm Formation of Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Maisuria, Vimal B.; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960

  5. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular ice formed in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum and was not necessarily lethal when ice crystals were small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Embryonic a...

  6. The allometry of root production and loss in seedlings of Acer rubrum (aceraceae) and betula papyrifera (Betulacaae): Implications for root dynamics in elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Berntson, G.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1996-05-01

    Total root production ({Sigma}P), total root loss ({Sigma}L), net root production (NP), and biomass production were determined for seedlings of Betula papyrifera and Acer rubrum in ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} environments. {Sigma}P, {Sigma}L, and NP were calculated from sequential, independent observations of root length production through plexiglass windows. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased {Sigma}P, {Sigma}L, and NP in seedlings of Betula papyrifera but not Acer rubrum. Root production and loss were qualitatively similar to whole-plant growth responses to elevated CO{sub 2}. Betula showed enhanced {Sigma}P, {Sigma}L, and biomass with elevated CO{sub 2} but Acer did not. However, the observed effects of CO{sub 2} on root production and loss did not alter the allometric relationship between root production and root loss for either Acer or Betula. Thus, in this experiment, elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the relationship between root production and root loss. The results of this study have important implications for the potential effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on root dynamics. Elevated CO{sub 2} may lead to increases in root production and in root loss (turnover) where the changes in root turnover are largely a function of the magnitude of root production increases. 56 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.; West, A. G.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F/M ≈ 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F/M ≈ 0.6). Spatial segregation between sexes may develop because of the higher reproductive cost in females compared to males. If so, female Acer negundo trees would be under stronger selection to maximize resource uptake, and would therefore likely occur at greater frequencies in high resources sites (i.e., along streamsides), and increase rates of resource acquisition (i.e., water and nutrients). The spatial segregation of the sexes leads to the hypothesis that male and female individuals have varying influence on ecosystem evapotranspiration. To address this, stem sap flux was measured on mature streamside (≤1 m from stream channel) and nonstreamside (>1 m from stream channel) male and female Acer negundo trees occurring in Red Butte Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah, during the 2004 growing season. Despite having similar predawn and midday water potentials, sap flux density was 76% higher in streamside female trees than in males (P < 0.0001), while sap flux density was 19% greater in nonstreamside female trees compared to males (P < 0.0001). Mean daily sap flux density of all A. negundo populations was highly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit (P < 0.0001), and was moderately correlated with mean daily photosynthetic active radiation (P = 0.0263). At the watershed scale, nonstreamside male and female A. negundo trees contributed 20 and 21% respectively to the estimated 1.7 mm d-1 transpiration flux from dominant riparian vegetation away from streamsides (estimated from scaled sap flux measurements of all dominant riparian tree species in Red Butte Canyon). Male and female A. negundo trees contributed 31 and 46% respectively of the estimated 8.0 mm d-1 transpiration

  8. MAPLE-deposited PFO films: influence of the laser fluence and repetition rate on the film emission and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Anni, M.; Cesaria, M.; Lattante, S.; Leggieri, G.; Leo, C.; Martino, M.; Perulli, A.; Resta, V.

    2015-06-01

    The Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique is emerging as an alternative route to the conventional methods for depositing organic materials, although the MAPLE-deposited films very often present high surface roughness and characteristic morphological features. Films of the blue-emitting polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)—PFO, have been deposited by MAPLE to investigate the influence of the laser fluence and repetition rate on both their topography and emission properties. The laser fluence has been changed from 150 up to 450 mJ/cm2, while laser repetition rates of 2 and 10 Hz have been considered. The interplay/relationship between the topography and the emission properties of the MAPLE-deposited films has been studied by confocal microscopy, photoluminescence spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that under high irradiation (fluence of 450 mJ/cm2) conditions, the sample surface is characterized by bubbles presenting the intrinsic PFO blue emission. Instead, while improvements in the film morphology can be observed for lowered fluence and laser repetition rate, green emission becomes predominant in such conditions. Such result is very interesting to better understand the MAPLE ablation mechanism, which is discussed in this study.

  9. Sapling herbivory, invertebrate herbivores and predators across a natural tree diversity gradient in Germany's largest connected deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Stephanie; Scherber, Christoph; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2009-05-01

    Tree species-rich forests are hypothesised to be less susceptible to insect herbivores, but so far herbivory-diversity relationships have rarely been tested for tree saplings, and no such study has been published for deciduous forests in Central Europe. We expected that diverse tree communities reduce the probability of detection of host plants and increase abundance of predators, thereby reducing herbivory. We examined levels of herbivory suffered by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and maple saplings (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L.) across a tree species diversity gradient within Germany's largest remaining deciduous forest area, and investigated whether simple beech or mixed stands were less prone to damage caused by herbivorous insects. Leaf area loss and the frequency of galls and mines were recorded for 1,040 saplings (>13,000 leaves) in June and August 2006. In addition, relative abundance of predators was assessed to test for potential top-down control. Leaf area loss was generally higher in the two species of maple compared to beech saplings, while only beech showed a decline in damage caused by leaf-chewing herbivores across the tree diversity gradient. No significant patterns were found for galls and mines. Relative abundance of predators on beech showed a seasonal response and increased on species-rich plots in June, suggesting higher biological control. We conclude that, in temperate deciduous forests, herbivory-tree diversity relationships are significant, but are tree species-dependent with bottom-up and top-down control as possible mechanisms. In contrast to maple, beech profits from growing in a neighbourhood of higher tree richness, which implies that species identity effects may be of greater importance than tree diversity effects per se. Hence, herbivory on beech appeared to be mediated bottom-up by resource concentration in the sampled forest stands, as well as regulated top-down through biocontrol by natural enemies. PMID:19238448

  10. Management of a Woman With Maple Syrup Urine Disease During Pregnancy, Delivery, and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Ann E; Mogensen, Kris M; Rohr, Frances; Erick, Miriam; Neilan, Edward G; Chopra, Sameer; Levy, Harvey L; Gray, Kathryn J; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Berry, Gerard T

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Complications of acute elevation in plasma leucine include ketoacidosis and risk of cerebral edema, which can be fatal. Individuals with MSUD are at risk of metabolic crisis throughout life, especially at times of physiological stress. We present a case of successful management of a woman with MSUD through pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, and lactation, including nutrition therapy using modified parenteral nutrition. PMID:24618664

  11. A Maple Program That Illustrates the Effect of pH on Peptide Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolik, Charles W.

    1998-11-01

    One topic covered early in an introductory biochemistry course is acid-base chemistry and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (buffer equation). Using this equation a biochemistry student can determine the partial charges of amino acids in a peptide chain. This is an important concept to master for a student who is learning the structure-function relationship in proteins. The program described in this paper, written for Maple V, release 3 (Waterloo Maple Software, Waterloo, ON, Canada), uses the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the partial charges of individual amino acids and the net charge of a peptide over the pH range 0 to 14. The amino acid sequence of a peptide is entered and an animated histogram is displayed illustrating the partial charge of the amino acids over the pH range. A graph showing the net charge of the peptide from pH 0 to 14 is also given. The program has been used with success in an introductory biochemistry course as an in-class demonstration as well as for individual homework assignments. The program is available through the Web page of the Journal of Chemical Education.

  12. Flexible heterostructures based on metal phthalocyanines thin films obtained by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Stavarache, I.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, G.; Gherendi, F.; Grumezescu, V.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Girtan, M.; Stefan, N.

    2016-06-01

    Heterostructures based on zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyrydil)21H,23H-porphine (TPyP) were deposited on ITO flexible substrates by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Organic heterostructures containing (TPyP/ZnPc(MgPc)) stacked or (ZnPc(MgPc):TPyP) mixed layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction-XRD, photoluminescence-PL, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. No chemical decomposition of the initial materials was observed. The investigated structures present a large spectral absorption in the visible range making them suitable for organic photovoltaics applications (OPV). Scanning electron microscopy-SEM and atomic force microscopy-AFM revealed morphologies typical for the films prepared by MAPLE. The current-voltage characteristics of the investigated structures, measured in dark and under light, present an improvement in the current value (∼3 order of magnitude larger) for the structure based on the mixed layer (Al/MgPc:TPyP/ITO) in comparison with the stacked layer (Al/MgPc//TPyP/ITO). A photogeneration process was evidenced in the case of structures Al/ZnPc:TPyP/ITO with mixed layers.

  13. MAPLE prepared heterostructures with arylene based polymer active layer for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, F.; Rasoga, O.; Catargiu, A. M.; Vacareanu, L.; Socol, M.; Breazu, C.; Preda, N.; Socol, G.; Stanculescu, A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents some studies about the preparation by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique of heterostructures with single layer of arylene based polymer, poly[N-(2-ethylhexyl)2.7-carbazolyl vinylene]/AMC16 and poly[N-(2-ethylhexyl)2.7-carbazolyl 1.4-phenylene ethynylene]/AMC22, and with layers of these polymers mixed with Buckminsterfullerene/C60 in the weight ratio of 1:2 (AMC16:C60) and 1:3 (AMC22:C60). The deposited layers have been characterized by spectroscopic (UV-Vis-NIR, PL, FTIR) and microscopic (SEM, AFM) methods. The effect of the polymer particularities on the optical and electrical properties of the structures based on polymer and polymer:C60 mixed layer has been analyzed. The study of the electrical properties has revealed typical solar cell behavior for the heterostructure prepared by MAPLE on glass/ITO/PEDOT-PSS with AMC16, AMC22 and AMC22:C60 layer, confirming that this method is adequate for the preparation of polymeric and mixed active layers for solar cells applications. The highest photovoltaic effect was shown by the solar cell structure realized with single layer of AMC16 polymer: glass/ITO/PEDOT-PSS/AMC16/Al.

  14. DNA damage in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O S; Borges, Gabriela D; Munhoz, Bruna P; Leffa, Daniela D; Andrade, Vanessa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a severe deficiency of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Neurological dysfunction is a common finding in patients with maple syrup urine disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain damage in this disorder are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether acute or chronic administration of a branched chain amino acid pool (leucine, isoleucine and valine) causes transient DNA damage, as determined by the alkaline comet assay, in the brain and blood of rats during development and whether antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by branched chain amino acids. Our results showed that the acute administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in the hippocampus. However, the chronic administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in both the hippocampus and the striatum, and the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum. The present study demonstrated that metabolite accumulation in MSUD induces DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum and that it may be implicated in the neuropathology observed in the affected patients. We demonstrated that the effect of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine) prevented DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in DNA damage. PMID:22560665

  15. Spring leaf phenology and the diurnal temperature range in a temperate maple forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanes, Jonathan M.

    2014-03-01

    Spring leaf phenology in temperate climates is intricately related to numerous aspects of the lower atmosphere [e.g., surface energy balance, carbon flux, humidity, the diurnal temperature range (DTR)]. To further develop and improve the accuracy of ecosystem and climate models, additional investigations of the specific nature of the relationships between spring leaf phenology and various ecosystem and climate processes are required in different environments. This study used visual observations of maple leaf phenology, below-canopy light intensities, and micrometeorological data collected during the spring seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010 to examine the potential influence of leaf phenology on a seasonal transition in the trend of the DTR. The timing of a reversal in the DTR trend occurred near the time when the leaves were unfolding and expanding. The results suggest that the spring decline in the DTR can be attributed primarily to the effect of canopy closure on daily maximum temperature. These findings improve our understanding of the relationship between leaf phenology and the diurnal temperature range in temperate maple forests during the spring. They also demonstrate the necessity of incorporating accurate phenological data into ecosystem and climate models and warrant a careful examination of the extent to which canopy phenology is currently incorporated into existing models.

  16. Lipase immobilization for catalytic applications obtained using fumed silica deposited with MAPLE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloisi, Francesco; Califano, Valeria; Perretta, Giuseppe; Nasti, Libera; Aronne, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Auriemma, Finizia; De Rosa, Claudio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Lipases are enzymes used for catalyzing reactions of acylglycerides in biodiesel production from lipids, where enzyme immobilization on a substrate is required. Silica nanoparticles in different morphologies and configurations are currently used in conjunction with biological molecules for drug delivery and catalysis applications, but up to date their use for triglycerides has been limited by the large size of long-chain lipid molecules. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), a laser deposition technique using a frozen solution/suspension as a target, is widely used for deposition of biomaterials and other delicate molecules. We have carried out a MAPLE deposition starting from a frozen mixture containing fumed silica and lipase in water. Deposition parameters were chosen in order to increase surface roughness and to promote the formation of complex structures. Both the target (a frozen thickened mixture of nanoparticles/catalyst in water) and the deposition configuration (a small target to substrate distance) are unusual and have been adopted in order to increase surface contact of catalyst and to facilitate access to long-chain molecules. The resulting innovative film morphology (fumed silica/lipase cluster level aggregation) and the lipase functionality (for catalytic biodiesel production) have been studied by FESEM, FTIR and transesterification tests.

  17. Effect of substrate temperature on MAPLE deposition of synthetic eumelanin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloisi, F.; Pezzella, A.; Barra, M.; Alfè, M.; Chiarella, F.; Cassinese, A.; Vicari, L.

    2011-11-01

    Eumelanin is an important pigment almost ubiquitous in animals and plants exhibiting interesting charge transport capabilities. Its poor solubility in common solvents represents a severe limitation for preparing thin films. It was recently demonstrated that eumelanin films can be successfully deposited with the MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique starting from a frozen water suspension, using infrared laser radiation. The low laser absorption of ice together with the high absorption of eumelanin suggests that the target ablation is due to laser energy absorbed by the eumelanin molecules, followed by thermal energy transfer, and ejection of ice/water/vapor containing undamaged eumelanin molecules and supramolecular structures. Here, we report on the deposition of eumelanin thin films on substrates at different temperatures eventually followed by in-situ annealing. Structural characterization (UV-VIS, FTIR, AP-MALDI) confirms that the deposited films maintain the characteristics of the eumelanin biopolymer. Morphological characterization (AFM) shows that surface roughness increases with increasing substrate temperature during MAPLE deposition, but is not influenced by annealing. Preliminary electrical characterization shows that eumelanin films seem to obey Ohm's law without evidence that charge injection from gold electrodes is affected by the presence of significant energy barriers. Moreover, charge transport is drastically reduced in vacuum, even if the phenomenon is at least partially reversible.

  18. MAPLE deposition of polypyrrole-based composite layers for bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Acasandrei, Adriana Maria; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Ion, Valentin; Mihailescu, Mona; Vasile, Eugenia; Dinescu, Maria

    2015-12-01

    We report on biocompatible, electrically conductive layers of polypyrrole (PPy)-based composites obtained by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) for envisioned bone regeneration. In order to preserve the conductivity of the PPy while overcoming its lack of biodegradability and low mechanical resilience, conductive PPy nanograins were embedded in two biocompatible, insulating polymeric matrices, i.e. poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) and polyurethane (PU). PLGA offers the advantage of full biodegradability into non-toxic products, while PU provides toughness and elasticity. The PPy nanograins formed micro-domains and networks within the PLGA and PU matrices, in a compact spatial arrangement favorable for electrical percolation. The proposed approach allowed us to obtain PPy-based composite layers with biologically meaningful conductivities up to 10-2 S/cm for PPy loadings as low as 1:10 weight ratios. Fluorescent staining and viability assays showed that the MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured on the PPy-based layers deposited by MAPLE were viable and retained their capacity to proliferate. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated by quantitative evaluation of the calcium phosphate deposits from the cultured cells, as indicative for cell mineralization. Electrical stimulation using 200 μA currents passing through the PPy-based layers, during a time interval of 4 h, enhanced the osteogenesis in the cultured cells. Despite their lowest conductivity, the PPy/PU layers showed the best biocompatibility and the highest osteogenic potential.

  19. MAPLE deposition of 3D micropatterned polymeric substrates for cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Mihailescu, Mona; Calenic, Bogdan; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Greabu, Maria; Dinescu, Maria

    2013-08-01

    3D micropatterned poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/polyurethane (PLGA/PU) substrates were produced by MAPLE deposition through masks and used for regulating the behavior of oral keratinocyte stem cells in response to topography. Flat PLGA/PU substrates were produced for comparison. 3D imaging of the PLGA/PU substrates and of the cultured cells was performed by Digital Holographic Microscopy. The micropatterns were in the shape of squares of 50 × 50 and 80 × 80 μm2 areas, ~1.8 μm in height and separated by 20 μm wide channels. It was found that substrate topography guided the adhesion of the cultured cells: on the smooth substrates the cells adhered randomly and showed no preferred orientation; in contrast, on the micropatterned substrates the cells adhered preferentially onto the squares and not in the separating channels. Furthermore, key properties of the cells (size, viability, proliferation rate and stem cell marker expression) did not show any dependence on substrate topography. The size of the cultured cells, their viability, the proportions of actively/slow proliferating cells, as well as the stem cell markers expressions, were similar for both flat and micropatterned substrates. Finally, it was found that the cells cultured on the PLGA/PU substrates deposited by MAPLE exhibited similar properties as the controls (i.e. cells cultured on glass slides), indicating the capability of the former to preserve the properties of the keratinocyte stem cells.

  20. Biofilm formation and biocides sensitivity of Pseudomonas marginalis isolated from a maple sap collection system.

    PubMed

    Lagacé, L; Jacques, M; Mafu, A A; Roy, D

    2006-10-01

    The susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm cells of Pseudomonas marginalis toward four commonly used biocides at different temperatures (15 and 30 degrees C) and biofilm growth times (24 and 48 h) was assessed. Using the MBEC biofilm device, biofilm production in maple sap was shown to be highly reproducible for each set of conditions tested. Biofilm formation was influenced by growth temperature and time. A temperature of 15 degrees C and incubation time of 24 h yielded fewer CFU per peg and showed fewer adhered cells and typical biofilm structures, based on scanning electron microscopy observations as compared with other conditions. Minimal biofilm eradication concentration values for P. marginalis were significantly greater (P. < 0.001) than were MBCs for planktonic cells and for every biocide tested, with the exception of minimal biofilm eradication concentration values for peracetic acid at 15 degrees C and 24 h. Sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid sanitizers were able to eliminate P. marginalis biofilms at lower concentrations as compared with hydrogen peroxide- and quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers (P < 0.001). According to the results obtained, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid sanitizers would be more appropriate for maple sap collection system sanitation. PMID:17066920

  1. Variation and correlation of properties in different grades of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amritpal S; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K

    2014-03-01

    Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products. PMID:24408861

  2. Maple Bark Biochar Affects Rhizoctonia solani Metabolism and Increases Damping-Off Severity.

    PubMed

    Copley, Tanya R; Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the effect of biochar on plant yield, nutrient uptake, and soil microbial populations; however, little work has been done on its effect on soilborne plant diseases. To determine the effect of maple bark biochar on Rhizoctonia damping-off, 11 plant species were grown in a soilless potting substrate amended with different concentrations of biochar and inoculated or not with Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4. Additionally, the effect of biochar amendment on R. solani growth and metabolism in vitro was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of maple bark biochar increased Rhizoctonia damping-off of all 11 plant species. Using multivariate analyses, we observed positive correlations between biochar amendments, disease severity and incidence, abundance of culturable bacterial communities, and physicochemical parameters. Additionally, biochar amendment significantly increased R. solani growth and hyphal extension in vitro, and altered its primary metabolism, notably the mannitol and tricarboxylic acid cycles and the glycolysis pathway. One or several organic compounds present in the biochar, as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, may be metabolized by R. solani. Taken together, these results indicate that future studies on biochar should focus on the effect of its use as an amendment on soilborne plant pathogens before applying it to soils. PMID:25938176

  3. Born total ionisation cross sections: An algebraic computing program using Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Stelbovics, Andris T.

    2003-08-01

    The software described in this paper uses the Maple algebraic computing environment to calculate an analytic form for the matrix element of the plane-wave Born approximation of the electron-impact ionisation of an atomic orbital, with arbitrary orbital and angular momentum quantum numbers. The atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater functions, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, made orthogonal to all occupied orbitals of the target atom. Clenshaw-Curtis integration techniques are then used to calculate the total ionisation cross-section. For improved performance, the numerical integrations are performed using FORTRAN by automatically converting the analytic matrix element for each orbital into a FORTRAN subroutine. The results compare favourably with experimental data for a wide range of elements, including the transition metals, with excellent convergence at high energies. Program summaryTitle of program: BIX Catalogue identifier:ADRZ Program summary URL:http://www.cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADRZ Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Platform independent Operating systems: Tested on DEC Alpha Unix, Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP Professional Edition Programming language used: Maple V Release 5.1 and FORTRAN 90 Memory required: 256 MB No. of processors used: 1 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:61754 Distributed format:tar gzip file Keywords: Born approximation, electron-impact ionisation cross-section, Maple, Hartree-Fock Nature of physical problem: Calculates the total electron impact ionisation cross-section for neutral and ionised atomic species using the first-Born approximation. The scattered electron is modelled by a plane wave, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, which is made orthogonal to all occupied atomic orbitals, and the atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater

  4. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    PubMed

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes. PMID:26809744

  5. Very low roughness MAPLE-deposited films of a light emitting polymer: an alternative to spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Leo, C.; Mazzeo, M.; Genco, A.; Carallo, S.; Tunno, T.; Massafra, A.; Gigli, G.; Martino, M.

    2015-04-01

    The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique is emerging as an alternative route to conventional deposition methods of organic materials (solution-phase and thermal evaporation approaches). However, the high surface roughness of the films deposited by MAPLE makes this technique not compatible with applications in electronics and photonics. In this paper we report the deposition of MAPLE-films of a green light emitting polymer, commercially named ADS125GE, with remarkable low roughness values, down to about 10 nm at the thickness conventionally used in photonic devices (~40 nm). This issue is discussed as a function of polymer concentration, target-substrate distance and substrate rotation based on AFM topography images, roughness estimation and optical (absorption and luminescent) measurements. In addition we have fabricated an organic light emitting diode with this technique using the best deposition parameters which guarantee the lowest roughness. These results open the way to MAPLE applications in organic photonics and opto-electronics.

  6. Anagenetic speciation in Ullung Island, Korea: genetic diversity and structure in the island endemic species, Acer takesimense (Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; Sun, Byung-Yun; Stuessy, Tod F

    2013-05-01

    Anagenetic speciation is an important mode of speciation in oceanic islands; one-fourth of the endemic plants are estimated to have been derived via this process. Few studies, however, have critically examined the genetic consequences of anagenesis in comparison with cladogenesis (involved with adaptive radiation). We hypothesize that endemic species originating via anagenetic speciation in a relatively uniform environment should accumulate genetic variation with limited populational differentiation. We undertook a population genetic analysis using nine nuclear microsatellite loci of Acer takesimense, an anagenetically derived species endemic to Ullung Island, Korea, and its continental progenitor A. pseudosieboldianum on the Korean Peninsula. Microsatellite data reveal a clear genetic distinction between the two species. A high F value in the cluster of A. takesimense was found by Bayesian clustering analysis, suggesting a strong episode of genetic drift during colonization and speciation. In comparison with A. pseudosieboldianum, A. takesimense has slightly lower genetic diversity and possesses less than half the number of private and rare alleles. Consistent with predictions, weak geographical genetic structure within the island was found in A. takesimense. These results imply that anagenetic speciation leads to a different pattern of specific and genetic diversity than often seen with cladogenesis. PMID:23090156

  7. MAPLE preparation and characterization of mixed arylenevinylene based oligomers:C60 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Socol, G.; Vacareanu, L.; Socol, M.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Girtan, M.; Stanculescu, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents some studies about the preparation by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of mixed layers based on two arylenevinylene oligomers, 1,4-bis [4-(N,N‧-diphenylamino)phenylvinyl] benzene (L78) and 3,3‧-bis(N-hexylcarbazole)vinylbenzene (L13) as donor and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as acceptor, blended in three different weight ratios: 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The optical, morphological, structural and electrical properties of these mixed layers have been investigated emphasizing the effect of the layer composition and of the significant degree of disorder. I-V characteristics have revealed typically solar cell behaviour for the heterostructures prepared with mixed layers containing L78 (L13) and fullerene blended in a weight ratio of 1:2. The solar cell structure glass/ITO/L13:C60/Al has shown the best parameters.

  8. A MAPLE Package for Energy-Momentum Tensor Assessment in Curved Space-Time

    SciTech Connect

    Murariu, Gabriel; Praisler, Mirela

    2010-01-21

    One of the most interesting problem which remain unsolved, since the birth of the General Theory of Relativity (GR), is the energy-momentum localization. All our reflections are within the Lagrange formalism of the field theory. The concept of the energy-momentum tensor for gravitational interactions has a long history. To find a generally accepted expression, there have been different attempts. This paper is dedicated to the investigation of the energy-momentum problem in the theory of General Relativity. We use Einstein [1], Landau-Lifshitz [2], Bergmann-Thomson [3] and Moller's [4] prescriptions to evaluate energy-momentum distribution. In order to cover the huge volume of computation and, bearing in mind to make a general approaching for different space-time configurations, a MAPLE application to succeed in studying the energy momentum tensor was built. In the second part of the paper for two space-time configuration, the comparative results were presented.

  9. Imaging findings of anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aw-Zoretic, Jessie; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Lulla, Rishi R; Rishi, Lulla R; Ryan, Maura E

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which usually presents in childhood with encephalopathy due to cerebral edema and dysmyelination. Even with treatment, metabolic stressors may precipitate later episodes of acute decompensation. Changes related to cerebral and white matter edema have been described by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging can aid in both initial diagnosis and evaluation of decompensation. To date, there are no published known reports of cancer in patients with MSUD. Here, we present the first case report of an anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with MSUD, with a discussion of imaging findings and the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to help distinguish between tumor and metabolic changes. PMID:26084772

  10. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Chin, H L; Aw, M M; Quak, S H; Huang, J; Hart, C E; Prabhakaran, K; Goh, D L

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410

  11. [GENETIC AND METABOLIC URGENCIES IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Páez Rojas, Paola Liliana; Suarez Obando, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a hereditary disorder of branched chain amino/keto acid metabolism, caused by a decreased activity of the branched-chain alpha- ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD), which leads to abnormal elevated plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) clinically manifested as a heavy burden for Central Nervous system. The toxic accumulation of substrates promotes the development of a severe and rapidly progressive neonatal encephalopathy if treatment is not immediately given. This disorder has a specific medical management in acute phase in order to minimize mortality and morbidity. For all those reasons, it is important to include the MSUD as a possible diagnosis in a encephalopathic newborn. We present a colombian newborn with classical MSUD with fatal outcome as an example of metabolic emergency and a differential diagnosis in the encephalopathic newborn. PMID:26262748

  12. [Lists of food exchanges for use in phenylketonuria and maple-syrup urine disease].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Soto, Z

    1993-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are disorders of the amino acid metabolism. Treatment of PKU and MSUD, is based on the restriction of the involved amino acids. Diet must begin very early in life in order to prevent neurological sequelae. A wrong dietary produce central nervous system damage. The first clinical manifestations are unexplained failure to thrive, vomiting, feeding difficulties, lethargy, coma, acidosis and irritability. The most severe consequence is impaired mental development. The standard exchange foods list (EFL) used in outpatient clinics, is designed for developed countries, and contains foods that are not available in our countries. Therefore, we provide in this article a EFL, based on food that are frequently used in Central America, with data of existing food composition tables. This list is currently being used by the Costa Rica national Children's Hospital Metabolic Disease Unit. PMID:8779622

  13. Biomedical properties and preparation of iron oxide-dextran nanostructures by MAPLE technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this work the chemical structure of dextran-iron oxide thin films was reported. The films were obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt. % dextran with 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). The IONPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM≅25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the growth of the hybrid, iron oxide NPs-dextran thin films. Results Dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles thin films were indexed into the spinel cubic lattice with a lattice parameter of 8.36 Å. The particle sized calculated was estimated at around 7.7 nm. The XPS shows that the binding energy of the Fe 2p3/2 of two thin films of dextran coated iron oxide is consistent with Fe3+ oxides. The atomic percentage of the C, O and Fe are 66.71, 32.76 and 0.53 for the films deposited from composite targets containing 1 wt.% maghemite and 64.36, 33.92 and 1.72 respectively for the films deposited from composite targets containing 5 wt.% maghemite. In the case of cells cultivated on dextran coated 5% maghemite γ-Fe2O3, the number of cells and the level of F-actin were lower compared to the other two types of thin films and control. Conclusions The dextran-iron oxide continuous thin films obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt.% dextran as well as 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method presented granular surface morphology. Our data proved a good viability of Hep G2 cells grown on dextran coated maghemite thin films. Also, no changes in cells morphology were noticed under phase contrast microscopy. The data strongly suggest the potential use of iron oxide-dextran nanocomposites as a potential marker for biomedical applications. PMID:22410001

  14. PSsolver: A Maple implementation to solve first order ordinary differential equations with Liouvillian solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2012-10-01

    We present a set of software routines in Maple 14 for solving first order ordinary differential equations (FOODEs). The package implements the Prelle-Singer method in its original form together with its extension to include integrating factors in terms of elementary functions. The package also presents a theoretical extension to deal with all FOODEs presenting Liouvillian solutions. Applications to ODEs taken from standard references show that it solves ODEs which remain unsolved using Maple's standard ODE solution routines. New version program summary Program title: PSsolver Catalogue identifier: ADPR_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPR_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2302 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31962 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14 (also tested using Maple 15 and 16). Computer: Intel Pentium Processor P6000, 1.86 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 4 GB DDR3 Memory Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 144 (2002) 46 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Symbolic solution of first order differential equations via the Prelle-Singer method. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the standard Prelle-Singer method, with extensions for the cases when the FOODE contains elementary functions. Additionally, an extension of our own which solves FOODEs with Liouvillian solutions is included. Reasons for new version: The program was not running anymore due to changes in the latest versions of Maple. Additionally, we corrected/changed some bugs/details that were hampering the smoother functioning of the routines. Summary

  15. PSsolver: A Maple implementation to solve first order ordinary differential equations with Liouvillian solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2012-10-01

    We present a set of software routines in Maple 14 for solving first order ordinary differential equations (FOODEs). The package implements the Prelle-Singer method in its original form together with its extension to include integrating factors in terms of elementary functions. The package also presents a theoretical extension to deal with all FOODEs presenting Liouvillian solutions. Applications to ODEs taken from standard references show that it solves ODEs which remain unsolved using Maple's standard ODE solution routines. New version program summary Program title: PSsolver Catalogue identifier: ADPR_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPR_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2302 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31962 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14 (also tested using Maple 15 and 16). Computer: Intel Pentium Processor P6000, 1.86 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 4 GB DDR3 Memory Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 144 (2002) 46 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Symbolic solution of first order differential equations via the Prelle-Singer method. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the standard Prelle-Singer method, with extensions for the cases when the FOODE contains elementary functions. Additionally, an extension of our own which solves FOODEs with Liouvillian solutions is included. Reasons for new version: The program was not running anymore due to changes in the latest versions of Maple. Additionally, we corrected/changed some bugs/details that were hampering the smoother functioning of the routines. Summary

  16. Acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, stimulates osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein action

    SciTech Connect

    Kihara, Tasuku; Ichikawa, Saki; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Woo, Je Tae; Michi, Yasuyuki; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Acerogenin A stimulated osteoblast differentiation in osteogenic cells. {yields} Acerogenin A-induced osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by noggin. {yields} Acerogenin A increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4 and Bmp-7 mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. {yields} Acerogenin A is a candidate agent for stimulating bone formation. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, on osteoblast differentiation by using osteoblastic cells. Acerogenin A stimulated the cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and RD-C6 osteoblastic cells (Runx2-deficient cell line). It also increased alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 and RD-C6 cells and calvarial osteoblastic cells isolated from the calvariae of newborn mice. Acerogenin A also increased the expression of mRNAs related to osteoblast differentiation, including Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts: it also stimulated Osteocalcin and Osterix mRNA expression in RD-C6 cells. The acerogenin A treatment for 3 days increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7 mRNA expression levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Adding noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited the acerogenin A-induced increase in the Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 mRNA expression levels. These results indicated that acerogenin A stimulates osteoblast differentiation through BMP action, which is mediated by Runx2-dependent and Runx2-independent pathways.

  17. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2015-09-01

    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure. PMID:26094157

  18. Invasive Acer negundo outperforms native species in non-limiting resource environments due to its higher phenotypic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To identify the determinants of invasiveness, comparisons of traits of invasive and native species are commonly performed. Invasiveness is generally linked to higher values of reproductive, physiological and growth-related traits of the invasives relative to the natives in the introduced range. Phenotypic plasticity of these traits has also been cited to increase the success of invasive species but has been little studied in invasive tree species. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared ecophysiological traits between an invasive species to Europe, Acer negundo, and early- and late-successional co-occurring native species, under different light, nutrient availability and disturbance regimes. We also compared species of the same species groups in situ, in riparian forests. Results Under non-limiting resources, A. negundo seedlings showed higher growth rates than the native species. However, A. negundo displayed equivalent or lower photosynthetic capacities and nitrogen content per unit leaf area compared to the native species; these findings were observed both on the seedlings in the greenhouse experiment and on adult trees in situ. These physiological traits were mostly conservative along the different light, nutrient and disturbance environments. Overall, under non-limiting light and nutrient conditions, specific leaf area and total leaf area of A. negundo were substantially larger. The invasive species presented a higher plasticity in allocation to foliage and therefore in growth with increasing nutrient and light availability relative to the native species. Conclusions The higher level of plasticity of the invasive species in foliage allocation in response to light and nutrient availability induced a better growth in non-limiting resource environments. These results give us more elements on the invasiveness of A. negundo and suggest that such behaviour could explain the ability of A. negundo to outperform native tree species, contributes to its spread

  19. Experimentally reduced root–microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H.; Callahan, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. Methods To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Key Results Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10–20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10–30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. Conclusions The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root

  20. Seasonal and regional diversity of maple sap microbiota revealed using community PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2010-04-01

    An arbitrary primed community PCR fingerprinting technique based on capillary electrophoresis was developed to study maple sap microbial community characteristics among 19 production sites in Québec over the tapping season. Presumptive fragment identification was made with corresponding fingerprint profiles of bacterial isolate cultures. Maple sap microbial communities were subsequently compared using a representative subset of 13 16S rRNA gene clone libraries followed by gene sequence analysis. Results from both methods indicated that all maple sap production sites and flow periods shared common microbiota members, but distinctive features also existed. Changes over the season in relative abundance of predominant populations showed evidence of a common pattern. Pseudomonas (64%) and Rahnella (8%) were the most abundantly and frequently represented genera of the 2239 sequences analyzed. Janthinobacterium, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Weissella, Epilithonimonas and Sphingomonas were revealed as occasional contaminants in maple sap. Maple sap microbiota showed a low level of deep diversity along with a high variation of similar 16S rRNA gene sequences within the Pseudomonas genus. Predominance of Pseudomonas is suggested as a typical feature of maple sap microbiota across geographical regions, production sites, and sap flow periods. PMID:20202776

  1. TensorPack: a Maple-based software package for the manipulation of algebraic expressions of tensors in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huf, P. A.; Carminati, J.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we: (1) introduce TensorPack, a software package for the algebraic manipulation of tensors in covariant index format in Maple; (2) briefly demonstrate the use of the package with an orthonormal tensor proof of the shearfree conjecture for dust. TensorPack is based on the Riemann and Canon tensor software packages and uses their functions to express tensors in an indexed covariant format. TensorPack uses a string representation as input and provides functions for output in index form. It extends the functionality to basic algebra of tensors, substitution, covariant differentiation, contraction, raising/lowering indices, symmetry functions and other accessory functions. The output can be merged with text in the Maple environment to create a full working document with embedded dynamic functionality. The package offers potential for manipulation of indexed algebraic tensor expressions in a flexible software environment.

  2. Application of sugar maple and black locust to the biomass/energy plantation concept. Final report, April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, G.D.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Lai, Y.Z.; Liechty, H.O.; Hamlin, D.C.; Gale, M.F.; Sajak, R.L.; Stinhilb, H.M.

    1986-08-01

    Forests in the Upper Lakes States region, composed predominantly of sugar maple and red maple with a large number of stems in small diameter classes, were evaluated for conversion to biomass/energy plantations. The study included examining the use of black locust as an interplant species to improve maple productivity. Available water and phosphorus were found to be highly correlated with site index and biomass on the sites. Skidding of trees with tops intact caused widespread disruption of forest floor horizons. Natural coppice regrowth on all sites was poor. Results indicate it is not feasible to coppice natural stands of northern hardwoods on a 4-year rotation. Survival of interplanted black locust was very poor due to susceptibility to frost. The potential of black locust as a biomass species for SRIC plantations was demonstrated by the exceptional growth of surviving individuals. A provenance trial of 20 seed sources showed variability in frost resistance among seed sources. Data is presented on the wood characteristics of seven northern hardwoods species show that young sprouts have higher moisture content, seasonal moisture content variation, higher extractive and ash content, a lower specific gravity and lower thermal stability. All species evaluated are comparable in terms of major chemical composition, caloric values, and extent of gasification. 111 refs., 11 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  4. Placental Stem Cell Correction of Murine Intermediate Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Skvorak, Kristen J.; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc C.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Gibson, K. Michael; Strom, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported improved survival and partial metabolic correction of a mouse intermediate maple syrup urine disease (iMSUD) model post allogenic hepatocyte transplant, confirming that a small number of enzyme proficient liver-engrafted cells can improve phenotype. However, clinical shortages of suitable livers for hepatocyte isolation indicate a need for alternative cell sources. Human amnion epithelial cells (hAEC) share stem cell characteristics while lacking many safety and ethical concerns, and differentiate to hepatocyte-like cells. Eight direct hepatic hAEC transplants were administered to iMSUD mice over the first 35 days beginning at birth; animals were provided a normal protein diet and sacrificed at days 35 and 100. Treatment at the neonatal stage is clinically relevant for MSUD, and may offer a donor cell engraftment advantage. Survival was significantly extended and body weight was normalized in iMSUD mice receiving hAEC transplants compared to iMSUD (severely cachectic; dead ≤28 days). Branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme activity was significantly increased in transplanted livers. Branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine, and alloisoleucine were significantly improved in the sera and brain, as were other large neutral amino acids. Conclusion: Placental-derived stem cell transplantation lengthened survival and corrected many amino acid imbalances in a mouse model of iMSUD. This highlights the potential for their use as a viable alternative clinical therapy for MSUD and other liver-based metabolic diseases. PMID:23175463

  5. Age, allocation and availability of nonstructural carbon in mature red maple trees.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Mariah S; Czimczik, Claudia I; Keenan, Trevor F; Murakami, Paula F; Pederson, Neil; Schaberg, Paul G; Xu, Xiaomei; Richardson, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    The allocation of nonstructural carbon (NSC) to growth, metabolism and storage remains poorly understood, but is critical for the prediction of stress tolerance and mortality. We used the radiocarbon ((14) C) 'bomb spike' as a tracer of substrate and age of carbon in stemwood NSC, CO2 emitted by stems, tree ring cellulose and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting in mature red maple trees. We addressed the following questions: which factors influence the age of stemwood NSC?; to what extent is stored vs new NSC used for metabolism and growth?; and, is older, stored NSC available for use? The mean age of extracted stemwood NSC was 10 yr. More vigorous trees had both larger and younger stemwood NSC pools. NSC used to support metabolism (stem CO2 ) was 1-2 yr old in spring before leaves emerged, but reflected current-year photosynthetic products in late summer. The tree ring cellulose (14) C age was 0.9 yr older than direct ring counts. Stump sprouts were formed from NSC up to 17 yr old. Thus, younger NSC is preferentially used for growth and day-to-day metabolic demands. More recently stored NSC contributes to annual ring growth and metabolism in the dormant season, yet decade-old and older NSC is accessible for regrowth. PMID:24032647

  6. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Surdu, A. V.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Oprea, A. E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O.; Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Mihaiescu, D.; Enculescu, M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization, highlighting their potential to be used for the design of anti-biofilm surfaces.

  7. Combinatorial MAPLE deposition of antimicrobial orthopedic maps fabricated from chitosan and biomimetic apatite powders.

    PubMed

    Visan, A; Stan, G E; Ristoscu, C; Popescu-Pelin, G; Sopronyi, M; Besleaga, C; Luculescu, C; Chifiriuc, M C; Hussien, M D; Marsan, O; Kergourlay, E; Grossin, D; Brouillet, F; Mihailescu, I N

    2016-09-10

    Chitosan/biomimetic apatite thin films were grown in mild conditions of temperature and pressure by Combinatorial Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on Ti, Si or glass substrates. Compositional gradients were obtained by simultaneous laser vaporization of the two distinct material targets. A KrF* excimer (λ=248nm, τFWHM=25ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The nature and surface composition of deposited materials and the spatial distribution of constituents were studied by SEM, EDS, AFM, GIXRD, FTIR, micro-Raman, and XPS. The antimicrobial efficiency of the chitosan/biomimetic apatite layers against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains was interrogated by viable cell count assay. The obtained thin films were XRD amorphous and exhibited a morphology characteristic to the laser deposited structures composed of nanometric round shaped grains. The surface roughness has progressively increased with chitosan concentration. FTIR, EDS and XPS analyses indicated that the composition of the BmAp-CHT C-MAPLE composite films gradually modified from pure apatite to chitosan. The bioevaluation tests indicated that S. aureus biofilm is more susceptible to the action of chitosan-rich areas of the films, whilst the E. coli biofilm proved more sensible to areas containing less chitosan. The best compromise should therefore go, in our opinion, to zones with intermediate-to-high chitosan concentration which can assure a large spectrum of antimicrobial protection concomitantly with a significant enhancement of osseointegration, favored by the presence of biomimetic hydroxyapatite. PMID:27418570

  8. MAPLE fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum antimicrobial surfaces for improved gastrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chirea, Mariana; Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization. PMID:24979402

  9. Maple syrup urine disease: analysis of branched chain ketoacid decarboxylation in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wendel, U; Wentrup, H; Rüdiger, H W

    1975-09-01

    Kinetic data are presented for the decarboxylation of branched chain alpha-ketoacids (BCKA) by intact human fibroblasts. Cultured cells of normal individuals and nine patients with different clinical pictures of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are studied with both alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (2-oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid (KIC)) and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (2-oxo-3-methylbutanoic acid (KIVA)) as substrates. One normal cell strain and one patient cell strain is analyzed with alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (2-oxo-3-methylpentanoic acid (MEVA)) as a substrate. A biphasic degradation kinetic for each BCKA is obtained for normal control subjects. The component with higher substrate affinity is affected in MSUD: for KIC the normally hyperbolic substrate curve is changed to sigmoid shape, for KIVA and MEVA as substrates this component is not detectable at all. Considering qualitative aspects of the BCKA decarboxylation kinetics intact fibroblasts yield the same results as our recent studies with the decarboxylase moieties of partially purified kidney BCKA dehydrogenase of normal individuals and one patient with classic MSUD (27). The decarboxylation velocities for normal and patient fibroblasts with one exception differ widely at low but not at high substrate concentrations of BCKA. To get meaningful data on the residual substrate degradation activities with intact fibroblasts of different phenotypes of MSUD physiologically low substrate concentrations are required in the assay. PMID:1202420

  10. Heterogeneity in maple syrup urine disease: aspects of cofactor requirement and complementation in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Willers, I; Goedde, H W

    1977-04-01

    Fibroblast strains derived from six patients with maple syrup urine disease have been investigated for their requirements of the cofactors NAD, CoASH, Mg++ and TPP in comparison with 10 normal control strains. The reconstitution of the decarboxylase function of branched chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex in lysed cells was studied with respect to the substrates alpha-keto-isocaproic acid, alpha-keto-isovaleric acid, and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KIC, KIVA, MEVA). The enzyme activity of all normal control strains for the substrates KIC and KIVA was not reconstituted by TPP + Mg++ alone, but CoASH + NAD could reconstitute the enzyme activity with KIC and KIVA in different degrees. Only two control strains were tested with MEVA as substrate, and these showed in contrast that TPP + Mg++ could partly reconstitute the enzyme activity. In contrast to the relative homogeneity in the reconstitution profiles of normal strains, the five classical and one intermittent MSUD strains showed heterogeneity in cofactor requirements. Complementation analysis using heterokaryons prepared from fibroblasts of four patients with classical MSUD and one patient with intermittent MSUD showed, in contrast to experiments with normal controls, a partial amelioration of the defect in two combinations; it is suggested that the defect in these strains is located at different functional subunits of the multienzyme complex. PMID:192504

  11. Relationship of causative genetic mutations in maple syrup urine disease with their clinical expression.

    PubMed

    Nellis, Mary M; Kasinski, Andrea; Carlson, Martha; Allen, Richard; Schaefer, Anna Marie; Schwartz, Edward M; Danner, Dean J

    2003-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease [MSUD] is a rare inborn error of metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait through mutations in any of three different genes that encode components of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase [BCKD] complex. In this work, the genotype of affected individuals was correlated with their clinical histories. These individuals were diagnosed and followed in a single centralized clinic, and their molecular genetic characterization was done by one laboratory. Three individuals had mutant alleles in the gene for the E1alpha component, five had mutations in the gene for E1beta, and three had mutations in the gene for E2. The results emphasize the diversity of the molecular and clinical presentations for individuals with MSUD and support the complexity of diseases termed "single gene traits." Of primary importance is early identification of at risk infants through newborn screening programs to minimize many of the complications associated with this protein intolerance. Attention to abnormal neurological signs in the neonate or evidence of neurological decompensation in older infants and children by a centralized medical management team minimizes permanent brain damage and improves survival. PMID:14567968

  12. Successful Pregnancy in a Woman with Maple Syrup Urine Disease: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Heiber, Stefanie; Zulewski, Henryk; Zaugg, Marianne; Kiss, Caroline; Baumgartner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We present the positive outcome of a pregnancy in a woman with severe classic maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Maintaining the maternal plasma levels of leucine between 200 and 300 μmol/L allowed normal development of the foetus. Tolerance of protein and leucine increased continuously from the 16th gestational week until delivery. The patient was able to increase protein and leucine intake from 5 g to nearly 30 g and 300-3,000 mg/day, respectively. Weekly measurement of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations and the assessment of dietary intake were used to adjust protein intake. After 41 weeks of pregnancy, she gave birth to a healthy baby girl and was able to breastfeed her daughter for 6 months during which time, the protein and leucine intake were lower than during pregnancy, but higher than with her usual pre-pregnancy diet. The development of the girl is normal at the age of 3 years. PMID:25720565

  13. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969

  14. Changes in the auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses in a case of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Geal-Dor, Miriam; Adelman, Cahtia; Levi, Haya; Goitein, Kalman; Sohmer, Haim

    2004-03-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease due to deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down branched chain amino acids. Lack of the enzyme causes accumulation of these amino acids and, if untreated, causes severe neurological damage. A case study of a 10-day old female infant, born after 40 weeks' gestation with a birthweight of 2740 g with MSUD hospitalized in the acute stage with respiratory failure and severe brain oedema is described. As part of the neurological evaluation, auditory nerve brainstem evoked response testing was conducted and revealed bilateral presence of the first wave from the auditory nerve, with no later brainstem waves. Over the course of days when her condition improved following dialysis treatment and a diet to reach balanced levels of branched chain amino acids, the later brainstem waves appeared on one side, and several weeks later they were also observed on the other side. The possible mechanisms of the reversibility of the appearance of brainstem waves in this case are discussed. PMID:14995088

  15. Maple procedures for the coupling of angular momenta. IX. Wigner D-functions and rotation matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagaran, J.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaigalas, G.

    2006-04-01

    expressions to be evaluated. Licensing provisions:None Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it is operable: All computers with a license for the computer algebra package Maple [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc.] Installations:University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Linux 8.2+ Program language used:MAPLE, Release 8 and 9 Memory required to execute with typical data:10-50 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:52 653 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 195 346 Distribution format:tar.gzip Nature of the physical problem: The Wigner D-functions and (reduced) rotation matrices occur very frequently in physical applications. They are known not only as the (infinite) representation of the rotation group but also to obey a number of integral and summation rules, including those for their orthogonality and completeness. Instead of the direct computation of these matrices, therefore, one first often wishes to find algebraic simplifications before the computations can be carried out in practice. Reasons for new version: The RACAH program has been found an efficient tool during recent years, in order to evaluate and simplify expressions from Racah's algebra. Apart from the Wigner n-j symbols ( j=3,6,9) and spherical harmonics, we now extended the code to allow for Wigner rotation matrices. This extension will support the study of those quantum processes especially where different axis of quantization occurs in course of the theoretical deviations. Summary of revisions: In a revised version of the RACAH program [S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 103 (1997) 51; S. Fritzsche, T. Inghoff, M. Tomaselli, Comput. Phys. Comm. 153 (2003) 424], we now also support the occurrence of the Wigner D-functions and reduced rotation matrices. By following our previous design, the (algebraic) properties of these rotation matrices as well as a number of

  16. Soil and tree-ring chemistry response to liming in a sugar maple stand.

    PubMed

    Houle, Daniel; Duchesne, Louis; Moore, Jean-David; Laflèche, Marc Richer; Ouimet, Rock

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of the impact of dolomitic lime [CaMg(CO3)2] on soils (five years after treatment) and sapwood chemistry (after four growing seasons) was realized for a Ca-deficient sugar maple stand at the lake Clair watershed. The effect on humus chemistry was significant: exchangeable Mg and Ca, effective acidity (EA), base saturation (BSe), pH, and effective cation exchange capacity (CECe) significantly increased, while exchangeable Fe significantly decreased. In the B horizon, liming increased exchangeable Ca, Mg, and Mn concentrations while decreasing other acid cations. No significant temporal trends in element concentrations in tree rings could be detected, although the lime treatment significantly changed the average xylem Mg and Mn concentrations as well as the average Mg/Mn and Ca/Mn ratios of the sapwood. The absence of temporal trends in rings from the last 20 yr implied a significant re-equilibration of elements through the sapwood. Significant relationships were found between averaged xylem Ca/Mn and Mg/Mn ratios and exchangeable humus Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Fe, and H+ concentration, EA, CECe, and BSe, suggesting that the average xylem Ca/Mn and Mg/Mn ratios are strong indicators of the soil acid-base status. PMID:12469849

  17. Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities in Dogwood, Maple, and Peach Nurseries in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Niblack, T. L.; Bernard, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nursery blocks (48 dogwood, 27 red maple, and 17 peach) distributed among 20 Tennessee nurseries were sampled for nematodes in March, July, and October 1981. Plant-parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil, counted by genera, and identified to species after fixation. A total of 57 species in 24 genera were found, with 1-16 species occurring in a site. The species most commonly detected were Paratylenchus projectus and Xiphinema americanum, which were found in 88% and 78% of the sites, respectively. Relationships existed between distribution and densities of some species present in more than 10% of the sites and certain soil factors (pH, bulk density, texture, and organic matter content). Plant-parasitic nematode community diversity was related to tree age, percentage of weed ground cover, and number of weed species. Site similarities in community ordinations were dependent on the individual nurseries sampled, tree age, and soil type, but clusters of sites of similar tree ages and soil types were not exclusive. PMID:19294071

  18. Duration of extracorporeal therapy in acute maple syrup urine disease: a kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Phan, Véronique; Clermont, Marie-José; Merouani, Aicha; Litalien, Catherine; Tucci, Marisa; Lambert, Marie; Mitchell, Grant; Jouvet, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, MIM 248600) can be complicated by metabolic crises necessitating extracorporeal removal therapy (ECRT). Since leucine levels are usually not immediately available during therapy, an accurate kinetic model of leucine plasma levels during removal would be useful to establish the duration of ECRT. Such a kinetic model is available for neonates undergoing continuous ECRT (CECRT) with a leucine clearance>or=35 ml min-1 1.73 m-2. The current study tests the validity of this model in older children. Plasma leucine levels were obtained from eleven ECRT sessions [seven CECRT and four intermittent hemodialysis (HDi) sessions] in seven children aged 1-14 years. No hemodynamic instability or neurological complications were observed during treatment. HDi provided a higher leucine clearance and required shorter sessions than CECRT (5.4+/-0.6 vs. 17.1+/-6.0 h). All patients regained precrisis neurological status except for one patient who had severe neurological damage (severe cerebral edema) at the time of dialysis and subsequently died despite efficient leucine removal. A leucine clearance>or=50 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 is required to obtain a kinetic model similar to that reported in neonates, both with CECRT and HDi. This model should be helpful in predicting the duration of therapy needed to attain desired leucine levels. PMID:16518628

  19. Deposition of antibacterial of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-(sebacic anhydride)) 20:80/gentamicin sulfate composite coatings by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Gittard, S. D.; Miller, P. R.; Martin, T. N.; Narayan, R. J.; Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2011-04-01

    We report on thin film deposition of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-sebacic anhydride)) 20:80 thin films containing several gentamicin concentrations by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the polymer-drug composite thin films. Release of gentamicin from these MAPLE-deposited polymer conjugate structures was assessed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that the functional groups of the MAPLE-transferred materials were not changed by the deposition process nor were new functional groups formed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of gentamicin-doped films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using disk diffusion and antibacterial drop test. Our studies indicate that deposition of polymer-drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE is a suitable technique for performing controlled drug delivery. Antimicrobial thin film coatings have several medical applications, including use for indwelling catheters and implanted medical devices.

  20. Glucose and Alanine Metabolism in Children with Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haymond, Morey W.; Ben-Galim, Ehud; Strobel, Karen E.

    1978-01-01

    In vitro studies have suggested that catabolism of branched chain amino acids is linked with alanine and glutamine formed in, and released from, muscle. To explore this possibility in vivo, static and kinetic studies were performed in three patients with classical, and one patient with partial, branched chain α-ketoacid decarboxylase deficiency (maple syrup urine disease, MSUD) and compared to similar studies in eight age-matched controls. The subjects underwent a 24-30-h fast, and a glucose-alanine flux study using stable isotopes. Basal plasma leucine concentrations were elevated (P <0.001) in patients with MSUD (1,140±125 μM vs. 155±18 μM in controls); and in contrast to the controls, branched chain amino acid concentrations in plasma increased during the fast in the MSUD patients. Basal plasma alanine concentrations were lower (P <0.01) in patients with classical MSUD (153±8 μM vs. 495±27 μM in controls). This discrepancy was maintained throughout the fast despite a decrease in alanine concentrations in both groups. Plasma alanine and leucine concentrations in the patient with partial MSUD were intermediate between those of the controls and the subjects with the classical form of the disease. Circulating ketone bodies and glucoregulatory hormones concentrations were similar in the MSUD and normal subjects during the fast. Alanine flux rates in two patients with classical MSUD (3.76 and 4.00 μmol/Kg per min) and the patient with partial MSUD (5.76 μmol/Kg per min) were clearly lower than those of the controls (11.72±2.53 [SD] μmol/Kg per min). After short-term starvation, glucose flux and fasting concentrations were similar in the MSUD patients and normal subjects. These data indicate that branched chain amino acid catabolism is an important rate limiting event for alanine production in vivo. PMID:670400

  1. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx}3-5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} and temperature {approx}7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  2. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact. PMID:25954263

  3. Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; de Rochi, Natália; Jeremias, Isabela C; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is an inherited metabolic disease predominantly characterized by neurological dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disease are still not defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic administration of a branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) pool (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and gene expression in the brain and serum of rats and to assess if antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by BCAA administration. Our results show that the acute administration of a BCAA pool in 10- and 30-day-old rats increases AChE activity in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and serum. Moreover, chronic administration of the BCAA pool also increases AChE activity in the structures studied, and antioxidant treatment prevents this increase. In addition, we show a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of AChE in the hippocampus following acute administration in 10- and 30-day-old rats. On the other hand, AChE expression increased significantly after chronic administration of the BCAA pool. Interestingly, the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent the increased AChE activity without altering AChE expression. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate a marked increase in AChE activity in all brain structures following the administration of a BCAA pool. Moreover, the increased AChE activity is prevented by the coadministration of N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine as antioxidants. PMID:22328136

  4. Antioxidant administration prevents memory impairment in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Teodorak, Brena P; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O; Mina, Francielle; Dominguini, Diogo; Pescador, Bruna; Comim, Clarissa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-05-16

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting from deficiency of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex leading to branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and valine accumulation as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-keto acids. MSUD patients present neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Here, we investigated whether acute and chronic administration of a BCAA pool causes impairment of acquisition and retention of avoidance memory in young rats. We have used two administration protocols. Acute administration consisted of three subcutaneous administrations of the BCAA pool (15.8 μL/g body weight at 1-h intervals) containing 190 mmol/L leucine, 59 mmol/L isoleucine, and 69 mmol/L valine or saline solution (0.85% NaCl; control group) in 30 days old Wistar rats. Chronic administration consisted of two subcutaneous administrations of BCAA pool for 21 days in 7 days old Wistar rats. N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 20 mg/kg) and deferoxamine (DFX; 20 mg/kg) co administration influence on behavioral parameters after chronic BCAA administration was also investigated. BCAA administration induced long-term memory impairment in the inhibitory avoidance and CMIA (continuous multiple-trials step-down inhibitory avoidance) tasks whereas with no alterations in CMIA retention memory. Inhibitory avoidance alterations were prevented by NAC and DFX. BCAA administration did not impair the neuropsychiatric state, muscle tone and strength, and autonomous function evaluated with the SHIRPA (SmithKline/Harwell/ImperialCollege/RoyalHospital/Phenotype Assessment) protocol. Taken together, our results indicate that alterations of motor activity or emotionality probably did not contribute to memory impairment after BCAA administration and NAC and DFX effects suggest that cognition impairment after BCAA administration may be caused by oxidative brain damage. PMID:22433584

  5. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.

  6. SU-E-P-04: Transport Theory Learning Module in the Maple Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Both, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an interactive

  7. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes)more » in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.« less

  8. Living related versus deceased donor liver transplantation for maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Feier, Flavia; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D; Benkert, Abigail R; Neto, Joao Seda; Miura, Irene; Chapchap, Paulo; da Fonseca, Eduardo Antunes; Vieira, Sandra; Zanotelli, Maria Lúcia; Vairo, Filippo Pinto E; Camelo, Jose Simon; Margutti, Ana Vitoria Barban; Mazariegos, George V; Puffenberger, Erik G; Strauss, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain ketoacid (BCKA) oxidation associated with episodic and chronic brain disease. Transplantation of liver from an unrelated deceased donor restores 9-13% whole-body BCKA oxidation capacity and stabilizes MSUD. Recent reports document encouraging short-term outcomes for MSUD patients who received a liver segment from mutation heterozygous living related donors (LRDT). To investigate effects of living related versus deceased unrelated grafts, we studied four Brazilian MSUD patients treated with LRDT who were followed for a mean 19±12 postoperative months, and compared metabolic and clinical outcomes to 37 classical MSUD patients treated with deceased donor transplant. Patient and graft survival for LRDT were 100%. Three of 4 MSUD livers were successfully domino transplanted into non-MSUD subjects. Following LRDT, all subjects resumed a protein-unrestricted diet as mean plasma leucine decreased from 224±306μM to 143±44μM and allo-isoleucine decreased 91%. We observed no episodes of hyperleucinemia during 80 aggregate postoperative patient-months. Mean plasma leucine:isoleucine:valine concentration ratios were ~2:1:4 after deceased donor transplant compared to ~1:1:1.5 following LRDT, resulting in differences of predicted cerebral amino acid uptake. Mutant heterozygous liver segments effectively maintain steady-state BCAA and BCKA homeostasis on an unrestricted diet and during most catabolic states, but might have different metabolic effects than grafts from unrelated deceased donors. Neither living related nor deceased donor transplant affords complete protection from metabolic intoxication, but both strategies represent viable alternatives to nutritional management. PMID:26786177

  9. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative damage in Maple syrup urine disease: the L-carnitine role.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Gilian; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Sitta, Angela; Donida, Bruna; Marchetti, Desirèe; Hammerschmidt, Tatiane; Faverzani, Jessica; Coelho, Daniella de Moura; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The defect in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity leads to an accumulation of these compounds and their corresponding α-keto-acids and α-hydroxy-acids. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. L-carnitine (L-car), which has demonstrated an important role as antioxidant by reducing and scavenging free radicals formation and by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, have been used in the treatment of some metabolic rare disorders. This study evaluated the oxidative stress parameters, di-tyrosine, isoprostanes and antioxidant capacity, in urine of MSUD patients under protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with L-car capsules at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1). It was also determined urinary α-keto isocaproic acid levels as well as blood free L-car concentrations in blood. It was found a deficiency of carnitine in patients before the L-car supplementation. Significant increases of di-tyrosine and isoprostanes, as well as reduced antioxidant capacity, were observed before the treatment with L-car. The L-car supplementation induced beneficial effects on these parameters reducing the di-tyrosine and isoprostanes levels and increasing the antioxidant capacity. It was also showed a significant increase in urinary of α-ketoisocaproic acid after 2 months of L-car treatment, compared to control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that L-car may have beneficial effects in the treatment of MSUD by preventing oxidative damage to the cells and that urine can be used to monitorize oxidative damage in patients affected by this disease. PMID:25680940

  10. Evolution of maple syrup urine disease in patients diagnosed by newborn screening versus late diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Couce, M L; Ramos, F; Bueno, M A; Díaz, J; Meavilla, S; Bóveda, M D; Fernández-Marmiesse, A; García-Cazorla, A

    2015-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder for which the newborn screening (NBS) is possible but it has not been yet implemented for most Spanish regions. In the present study, we assess the clinical features and outcome of 14 MSUD Spanish patients with similar treatment protocol diagnosed either by NBS or by clinical symptoms. Eight patients were detected by NBS, four classic and four moderate MSUD. The average age at detection was 4.6 days, the mean plasmatic concentration of leucine at diagnosis was 1807 μM; the average number of days with leucine >1000 μM was 0.7 (0-4) and the mean number of total hospitalizations was 1.6 (0-5). Mean follow-up time was 70 months. They had good evolution: all remain asymptomatic, but 2 patients have attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Six patients with late diagnosis of classic MSUD were followed during 41 months. All presented with acute encephalopathy during the first month of life, mean leucine levels of 2355 μM, mean number of days with leucine >1000 μM of 6.6 (1-13) and mean number of total hospitalizations of 5.3 (4-7). Only two patients have a psychomotor development index in the lower limit (80 and 83). For all patients a good genotype-phenotype correlation was found and four novel mutations were identified: p.A311H, p.T84S, p.T397L, pL398P. Our study support that NBS improves prognosis of MSUD patients. But early diagnosis and an aggressive treatment together with a close monitoring of leucine levels improve neurological evolution in MSUD patients, even for those not detected by NBS. PMID:26232051

  11. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Cedar N; Mueller, Rebecca C; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Zak, Donald R; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact. PMID:25954263

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid status in females of reproductive age with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Laura M; Yi, Sarah H L; Singh, Rani H

    2010-04-01

    Individuals with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) have impaired metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, isoleucine, and leucine. Life-long dietary therapy is recommended to restrict BCAA intake and thus prevent poor neurological outcomes and death. To maintain adequate nutritional status, the majority of protein and nutrients are derived from synthetic BCAA-free medical foods with variable fatty acid content. Given the restrictive diet and the importance of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in neurological development, this study evaluated the dietary and fatty acid status of females of reproductive age with MSUD attending a metabolic camp. Healthy controls of similar age and sex were selected from existing normal laboratory data. Total lipid fatty acid concentration in plasma and erythrocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Participants with MSUD had normal to increased concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte alpha linolenic acid (ALA) but significantly lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as percent of total lipid fatty acids compared with controls (plasma DHA: MSUD 1.03 +/- 0.35, controls 2.87 +/- 1.08; P = 0.001; erythrocyte DHA: MSUD 2.58 +/- 0.58, controls 3.66 +/- 0.80; P = 0.011). Dietary records reflected negligible or no DHA intake over the 3-day period prior to the blood draw (range 0-2 mg). These results suggest females of reproductive age with MSUD have lower blood DHA concentrations than age-matched controls. In addition, the presence of ALA in medical foods and the background diet may not counter the lack of preformed DHA in the diet. The implications of these results warrant further investigation. PMID:20217236

  13. Effect of stem water content on sap flow from dormant maple and butternut stems: induction of sap flow in butternut.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R W; Tyree, M T

    1992-10-01

    Sap flow from excised maple stems collected over the winter (1986/87) was correlated with stem water content. Stem water content was high in the fall (>0.80) and decreased rapidly during 2 weeks of continuous freezing temperatures in late winter (<0.60). Exudation of sap from stem segments subjected to freeze/thaw cycles was small (<10 mL/kg) in the fall, but substantial exudation (45-50 mL/kg) occurred following the decline in water content. These observations are consistent with Milburn's and O'Malley's models (J.A. Milburn, P.E.R. O'Malley [1984] Can J Bot 62: 2101-2106; P.E.R. O'Malley, J.A. Milburn [1983] Can J Bot 61:3100-3106) of sap absorption into gas-filled fibers during freezing. Exudation volume was increased 200 to 300% in maple stems originally at high water content (>0.80) after perfusion with sucrose and dehydration at -12 degrees C. Sap flow was also induced in butternut stem segments after the same treatment. Thus, sap flow may not be unique to maples. Sap flow could not be increased in stem segments dehydrated at 4 degrees C. Migration of water molecules from small ice crystals in fibers to larger crystals in vessels while stems were frozen may account for increase exudation after dehydration at -12 degrees C. This would result in preferential dehydration of fibers and a distribution of gas and sap favorable for stem-based sap flow. PMID:16653067

  14. MAPL: Tissue microstructure estimation using Laplacian-regularized MAP-MRI and its application to HCP data.

    PubMed

    Fick, Rutger H J; Wassermann, Demian; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Deriche, Rachid

    2016-07-01

    The recovery of microstructure-related features of the brain's white matter is a current challenge in diffusion MRI. To robustly estimate these important features from multi-shell diffusion MRI data, we propose to analytically regularize the coefficient estimation of the Mean Apparent Propagator (MAP)-MRI method using the norm of the Laplacian of the reconstructed signal. We first compare our approach, which we call MAPL, with competing, state-of-the-art functional basis approaches. We show that it outperforms the original MAP-MRI implementation and the recently proposed modified Spherical Polar Fourier (mSPF) basis with respect to signal fitting and reconstruction of the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP) and Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) in noisy, sparsely sampled data of a physical phantom with reference gold standard data. Then, to reduce the variance of parameter estimation using multi-compartment tissue models, we propose to use MAPL's signal fitting and extrapolation as a preprocessing step. We study the effect of MAPL on the estimation of axon diameter using a simplified Axcaliber model and axonal dispersion using the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) model. We show the positive effect of using it as a preprocessing step in estimating and reducing the variances of these parameters in the Corpus Callosum of six different subjects of the MGH Human Connectome Project. Finally, we correlate the estimated axon diameter, dispersion and restricted volume fractions with Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and clearly show that changes in FA significantly correlate with changes in all estimated parameters. Overall, we illustrate the potential of using a well-regularized functional basis together with multi-compartment approaches to recover important microstructure tissue parameters with much less variability, thus contributing to the challenge of better understanding microstructure-related features of the brain's white matter. PMID:27043358

  15. A first look at the ACER-SST dataset: Mapping the spatio-temporal variability of sea-surface temperatures in the last Glacial and the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehfeld, Kira; Laepple, Thomas; Bassinot, Franck; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Desprat, Stéphanie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Fernanda Sánchez-Goñi, Maria; Harrison, Sandy

    2016-04-01

    Climate in the last Glacial was characterized by abrupt and large-scale changes around cold Heinrich-Events and warm Dansgaard-Oeschger excursions in the Northern high latitudes. The global repercussions of these periods of rapid dynamics are, to date, unconstrained. Here, we present a first statistical analysis of the global multi-proxy ACER (Abrupt Climate Changes and Environmental Responses) sea surface temperature dataset, spanning the last 80 thousand years, to investigate the spatial footprints of glacial climate dynamics. In a first step we evaluate the spatial and temporal variability throughout the Glacial period, and contrast them with that during the Holocene. In a second step we investigate to which extent a temporal synchroneity of extreme events during the Glacial is detectable in the proxy records, and analyze the reversibility of Glacial dynamics.

  16. The Method for Assigning Priority Levels (MAPLe): A new decision-support system for allocating home care resources

    PubMed Central

    Hirdes, John P; Poss, Jeff W; Curtin-Telegdi, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Background Home care plays a vital role in many health care systems, but there is evidence that appropriate targeting strategies must be used to allocate limited home care resources effectively. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a methodology for prioritizing access to community and facility-based services for home care clients. Methods Canadian and international data based on the Resident Assessment Instrument – Home Care (RAI-HC) were analyzed to identify predictors for nursing home placement, caregiver distress and for being rated as requiring alternative placement to improve outlook. Results The Method for Assigning Priority Levels (MAPLe) algorithm was a strong predictor of all three outcomes in the derivation sample. The algorithm was validated with additional data from five other countries, three other provinces, and an Ontario sample obtained after the use of the RAI-HC was mandated. Conclusion The MAPLe algorithm provides a psychometrically sound decision-support tool that may be used to inform choices related to allocation of home care resources and prioritization of clients needing community or facility-based services. PMID:18366782

  17. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A. V.; Oprea, A. E.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  18. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Beier, Colin M.; Weathers, K.C.; McPherson, G.T.; Bishop, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been documented. Sugar maple is a dominant canopy species in the Adirondack Mountain ecoregion, and it has a high demand for Ca. Trees in this region growing on soils with poor acid–base chemistry (low exchangeable Ca and % base saturation [BS]) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition exhibited a near absence of SM seedling regeneration and lower crown vigor compared with study plots with relatively high exchangeable Ca and BS and lower levels of acidic deposition. Basal area increment averaged over the 20th century was correlated (p < 0.1) with acid–base chemistry of the Oa, A, and upper B soil horizons. A lack of Adirondack SM regeneration, reduced canopy condition, and possibly decreased basal area growth over recent decades are associated with low concentrations of nutrient base cations in this region that has undergone soil Ca depletion from acidic deposition.

  19. Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: principles of management and formula design.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L; Puffenberger, Erik G; Shellmer, Diana; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B; Morton, D Holmes

    2010-04-01

    Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) for entry into the brain via a common transporter (LAT1), (2) compensate for episodic depletions of glutamine, glutamate, and alanine caused by reverse transamination, and (3) correct deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, and selenium widespread among MSUD patients. The formula was enriched with LAT1 amino acid substrates, glutamine, alanine, zinc, selenium, and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Fifteen Old Order Mennonite children were started on study formula between birth and 34 months of age and seen at least monthly in the office. Amino acid levels were checked once weekly and more often during illnesses. All children grew and developed normally over a period of 14-33 months. Energy demand, leucine tolerance, and protein accretion were tightly linked during periods of normal growth. Rapid shifts to net protein degradation occurred during illnesses. At baseline, most LAT1 substrates varied inversely with plasma leucine, and their calculated rates of brain uptake were 20-68% below normal. Treatment with study formula increased plasma concentrations of LAT1 substrates and normalized their calculated uptakes into the nervous system. Red cell membrane omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum zinc and selenium levels increased on study formula. However, selenium and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) levels remained below normal. During the study period, hospitalizations decreased from 0.35 to 0.14 per patient per year. There were 28 hospitalizations

  20. Earthworm species influence on carbon-mineral association in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    Non-native European earthworms are invading previously earthworm-free hardwood forests in the northern Great Lakes Region. Whereas earthworms' impacts on soil morphology and geochemical properties have been well documented in agricultural settings, the role of earthworms in biogeochemical cycles of undisturbed forests remains poorly understood. The forest soils that were recently invaded by exotic earthworms, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to understand how and how much earthworms contribute to biogeochemistry of non-agricultural environments. Increased degree and extent of soil mixing is one of the better known consequences of the earthworm invasion. Our hypothesis is that invasive earthworms positively affect carbon (C) stabilization by enhancing contacts between organic matter and minerals. We are studying C-mineral complexation along a well-established earthworm chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. We have observed changes in total earthworm biomass, A horizon C storage, and total specific surface area (SSA) of minerals as the invasion progresses. Because each earthworm species has different feeding and dwelling habits, biogeochemical imprints of the invasion reflect not only earthworms' biomass but also their species composition. All earthworm species show an increase in their biomass with greater time length since the invasion, though epigeic earthworms tend to be the pioneer species. As the total earthworm biomass increases, we find greater incorporation of organic C into the A horizon; the O horizon thickness decreases from 8 to 0 cm as the A horizon thickens from ~5 cm to ~12 cm. While leaf litter biomass is negatively correlated with total earthworm biomass, dramatic decreases in litter biomass are coupled with considerable increases in the biomass of epi-endogeic species. Despite the general decrease in C storage in the A horizon with greater degree of invasion, the storages fluctuate along the transect because

  1. Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: Principles of management and formula design

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kevin A.; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B.; Morton, D. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) for entry into the brain via a common transporter (LAT1), (2) compensate for episodic depletions of glutamine, glutamate, and alanine caused by reverse transamination, and (3) correct deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, and selenium widespread among MSUD patients. The formula was enriched with LAT1 amino acid substrates, glutamine, alanine, zinc, selenium, and alphalinolenic acid (18:3n – 3). Fifteen Old Order Mennonite children were started on study formula between birth and 34 months of age and seen at least monthly in the office. Amino acid levels were checked once weekly and more often during illnesses. All children grew and developed normally over a period of 14– 33 months. Energy demand, leucine tolerance, and protein accretion were tightly linked during periods of normal growth. Rapid shifts to net protein degradation occurred during illnesses. At baseline, most LAT1 substrates varied inversely with plasma leucine, and their calculated rates of brain uptake were 20–68% below normal. Treatment with study formula increased plasma concentrations of LAT1 substrates and normalized their calculated uptakes into the nervous system. Red cell membrane omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum zinc and selenium levels increased on study formula. However, selenium and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n – 3) levels remained below normal. During the study period, hospitalizations decreased from 0.35 to 0.14 per patient per year. There were 28

  2. Identification of the Bacterial Community of Maple Sap by Using Amplified Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) Restriction Analysis and rDNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lagacé, L.; Pitre, M.; Jacques, M.; Roy, D.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterial community of maple sap was characterized by analysis of samples obtained at the taphole of maple trees for the 2001 and 2002 seasons. Among the 190 bacterial isolates, 32 groups were formed according to the similarity of the banding patterns obtained by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A subset of representative isolates for each ARDRA group was identified by 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing. Results showed a wide variety of organisms, with 22 different genera encountered. Pseudomonas and Ralstonia, of the γ- and β-Proteobacteria, respectively, were the most frequently encountered genera. Gram-positive bacteria were also observed, and Staphylococcus, Plantibacter, and Bacillus were the most highly represented genera. The sampling period corresponding to 50% of the cumulative sap flow percentage presented the greatest bacterial diversity according to its Shannon diversity index value (1.1). γ-Proteobacteria were found to be dominant almost from the beginning of the season to the end. These results are providing interesting insights on maple sap microflora that will be useful for further investigation related to microbial contamination and quality of maple products and also for guiding new strategies on taphole contamination control. PMID:15066796

  3. Emulsion-Based RIR-MAPLE Deposition of Conjugated Polymers: Primary Solvent Effect and Its Implications on Organic Solar Cell Performance.

    PubMed

    Ge, Wangyao; Li, Nan K; McCormick, Ryan D; Lichtenberg, Eli; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D

    2016-08-01

    Emulsion-based, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been demonstrated as an alternative technique to deposit conjugated polymer films for photovoltaic applications; yet, a fundamental understanding of how the emulsion target characteristics translate into film properties and solar cell performance is unclear. Such understanding is crucial to enable the rational improvement of organic solar cell (OSC) efficiency and to realize the expected advantages of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE for OSC fabrication. In this paper, the effect of the primary solvent used in the emulsion target is studied, both experimentally and theoretically, and it is found to determine the conjugated polymer cluster size in the emulsion as well as surface roughness and internal morphology of resulting polymer films. By using a primary solvent with low solubility-in-water and low vapor pressure, the surface roughness of deposited P3HT and PCPDTBT polymer films was reduced to 10 nm, and the efficiency of P3HT:PC61BM OSCs was increased to 3.2% (∼100 times higher compared to the first MAPLE OSC demonstration [ Caricato , A. P. ; Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012 , 100 , 073306 ]). This work unveils the mechanism of polymer film formation using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE and provides insight and direction to determine the best ways to take advantage of the emulsion target approach to control film properties for different applications. PMID:27414167

  4. On the Least-Squares Fitting of Slater-Type Orbitals with Gaussians: Reproduction of the STO-NG Fits Using Microsoft Excel and Maple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Cory C.; Mercer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    The symbolic algebra program Maple and the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel were used in an attempt to reproduce the Gaussian fits to a Slater-type orbital, required to construct the popular STO-NG basis sets. The successes and pitfalls encountered in such an approach are chronicled. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  5. Method for Assigning Priority Levels in Acute Care (MAPLe-AC) predicts outcomes of acute hospital care of older persons - a cross-national validation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although numerous risk factors for adverse outcomes for older persons after an acute hospital stay have been identified, a decision making tool combining all available information in a clinically meaningful way would be helpful for daily hospital practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Method for Assigning Priority Levels for Acute Care (MAPLe-AC) to predict adverse outcomes in acute care for older people and to assess its usability as a decision making tool for discharge planning. Methods Data from a prospective multicenter study in five Nordic acute care hospitals with information from admission to a one year follow-up of older acute care patients were compared with a prospective study of acute care patients from admission to discharge in eight hospitals in Canada. The interRAI Acute Care assessment instrument (v1.1) was used for data collection. Data were collected during the first 24 hours in hospital, including pre-morbid and admission information, and at day 7 or at discharge, whichever came first. Based on this information a crosswalk was developed from the original MAPLe algorithm for home care settings to acute care (MAPLe-AC). The sample included persons 75 years or older who were admitted to acute internal medical services in one hospital in each of the five Nordic countries (n = 763) or to acute hospital care either internal medical or combined medical-surgical services in eight hospitals in Ontario, Canada (n = 393). The outcome measures considered were discharge to home, discharge to institution or death. Outcomes in a 1-year follow-up in the Nordic hospitals were: living at home, living in an institution or death, and survival. Logistic regression with ROC curves and Cox regression analyses were used in the analyses. Results Low and mild priority levels of MAPLe-AC predicted discharge home and high and very high priority levels predicted adverse outcome at discharge both in the Nordic and Canadian data sets

  6. Tree Species Classification By Multiseasonal High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elatawneh, Alata; Wallner, Adelheid; Straub, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Knoke, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forest tree species mapping is a fundamental issue for sustainable forest management and planning. Forest tree species mapping with the means of remote sensing data is still a topic to be investigated. The Bavaria state institute of forestry is investigating the potential of using digital aerial images for forest management purposes. However, using aerial images is still cost- and time-consuming, in addition to their acquisition restrictions. The new space-born sensor generations such as, RapidEye, with a very high temporal resolution, offering multiseasonal data have the potential to improve the forest tree species mapping. In this study, we investigated the potential of multiseasonal RapidEye data for mapping tree species in a Mid European forest in Southern Germany. The RapidEye data of level A3 were collected on ten different dates in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. For data analysis, a model was developed, which combines the Spectral Angle Mapper technique with a 10-fold- cross-validation. The analysis succeeded to differentiate four tree species; Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The model success was evaluated using digital aerial images acquired in the year 2009 and inventory point records from 2008/09 inventory. Model results of the multiseasonal RapidEye data analysis achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. However, the success of the model was evaluated only for all the identified species and not for the individual.

  7. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    PubMed Central

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  8. Physical and chemical properties of some imported woods and their degradation by termites.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R; Sundararaj, R

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  9. Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Y L

    2001-01-01

    Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

  10. The MaPLE device: A linear machine for laboratory studies of the magnetized plasma physics phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subir; Chowdhury, Satyajit; Pal, Abhik M.; Bhattacharya, Shashwat; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Pal, Rabindranath

    2015-04-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is developed in the plasma physics laboratory of the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics for studying basic plasma physics phenomena like waves, instabilities and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma. Details description of the device and its plasma characteristics are presented. The machine provides flexibilities in terms of magnetic configuration and plasma sources. Recently, low frequency drift waves are excited in the weak density gradient region of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) produced low density plasmas and their nonlinear coupling is studied. Results of this experiment and some more experiments done in the device are summarized. Reasoning behind a possible upgrade plan of the device for studying shear Alfven waves (SAW) and magnetic drift waves in future is also discussed.

  11. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  12. Bioactive ZnO Coatings Deposited by MAPLE-An Appropriate Strategy to Produce Efficient Anti-Biofilm Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Pandel, Loredana Mihaela; Dumitrescu, Ana Maria; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Bălşeanu, Tudor-Adrian; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Iordache, Florin; Maniu, Horia; Chirea, Mariana; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    Deposition of bioactive coatings composed of zinc oxide, cyclodextrin and cefepime (ZnO/CD/Cfp) was performed by the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The efficient release of cefepime was correlated with an increased anti-biofilm activity of ZnO/CD/Cfp composites. In vitro and in vivo tests have revealed a good biocompatibility of ZnO/CD/Cfp coatings, which recommend them as competitive candidates for the development of antimicrobial surfaces with biomedical applications. The release of the fourth generation cephalosporin Cfp in a biologically active form from the ZnO matrix could help preventing the bacterial adhesion and the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on various surfaces, and thus decreasing the risk of biofilm-related infections. PMID:26891290

  13. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Chin, H.L.; Aw, M.M.; Quak, S.H.; Huang, J.; Hart, C.E.; Prabhakaran, K.; Goh, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410

  14. A new missense mutation in the BCKDHB gene causes the classic form of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD).

    PubMed

    Miryounesi, Mohammad; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Goodarzi, Hamedreza; Fardaei, Majid

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT and DLD genes, which encode the E1α, E1β, E2 and E3 subunits of the branched chain α ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, respectively. This complex is involved in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. In this study, we analyzed the DNA sequences of BCKDHA and BCKDHB genes in an infant who suffered from MSUD and died at the age of 6 months. We found a new missense mutation in exon 5 of BCKDHB gene (c.508C>T). The heterozygosity of the parents for the mentioned nucleotide change was confirmed by direct sequence analysis of the corresponding segment. Another missense mutation has been found in the same codon previously and shown by in silico analyses to be deleterious. This report provides further evidence that this amino acid change can cause classic MSUD. PMID:25381949

  15. The impact of ozone fumigations on the biology of a late season sugar maple defoliator (Heterocampa guttivitta Walker)

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M.; Mauffette, Y. )

    1993-06-01

    Two-year old sugar maple seedlings were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CFA) and to three multiples (1x, 1.5x or 3x) of the ambient ozone (O[sub 3]) concentrations during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The saddled prominent (Heterocampa guttivitta Walker) was reared on leaves sampled from CFA and fumigated plants. Developmental cues such as pupal weight, survival rate, egg production and larval developmental time were measured and compared among CFA and 0, treatments. In 1991, larvae reared on the CFA foliage developed significantly lighter pupal weights than those reared on 1x and 3x (306mg vs 355mg and 353mg); the other variables were not affected by the treatments. A similar trend was observed in 1992 although pupal weights did not significantly differ among CFA and O[sub 3] fumigations. These results indicate that this lepidopteran can respond to biochemical changes induced by abiotic stresses such as ozone.

  16. Functionalized antibiofilm thin coatings based on PLA-PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid natural compounds fabricated by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Ficai, Anton; Truşcǎ, Roxana; Bleotu, Coralia; Balaure, Paul Cǎtǎlin; Cristescu, Rodica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-05-01

    We report the fabrication of thin coatings of PLA-PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto Ti substrate. The obtained coatings have been physico-chemically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared microscopy (IRM). In vitro biological assays have been performed in order to evaluate the influence of fabricated microsphere thin coatings on the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development as well as their biocompatibility. SEM micrographs have revealed a uniform morphology of thin coatings, while IRM investigations have proved both the homogeneity and functional groups integrity of prepared thin coatings. The obtained microsphere-based thin coatings have proved to be efficient vehicles for usnic acid natural compound with antibiofilm activity, as demonstrated by the inhibitory activity on S. aureus mature biofilm development, opening new perspectives for the prevention and therapy associated to biofilm related infections.

  17. RAEEM: A Maple package for finding a series of exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Yin-Ping

    2004-11-01

    In Maple 8, by taking advantage of the package RIF contained in DEtools, we developed a package RAEEM which is a comprehensive and complete implementation of such methods as the tanh-method, the extended tanh-method, the Jacobi elliptic function method and the elliptic equation method. RAEEM can entirely automatically output a series of exact traveling wave solutions, including those of polynomial, exponential, triangular, hyperbolic, rational, Jacobi elliptic, Weierstrass elliptic type. The effectiveness of the package is illustrated by applying it to a large variety of equations. In addition to recovering previously known solutions, we also obtain more general forms of some solutions and new solutions. Program summaryTitle of program: RAEEM Catalogue identifier: ADUP Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUP Program obtained from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: PC Pentium IV Installations: Copy Operating systems: Windows 98/2000/XP Program language used: Maple 8 Memory required to execute with typical data: depends on the problem, minimum about 8M words No. of bits in a word: 8 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3163 No. of bytes in distributed program, including the test data, etc.: 26 720 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Our program provides exact traveling wave solutions, which describe various phenomena in nature, and thus can give more insight into the physical aspects of problems. These solutions may be easily used in further applications. Restriction on the complexity of the problem: The program can handle system of nonlinear evolution equations with any number of independent and dependent variables, in which each equation is a polynomial (or can be converted to a polynomial) in the dependent variables and their derivatives. Typical running time: It depends on the input equations as well as the degrees of the desired polynomial solutions. For

  18. Impacts of Climate Change on the Timing of the Production Season of Maple Syrup in Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Benoît; Logan, Travis; Power, Hugues; Charron, Isabelle; Duchesne, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999–2011 period from 121 maple stands in 11 regions of Québec (Canada) to predict how the period of production may be impacted by climate warming. The date at which the production begins is highly variable between years with an average range of 36 days among the regions. However, the average start date for a given region, which ranged from Julian day 65 to 83, was highly predictable (r2 = 0.88) using the average temperature from January to April (TJ-A). A logistic model predicting the weekly presence or absence of production was also developed. Using the inputs of 77 future climate scenarios issued from global models, projections of future production timing were made based on average TJ-A and on the logistic model. The projections of both approaches were in very good agreement and suggest that the sap season will be displaced to occur 15–19 days earlier on average in the 2080–2100 period. The data also show that the displacement in time will not be accompanied by a greater between years variability in the beginning of the season. However, in the southern part of Québec, very short periods of syrup production due to unfavourable conditions in the spring will occur more frequently in the future although their absolute frequencies will remain low. PMID:26682889

  19. Impacts of Climate Change on the Timing of the Production Season of Maple Syrup in Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Houle, Daniel; Paquette, Alain; Côté, Benoît; Logan, Travis; Power, Hugues; Charron, Isabelle; Duchesne, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999-2011 period from 121 maple stands in 11 regions of Québec (Canada) to predict how the period of production may be impacted by climate warming. The date at which the production begins is highly variable between years with an average range of 36 days among the regions. However, the average start date for a given region, which ranged from Julian day 65 to 83, was highly predictable (r2 = 0.88) using the average temperature from January to April (TJ-A). A logistic model predicting the weekly presence or absence of production was also developed. Using the inputs of 77 future climate scenarios issued from global models, projections of future production timing were made based on average TJ-A and on the logistic model. The projections of both approaches were in very good agreement and suggest that the sap season will be displaced to occur 15-19 days earlier on average in the 2080-2100 period. The data also show that the displacement in time will not be accompanied by a greater between years variability in the beginning of the season. However, in the southern part of Québec, very short periods of syrup production due to unfavourable conditions in the spring will occur more frequently in the future although their absolute frequencies will remain low. PMID:26682889

  20. NatB Domain-Containing CRA-1 Antagonizes Hydrolase ACER-1 Linking Acetyl-CoA Metabolism to the Initiation of Recombination during C. elegans Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinmin; Kim, Hyun-Min; Elia, Andrew E.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Colaiácovo, Monica P.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) must take place during meiosis to ensure the formation of crossovers, which are required for accurate chromosome segregation, therefore avoiding aneuploidy. However, DSB formation must be tightly regulated to maintain genomic integrity. How this regulation operates in the context of different chromatin architectures and accessibility, and how it is linked to metabolic pathways, is not understood. We show here that global histone acetylation levels undergo changes throughout meiotic progression. Moreover, perturbations to global histone acetylation levels are accompanied by changes in the frequency of DSB formation in C. elegans. We provide evidence that the regulation of histone acetylation requires CRA-1, a NatB domain-containing protein homologous to human NAA25, which controls the levels of acetyl-Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by antagonizing ACER-1, a previously unknown and conserved acetyl-CoA hydrolase. CRA-1 is in turn negatively regulated by XND-1, an AT-hook containing protein. We propose that this newly defined protein network links acetyl-CoA metabolism to meiotic DSB formation via modulation of global histone acetylation. PMID:25768301

  1. Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS+ System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Na-Young; Oh, You Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-01-01

    The Acer tegmentosum (3 kg) was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butyl alcohol (n-BuOH), and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24 g), five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1), avicularin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (−)-epicatechin (4), and 6′-O-galloyl salidroside (5). Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds) was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum. PMID:25386382

  2. High Energy Charge as a Requirement for Axis Elongation in Response to Gibberellic Acid and Kinetin during Stratification of Acer saccharum Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, J. A.; Dumbroff, E. B.

    1974-01-01

    The growth potential of embryonic axes of Acer saccharum Marsh. increased during moist storage at 5 C but not at 20 C. During the period of increasing growth potential, the oxygen consumption of the axes remained constant. It was possible to distinguish three phases of the stratification-germination process at 5 C with respect to response of the axis to gibberellic acid and kinetin. From 0 to 10 days the growth regulators had no effect on elongation; from 10 to 60 days axis elongation was stimulated; and between day 60 and day 75, when germination had begun, the growth substances were inhibitory. The adenylate energy charge remained low (0.15) in axes of dry dormant seeds but increased to 0.78 following imbibition of water and 10 days of moist storage at 5 C. This phenomenon was not specifically related to low temperature stratification, since a rapid increase in the energy charge of the axes also occurred following imbibition and moist storage at 20 C. The excised axes would elongate in response to the growth substances only when a high energy charge (approximately 0.8) was maintained. PMID:16658660

  3. A two-phase flow regime map for a MAPLE-type nuclear research reactor fuel channel: Effect of hexagonal finned bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Harvel, G.D.; Chang, J.S.; Krishnan, V.S.

    1997-05-01

    A two-phase flow regime map is developed experimentally and theoretically for a vertical hexagonal flow channel with and without a 36-finned rod hexagonal bundle. This type of flow channel is of interest to MAPLE-type nuclear research reactors. The flow regime maps are determined by visual observations and observation of waveforms shown by a capacitance-type void fraction meter. The experimental results show that the inclusion of the finned hexagonal bundle shifts the flow regime transition boundaries toward higher water flow rates. Existing flow regime maps based on pipe flow require slight modifications when applied to the hexagonal flow channel with and without a MAPLE-type finned hexagonal bundle. The proposed theoretical model agrees well with experimental results.

  4. Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:15287660

  5. Administration of a maple syrup extract to mitigate their hepatic inflammation induced by a high-fat diet: a transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Asuka; Watanabe, Yuki; Shinozaki, Fumika; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kondo, Takashi; Ishijima, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tsudoi; Arai, Soichi; Abe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the administration of maple syrup extract (MSX) on hepatic gene expression were investigated in mice fed a high-fat diet. Gene annotation enrichment analysis based on gene ontology revealed some changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and the immune response in MSX-fed mice. Detailed analysis of these data indicated that MSX ingestion mitigates hepatic inflammation. PMID:25982262

  6. A Semi-Empirical Multi-Scale Dynamic Monte Carlo Model of Organic Photovoltaic Performance in RIR-MAPLE Bulk Heterojunction Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Atewologun, Ayomide

    A semi-empirical method for investigating the performance of OPVs in resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) films is explored. Emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE offers a unique experimental backdrop for investigating trends through simulation and gaining a better understanding of how different thin film characteristics impact OPV device performance. A novel multi-scale formulation of the Dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) model is developed based on observable morphology features. Specifically, using confocal microscopy, we observe the presence of micro-scale regimes of pure materials and nano-scale regions of the composite blend. This enables us to assign weighted percentages to DMC implementations on two different scales: the microscale and nanoscale regions. In addition to this, we use input simulation parameters acquired by characterization of as-deposited films. The semi-empirical multi-scale model presented serves as a unique simulation opportunity for exploring different properties of RIR-MAPLE deposited OPVs, their effects on OPV performance and potential design routes for improving device efficiencies. This work was supported, in part, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-10-1-0481 and the NSF Triangle MRSEC on Soft Matter.

  7. Are leaves that fall from imidacloprid-treated maple trees to control Asian longhorned beetles toxic to non-target decomposer organisms?

    PubMed

    Kreutzweiser, David P; Good, Kevin P; Chartrand, Derek T; Scarr, Taylor A; Thompson, Dean G

    2008-01-01

    The systemic insecticide imidacloprid may be applied to deciduous trees for control of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive wood-boring insect. Senescent leaves falling from systemically treated trees contain imidacloprid concentrations that could pose a risk to natural decomposer organisms. We examined the effects of foliar imidacloprid concentrations on decomposer organisms by adding leaves from imidacloprid-treated sugar maple trees to aquatic and terrestrial microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. Imidacloprid in maple leaves at realistic field concentrations (3-11 mg kg(-1)) did not affect survival of aquatic leaf-shredding insects or litter-dwelling earthworms. However, adverse sublethal effects at these concentrations were detected. Feeding rates by aquatic insects and earthworms were reduced, leaf decomposition (mass loss) was decreased, measurable weight losses occurred among earthworms, and aquatic and terrestrial microbial decomposition activity was significantly inhibited. Results of this study suggest that sugar maple trees systemically treated with imidacloprid to control Asian longhorned beetles may yield senescent leaves with residue levels sufficient to reduce natural decomposition processes in aquatic and terrestrial environments through adverse effects on non-target decomposer organisms. PMID:18396551

  8. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures

    PubMed Central

    Wesley-Smith, James; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, N. W.; Walters, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cryopreservation is the only long-term conservation strategy available for germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species. Efforts to cryopreserve this form of germplasm are hampered by potentially lethal intracellular freezing events; thus, it is important to understand the relationships among cryo-exposure techniques, water content, structure and survival. Methods Undried embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum and those rapidly dried to two different water contents were cooled at three rates and re-warmed at two rates. Ultrastructural observations were carried out on radicle and shoot tips prepared by freeze-fracture and freeze-substitution to assess immediate (i.e. pre-thaw) responses to cooling treatments. Survival of axes was assessed in vitro. Key Results Intracellular ice formation was not necessarily lethal. Embryo cells survived when crystal diameter was between 0·2 and 0·4 µm and fewer than 20 crystals were distributed per μm2 in the cytoplasm. Ice was not uniformly distributed within the cells. In fully hydrated axes cooled at an intermediate rate, the interiors of many organelles were apparently ice-free; this may have prevented the disruption of vital intracellular machinery. Intracytoplasmic ice formation did not apparently impact the integrity of the plasmalemma. The maximum number of ice crystals was far greater in shoot apices, which were more sensitive than radicles to cryo-exposure. Conclusions The findings challenge the accepted paradigm that intracellular ice formation is always lethal, as the results show that cells can survive intracellular ice if crystals are small and localized in the cytoplasm. Further understanding of the interactions among water content, cooling rate, cell structure and ice structure is required to optimize cryopreservation treatments without undue reliance on empirical approaches. PMID:24368198

  9. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. PMID:27231270

  10. Intrahippocampal administration of the alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease provokes learning deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro Vasques, Vilson; de Boer, Melissa Avila; Diligenti, Felipe; Brinco, Fabrício; Mallmann, Fabrício; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Wajner, Moacir

    2004-01-01

    Learning disability is a common feature of patients affected by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). However, the pathomechanisms underlying learning deficit in this disorder are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acute administration of the alpha-keto acids accumulating in MSUD into the hippocampus on the behavior of rats in the open field and in the inhibitory avoidance tasks. Adult male Wistar rats received intrahippocampal injections of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC, 8 micromol), alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV, 5 micromol), alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMV, 5 micromol), or NaCl (8 micromol) (controls) immediately after or 10 min before training. Testing session was performed 24 h later. Posttraining administration of the keto acids had no effect on learning in the open-field task. In contrast, pretraining administration of KIV and KMV impaired habituation in the open field. Similarly, pretraining administration of KIC, KIV, and KMV affected rat performance in the inhibitory avoidance task, suggesting disruption of acquisition. The results indicate that the alpha-keto acids accumulating in MSUD induce learning deficits in aversive and nonaversive tasks. We therefore suggest that these findings may be related to the psychomotor delay/mental retardation observed in MSUD, and may indicate the contribution of increased brain concentrations of these organic acids to the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction of MSUD patients. PMID:14724056

  11. Maple Syrup Urine Disease: Identification and Carrier-Frequency Determination of a Novel Founder Mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Lisa; Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Kornreich, Ruth; Sansaricq, Claude; Snyderman, Selma E.; Diaz, George A.

    2001-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. We noted that a large proportion (10 of 34) of families with MSUD that were followed in our clinic were of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent, leading us to search for a common mutation within this group. On the basis of genotyping data suggestive of a conserved haplotype at tightly linked markers on chromosome 6q14, the BCKDHB gene encoding the E1β subunit was sequenced. Three novel mutations were identified in seven unrelated AJ patients with MSUD. The locations of the affected residues in the crystal structure of the E1β subunit suggested possible mechanisms for the deleterious effects of these mutations. Large-scale population screening of AJ individuals for R183P, the mutation present in six of seven patients, revealed that the carrier frequency of the mutant allele was ∼1/113; the patient not carrying R183P had a previously described homozygous mutation in the gene encoding the E2 subunit. These findings suggested that a limited number of mutations might underlie MSUD in the AJ population, potentially facilitating prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection of MSUD in this group. PMID:11509994

  12. Adsorption and desorption of ammonium by maple wood biochar as a function of oxidation and pH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Lehmann, Johannes; Hanley, Kelly; Hestrin, Rachel; Enders, Akio

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the retention mechanisms of ammonium in aqueous solution by using progressively oxidized maple wood biochar at different pH values. Hydrogen peroxide was used to oxidize the biochar to pH values ranging from 8.1 to 3.7, with one set being adjusted to a pH of 7 afterwards. Oxidizing the biochars at their lowered pH did not increase their ability to adsorb ammonium. However, neutralizing the oxygen-containing surface functional groups on oxidized biochar to pH 7 increased ammonia adsorption two to three-fold for biochars originally at pH 3.7-6, but did not change adsorption of biochars oxidized to pH 7 and above. The adsorption characteristics of ammonium are well described by the Freundlich equation. Adsorption was not fully reversible in water, and less than 27% ammonium was desorbed in water in two consecutive steps than previously adsorbed, for biochars with a pH below 7, irrespective of oxidation. Recovery using an extraction with 2M KCl increased from 34% to 99% of ammonium undesorbed by both preceding water extractions with increasing oxidation, largely irrespective of pH adjustment. Unrecovered ammonium in all extractions and residual biochar was negligible at high oxidation, but increased to 39% of initially adsorbed amounts at high pH, likely due to low amounts adsorbed and possible ammonia volatilization losses. PMID:26057391

  13. Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña; Ugarte, Magdalena; Gregersen, Niels; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Bross, Peter; Palmfeldt, Johan

    2014-09-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited metabolic disorder. Four different genes encode the catalytic subunits of BCKDH: E1α (BCKDHA), E1β (BCKDHB), E2 (DBT), and E3 (DLD). All four proteins were successfully quantified in healthy individuals. However, the E1α and E1β proteins were not detected in patients carrying mutations in one of those genes, whereas mRNA levels were almost unaltered, indicating instability of E1α and E1β monomers. Using SRM we elucidated the protein effects of mutations generating premature termination codons or misfolded proteins. SRM is a complement to transcript level measurements and a valuable tool to shed light on molecular mechanisms and on effects of pharmacological therapies at protein level. SRM is particularly effective for inherited disorders caused by multiple proteins such as defects in multienzyme complexes. PMID:25333063

  14. Identification of six novel mutations in Iranian patients with maple syrup urine disease and their in silico analysis​.

    PubMed

    Abiri, Maryam; Karamzadeh, Razieh; Karimipoor, Morteza; Ghadami, Shirin; Alaei, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Samira Dabagh; Bagherian, Hamideh; Setoodeh, Aria; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza; Sirous Zeinali

    2016-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The disease prevalence is higher in populations with elevated rate of consanguineous marriages such as Iran. Different types of disease causing mutations have been previously reported in BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT and DLD genes known to be responsible for MSUD phenotype. In this study, two sets of multiplex polymorphic STR (Short Tandem Repeat) markers linked to the above genes were used to aid in homozygosity mapping in order to find probable pathogenic change(s) in the studied families. The families who showed homozygote haplotype for the BCKDHA gene were subsequently sequenced. Our findings showed that exons 2, 4 and 6 contain most of the mutations which are novel. The changes include two single nucleotide deletion (i.e. c. 143delT and c.702delT), one gross deletion covering the whole exon four c.(375+1_376-1)_(8849+1_885-1), two splice site changes (c.1167+1G>T, c. 288+1G>A), and one point mutation (c.731G>A). Computational approaches were used to analyze these two novel mutations in terms of their impact on protein structure. Computational structural modeling indicated that these mutations might affect structural stability and multimeric assembly of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). PMID:26901124

  15. Two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the BCKDHB gene that cause the intermittent form of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Liming, Liu; Jiang, Li

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. In contrast to classic MSUD, children with the intermittent form usually have an atypical clinical manifestation. Here, we describe the presenting symptoms and clinical course of a Chinese boy with intermittent MSUD. Mutation analysis identified two previously unreported mutations in exon 7 of the BCKDHB gene: c.767A > G (p.Y256C) and c.768C > G (p.Y256X); the parents were each heterozygous for one of these mutations. In silico analysis predicted Y256C probably affects protein structure; Y256X leads to a premature stop codon. This case demonstrates intermittent MSUD should be suspected in cases with symptoms of recurrent encephalopathy, especially ataxia or marked drowsiness, which usually present after the neonatal period and in conjunction with infection. symmetrical basal ganglia damage but normal myelination in the posterior limb will assist differential diagnosis; alloisoleucine is a useful diagnostic marker and mutation analysis may be of prognostic value. These novel mutations Y256C and Y256X result in the clinical manifestation of a variant form of MSUD, expanding the mutation spectrum of this disease. PMID:26239723

  16. Neonatal screening in Italy for congenital hypothyroidism and metabolic disorders: hyperphenylalaninemia, maple syrup urine disease and homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Antonozzi, I; Dominici, R; Andreoli, M; Monaco, F

    1980-01-01

    A multiple screening program to establish the frequency of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), homocystinuria and hypertyrosinemia in endemic and sporadic goitrous regions of Italy is being carried out. Valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, eluted from a single spot and separated by column chromatography, are measured, using whole blood adsorbed on filter paper. CH is detected by RIA assay of TSH eluted from dried blood spot. A cut-off of 100 microU/ml for TSH is used providing a recall rate of 0.38%. Out of 116,000 newborn infants screened for aminoacidopathies (since 1974), 16 PKU patients, 3 affected by MSUD, 2 homocystinuric babies have been detected. Out of 25,400 newborn infants screened for CH, 5 patients were affected by permanent CH and 29 by transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Thus PKU shows a frequency of 1:7,200 newborn infants, and permanent congenital hypothyroidism 1:5,080. The coordination of screening programs for congenital metabolic diseases in a single central unit allows:--the unification of the input of samples and output of data in a single data bank;--a minimization of the physical and psychological stress to the patients and their families;--and a more satisfactory cost/benefit ratio. PMID:7204885

  17. Inborn errors of metabolic diseases in Malaysia: a preliminary report of maple syrup urine diseases for 1993.

    PubMed

    Zakiah, I; Ashikin, Y N; Aisiah, S M; Ismail, H I

    1995-01-01

    The Malaysian level of health care has greatly improved so that many of the infectious diseases are now under control. However, perinatal death or death due to unknown childhood diseases remains high (10.3%) being second on the list of causes of death amongst Malaysians. Could inborn metabolic diseases be the main cause of death among these children? Recently, with our success in the development of confirmatory techniques for amino acid disorders using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we have examined 404 samples received from all over the country in 1993. Each specimen with abnormal findings from screening tests by one-dimensional thin layer chromatography was confirmed using HPLC. 41% had generalized aminoacidurias and 4.2% had maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Patients were aged between 11 days to 6 years. Most of them were Malay males and presented with a history suggestive of MSUD. With this preliminary finding, further studies will be carried out in order to have an investigation and management protocol for the diseases and more importantly to formulate a strategy of screening for the country. PMID:8629092

  18. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): a case with long-term follow-up after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Paula M; Hinshaw, Jessica; Stringer, Anthony Y

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare hereditary metabolic condition where the body is unable to breakdown amino acids causing toxic buildup. Acute and long-term management of MSUD involves a restricted diet and regular monitoring of amino acid levels; however, more recently liver transplants have been shown to be successful in treating this condition. Even with successful management of MSUD there is evidence from pediatric cases that shows a distinct pattern of neurocognitive deficits associated with this condition, including impaired nonverbal skills and psychomotor functioning with relatively intact verbal abilities. In the present paper, we report an adult case of MSUD with associated neurocognitive deficits and functional limitations following liver transplantation. Neuroimaging revealed no structural abnormalities, while the results from the neuropsychological evaluation showed impairment in visual-spatial processing, attention, executive functioning, and psychomotor abilities, with relative strengths in verbal skills. The patient also showed reduced adaptive functioning and mild anxiety. This case demonstrates neurocognitive deficiencies within the context of normal magnetic resonance imaging. The possible underlying mechanism of this neuropsychological profile is discussed in relation to other neurodevelopmental models. PMID:23829516

  19. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection. ACER Chemtic Year 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The chemistry test item banks contains 225 multiple-choice questions suitable for diagnostic and achievement testing; a three-page teacher's guide; answer key with item facilities; an answer sheet; and a 45-item sample achievement test. Although written for the new grade 12 chemistry course in Victoria, Australia, the items are widely applicable.…

  20. Interactions between organic matter and mineral surfaces along an earthworm invasion gradient in a sugar maple forest of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Hale, C.

    2012-12-01

    Sorption of organic matter on mineral surface is critical for protection of organic carbon (C) against decomposition and thus may potentially increase the capacity of soils to store C. Such sorption, however, requires physical contacts between organic matter and available mineral surfaces. This study attempts to better understand how bioturbation by invasive earthworms influences the contacts between organic matter and mineral surface, and affects sorption of organic matter on mineral surface. Vertical soil mixing is a direct consequence of the introduction of invasive earthworms in natural forests previously devoid of native earthworm populations. Here we focus on an intensively studied earthworm invasion chronosequence in a glaciated sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. With the advance of invasive earthworms, leaf litter disappears while the A horizon expands at the expense of the overlying litter layer and the underlying wind blown silt materials. Earthworms' biomasses and functional group compositions, depth profiles of soil C contents, and total and organic matter-covered mineral surface areas are determined at different stages of invasion. We found that minerals' specific surface areas (SSA) in the A horizons decrease with greater degree of earthworm invasion. Furthermore, less fractions of mineral SSA were found to be coated with organic C in the soils with active earthworm populations. These observations appear to contradict another finding that amounts of crystalline Fe oxide and organically-complexed Fe increase with the greater earthworm population. The overall trend shows that earthworms' active mixing resulting in incorporating silt materials with low SSA from the underlying E horizons to the A horizons. We are currently investigating whether the increased crystalline Fe oxides and organically-complexed Fe pools with increasing earthworm population helped reducing the gradient of overall trend. Our study highlights the importance of earthworm

  1. Identification of mutations, genotype-phenotype correlation and prenatal diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease in Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepti; Bijarnia-Mahay, Sunita; Saxena, Renu; Kohli, Sudha; Dua-Puri, Ratna; Verma, Jyotsna; Thomas, E; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Deb, Roumi; Verma, Ishwar Chander

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by mutations in genes BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT encoding E1α, E1β, and E2 subunits of enzyme complex, branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH). BCKDH participates in catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) - leucine, isoleucine and valine in the energy production pathway. Deficiency or defect in the enzyme complex causes accumulation of BCAAs and keto-acids leading to toxicity. Twenty-four patients with MSUD were enrolled in the study for molecular characterization and genotype-phenotype correlation. Molecular studies were carried out by sequencing of the 3 genes by Sanger method. Bioinformatics tools were employed to classify novel variations into pathogenic or benign. The predicted effects of novel changes on protein structure were elucidated by 3D modeling. Mutations were detected in 22 of 24 patients (11, 7 and 4 in BCKDHB, BCKDHA and DBT genes, respectively). Twenty mutations including 11 novel mutations were identified. Protein modeling in novel mutations showed alteration of structure and function of these subunits. Mutations, c.1065 delT (BCKDHB gene) and c.939G > C (DBT gene) were noted to be recurrent, identified in 6 of 22 alleles and 5 of 8 alleles, respectively. Two-third patients were of neonatal classical phenotype (16 of 24). BCKDHB gene mutations were present in 10 of these 16 patients. Prenatal diagnoses were performed in 4 families. Consanguinity was noted in 37.5% families. Although no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation could be found in our study, most cases with mutation in BCKDHB gene presented in neonatal period. Large number of novel mutations underlines the heterogeneity and distinctness of gene pool from India. PMID:26257134

  2. Symbolic computation engines and molecular modeling templates: Maple-assisted point group analysis of the vibrational activity of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vail, Benjamin; Aris, Damian; Scarlete, Mihai

    The present study proposes an algorithm for point-group analysis (PGA) of the vibrational activity of molecules, adapted for the efficient utilization of the linear packages incorporated into currently available symbolic computation engines (SCE), such as Maple, Mathcad, or Mathematica. By the creation of this algorithm, we have addressed the need for a numerically friendly environment, outside the "locked" procedures within molecular modeling packages, which will preserve its flexibility, transparency, and maneuverability, regardless of the complexity of the calculation. The format of the character tables of the point groups significant to chemical species has been adapted to ensure automatic numerization, and consistent input of the alphanumeric data from the existent character tables into the SCE templates designed to perform the PGA. The two proposed templates address two complementary objectives: (i) a totally transparent and interactive file has been designed to allow access to all intermediate results at all levels of the procedure for easy implementation of potential additional modules of special interest 1-5, and (ii) for fast output and routine calculations of the IR/Raman vibrational activity of molecules based on their point groups, a totally automatic file with a highly simplified input interface has been designed. The numerical interface conveniently replaces the usual graphic user interface that is common to most commercial molecular modeling software packages, requiring minimum input determination. The structure for both templates is based on the use of the digitized forms for the character tables, for the symmetry operations, and for symmetry elements, all saved in dedicated libraries uploaded to the numerical database of the SCE.

  3. Spin-half Heisenberg antiferromagnet on two archimedian lattices: From the bounce lattice to the maple-leaf lattice and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnell, D. J. J.; Darradi, R.; Schmidt, R.; Richter, J.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the ground state of the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet on two Archimedean lattices, namely, the maple-leaf and bounce lattices as well as a generalized J-J' model interpolating between both systems by varying J'/J from J'/J=0 (bounce limit) to J'/J=1 (maple-leaf limit) and beyond. We use the coupled cluster method to high orders of approximation and also exact diagonalization of finite-sized lattices to discuss the ground-state magnetic long-range order based on data for the ground-state energy, the magnetic order parameter, the spin-spin correlation functions as well as the pitch angle between neighboring spins. Our results indicate that the “pure” bounce (J'/J=0) and maple-leaf (J'/J=1) Heisenberg antiferromagnets are magnetically ordered, however, with a sublattice magnetization drastically reduced by frustration and quantum fluctuations. We found that magnetic long-range order is present in a wide parameter range 0⩽J'/J≲Jc'/J and that the magnetic order parameter varies only weakly with J'/J. At Jc'≈1.45J, a transition to a quantum orthogonal-dimer singlet ground state without magnetic long-range order takes place that is probably of first-order type, although we cannot rule out that this transition is second order. The orthogonal-dimer state is the exact ground state in this large-J' regime, and so our model has similarities to the Shastry-Sutherland model. Finally, we use the exact diagonalization to investigate the magnetization curve. We find a 1/3 magnetization plateau for J'/J≳1.07 and another one at 2/3 of saturation emerging only at large J'/J≳3.

  4. Współczesny opad pyłku lipy i klonu jako przyczynek do palinologicznej interpretacji gleb kopalnych / The deposition of lime and maple pollen as a contribution to the palynological interpretation of fossil soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mędrek, Karolina; Hołub, Beata; Bałaga, Krystyna

    2013-06-01

    This paper aims to explore the modern deposition of lime and maple pollen in various plant communities as compared to the results obtained in palynological analyses of the Holocene paleosols in Kaczórki (the Middle Roztocze) and the Błędów Desert which are characterized by very high amounts of the pollen of these trees. The research shows that a high annual deposition of both lime and maple pollen on the soil surface is possible. This deposition far surpasses the average pollen values recorded in the Holocene but is not as high as those recorded in fossil soils. In relation to paleosols in Kaczórki such results show that lime and maple were important components of forests surrounding dune and simultaneously point to the fact that the deposition of pollen in these soils was a complex process.

  5. Gamma-cyclodextrin/usnic acid thin film fabricated by MAPLE for improving the resistance of medical surfaces to Staphylococcus aureus colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, Florin; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Curuţiu, Carmen; Diţu, Lia Mara; Socol, Gabriel; Ficai, Anton; Truşcă, Roxana; Holban, Alina Maria

    2015-05-01

    This study reports on the successful deposition of γ-cyclodextrin/usnic acid (γCD/UA) thin film by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) as anti-adherent coating on medical surfaces against microbial colonization. The obtained results demonstrate that these bioactive thin films inhibit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation at all stages, starting with their initiation. The antibiofilm effect was constant along the bacterial incubation time. Furthermore, the γCD/UA coatings show a great biocompatibility which means that this material is suitable for the development of modern medical devices with antimicrobial properties.

  6. Operational Procedures for Collecting Water-Quality Samples at Monitoring Sites on Maple Creek Near Nickerson and the Platte River at Louisville, Eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Steven M.; Swanson, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Prototype stream-monitoring sites were operated during part of 1992 in the Central Nebraska Basins (CNBR) and three other study areas of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQ) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Results from the prototype project provide information needed to operate a net- work of intensive fixed station stream-monitoring sites. This report evaluates operating procedures for two NAWQA prototype sites at Maple Creek near Nickerson and the Platte River at Louisville, eastern Nebraska. Each site was sampled intensively in the spring and late summer 1992, with less intensive sampling in midsummer. In addition, multiple samples were collected during two high- flow periods at the Maple Creek site--one early and the other late in the growing season. Water-samples analyses included determination of pesticides, nutrients, major ions, suspended sediment, and measurements of physical properties. Equipment and protocols for the water-quality sampling procedures were evaluated. Operation of the prototype stream- monitoring sites included development and comparison of onsite and laboratory sample-processing proce- dures. Onsite processing was labor intensive but allowed for immediate preservation of all sampled constituents. Laboratory processing required less field labor and decreased the risk of contamination, but allowed for no immediate preservation of the samples.

  7. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Socol, Gabriel; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Rădulescu, Marius; Surdu, Adrian; Trusca, Roxana; Rădulescu, Radu; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Stan, Miruna S.; Constanda, Sabrina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  8. Earthworm effects on the incorporation of litter C and N into soil organic matter in a sugar maple forest.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Timothy J; Yavitt, Joseph B; Sherman, Ruth E; Maerz, John C; Groffman, Peter M; Fisk, Melany C; Bohlen, Patrick J

    2013-07-01

    To examine the mechanisms of earthworm effects on forest soil C and N, we double-labeled leaf litter with 13C and 15N, applied it to sugar maple forest plots with and without earthworms, and traced isotopes into soil pools. The experimental design included forest plots with different earthworm community composition (dominated by Lumbricus terrestris or L. rubellus). Soil carbon pools were 37% lower in earthworm-invaded plots largely because of the elimination of the forest floor horizons, and mineral soil C:N was lower in earthworm plots despite the mixing of high C:N organic matter into soil by earthworms. Litter disappearance over the first winter-spring was highest in the L. terrestris (T) plots, but during the warm season, rapid loss of litter was observed in both L. rubellus (R) and T plots. After two years, 22.0% +/- 5.4% of 13C released from litter was recovered in soil with no significant differences among plots. Total recovery of added 13C (decaying litter plus soil) was much higher in no-worm (NW) plots (61-68%) than in R and T plots (20-29%) as much of the litter remained in the former whereas it had disappeared in the latter. Much higher percentage recovery of 15N than 13C was observed, with significantly lower values for T than R and NW plots. Higher overwinter earthworm activity in T plots contributed to lower soil N recovery. In earthworm-invaded plots isotope enrichment was highest in macroaggregates and microaggregates whereas in NW plots silt plus clay fractions were most enriched. The net effect of litter mixing and priming of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), stabilization of SOM in soil aggregates, and alteration of the soil microbial community by earthworm activity results in loss of SOM and lowering of the C:N ratio. We suggest that earthworm stoichiometry plays a fundamental role in regulating C and N dynamics of forest SOM. PMID:23967585

  9. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... be done to check for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There ...

  10. Branched Chain Amino Acids Induce Apoptosis in Neural Cells without Mitochondrial Membrane Depolarization or Cytochrome c Release: Implications for Neurological Impairment Associated with Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jouvet, Philippe; Rustin, Pierre; Taylor, Deanna L.; Pocock, Jennifer M.; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Mazarakis, Nicholas D.; Sarraf, Catherine; Joashi, Umesh; Kozma, Mary; Greenwood, Kirsty; Edwards, A. David; Mehmet, Huseyin

    2000-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency in branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase that can result in neurodegenerative sequelae in human infants. In the present study, increased concentrations of MSUD metabolites, in particular α-keto isocaproic acid, specifically induced apoptosis in glial and neuronal cells in culture. Apoptosis was associated with a reduction in cell respiration but without impairment of respiratory chain function, without early changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and without cytochrome c release into the cytosol. Significantly, α-keto isocaproic acid also triggered neuronal apoptosis in vivo after intracerebral injection into the developing rat brain. These findings suggest that MSUD neurodegeneration may result, at least in part, from an accumulation of branched chain amino acids and their α-keto acid derivatives that trigger apoptosis through a cytochrome c-independent pathway. PMID:10793161

  11. Efficient upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Burkett, Allan; Blackwell, Ashley; Taylor, Keylantra; Walker, Vernell; Sarkisov, Sergey; Koplitz, Brent

    2014-09-01

    We report on fabrication and investigation of optical and morphological properties of highly efficient (a quantum yield of 1%) upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the new technique of double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE). Polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) host was evaporated on a silicon substrate using a 1064-nm pulsed laser beam using a target made of frozen (to the temperature of liquid nitrogen) solution of PMMA in chlorobenzene. Concurrently, the second 532-nm pulsed beam from the same laser was used to impregnate the polymer host with the inorganic nanoparticulate made of the rare earth upconversion compounds NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+, NaYF4: Yb3+, Ho3+, and NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+. The compounds were initially synthesized using the wet process, baked, and compressed in solid pellet targets. The proposed DB-MAPLE method has the advantage of making highly homogeneous nanocomposite films with precise control of the doping rate due to the optimized overlapping of the plumes produced by the ablation of the organic and inorganic target with the infrared and visible laser beams respectively. X-ray diffraction, electron and atomic force microscopy, and optical fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the inorganic nanoparticulate preserved its crystalline structure and upconversion properties (strong emission in green, red, and blue bands upon illumination with 980-nm laser diode) after being transferred from the target in the polymer nanocomposite film. The produced films can be used in applications varying from the efficiency enhancement of the photovoltaic cells, optical sensors and biomarkers to anti-counterfeit labels.

  12. Comparing Measures of Fine Root Uptake by Mature Trees: Applications for Determining the Potential Impacts of Climate Change-Induced Soil Freezing on Nutrient Uptake by Sugar Maple and Red Spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socci, A. M.; Templer, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    Forests of the northeastern United States are predicted to experience a decrease in the depth and duration of snow pack due to global climate change. Even when coupled with milder winter temperatures, the loss of forest floor insulation can increase soil freezing depth and duration during the winter months. Soil frost leads to increased root mortality and soil nitrate leaching in stands dominated by sugar maple, a dominant tree species of northern hardwood forests. Greater nitrogen losses may be due to reduced nitrogen uptake by plant roots. As nitrogen is an essential nutrient for trees, changes in nitrogen uptake by fine roots may have implications for forest productivity and carbon storage. To test the impact of increased soil freezing on fine root uptake of nutrients from the soil, we established a snow removal experiment in sugar maple and red spruce dominated forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. In the first year of this study, we measured uptake of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) by fine roots of sugar maple and red spruce during the early (May), peak (July), and late (September) growing season. Individuals of sugar maple were located on paired plots (n=4 reference and snow-removal plots, n= 3 individuals per plot) and sampled for rates of nutrient uptake prior to snow removal. We used both an in situ intact root uptake measurement known as "nitrogen depletion", and an ex situ excised root measurement. Individuals of red spruce (n=1 reference and snow-removal plot, n=3 individuals per plot) were sampled after one winter of snow removal, also using one in situ and one ex situ method of measuring fine root uptake of nutrients. Individuals of sugar maple took up significantly more NH4+ than NO3- during the early growing season, but there was no significant difference between forms of nitrogen taken up during the peak growing season. Individuals of red spruce took up significantly more NH4+ than NO3- during both the early

  13. The Monte Carlo event generator AcerMC versions 2.0 to 3.8 with interfaces to PYTHIA 6.4, HERWIG 6.5 and ARIADNE 4.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersevan, Borut Paul; Richter-Waş, Elzbieta

    2013-03-01

    The AcerMC Monte Carlo generator is dedicated to the generation of Standard Model background processes which were recognised as critical for the searches at LHC, and generation of which was either unavailable or not straightforward so far. The program itself provides a library of the massive matrix elements (coded by MADGRAPH) and native phase space modules for generation of a set of selected processes. The hard process event can be completed by the initial and the final state radiation, hadronisation and decays through the existing interface with either PYTHIA, HERWIG or ARIADNE event generators and (optionally) TAUOLA and PHOTOS. Interfaces to all these packages are provided in the distribution version. The phase-space generation is based on the multi-channel self-optimising approach using the modified Kajantie-Byckling formalism for phase space construction and further smoothing of the phase space was obtained by using a modified ac-VEGAS algorithm. An additional improvement in the recent versions is the inclusion of the consistent prescription for matching the matrix element calculations with parton showering for a select list of processes. Catalogue identifier: ADQQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3853309 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 68045728 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 with popular extensions (g77, gfortran). Computer: All running Linux. Operating system: Linux. Classification: 11.2, 11.6. External routines: CERNLIB (http://cernlib.web.cern.ch/cernlib/), LHAPDF (http://lhapdf.hepforge.org/) Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADQQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 149(2003)142 Does

  14. Maple polyphenols, ginnalins A-C, induce S- and G2/M-cell cycle arrest in colon and breast cancer cells mediated by decreasing cyclins A and D1 levels.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Ma, Hang; Edmonds, Maxwell E; Seeram, Navindra P

    2013-01-15

    Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in plant foods. Ginnalins A-C are polyphenols present in the sap and other parts of the sugar and red maple species which are used to produce maple syrup. Here we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of ginnalins A-C on colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic colon (CCD-18Co) cells and investigated whether these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Ginnalins A-C were twofold more effective against the tumourigenic than non-tumourigenic cells. Among the polyphenols, ginnalin A (84%, HCT-116; 49%, MCF-7) was more effective than ginnalins B and C (50%, HCT-116; 30%, MCF-7) at 50 μM concentrations. Ginnalin A did not induce apoptosis of the cancer cells but arrested cell cycle (in the S- and G(2)/M-phases) and decreased cyclins A and D1 protein levels. These results suggest that maple polyphenols may have potential cancer chemopreventive effects mediated through cell cycle arrest. PMID:23122108

  15. MICROPATTERNING OF GOLD SUBSTRATES BASED ON POLY(PROPYLENE SULFIDE-BL-ETHYLENE GLYCOL), (PPS-PEG) BACKGROUND PASSIVATION AND THE MOLECULAR-ASSEMBLY PATTERNING BY LIFT-OFF (MAPL) TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, L; Bearinger, J P; Wu, L; Hubbell, J A; Textor, M; Tosatti, S

    2007-11-13

    Poly(propylene sulfide-bl-ethylene glycol) (PPS-PEG) is an amphiphilic block copolymer that spontaneously adsorbs onto gold from solution. This results in the formation of a stable polymeric layer that renders the surface protein resistant when an appropriate architecture is chosen. The established molecular assembly patterning by lift-off (MAPL) technique can convert a prestructured resist film into a pattern of biointeractive chemistry and a noninteractive background. Employing the MAPL technique, we produced a micron-scale PPS-PEG pattern on a gold substrate, and then characterized the patterned structure with Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Subsequent exposure of the PPS-PEG/gold pattern to protein adsorption (full human serum) was monitored in situ; SPR-imaging shows a selective adsorption of proteins on gold, but not on PPS-PEG areas. Analysis shows a reduction of serum adsorption up to 93% on the PPS-PEG areas as compared to gold, in good agreement with previous analysis on homogeneously adsorbed PPS-PEG on gold. MAPL patterning of PPS-PEG block copolymers fast, versatile and reproducible, and allows for subsequent use of biosensor-based surface analysis methods.

  16. Thirty Years of Compositional Change in an Old-Growth Temperate Forest: The Role of Topographic Gradients in Oak-Maple Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Julia I; McEwan, Ryan W

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured in response to spatial and temporal variation of numerous factors, including edaphic conditions, biotic interactions, climatic patterns and disturbance regimes. Widespread anthropogenic factors such as timber harvesting can create long-lasting impacts, obscuring the relationship between community structure and environmental conditions. Minimally impacted systems such as old-growth forests can serve as a useful ecological baseline for predicting long-term compositional shifts. We utilized decadal tree species sampling data (1979-2010) divided into three strata (understory, midstory, overstory) to examine temporal changes in relative abundances and spatial distributions of dominant taxa, as well as overall shifts in community composition, in a relatively pristine Appalachian old-growth forest in eastern Kentucky, USA. Quercus and Carya species persisted mainly as mature canopy trees with decreasing juvenile recruitment, especially in mesic areas. In contrast, Acer, Fagus, and other mesophytic species were abundant and spatially widespread in subcanopy layers suggesting these species are more likely to recruit in gap-scale canopy openings. In the overstory, mesophytic species were spatially restricted to lower and mid-slope mesic habitats. Temporal changes in community composition were most evident in the understory and tended to be greater in mesic areas, a trend seemingly driven by recruitment failure among xerophytic species. In subcanopy vegetation we discovered a loss of distinction through time among the ecological community designations established following the 1979 survey (Chestnut oak, Mixed mesophytic, and Beech). The overstory was more stable through time, suggesting a storage effect where long-lived trees have maintained a particular community composition through time in areas where regeneration opportunities are minimal under current environmental conditions. Overall, sitewide canopy succession is occurring slowly in

  17. Thirty Years of Compositional Change in an Old-Growth Temperate Forest: The Role of Topographic Gradients in Oak-Maple Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Julia I.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured in response to spatial and temporal variation of numerous factors, including edaphic conditions, biotic interactions, climatic patterns and disturbance regimes. Widespread anthropogenic factors such as timber harvesting can create long-lasting impacts, obscuring the relationship between community structure and environmental conditions. Minimally impacted systems such as old-growth forests can serve as a useful ecological baseline for predicting long-term compositional shifts. We utilized decadal tree species sampling data (1979–2010) divided into three strata (understory, midstory, overstory) to examine temporal changes in relative abundances and spatial distributions of dominant taxa, as well as overall shifts in community composition, in a relatively pristine Appalachian old-growth forest in eastern Kentucky, USA. Quercus and Carya species persisted mainly as mature canopy trees with decreasing juvenile recruitment, especially in mesic areas. In contrast, Acer, Fagus, and other mesophytic species were abundant and spatially widespread in subcanopy layers suggesting these species are more likely to recruit in gap-scale canopy openings. In the overstory, mesophytic species were spatially restricted to lower and mid-slope mesic habitats. Temporal changes in community composition were most evident in the understory and tended to be greater in mesic areas, a trend seemingly driven by recruitment failure among xerophytic species. In subcanopy vegetation we discovered a loss of distinction through time among the ecological community designations established following the 1979 survey (Chestnut oak, Mixed mesophytic, and Beech). The overstory was more stable through time, suggesting a storage effect where long-lived trees have maintained a particular community composition through time in areas where regeneration opportunities are minimal under current environmental conditions. Overall, sitewide canopy succession is occurring slowly

  18. Thin coatings based on ZnO@C18-usnic acid nanoparticles prepared by MAPLE inhibit the development of Salmonella enterica early biofilm growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Miruna Silvia; Constanda, Sabrina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ene, Ana Maria; Holban, Alina Maria; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Bălşeanu, Tudor-Adrian; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Dinischiotu, Anca; Lazar, Veronica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a nanostructured bioactive surface based on zinc oxide, sodium stearate (C18) and usnic acid (UA) exhibiting harmless effects with respect to the human cells, but with a significant antimicrobial effect, limiting the attachment and biofilm formation of food pathogens. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method and functionalized with C18 and UA. The coatings were fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique (MAPLE) and further characterized by TEM, SEM, SAED, XRD and IRM. The biological characterization of the prepared coatings consisted in cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays. The cytotoxicity of ZnO@C18 and ZnO@C18-UA films was evaluated with respect to the human skin fibroblasts (CCD 1070SK cell line) by phase contrast microscopy, MTT assay and nitric oxide (NO) release. The covered surfaces exhibited a decreased cell attachment, effect which was more pronounced in the presence of UA as shown by purple formazan staining of adhered cells. The unattached fibroblasts remained viable after 24 h in the culture media as it was revealed by their morphology analysis and NO level which were similar to uncovered slides. The quantitative microbiological assays results have demonstrated that the bioactive coatings have significantly inhibited the adherence and biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica. The obtained results recommend these materials as efficient approaches in developing anti-adherent coatings for various industrial, medical and food processing applications.

  19. Application of sugar maple and black locust to the biomass/energy-plantation concept. Annual report, March 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Sajdak, R.L.

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this research program is to determine the feasibility of converting existing pole-size maple stands to biomass/energy plantations using black locust as an interplanted species. Methods to quantify biomass production in northern hardwood stands have been refined and additional sites have been sampled. Hardwood sprout biomass production was shown to be greatly affected by site, fertilizer treatment, and tree species. Screening of black locust Rhizobium strains for acid tolerance has been completed. Seven strains have been found to be tolerant of both high aluminum and low pH conditions. A greenhouse and outplanting study testing the competitiveness and nitrogen-fixing ability of these strains under forest conditions has begun. Second year results of black locust provenance testing has shown frost hardiness variation among trees to be greater than among sources. Consequently, present work is now concentrated on propagating northern locust sources vegetatively. Biomass characterization of young northern hardwood sprouts by chemical and thermal analysis is complete.

  20. Prevention of DNA damage by L-carnitine induced by metabolites accumulated in maple syrup urine disease in human peripheral leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mescka, Caroline Paula; Wayhs, Carlos Alberto Yasin; Guerreiro, Gilian; Manfredini, Vanusa; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2014-09-15

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy caused by a deficiency in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity that leads to the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine (Leu), isoleucine, and valine and their respective α-keto-acids, α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), α keto-β-methylvaleric acid, and α-ketoisovaleric acid. The major clinical features presented by MSUD patients include ketoacidosis, failure to thrive, poor feeding, apnea, ataxia, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay, and mental retardation; however, the pathophysiology of this disease is poorly understood. MSUD treatment consists of a low protein diet supplemented with a mixture containing micronutrients and essential amino acids but excluding BCAAs. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in the neuropathology of MSUD, with the existence of lipid and protein oxidative damage in affected patients. In recent years, studies have demonstrated the antioxidant role of L-carnitine (L-Car), which plays a central function in cellular energy metabolism and for which MSUD patients have a deficiency. In this work, we investigated the in vitro effect of Leu and KIC in the presence or absence of L-Car on DNA damage in peripheral whole blood leukocytes using the alkaline comet assay with silver staining and visual scoring. Leu and KIC resulted in a DNA damage index that was significantly higher than that of the control group, and L-Car was able to significantly prevent this damage, mainly that due to KIC. PMID:25046137

  1. Nonlinear optical studies on 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, Andreea; Marinescu, Maria; Constantinescu, Catalin; Ion, Valentin; Mitu, Bogdana; Ionita, Iulian; Dinescu, Maria; Emandi, Ana

    2016-06-01

    We present results on a new, laboratory synthesized ferrocene-derivative, i.e. 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Thin films with controlled thickness are deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), on quartz and silicon substrates, with the aim of evaluating the nonlinear optical properties for potential optoelectronic applications. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as matrix, with 1% wt. concentration of the guest compound. The frozen target is irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser (4ω/266 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate), at low fluences ranging from 0.1 to 1 J/cm2. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to probe the surface morphology of the films. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy reveal similar structure of the thin film material when compared to the starting material. The optical properties of the thin films are investigated by spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE), and the refractive index dependence with respect to temperature is studied. The second harmonic generation (SHG) potential is assessed by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 60-100 fs pulse duration, 80 MHz repetition rate), at 200 mW maximum output power, revealing that the SHG signal intensity is strongly influenced by the films' thickness.

  2. Publisher's Note: ''The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073507 (2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx} 3-5 Multiplication-Sign 1010 cm-3 and temperature {approx} 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  3. AB107. Challenges in the management of patients with maple syrup urine disease diagnosed by newborn screening in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    De Castro-Hamoy, Leniza; Chiong, Mary Anne; Estrada, Sylvia; Cordero, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. MSUD has been reported to be the most common inborn error of metabolism in the Philippines. This study describes all patients with MSUD patients diagnosed through newborn screening during its first two years of implementation and the challenges encountered during their medical management. We reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with MSUD by newborn screening in the Philippines from its initiation in July 2012 to June 2014. There were 24 patients diagnosed with MSUD by newborn screening for the two-year period. The mean age at newborn screening is 4 days. All patients needed hospital admission. The most common complication during hospital admission was infection, needing intravenous antibiotics which were given to 21 of the patients. Out of the 24 diagnosed, 16 (66.67%) of patients are alive, while 8 (33.33%) have died. Several neurologic and non-neurologic complications have been observed during the follow-up of the patients. The common challenges of MSUD diagnosis and management in a low-resource setting identified in this study were late diagnosis, lack of access to metabolic specialists and medical supplies, nosocomial septicaemia, and protein deficiency. Aside from early properly-timed collection, improvement in other logistical concerns such as an efficient system of sending and delivery of samples will also help in earlier diagnosis. Mechanisms of transfer of critically ill patients, albeit challenging in our setting due to geographical concerns, must be improved. Hospitals in difficult-to-reach areas must be equipped to handle critical metabolic cases when transfers are not possible. Newborn screening has been proven to improve outcome in patients diagnosed to have MSUD but the success of the newborn screening program in preventing disability is also dependent on improvements in other

  4. A Whole-Cell Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on a Leucine Auxotroph of Escherichia coli Displaying a Gold-Binding Protein: Usefulness for Diagnosis of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Woo, Min-Ah; Park, Jung Hun; Cho, Daeyeon; Sim, Sang Jun; Kim, Moon Il; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2016-03-01

    We developed a whole-cell surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on a leucine auxotroph of Escherichia coli displaying a gold-binding protein (GBP) in response to cell growth and applied this sensor to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease, which is represented by the elevated leucine level in blood. The leucine auxotroph was genetically engineered to grow displaying GBP in a proportion to the concentration of target amino acid leucine. The GBP expressed on the surface of the auxotrophs directly bound to the golden surface of an SPR chip without the need for any additional treatment or reagents, which consequently produced SPR signals used to determine leucine levels in a test sample. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were further applied to the SPR system, which significantly enhanced the signal intensity up to 10-fold by specifically binding to GBP expressed on the cell surface. Finally, the diagnostic utility of our system was demonstrated by its employment in reliably determining different statuses of maple syrup urine disease based on a known cutoff level of leucine. This new approach based on an amino acid-auxotrophic E. coli strain expressing a GBP that binds to an SPR sensor holds great promise for detection of other metabolic diseases of newborn babies including homocystinuria and phenylketonuria, which are also associated with abnormal levels of amino acids. PMID:26828904

  5. Modeling intra-crown and intra-canopy interactions in red maple: assessment of light transfer on carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, William L; Bowden, Joseph D; McLeod, Michael F; Toler, Joe E

    2004-05-01

    Daily and seasonal net photosynthesis (Anet), transpiration (E), absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (Qa) and light-use efficiency (epsilonc) in a red maple container nursery were simulated with MAESTRA, a three-dimensional canopy model. Effects of canopy heterogeneity were simulated by imposing changes in crown spacing. The light transfer sub-model, a distribution model of incident, direct, diffuse and scattered radiation within MAESTRA, was validated against field measurements of light interception on an intra-crown scale. In the container nursery, we found that a fiber-optic-based method of integrating photosynthetically active radiation (Q) was more suitable for crown-layer light transfer measurements and adjustments than either orthogonal line or individual quantum sensor measurements. The model underestimated intercepted Q by 9.3, 18 and 11.1% for crown layers 1, 2 and 3, respectively; however, there were linear relationships between model estimates and observations made with each of the three measurement methods. We used the validated and parameterized light transfer model to assess intra-crown and intra-canopy light transfer on a layer, crown and canopy basis, and investigated effects of tree size ratio and tree spacing interactions on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc in the container nursery. Heterogeneous crown and canopy photosynthesis were predicted to exceed values for a uniform canopy under space-limiting conditions. Tree size ratio had large effects on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc when light to lower-canopy layers was limited by inadequate space between crowns. Increasing Qa at lower-crown layers had the largest impact on whole-crown and whole-canopy Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc. Increases in canopy productivity led to increased water use. Simulations of heterogeneous stands with adequate soil water indicated that light absorption is maximized under space-limiting conditions as a canopy crown moves toward heterogeneity. Nursery and plantation productivity

  6. AB115. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles of Filipino patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and correlation with their neurologic features

    PubMed Central

    Chiong, Mary Anne D.; Cordero, Cynthia P.; Fodra, Esphie Grace D; Manliguis, Judy S.; Lopez, Cristine P.; Dalmacio, Leslie Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is the most common inborn error of metabolism in the country. The main cause of the neuropathology is still not well established although the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and alteration in large neutral amino acids (LNAA) as well as energy deprivation have been suggested. It is the aim of the study to determine the plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles of Filipino patients with MSUD and correlate the findings with their neurologic features. Methods Twenty six Filipino patients confirmed to have MSUD were studied in terms of their plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles. Their results were compared with 26 age and sex matched controls. Their neurologic features were reviewed and correlated with the results of their plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles. Results Majority of the patients with MSUD had developmental delay/intellectual disability (88%), speech delay (69%) and seizures (65%). The amino acid profile of MSUD patients revealed low glutamine and alanine with high levels of leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine and alloisoleucine compared to controls (P<0.05). The urine organic acids showed significantly elevated excretion of the branched chain ketoacids and succinate (P<0.05), however other Krebs cycle metabolites that would indicate possible energy perturbation were not found in significant amounts. There were also no metabolite markers in the plasma amino acids or urine organic acids that correlated significantly with the neurologic features. The most remarkable finding in this study was the discriminant analysis done on 7 clinically and statistically significant important amino acids in the plasma wherein elevations in leucine, isoleucine, alloisoleucine, phenylalanine and threonine, and decreased levels of glutamine and alanine clearly defined the boundary between an MSUD case and control. Conclusions The findings suggest that there

  7. Eleven novel mutations of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes associated with maple syrup urine disease in the Chinese population: Report on eight cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiyuan; Ding, Yuan; Liu, Yupeng; Ma, Yanyan; Song, Jinqing; Wang, Qiao; Li, Mengqiu; Qin, Yaping; Yang, Yanling

    2015-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the degradation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). Only a few cases of MSUD have been documented in Mainland China, and prenatal diagnosis has not been performed so far. In this report, 8 patients (4 girls and 4 boys) with MSUD from 8 unrelated Chinese families were diagnosed at the age of 9 days to 1 year and 8 months. The diagnosis was confirmed by serum BCAAs and genetic analyses. Among the 8 patients, only one was detected by newborn screening. The remaining 7 patients were admitted because of neurological disorders and underwent selective screening. Significantly elevated BCAAs were observed in 7 patients. One patient was diagnosed by post-mortem study. 12 mutations were found in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes. 11 of these mutations were novel: c.178G > T, c.491T > C, c.740A > G, c.1214_1219dupCCAACC and IVS6+1delG in BCKDHA; c.482T > G, c.508C > T, c.767A > G, c.768C > G and IVS4,-2A > C in BCKDHB; and c.1A > G in DBT. Only one mutation, c.659C > T in the BCKDHA gene, had been previously reported. 7 patients were treated by dietary intervention and symptomatic therapy. 6 of them showed clinical improvement. The mother of one patient who died from MSUD underwent amniocentesis during her second pregnancy. The BCAAs level in her amniotic fluid was normal. Only one heterozygous mutation, IVS4,-2A > C in the BCKDHB gene, was detected in the cultured amniocytes. The results revealed that the fetus was not affected by MSUD. Normal development and the blood BCAAs profile confirmed the prenatal diagnosis after birth. Thus, we identified eleven novel mutations associated with MSUD in the Chinese population. Prenatal diagnosis of MSUD was successfully performed on one fetus by genetic analysis of the cultured amniocytes. PMID:26453840

  8. Tree species influence soil-atmosphere fluxes of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, Christina; Vesterdal, Lars; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    In the temperate zone, forests are the greatest terrestrial sink for atmospheric CO2, and tree species affect soil C stocks and soil CO2 emissions. When considering the total greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of the forest soil, the relevant GHGs CH4 and N2O should also be considered as they have a higher global warming potential than CO2. The presented data are first results from a field study in a common garden site in Denmark where tree species with ectomycorrhizal colonization (beech - Fagus sylvatica, oak - Quercus robur) and with arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (maple - Acer pseudoplatanus, ash - Fraxinus excelsior) have been planted in monocultures in adjacent blocks of about 0.25 ha in the year 1973 on former arable land. The soil-atmosphere fluxes of all three gases were measured every second week since August 2015. The hypothesis is that the total GHG efflux from forest soil would differ between species, and that these differences could be related to the type of mycorrhizal association and leaf litter quality. Preliminary results (August to December 2015) indicate that tree species influence the fluxes (converted to CO2-eq) of the three GHGs. Total soil CO2 efflux was in the low end of the range reported for temperate broadleaved forests but similar to the measurements at the same site approximately ten years ago. It was highest under oak (9.6±2.4 g CO2 m‑2 d‑1) and lowest under maple (5.2±1.6 g CO2 m‑2 d‑1). In contrast, soil under oak was a small but significant sink for CH4(-0.005±0.003 g CO2-eq m‑2 d‑1), while there were almost no detectable CH4 fluxes in maple. Emissions of N2O were highest under beech (0.6±0.6 g CO2-eq m‑2 d‑1) and oak (0.2±0.09 g CO2-eq m‑2 d‑1) and lowest under ash (0.03±0.04 g CO2-eq m‑2 d‑1). In the total GHG balance, soil CH4 uptake was negligible (≤0.1% of total emissions). Emissions of N2O (converted to CO2-eq) contributed <1% (ash) to 8% (beech) to total GHG emissions. Summing up all GHG

  9. Maple Tapping Access Program Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Welch, Peter [D-VT-At Large

    2013-03-19

    04/02/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Root tensile strength of grey alder and mountain maple grown on a coarse grained eco-engineered slope in the Swiss Alps related to wood anatomical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kink, Dimitri; Bast, Alexander; Meyer, Christine; Meier, Wolfgang; Egli, Markus; Gärtner, Holger

    2014-05-01

    . In order to confirm this assumption and possibly find more important root properties which have an influence on soil stabilization, the root systems of seven trees (three grey alder, four mountain maple) were excavated and analyzed. The study site is a catchment, where shallow landslides are common. It is located in the Prättigau valley in the Eastern Swiss Alps and was eco-engineered in 1997. The substrate is coarse-grained morainic material, mean annual air temperature reaches 4.64°C, average precipitation is 1170 mm, and the altitude is about 1000 m a.s.l.. The root system of each tree was uncovered carefully by hand to keep the roots undamaged, before removal it was photographed in situ to document the root distribution. The root systems were then cut into single root pieces of about 20 cm length and the position of each sample was documented. The root samples were then hierarchically classified in several root classes. The tensile strength of more than 500 samples was determined. In addition, the values for age, diameter, and root moisture were ascertained. Since it was assumed, that the cellular structure of the roots has an influence on the tensile strength, two microscopic thin-sections were prepared from all successfully tested root samples. The microscopic analysis focused on anatomical parameters such as the size and number of vessels, their distribution as well as their conductivity. The results for the final correlation between the anatomical characteristics and the root's tensile strength are presented for both tree species.

  11. Humectants as Post-plant Soil Amendments: Effects on Growth and Physiological Activity of Drought-stressed, Container-grown Tree Seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-year-o1d, container-grown seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipirera L.) were treated with Hydretain ES~ (HydES) or Ecosentia1~ (ECOS) applied as a soil drench. A p~ogressive drought cycle was imposed after treatment and, as each seedling wilted, the leave...

  12. Ozone exposure-response curves for tree species in Great Smoky Mountains National Park: A re-evaluation of how potential impacts may have changed over the past 25 years

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seedlings of tree species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park were exposed to ozone in open-top chambers for one or two growing seasons. Species used were red maple (Acer rubrum), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), black locust (Robinia pseudoacadia), winged sumac (Rhus co...

  13. EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID RAIN ON TWO MODEL HARDWOOD FORESTS: THROUGHFALL, LITTER LEACHATE, AND SOIL SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.6) was applied to model forests containing either sugar maple (Acer saccharum) or red alder (Alnus rubra). Water samples were collected above and below the canopy, below the litter, and from 20 cm and 1 m below the surface of ...

  14. Cerebral Oedema, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and the Decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus are Prevented by Dexamethasone in an Animal Model of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciana; Galant, Leticia S; Dall'Igna, Dhébora M; Kolling, Janaina; Siebert, Cassiana; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Wyse, Angela T S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-08-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder associated with acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This condition has been shown to lead to macroscopic cerebral alterations that are visible on imaging studies. Cerebral oedema is widely considered to be detrimental for MSUD patients; however, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) causes cerebral oedema, modifies the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, affects the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and alters the levels of cytokines in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-day-old rats. Additionally, we investigated the influence of concomitant administration of dexamethasone on the alterations caused by BCAA. Our results showed that the animals submitted to the model of MSUD exhibited an increase in the brain water content, both in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus. By investigating the mechanism of cerebral oedema, we discovered an association between H-BCAA and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the permeability of the BBB to small molecules. Moreover, the H-BCAA administration increases Il-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, whereas IL-10 levels were decreased in the hippocampus. Interestingly, we showed that the administration of dexamethasone successfully reduced cerebral oedema, preventing the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, BBB breakdown and the increase in the cytokines levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dexamethasone can improve the acute cerebral oedema and brain injury associated with high levels of BCAA, either through a direct effect on brain capillary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase or through a generalized effect on the permeability of the BBB to all compounds. PMID:26133302

  15. Levan nanostructured thin films by MAPLE assembling.

    PubMed

    Sima, Felix; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Sima, Livia E; Serban, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Petrescu, Stefana M; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2011-06-13

    Synthesis of nanostructured thin films of pure and oxidized levan exopolysaccharide by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation is reported. Solutions of pure exopolysaccharides in dimethyl sulfoxide were frozen in liquid nitrogen to obtain solid cryogenic pellets that have been used as targets in pulsed laser evaporation experiments with a KrF* excimer source. The expulsed material was collected and assembled onto glass slides and Si wafers. The contact angle studies evidenced a higher hydrophilic behavior in the case of oxidized levan structures because of the presence of acidic aldehyde-hydrogen bonds of the coating formed after oxidation. The obtained films preserved the base material composition as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. They were compact with high specific surface areas, as demonstrated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy investigations. In vitro colorimetric assays revealed a high potential for cell proliferation for all coatings with certain predominance for oxidized levan. PMID:21520921

  16. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is unable to process certain protein building blocks (amino acids) properly. The condition gets its name from the ... protein complex is essential for breaking down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are present in ...

  17. Maple Graphing Tools for Calculus III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Darwyn

    2006-01-01

    For those instructors lacking artistic skills, teaching 3-dimensional calculus can be a challenge. Although some instructors spend a great deal of time working on their illustrations, trying to get them just right, students nevertheless often have a difficult time understanding some of them. To address this problem, the author has written a series…

  18. Aboriginal Students in Victoria. ACER Research Monograph No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lemos, Marion M.

    An estimated 80%-90% of all Aboriginal students enrolled in the primary and secondary schools of Victoria, Australia, were tested and surveyed to determine their numbers, distribution, attendance, achievement, attitudes, and school leaving patterns. Most of the 1244 Aboriginals surveyed attended state schools and 75% were schooled in rural areas.…

  19. Interspecific analysis of xylem freezing responses in Acer and Betula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate woody plants have evolved two methods for coping with seasonal exposure to sub-zero temperatures. Supercooling is a freeze-avoidance strategy where cells are able to resist the freezing of intracellular water below sub-zero temperatures. Non-supercooling is a freeze-tolerance strategy wh...

  20. Conceptual Understanding in Social Education. ACER Research Monograph No. 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doig, Brian; And Others

    This report describes the results of a 1992 survey of students' economic, geographical, cultural, historical, and political understandings in the state of Victoria (Australia). The conception of some 2,900 students in Years 5 and 9 in government, Catholic and independent schools are investigated and described. The survey is one of a series of…

  1. EFFECT OF SIMULATED SULFURIC ACID RAIN ON THE CHEMISTRY OF A SULFATE-ADSORBING FOREST SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulated H2SO4 rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.0) or control rain (pH 5.6) was applied for 3.5 yr to large lysimeter boxes containing a sulfate-adsorbing forest soil and either red alder (Alnus rubra) or sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings. After removal of the plants and the litter lay...

  2. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen dioxide and other environmental drivers on tar spot of sycamore.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Laura; Ashmore, Mike; Sparks, Tim; Bell, Nigel

    2016-07-01

    Elevated sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were the major cause of the absence of symptoms of tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), in urban areas in the 1970s. The subsequent large decline in SO2 concentrations has not always been accompanied by increased tar spot symptoms, for reasons that have remained unresolved. We used a large citizen science survey, providing over 1000 records across England, to test two competing hypotheses proposed in earlier studies. We were able to demonstrate the validity of both hypotheses; tar spot symptoms were reduced where there were fewer fallen leaves as a source of inoculum, and elevated nitrogen dioxide concentrations reduced tar spot symptoms above a threshold concentration of about 20 μg m(-3). Symptom severity was also lower at sites with higher temperature and lower rainfall. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science to resolve competing hypotheses about the impacts of air pollution and other environmental drivers. PMID:27131814

  3. External beam analysis of living sycamore xylem infected by pathogenic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grime, G. W.; Pearce, R. B.

    1995-09-01

    Interactions between the living xylem (sapwood) of sycamore ( Acer pseudoplatanus) and wood inhabiting fungi have been investigated using a number of techniques including conventional histochemical and biochemical methods, non-invasive NMR imaging and external beam micro PIXE analysis using a 200 μm diameter beam of 3 MeV protons from the new external beam facility on the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe. The site of the fungal lesion on a living tree was exposed by a fresh cut immediately prior to analysis and both longitudinal and radial profiles through the infected regions were obtained in a point-by-point fashion. Profiles of several inorganic elements were obtained which correlated well with the observed discoloration due to the infection. The new external beamline at Oxford is described and results are presented. These are discussed in relation to the investigation of anti-microbial defence mechanisms in living trees.

  4. The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Daniela; Robinson, Sara C; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose. PMID:23245292

  5. Occurrence of a 2-bp (AT) deletion allele and a nonsense (G-to-T) mutant allele at the E2 (DBT) locus of six patients with maple syrup urine disease: Multiple-exon skipping as a secondary effect of the mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, C.W.; Fisher, C.R.; Chuang, J.L.; Lau, K.S.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P. )

    1993-02-01

    The authors have identified two novel mutant alleles in the transacylase (E2) gene of the human branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex in 6 of 38 patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). One mutation, a 2-bp (AT) deletion in exon 2 of the E2 gene, causes a frameshift downstream of residue ([minus]26) in the mitochondrial targeting presequence. The second mutation, a G-to-T transversion in exon 6 of the E2 gene, produces a premature stop codon at Glu-163 (E163*). Transfection of constructs harboring the E163* mutation into an E2-deficient MSUD cell line produced a truncated E2 subunit. However, this mutant E2 chain is unable to assemble into a 24-mer cubic structure and is degraded in the cell. The 2-bp (AT) deletion and the E163* mutant alleles occur in either the homozygous or compound-heterozygous state in the 6 of 38 unrelated MSUD patients studied. Moreover, an array of precise single- and multiple-exon deletions were observed in many amplified E2 mutant cDNAs. The latter results appear to represent secondary effects on RNA processing that are associated with the MSUD mutations at the E2 locus. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Maple syrup urine disease: The E1{beta} gene of human branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex has 11 rather than 10 exons, and the 3{prime} UTR in one of the two E1{beta} mRNAs arises from intronic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.L.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P.

    1996-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) or branched-chain ketoaciduria is caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. The clinical manifestations are characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino and {alpha}-ketoacids, which leads to severe cerebral edema with seizures, ketoacidosis, and mental retardation. The BCKAD complex comprises three catalytic components, i.e., a decarboxylase (E1) consisting of two E1{alpha} (M{sub r} = 46,000) and two E1{Beta} (M{sub r} = 37,500) subunits, a transacylase (E2) that contains 24 lipoic acid-bearing subunits, and a dehydrogenase (E3), which is a homodimeric flavoprotein. MSUD is genetically heterogeneous, since mutations in the E1{alpha} subunit (type IA MSUD), the E1{Beta} subunit (type IB), the E2 subunit (type II) and the E3 subunit (type III) have been described. The functional consequences of certain mutations in the BCKAD complex have been studied. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Molecular basis of maple syrup urine disease: Novel mutations at the E1[alpha] locus that impair E1([alpha][sub 2][beta][sub 2]) assembly or decrease steady-state E1[alpha] mRNA levels of branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.L.; Fisher, C.R.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P. )

    1994-08-01

    The authors report the occurrence of three novel mutations in the E1[alpha] (BCKDHA) locus of the branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex that cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). An 8-bp deletion in exon 7 is present in one allele of a compound-heterozygous patient (GM-649). A single C nucleotide insertion in exon 2 occurs in one allele of an intermediate-MSUD patient (Lo). The second allele of patient Lo carries an A-to-G transition in exon 9 of the E1[alpha] gene. This missense mutation changes Tyr-368 to Cys (Y368C) in the E1[alpha] subunit. Both the 8-bp deletion and the single C insertion generate a downstream nonsense codon. Both mutations appear to be associated with a low abundance of the mutant E1[alpha] mRNA, as determined by allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. Transfection studies strongly suggest that the Y368C substitution in the E1[alpha] subunit impairs its proper assembly with the normal E1[beta]. Unassembled as well as misassembled E1[alpha] and E1[beta] subunits are degraded in the cell. 32 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Glucitol-core containing gallotannins inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products mediated by their antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hang; Liu, Weixi; Frost, Leslie; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Dain, Joel A; Seeram, Navindra P

    2016-05-18

    Glucitol-core containing gallotannins (GCGs) are polyphenols containing galloyl groups attached to a 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol core, which is uncommon among naturally occurring plant gallotannins. GCGs have only been isolated from maple (Acer) species, including the red maple (Acer rubrum), a medicinal plant which along with the sugar maple (Acer saccharum), are the major sources of the natural sweetener, maple syrup. GCGs are reported to show antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory, and antidiabetic effects, but their antiglycating potential is unknown. Herein, the inhibitory effects of five GCGs (containing 1-4 galloyls) on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were evaluated by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy, and BSA-fructose, and G.K. peptide-ribose assays. The GCGs showed superior activities compared to the synthetic antiglycating agent, aminoguanidine (IC50 15.8-151.3 vs. >300 μM) at the early, middle, and late stages of glycation. Circular dichroism data revealed that the GCGs were able to protect the secondary structure of BSA protein from glycation. The GCGs did not inhibit AGE formation by the trapping of reactive carbonyl species, namely, methylglyoxal, but showed free radical scavenging activities in the DPPH assay. The free radical quenching properties of the GCGs were further confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using ginnalin A (contains 2 galloyls) as a representative GCG. In addition, this GCG chelated ferrous iron, an oxidative catalyst of AGE formation, supported a potential antioxidant mechanism of antiglycating activity for these polyphenols. Therefore, GCGs should be further investigated for their antidiabetic potential given their antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory, and antiglycating properties. PMID:27101975

  9. Indirect effects of pandemic deer overabundance inferred from caterpillar-host relations.

    PubMed

    Wheatall, Laura; Nuttle, Tim; Yerger, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    Externally feeding phytophagous insect larvae (i.e., caterpillars, here, larval Lepidoptera and sawflies, Hymenoptera: Symphyta) are important canopy herbivores and prey resources in temperate deciduous forests. However, composition of forest trees has changed dramatically in the eastern United States since 1900. In particular, browsing by high densities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has resulted in forests dominated by browse-tolerant species, such as black cherry (Prunus serotina), and greatly reduced relative abundance of other tree species, notably pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica) and birches (Betula spp.). To quantify effects of these changes on caterpillars, we sampled caterpillars from 960 branch tips of the 8 tree species that comprise 95% of trees in Allegheny hardwood forests: red maple (Acer rubrum), striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), sweet birch (Betula lenta), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black cherry, and pin cherry. We collected 547 caterpillar specimens that belonged to 66 Lepidoptera and 10 Hymenoptera species. Caterpillar density, species richness, and community composition differed significantly among tree species sampled. Pin cherry, nearly eliminated at high deer density, had the highest density and diversity of caterpillars. Pin cherry shared a common caterpillar community with black cherry, which was distinct from those of other tree hosts. As high deer density continues to replace diverse forests of cherries, maples, birches, and beech with monodominant stands of black cherry, up to 66% of caterpillar species may be eliminated. Hence, deer-induced changes in forest vegetation are likely to ricochet back up forest food webs and therefore negatively affect species that depend on caterpillars and moths for food and pollination. PMID:23678968

  10. Fine Root Productivity and Turnover of Ectomycorrhizal and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Tree Species in a Temperate Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest

    PubMed Central

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Advancing our understanding of tree fine root dynamics is of high importance for tree physiology and forest biogeochemistry. In temperate broad-leaved forests, ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species often are coexisting. It is not known whether EM and AM trees differ systematically in fine root dynamics and belowground resource foraging strategies. We measured fine root productivity (FRP) and fine root turnover (and its inverse, root longevity) of three EM and three AM broad-leaved tree species in a natural cool-temperate mixed forest using ingrowth cores and combined the productivity data with data on root biomass per root orders. FRP and root turnover were related to root morphological traits and aboveground productivity. FRP differed up to twofold among the six coexisting species with larger species differences in lower horizons than in the topsoil. Root turnover varied up to fivefold among the species with lowest values in Acer pseudoplatanus and highest in its congener Acer platanoides. Variation in root turnover was larger within the two groups than between EM and AM species. We conclude that the main determinant of FRP and turnover in this mixed forest is species identity, while the influence of mycorrhiza type seems to be less important. PMID:27617016

  11. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

  12. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

  13. Fine Root Productivity and Turnover of Ectomycorrhizal and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Tree Species in a Temperate Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest.

    PubMed

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Advancing our understanding of tree fine root dynamics is of high importance for tree physiology and forest biogeochemistry. In temperate broad-leaved forests, ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species often are coexisting. It is not known whether EM and AM trees differ systematically in fine root dynamics and belowground resource foraging strategies. We measured fine root productivity (FRP) and fine root turnover (and its inverse, root longevity) of three EM and three AM broad-leaved tree species in a natural cool-temperate mixed forest using ingrowth cores and combined the productivity data with data on root biomass per root orders. FRP and root turnover were related to root morphological traits and aboveground productivity. FRP differed up to twofold among the six coexisting species with larger species differences in lower horizons than in the topsoil. Root turnover varied up to fivefold among the species with lowest values in Acer pseudoplatanus and highest in its congener Acer platanoides. Variation in root turnover was larger within the two groups than between EM and AM species. We conclude that the main determinant of FRP and turnover in this mixed forest is species identity, while the influence of mycorrhiza type seems to be less important. PMID:27617016

  14. Leaf gas exchange performance and the lethal water potential of five European species during drought.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Feifel, Marion; Karimi, Zohreh; Schuldt, Bernhard; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Establishing physiological thresholds to drought-induced mortality in a range of plant species is crucial in understanding how plants respond to severe drought. Here, five common European tree species were selected (Acer campestre L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L., Corylus avellana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L.) to study their hydraulic thresholds to mortality. Photosynthetic parameters during desiccation and the recovery of leaf gas exchange after rewatering were measured. Stem vulnerability curves and leaf pressure-volume curves were investigated to understand the hydraulic coordination of stem and leaf tissue traits. Stem and root samples from well-watered and severely drought-stressed plants of two species were observed using transmission electron microscopy to visualize mortality of cambial cells. The lethal water potential (ψlethal) correlated with stem P99 (i.e., the xylem water potential at 99% loss of hydraulic conductivity, PLC). However, several plants that were stressed beyond the water potential at 100% PLC showed complete recovery during the next spring, which suggests that the ψlethal values were underestimated. Moreover, we observed a 1 : 1 relationship between the xylem water potential at the onset of embolism and stomatal closure, confirming hydraulic coordination between leaf and stem tissues. Finally, ultrastructural changes in the cytoplasm of cambium tissue and mortality of cambial cells are proposed to provide an alternative approach to investigate the point of no return associated with plant death. PMID:26614785

  15. Ecology of red swamps in the glaciated northeast: a community profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golet, Francis C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; DeRagon, William R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches its greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey, where it comprises 60-800/o of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses. On a regional scale, red maple swamps support at least 50 species of trees, more than 90 species of shrubs and vines, and more than 300 species of nonwoody plants. These swamps also provide habitat for a rich faunal community, including several wetland-dependent species. In areas that are becoming urbanized, these wetlands often constitute critical habitat for facultative species as well. Red maple swamps also are important sites for flood storage, water quality improvement, recreation, scenic beauty, and open space.

  16. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jackrel, Sara L.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  17. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Sara L; Wootton, J Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  18. A Monte-Carlo maplet for the study of the optical properties of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Man Ho; Carvalho, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    Monte-Carlo simulations are commonly used to study complex physical processes in various fields of physics. In this paper we present a Maple program intended for Monte-Carlo simulations of photon transport in biological tissues. The program has been designed so that the input data and output display can be handled by a maplet (an easy and user-friendly graphical interface), named the MonteCarloMaplet. A thorough explanation of the programming steps and how to use the maplet is given. Results obtained with the Maple program are compared with corresponding results available in the literature. Program summaryProgram title:MonteCarloMaplet Catalogue identifier:ADZU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:3251 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:296 465 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language:Maple 10 Computer: Acer Aspire 5610 (any running Maple 10) Operating system: Windows XP professional (any running Maple 10) Classification: 3.1, 5 Nature of problem: Simulate the transport of radiation in biological tissues. Solution method: The Maple program follows the steps of the C program of L. Wang et al. [L. Wang, S.L. Jacques, L. Zheng, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 47 (1995) 131-146]; The Maple library routine for random number generation is used [Maple 10 User Manual c Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc., 2005]. Restrictions: Running time increases rapidly with the number of photons used in the simulation. Unusual features: A maplet (graphical user interface) has been programmed for data input and output. Note that the Monte-Carlo simulation was programmed with Maple 10. If attempting to run the simulation with an earlier version of Maple

  19. Importance of protein quality versus quantity in alternative host plants for a leaf-feeding insect.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Niewiadomski, Julie; Kochmanski, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The nutritional value of alternative host plants for leaf-feeding insects such as caterpillars is commonly measured in terms of protein quantity. However, nutritional value might also depend on the quality of the foliar protein [i.e., the composition of essential amino acids (EAAs)]. A lack of comparative work on the EAA compositions of herbivores and their host plants has hampered the testing of this hypothesis. We tested the "protein quality hypothesis" using the tree-feeding caterpillars of Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) and two taxonomically unrelated host plants, red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Because L. dispar has higher fitness on oak than on maple, support for the hypothesis would be found if protein were of higher quality from oak than from maple. The whole-body EAA composition of L. dispar larvae was measured to estimate its optimum dietary protein composition, which was compared with the EAA compositions of oak and maple leaves. Contrary to the protein quality hypothesis, the EAA compositions of oak and maple were not significantly different in the spring. The growth-limiting EAAs in both tree species were histidine and methionine. Similar results were observed in the summer, with the exception that the histidine composition of oak was between 10 and 15 % greater than in maple leaves. The two main factors that affected the nutritional value of protein from the tree species were the quantities of EAAs, which were consistently higher in oak, and the efficiency of EAA utilization, which decreased from 80 % in May to <50 % in August. We conclude that the relative nutritional value of red oak and sugar maple for L. dispar is more strongly affected by protein quantity than quality. Surveys of many wild herbaceous species also suggest that leaf-feeding insects would be unlikely to specialize on plants based on protein quality. PMID:23297046

  20. Irrigation timing and volume affects growth of container grown maples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container nursery production requires large inputs of water and nutrients but frequently irrigation inputs exceed plant demand and lack application precision or are not applied at optimal times for plant production. The results from this research can assist producers in developing irrigation manage...

  1. Maple Agriculture Protection and Law Enforcement Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2011-10-20

    10/20/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6875-6876) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Module for Learning Integral Calculus with Maple: Lecturers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2012-01-01

    Engineering technology students can attain a meaningful mathematics learning if they are allowed to actively participate in hands-on activities. However, the current dissemination of knowledge in the classroom still focuses on teacher-centered paradigm of teaching. A study to explore lecturers' views regarding a newly developed integral calculus…

  3. Fast Modular Exponentiation and Elliptic Curve Group Operation in Maple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, S. Y.; James, G.

    2006-01-01

    The modular exponentiation, y[equivalent to]x[superscript k](mod n) with x,y,k,n integers and n [greater than] 1; is the most fundamental operation in RSA and ElGamal public-key cryptographic systems. Thus the efficiency of RSA and ElGamal depends entirely on the efficiency of the modular exponentiation. The same situation arises also in elliptic…

  4. Disturbance-mediated accelerated succession in two Michigan forest types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams, Marc D.; Scott, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    In northern lower Michigan, logging accelerated sugar maple (Acer saccharum) dominance in a northern white cedar (Thuja occidentals) community, and clear-cutting and burning quickly converted certain sites dominated by mature jack pine (Pinus banksiana) to early-succesional hardwoods, including Prunus, Populus, and Quercus. In both forest types the succeeding hardwoods should continue to increase in the future at the expense of the pioneer conifer species. In the cedar example, sugar maple was also increasing a an undisturbed, old-growth stand, but at a much reduced rate than in the logged stand. Traditionally, disturbance was through to set back succession to some earlier stage. However, out study sites and at least several other North American forest communities exhibited accelerated succession following a wide range of disturbances, including logging fire, ice storms, wind-throw, disease, insect attack, and herbicide spraying.

  5. Impact of host tree on forest tent caterpillar performance and offspring overwintering mortality.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, M; Mauffette, Y; Rochefort, S; Han, E; Bauce, E

    2010-04-01

    One of the most damaging insect pests in deciduous forests of North America is the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner. It can feed on a variety of plants, but trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) is its preferred host and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) serves as a secondary one in the northern part of its distribution. Because host plant characteristics influence insect performance and survival, we evaluated the impact of trembling aspen and sugar maple foliage on M. disstria performance. Host effects on insect cold hardiness and overwintering survival of offspring were also studied. Forest tent caterpillar reared on aspen leaves had a shorter development time, higher pupal weights and fecundity, and superior egg parameters (length and weight) compared with those reared on sugar maple leaves. Larvae from the two food treatments had low glucose levels during diapause, whereas glycerol content of insects reared on maple was significantly higher during diapause than larvae fed on aspen. Lower glycerol content may explain the higher overwinter mortality of pharate larvae from aspen-reared parents even though their supercooling points were as low as -36 degrees C. This study shows the influence of host plant on insect life history and the need to consider overwintering success and offspring performance in studies to understand and predict population growth and cycling. PMID:20388280

  6. Effects of UV-B radiation on phenolic composition and deposition patterns and leaf physiology in three Eastern tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Joseph H.; Gitz, Dennis C.; Peek, Michael S.; McElrone, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative changes in foliar chemistry in response to UVB radiation are frequently reported but less is known about the qualitative changes in putative UV-screening compounds. It has also not been conclusively shown whether qualitative differences in screening compounds or differences in localization patterns influences the sensitivity of plants to damage from UVB radiation. In this study we evaluated the chemical composition and deposition patterns of UV-absorbing compounds in three tree species and assayed these species for possible effects on gas exchange and photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Branches of mature trees of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and red maple (Acer rubrum) were exposed to supplemental levels of UVB radiation over three growing seasons. Controls for UVA were also measured by exposing branches to supplemental UVA only, and additional branches not irradiated were also used for controls. These species demonstrated contrasting chemical composition and deposition patterns with poplar being the most responsive in terms of epidermal accumulation of phenolics including flavonols and chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamates. Sweetgum and red maple showed increases primarily in hydroxycinnamates, particularly in the mesophyll in red maple. Leaf area was marginally influenced by UV exposure level. Assimilation was generally not reduced by UVB radiation in these species and was enhanced in red maple by both UVB and UVA and by UVA in sweetgum. These finding are consistent with a hypothesis that epidermal attenuation of UVB would only be reduced in poplar, which accumulated the additional epidermal screening compounds. It is possible that photosynthetic efficiency was enhanced in red maple by the increased absorption of blue light within the mesophyll. Stomatal conductance was generally reduced, and this led to an increase in water use efficiency in red maple and poplar.

  7. PISA 2003 Australia: ICT Use Familiarity at School and Home. ACER Research Monograph Number 62

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Sue; De Bortoli, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    As countries continue to invest in information and communication technologies (ICT) and they become even more common in the workplace, there is an increasing demand for schools to produce technologically literate students. This report presents results from the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA) 2003, and examines how extensive…

  8. ACER and University of Melbourne Music Evaluation Kit. Handbook and Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Jennifer

    The Melbourne Music Evaluation Kit (MEK) was designed to aid teachers of first-year secondary-school music classes to select appropriate curriculum materials related to the music backgrounds of class members, as indicated by scores on the kit. Tests included in the kit are criterion- referenced and are used as a diagnostic tool to measure…

  9. S1415CD, Trial Assessing CSF Prescribing Effectiveness and Risk (TrACER)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-21

    Febrile Neutropenia; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage 0 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer

  10. Issues of the Eighties: Principals' Perspectives and School Practices. ACER Research Monograph No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Margaret

    Over recent years there has been an increasing amount of public and political discussion of educational directions and educational accountability in relation to Australian primary and secondary schools. The study reported in this monograph attempted to address these concerns through a four-stage process: a review of literature exploring community…

  11. Knowing How To Teach Well: Teachers Reflect on their Classroom Practice. ACER Research Monograph No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Margaret; And Others

    This monograph gives an account of three associated studies of the professional craft knowledge of teachers as articulated by 20 teachers in 4 secondary schools in Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales, Australia. Participants were chosen on the basis of: (1) student identification of their best teachers and (2) equal representation from three…

  12. Is Anyone Listening? Young People Speak about Work and Unemployment. ACER Research Monograph No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakers, Catherine

    This report presents the results of an Australian survey investigating the issues raised by unemployment in society, using extensive quotations from the respondents. In 1983 an open-ended questionnaire was sent to a group of about 10,000 young people (aged 18-22) in Australia to determine their opinions about unemployment and the future and to…

  13. Learning from Children: Mathematics from a Classroom Perspective. ACER Research Monograph No. 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doig, Brian; Lokan, Jan

    This volume has been assembled to show what can be learned about learning from large groups of children's responses to well-constructed assessment questions. The wide range of information gathered through the Basic Skills Testing Program (BSTP) has been divided into chapters that focus either on key aspects of mathematics or the major concerns of…

  14. The Science Achievement of Year 12 Students in Australia. ACER Research Monograph No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosier, Malcolm J.; Long, Michael G.

    This report sets out results for Australia arising from its participation in the Second International Science Study (SISS). The focus is on Year 12 students, including those studying science and those not currently studying science. Most of the results for the science students are presented separately for those specializing in biology, chemistry,…

  15. Development of a National Standards Framework for the Teaching Profession. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    This paper was prepared for the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment and Training Taskforce on Teacher Quality & Educational Leadership. It covers the following broad areas: (1) How can a national definition of "Good Teaching" be developed, and what should it include?; (2) What should a "National Standards Framework" look like, and what…

  16. ACER Physics Unit Tests: Unit Tests, Diagnostic Aids, [and] Teachers Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Physics Unit Tests are designed to assist in the diagnostic evaluation of students' progress in the study of physics during the last two years of secondary schooling. They consist of a collection of 21 separate tests, each related to a different topic, and 21 diagnostic aids corresponding to the tests. The topics covered are: physical…

  17. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  18. Allocation of extracellular enzymatic activity in relation to litter composition, N deposition, and mass loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinsabaugh, R. L.; Carreiro, M.M.; Repert, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Decomposition of plant material is a complex process that requires interaction among a diversity of microorganisms whose presence and activity is subject to regulation by a wide range of environmental factors. Analysis of extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) provides a way to relate the functional organization of microdecomposer communities to environmental variables. In this study, we examined EEA in relation to litter composition and nitrogen deposition. Mesh bags containing senescent leaves of Quercus borealis (red oak), Acer rubrum (red maple) and Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) were placed on forest floor plots in southeastern New York. One-third of the plots were sprayed monthly with distilled water. The other plots were sprayed monthly with NH4NO3 solution at dose rates equivalent to 2 or 8 g N m-2 y-1. Mass loss, litter composition, fungal mass, and the activities of eight enzymes were measured on 13 dates for each litter type. Dogwood was followed for one year, maple for two, oak for three, For each litter type and treatment, enzymatic turnover activities were calculated from regressions of LN (%mass remaining) vs. cumulative activity. The decomposition of dogwood litter was more efficient than that of maple and oak. Maple litter had the lowest fungal mass and required the most enzymatic work to decompose, even though its mass loss rate was twice that of oak. Across litter types, N amendment reduced apparent enzymatic efficiencies and shifted EEA away from N acquisition and toward P acquisition, and away from polyphenol oxidation and toward polysaccharide hydrolysis. The effect of these shifts on decomposition rate varied with litter composition: dogwood was stimulated, oak was inhibited and maple showed mixed effects. The results show that relatively small shifts in the activity of one or two critical enzymes can significantly alter decomposition rates.

  19. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caputo, Jesse PhD.; Beier, Colin M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification – and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits – have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100 years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production – although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred – may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern

  20. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA).

    PubMed

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin M; Sullivan, Timothy J; Lawrence, Gregory B

    2016-09-15

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification - and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits - have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production - although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred - may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern hardwood

  1. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks. PMID:26745547

  2. Prediction of Desiccation Sensitivity in Seeds of Woody Species: A Probabilistic Model Based on Two Seed Traits and 104 Species

    PubMed Central

    DAWS, M. I.; GARWOOD, N. C.; PRITCHARD, H. W.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Seed desiccation sensitivity limits the ex situ conservation of up to 47 % of plant species, dependent on habitat. Whilst desirable, empirically determining desiccation tolerance levels in seeds of all species is unrealistic. A probabilistic model for the rapid identification of woody species at high risk of displaying seed desiccation sensitivity is presented. • Methods The model was developed using binary logistic regression on seed trait data [seed mass, moisture content, seed coat ratio (SCR) and rainfall in the month of seed dispersal] for 104 species from 37 families from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Panamá. • Key Results For the Panamanian species, only seed mass and SCR were significantly related to the response to desiccation, with the desiccation-sensitive seeds being large and having a relatively low SCR (i.e. thin ‘seed’ coats). Application of this model to a further 38 species, of known seed storage behaviour, from two additional continents and differing vegetation types (dryland Africa and temperate Europe) correctly predicted the response to desiccation in all cases, and resolved conflicting published data for two species (Acer pseudoplatanus and Azadirachta indica). • Conclusions This model may have application as a decision-making tool in the handling of species of unknown seed storage behaviour in species from three disparate habitats. PMID:16464874

  3. Structure of Plant Cell Walls 1

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Tadashi; Thomas, Jerry; Darvill, Alan; Albersheim, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Considerable information has been obtained about the primary structures of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell-wall pectic polysaccharides, i.e. rhamnogalacturonan I, rhamnogalacturonan II, and homogalacturonan. However, these polysaccharides, which are solubilized from the walls by endo-α-1,4-polygalacturonase, account for only about half of the pectic polysaccharides known to be present in sycamore cell walls. We now report that, after exhaustive treatment with endo-α-1,4-polygalacturonase, additional pectic polysaccharides were extracted from sycamore cell walls by treatment with Na2CO3 at 1 and 22°C. These previously uncharacterized polysaccharides accounted for ∼4% of the cell wall. Based on the glycosyl and glycosyl-linkage compositions and the nature of the products obtained by treating the quantitatively predominant NaCO3-extracted polysaccharides with lithium metal dissolved in ethylenediamine, the polysaccharides were found to strongly resemble rhamnogalacturonan I. However, unlike rhamnogalacturonan I that characteristically had equal amounts of 2- and 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues in its backbone, the polysaccharides extracted in Na2CO3 at 1°C had markedly disparate ratios of 2- to 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues. We concluded that polysaccharides similar to rhamnogalacturonan I but with different degrees of branching are present in the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. PMID:16666559

  4. The role of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in litter decomposition and soil organic matter stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalodova, Alexandra; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Armadilidum vulgare is common terrestrial isopod in Europe which is also important invasive species in North America. In ienvasive range it can reach densities up to 10 000 individuals per m square, consume all litter fall and substantially effect litter mineralisation and nutrient release. Here we are focusing on the effects of A. vulgare feeding on organic matter decomposition and stabilization. During 65 weeks laboratory experiment we observed the microbial activity of intact leaf litter (Acer pseudoplatanus), faecal pellets of terrestrial isopods (Armadillidium vulgare) produced from the same litter and unconsumed residues of this litter. Simultaneously we compared the response of microbial activity of excrements and litter to changes of humidity, temperature and addition of easily decomposable substances. Microbial respiration of faecal pellets was lower than microbial respiration of intact leaf litter or unconsumed litter residues. At the same time moisture and temperature fluctuations and addition of easily decomposable substances led to much higher increase in respiration in litter than in faecal pellets. As a conclusion, processing of litter by soil macrofauna slowed down microbial respiration and made it less sensitive to environmental fluctuation. 13C NMR spectra from excrements indicated preferential loss of polysaccharide-carbon and accumulation of lignin with some modification to the O-aromatic-C. Thermochemolysis showed that not only amount of lignin increased in litter but also its quality changed. Guaiacyl units were depleted, which indicate breakdown of guaiacyl associated with gut passage.

  5. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756826

  6. Immunogold Localization of Xyloglucan and Rhamnogalacturonan I in the Cell Walls of Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Patricia J.; Darvill, Alan G.; Albersheim, Peter; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    1986-01-01

    Plant cell walls serve several functions: they impart rigidity to the plant, provide a physical and chemical barrier between the cell and its environment, and regulate the size and shape of each cell. Chemical studies have provided information on the biochemical composition of the plant cell walls as well as detailed knowledge of individual cell wall molecules. In contrast, very little is known about the distribution of specific cell wall components around individual cells and throughout tissues. To address this problem, we have produced polyclonal antibodies against two cell wall matrix components; rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), a pectic polysaccharide, and xyloglucan (XG), a hemicellulose. By using the antibiodies as specific markers we have been able to localize these polymers on thin sections of suspension-cultured sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus). Our results reveal that each molecule has a unique distribution. XG is localized throughout the entire wall and middle lamella. RG-I is restricted to the middle lamella and is especially evident in the junctions between cells. These observations indicate that plant cell walls may have more distinct chemical (and functional?) domains than previously envisaged. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665111

  7. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Defense/Stress Responses Activated by Chitosan in Sycamore Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Massimo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT) is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation. PMID:25642757

  8. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in defense/stress responses activated by chitosan in sycamore cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Massimo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT) is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation. PMID:25642757

  9. Superior wood for violins--wood decay fungi as a substitute for cold climate.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Francis W M R; Spycher, Melanie; Fink, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    Violins produced by Antonio Stradivari during the late 17th and early 18th centuries are reputed to have superior tonal qualities. Dendrochronological studies show that Stradivari used Norway spruce that had grown mostly during the Maunder Minimum, a period of reduced solar activity when relatively low temperatures caused trees to lay down wood with narrow annual rings, resulting in a high modulus of elasticity and low density. The main objective was to determine whether wood can be processed using selected decay fungi so that it becomes acoustically similar to the wood of trees that have grown in a cold climate (i.e. reduced density and unchanged modulus of elasticity). This was investigated by incubating resonance wood specimens of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) with fungal species that can reduce wood density, but lack the ability to degrade the compound middle lamellae, at least in the earlier stages of decay. Microscopic assessment of the incubated specimens and measurement of five physical properties (density, modulus of elasticity, speed of sound, radiation ratio, and the damping factor) using resonance frequency revealed that in the wood of both species there was a reduction in density, accompanied by relatively little change in the speed of sound. Thus, radiation ratio was increased from 'poor' to 'good', on a par with 'superior' resonance wood grown in a cold climate. PMID:18554266

  10. Growth and survival of tree seedlings in a large-scale rainfall manipulation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, N.R.; Holmgren, M.; Huston, M.

    1995-06-01

    Seedlings of three species with different tolerance to shade and drought, Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus alba, were planted on the hillslope site of the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment during the winter of 1993-1994, and their growth measured during the following growing season. Volumetric soil moisture in the upper 35cm of soil was measured twice monthly, and relative light availability above each seedling was measured in August. The most shade tolerant species, sugar maple, leafed out earlier and by the beginning of April had produced 80% of its total leaf area, compared with only 16% for tulip poplar and 39% for white oak. Leaf area and stem growth of sugar maple were positively correlated with soil moisture, but not with light, while stem growth of tulip poplar and white oak were positively correlated with light, but not with soil moisture. Tulip poplar had the highest mortality (15%) followed by sugar maple (3%). Mortality was higher in dry locations, but was not related to growth during the season.

  11. Eleven-year response of foliar chemistry to chronic nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brooks Watershed in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Alexander Elvir; Gregory J. White

    2005-06-01

    The foliar chemistry of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) was studied from 1993 to 2003 at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). The BBWM is a paired-watershed forest ecosystem study, with one watershed treated bimonthly since 1989 with ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) at a rate of 25.2 kg N·ha–1·year–1. Foliar N concentrations were higher in all tree species within the treated watershed compared with trees within the reference watershed. Foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were lower in American beech and red spruce within the treated watershed. There were no significant differences in foliar K concentrations between watersheds. Foliar P and Mn concentration differences between watersheds were inconsistent among years. Differences in foliar N concentrations between watersheds declined over time in sugar maple but not in red spruce or American beech. Differences in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations between the treated and reference watersheds increased over time for American beech and red spruce, primarily because of a consistent decline in concentrations of these nutrients in trees within the treated watershed. No temporal trends in foliar Ca and Mg concentration differences between watersheds were observed for sugar maple.

  12. Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K.

    1998-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to interact with other factors affecting plant physiology to alter plant chemical profiles and plant-herbivore interactions. The authors evaluated the independent and interactive effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and artificial defoliation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and the consequences of such changes for short-term performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). They grew aspen and maple seedlings in ambient and enriched CO{sub 2} environments at the University of wisconsin Biotron. Seven weeks after budbreak, trees in half of the rooms were subjected to 50% defoliation. Afterwards, foliage was collected for chemical analyses, and feeding trials were conducted with fourth-stadium gypsy moths. Enriched CO{sub 2} altered foliar levels of water, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and phenolics, and responses generally differed between the two tree species. Defoliation induced chemical changes only in aspen. They found no significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and defoliation for levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolic glycosides and tannins). CO{sub 2} treatment altered the performance of larvae fed aspen, but not maple, whereas defoliation had little effect on performance on insects. In general, results from this experimental system do not support the hypothesis that induction of carbon-based chemical defenses, and attendant effects on insects, will be stronger in a CO{sub 2}-enriched world.

  13. Leaf litter decay process and the growth performance of Aedes albopictus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dieng, Hamady; Mwandawiro, Charles; Boots, Michael; Morales, Ronald; Satho, Tomomitsu; Tuno, Nobuko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro

    2002-06-01

    Larvae of the mosquito Ae. albopictus typically develop in small aquatic sites such as tree holes and artificial containers. Organic detritus, in particular decaying leaves, is therefore their major carbon source. Here we demonstrate the importance of leaf characteristics, and in particular their rates of decay, in determining the development and survivorship of larvae. We compared the effects of a rapidly decaying leaf, the maple Acer buergerianum (Angiospermae: Aceraceae) and a slowly decaying leaf, the camphor Cinnamomum japonicum (Angiospermae: Lauraceae), on the larval development of Ae. albopictus at different larval densities in laboratory microcosms. Overall, the maple leaves provided a better substrate and the observed growth patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in nutritive and chemical contents of the two leaf types. At the highest population density, the duration of the larval period was much shorter in maple litter microcosms. Larval mortality gradually increased with population density in the camphor treatment. In contrast in the rapidly decaying leaf litter microcosms, mortality remained low even as densities increased. Mean pupal size was greater in the individuals fed on the rapidly decaying leaf litter as well as at lower density. Size is likely to be correlated with fitness in the field. In general, rapidly decaying leaf litter will favor mosquito growth resulting in quicker development and higher population sizes. This work emphasizes the importance of the local environment on the development of vector mosquitoes and has important implications for control. PMID:12125870

  14. Potential New Associations of North American Parasitoids With the Invasive Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) for Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Aparicio, Ellen; Tatman, Daria; Smith, Michael T; Luster, Doug G

    2016-04-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is a polyphagous wood-boring insect native to Asia. Since it invaded North America in the 1990s, the beetle has been continuously targeted by quarantines and eradication programs in the United States and Canada. We examined the potential for development of new species-associations between A. glabripennis and hymenopteran parasitoids collected from cerambycids and other wood-boring insects infesting red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Results of our study showed that five groups of braconid parasitoids (Ontsira mellipes Ashmead, Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marsh, Spathius laflammei Provancher, Heterospilus spp., and Atanycolus spp.) successfully attacked early instars of A. glabripennis larvae infesting red maple logs and produced both male and female progenies. One species, O. mellipes, was continuously reared on A. glabripennis larvae inserted inside small red maple sticks for over 50 generations, and produced female-biased progeny (∼6:1 female to male ratio) at each generation. Continuous rearing of O. mellipes on A. glabripennis larvae did not significantly increase the parasitism and mean number of progeny produced per parasitized host. Together, these findings demonstrate that some North American parasitoids may be able to develop new associations with A. glabripennis and thus should be further studied under semifield or field conditions for possible use in biocontrol. PMID:26602779

  15. Tree species and soil nutrient profiles in old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    Old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique opportunity to examine tree species – soil relationships in ecosystems that have developed without significant human disturbance. We characterized foliage, forest floor, and mineral soil nutrients associated with four canopy tree species (Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh)) in eight old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range. The greatest forest floor accumulations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, and K occurred under Douglas-fir, primarily due to greater forest floor mass. In mineral soil, western hemlock exhibited significantly lower Ca concentration and sum of cations (Ca + Mg + K) than bigleaf maple, with intermediate values for Douglas-fir and western redcedar. Bigleaf maple explained most species-based differences in foliar nutrients, displaying high concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K. Foliar P and N:P variations largely reflected soil P variation across sites. The four tree species that we examined exhibited a number of individualistic effects on soil nutrient levels that contribute to biogeochemical heterogeneity in these ecosystems. Where fire suppression and long-term succession favor dominance by highly shade-tolerant western hemlock, our results suggest a potential for declines in both soil Ca availability and soil biogeochemical heterogeneity in old-growth forests.

  16. Relationships Between Litter Processing and Impervious Surface Cover in Headwater Tributaries of the St. Johns River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. A.; Dobberfuhl, D. R.; Benke, A. C.; Huryn, A. D.; Suberkropp, K.; Thiele, J. E.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated relationships between land-use and litter processing in 18 tributaries of the St. Johns River, Florida. The percent total impervious area (PTIA) of these catchments ranged from 0-66%. We measured mass loss and fungal biomass (as ergosterol) and associated macroinvertebrate biomass for 2 litter species (red maple [Acer rubrum] and sweetgum [Liquidambar styraciflua]). Processing rates ranged from 0.010-0.046d-1 for maple and 0.006-0.018d-1 for sweetgum. The fastest processing occurred at intermediate PTIA. Fungal biomass peaked at 24 days with the lowest biomass occurring in the low PTIA stream. Rates of processing were positively related to both mean macroinvertebrate biomass and taxa richness. Shredder biomass was not related to maple, but was negatively related to sweetgum processing. Scraper biomass peaked at intermediate PTIA, and was positively related to processing rates for both leaf species. We reduced correlated physicochemical, land-use and biological variables to several orthogonal variables using principle components analysis. Regression models based on these variables accounted for 70% of the variance in processing rates for both leaf species. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PTIA and other land-use indicators are associated with differences in stream ecosystem patterns and processes between low gradient, subtropical streams.

  17. Responses of deciduous trees to elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2]: Productivity, phytochemistry, and insect performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K.; Platz, C.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are expected to directly affect forest ecosystems. This research evaluated the effects of enriched CO[sub 2], on the productivity and phytochemistry of forest trees and performance of associated insects. Our experimental system consisted of three tree species (quaking aspen [Populus tremuloides], red oak [Quercus rubra], sugar maple [Acer saccharum]) and two species of leaf-feeding insects (gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar] and forest tent caterpillar [Malacosma disstria]). Three questions were evaluated: in response to enriched CO[sub 2]: (1) relative increases in tree growth rates (2) relative decreases in protein and increases in carbon-based compounds, and (3) relative reductions in insect performance. Aspen responded the most to enriched CO[sub 2], atmospheres whereas maple responded the least. Proportional growth increases, were highest for oak and least for maple. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2], on biomass allocation patterns differed among the three species. Enriched CO[sub 2], altered concentrations of primary and secondary metabolites in leaves, but the magnitude and direction of effects were species-specific. Consumption rates of insects fed high-CO[sub 2], aspen increased dramatically, but growth rates declined. Gypsy moths grew better on high-CO[sub 2], oak, whereas forest tent caterpillars were unaffected; tent caterpillars grew less on high-CO[sub 2], maple, while gypsy moths were unaffected. Changes in insect performance parameters were related to changes in foliar chemistry. This study illustrates that tree productivity and chemistry, and the performance of associated insects, will change under CO[sub 2], atmospheres predicted for the next century. Changes in higher level ecological processes, such as community structure and nutrient cycling, are also implicated. 61 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Litter Breakdown and Microbial Succession on Two Submerged Leaf Species in a Small Forested Stream

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Molli M.; Liles, Mark R.; Feminella, Jack W.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial succession during leaf breakdown was investigated in a small forested stream in west-central Georgia, USA, using multiple culture-independent techniques. Red maple (Acer rubrum) and water oak (Quercus nigra) leaf litter were incubated in situ for 128 days, and litter breakdown was quantified by ash-free dry mass (AFDM) method and microbial assemblage composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and bar-coded next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Leaf breakdown was faster for red maple than water oak. PLFA revealed a significant time effect on microbial lipid profiles for both leaf species. Microbial assemblages on maple contained a higher relative abundance of bacterial lipids than oak, and oak microbial assemblages contained higher relative abundance of fungal lipids than maple. RISA showed that incubation time was more important in structuring bacterial assemblages than leaf physicochemistry. DGGE profiles revealed high variability in bacterial assemblages over time, and sequencing of DGGE-resolved amplicons indicated several taxa present on degrading litter. Next-generation sequencing revealed temporal shifts in dominant taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria, whereas γ-Proteobacteria dominated pre-immersion and α- and β-Proteobacteria dominated after 1 month of instream incubation; the latter groups contain taxa that are predicted to be capable of using organic material to fuel further breakdown. Our results suggest that incubation time is more important than leaf species physicochemistry in influencing leaf litter microbial assemblage composition, and indicate the need for investigation into seasonal and temporal dynamics of leaf litter microbial assemblage succession. PMID:26098687

  19. PARTITIONING THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF SOIL N, MYCORRHIZAE, AND FOLIAR N UPTAKE ON FOLIAR δ15N PATTERNS: CAN WE DETECT FOLIAR UPTAKE OF REACTIVE N?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive N in N-limited systems and may be capable of incorporating reactive N compounds directly into leaves through the foliar uptake pathway. A proxy for atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation would be useful to estimate the impact of direct foliar N uptake on plant metabolism. Natural abundance foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) is a practical tool for this purpose because plant-available N sources often have different isotopic compositions. Current understanding of foliar δ15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of soil δ15N, direct foliar N uptake, mycorrhizal fractionation, and within-plant fractionations. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we estimated the influence of mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N patterns in red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings along an N deposition gradient in New York State. We found that mycorrhizal associations altered foliar δ15N in red maple seedlings from 0.03 - 1.01‰ across sites. Along the same temporal and spatial scales, we examined the influence of soil δ15N, foliar N uptake, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in adult stands of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black birch (Betula lenta), red maple (A. rubrum), and red oak (Quercus rubra). Using multiple regression models, atmospheric NO2 concentration explained 0%, 69%, 23%, and 45% of the residual variation in foliar δ15N remaining in American beech, red maple, red oak, and black birch, respectively, after accounting for soil δ15N. Our results suggest that foliar δ15N may be used to estimate pollution-derived atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation via the foliar N uptake pathway.

  20. Osmotic potential of several hardwood species as affected by manipulation of throughfall precipitation in an upland oak forest during a dry year.

    PubMed

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Gebre, G. Michael; Shirshac, Terri L.

    1998-05-01

    Components of dehydration tolerance, including osmotic potential at full turgor (Psi(pio)) and osmotic adjustment (lowering of Psi(pio)), of several deciduous species were investigated in a mature, upland oak forest in eastern Tennessee. Beginning July 1993, the trees were subjected to one of three throughfall precipitation treatments: ambient, ambient minus 33% (dry treatment), and ambient plus 33% (wet treatment). During the dry 1995 growing season, leaf water potentials of all species declined to between -2.5 and -3.1 MPa in the dry treatment. There was considerable variation in Psi(pio) among species (-1.0 to -2.0 MPa). Based on Psi(pio) values, American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), dogwood (Cornus florida L.), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were least dehydration tolerant, red maple (A. rubrum L.) was intermediate in tolerance, and white oak (Quercus alba L.) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) were most tolerant. During severe drought, overstory chestnut oak and understory dogwood, red maple and chestnut oak displayed osmotic adjustment (-0.12 to -0.20 MPa) in the dry treatment relative to the wet treatment. (No osmotic adjustment was evident in understory red maple and chestnut oak during the previous wet year.) Osmotic potential at full turgor was generally correlated with leaf water potential, with both declining over the growing season, especially in species that displayed osmotic adjustment. However, osmotic adjustment was not restricted to species considered dehydration tolerant; for example, dogwood typically maintained high Psi(pio) and displayed osmotic adjustment to drought, but had the highest mortality rates of the species studied. Understory saplings tended to have higher Psi(pio) than overstory trees when water availability was high, but Psi(pio) of understory trees declined to values observed for overstory trees during severe drought. We conclude that Psi(pio) varies among deciduous hardwood species and is dependent on canopy

  1. AmeriFlux US-Bar Bartlett Experimental Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bar Bartlett Experimental Forest. Site Description - The Bartlett Experimental Forest (448170 N, 71830 W) is located within the White Mountains National Forest in north-central New Hampshire, USA. The 1050 ha forest extends across an elevational range from 200 to 900 m a.s.l. It was established in 1931 and is managed by the USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station in Durham, NH. The climate is humid continental with short, cool summers (mean July temperature, 19.8C) and long, cold winters (mean January temperature, 9.8C). Annual precipitation averages 130 cm and is distributed evenly throughout the year. Soils are developed from glacial till and are predominantly shallow, well-drained spodosols. At lowto mid-elevation, vegetation is dominated by northern hardwoods (American beech, Fagus grandifolia; sugar maple, Acer saccharum; yellow birch, Betula alleghaniensis; with some red maple, Acer rubrum and paper birch, Betula papyrifera). Conifers (eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis; eastern white pine, Pinus strobus; red spruce, Picea rubens) are occasionally found intermixed with the more abundant deciduous species but are generally confined to the highest (red spruce) and lowest (hemlock and pine) elevations. In 2003, the site was adopted as a NASA North American Carbon Program (NACP) Tier-2 field research and validation site. A 26.5 m high tower was installed in a low-elevation northern hardwood stand in November, 2003, for the purpose of making eddy covariance measurements of the forest–atmosphere exchange of CO2, H2O and radiant energy. Continuous flux and meteorological measurements began in January, 2004, and are ongoing. Average canopy height in the vicinity of the tower is approximately 20–22 m. In the tower footprint, the forest is predominantly classified into red maple, sugar maple, and American beech forest types. Leaf area index in the vicinity of the tower is 3.6 as measured

  2. Nature's Notebook 2012: State of the data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellermann, Jherime; Crimmins, T.M.; Denny, E.G.; Enquist, C.A.F.; Gerst, K.L.; Rosemartin, A.H.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, 2,045 observers contributed 1,592 sites to the NPDb, encompassing all 50 states, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico.  At the close of 2012 the NPDb contained a total of over 1.6 million phenophase status records.  More than half of these records were submitted in 2012.  Observers submitted records on 547 species in 2012, including 371 plant species (comprised of 5,584 individual plants) and 176 animal species.  Red maple (Acer rubrum) and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) were the most observed plant and animal species in 2012.  Plant phenophases related to fruiting and flowering had the most records in 2012 and in all years combined, whereas animal phenophases related to feeding had the most records.

  3. A spring window for geobotanical anomaly detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R.; Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of senescence of deciduous vegetation to detect soil heavy metal mineralization is discussed. A gridded sampling of two sites of Quercus alba L. in south-central Virginia in 1982 is studied. The data reveal that smaller leaf blade lengths are observed in the soil site with copper, lead, and zinc concentrations. A random study in 1983 of red and white Q. rubra L., Q. prinus L., and Acer rubrum L., to confirm previous results is described. The observations of blade length and bud breaks show a 7-10 day lag in growth in the mineral site for the oak trees; however, the maple trees are not influenced by the minerals.

  4. AmeriFlux US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, William

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site. Site Description - The forest surrounding the Hemlock site has remained pristine with two exceptions. In the early to mid-1700s, European settlers cleared the majority of the forest for agricultural purposes. Selective harvesting of hemlock and chestnut trees occurred up until the early 1900s, when the chestnut blight killed all of the chestnut trees. In the current forest, about 83% of the total basal area of trees is hemlock. The remainder is equally divided between eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and deciduous species, including red maple (Acer rubrum), red oak (Quercus rubra) and black birch (Betula lenta). A very thick organic layer (10-20 cm or more) covers the soil surface, and highly decayed coarse woody debris is abundant.

  5. Isotope studies to determine dry deposition of sulfate to deciduous and coniferous trees: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted at two locations near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with radioactive /sup 35/S (87 day half-life) to examine the cycling behavior of sulfur in yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), red maple (Acer rubrum), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees. Some findings pertain to methods development for estimating dry deposition of sulfur to forest canopies and the magnitude of sulfur emissions from natural sources (Task II). We will determine through field studies, the internal cycling, storage, and biogenic emission of sulfur, as traced by /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, in environments impacted by atmospheric sulfate deposition; and will determine through isotope dilution studies, the contribution of foliar leaching and dry deposition to net throughfall (NTF) sulfate concentrations beneath deciduous and coniferous trees in such environments. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C

    2012-02-01

    The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673

  7. Experimentally reduced root–microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract. Background and Aims Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the mag...

  8. Progress through High School: A Study of Senior Secondary Schooling in New South Wales. ACER Research Monograph No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John; Sheret, Michael

    This book provides an overview of a 4-year longitudinal study of senior secondary schooling in the government high schools of New South Wales, Australia. The study followed the progress from year 9 to year 12 of 3,000 students from 22 government secondary schools in 2 metropolitan and 2 nonmetropolitan regions. The book is divided into 10…

  9. Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning after Liver Transplantation for Maple Syrup Urine Disease: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Shellmer, D. A.; Dabbs, A. DeVito; Dew, M. A.; Noll, R. B.; Feldman, H.; Strauss, K.; Morton, D. H.; Vockley, G.; Mazariegos, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    MSUD is a complex metabolic disorder that has been associated with central nervous system damage, developmental delays, and neurocognitive deficits. Although liver transplantation provides a metabolic cure for MSUD, changes in cognitive and adaptive functioning following transplantation have not been investigated. In this report we present data from 14 patients who completed cognitive and adaptive functioning testing pre- and one year and/or three years post-liver transplantation. Findings show either no significant change or improvement in IQ scores pre- to post-liver transplantation. Greater variability was observed in adaptive functioning scores, but the majority of patients evidenced either no significant change or improvement in adaptive scores. In general, findings may indicate that liver transplantation curtails additional central nervous system damage and neurocognitive decline providing an opportunity for stabilization or improvement in functioning. PMID:20946191

  10. Turning around Maple Shade Middle School: A Principal's Initial Reform Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmonowicz, Michael J.; Levy, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    This case was written for use in courses dealing with school administration, specifically those related to organizational change, school improvement/turnaround, and the principalship. It explores a veteran principal's first year as a "turnaround specialist" in a low-performing middle school, where she works with a sense of urgency to achieve an…

  11. Use of Maple Seeding Canopy Reflectance Dataset for Validation of SART/LEAFMOD Radiative Transfer Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Barbara J.; Peterson, David L.

    1999-01-01

    This project was a collaborative effort by researchers at ARC, OSU and the University of Arizona. The goal was to use a dataset obtained from a previous study to "empirically validate a new canopy radiative-transfer model (SART) which incorporates a recently-developed leaf-level model (LEAFMOD)". The document includes a short research summary.

  12. Heterozygote to homozygote related living donor liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, N; Loveland, J; Zuckerman, M; Moshesh, P; Britz, R; Botha, J

    2015-05-01

    Liver transplantation is an accepted treatment modality in the management of MSUD. To our knowledge, ours is only the second successful case to date of a patient with MSUD receiving an allograft from an RLD who is a heterozygous carrier for the disease. In view of the worldwide shortage of available organs for transplantation, heterozygote to homozygote transplantation in the setting of MSUD may provide a viable alternative for those awaiting transplantation. We report on the case of a two-yr-old infant with MSUD, who received a left lateral segment (segments II and III) liver transplant from his mother, a heterozygote carrier of one of the three abnormal genes implicated in MSUD. Post-operative BCAA levels normalized in our patient and remained so on an unrestricted protein diet and during times of physiological stress. To date, this is only the second case of a successful RLD liver transplant in a child with MSUD. Preliminary results indicate that RLD liver transplants are at least equivalent to deceased donor liver transplants in the treatment of MSUD, although longer term follow-up is required. Heterozygote to homozygote RLD transplant in patients with MSUD presents a new pool of potential liver donors. PMID:25677046

  13. Efficiency of using solid wood fuels in maple syrup evaporators. Forest service research paper (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study of commercial, wood-fired evaporators revealed that normal expected thermal efficiencies are between 35 to 50 percent. The moisture content and quality of wood fuels used and the design and method of firing the evaporator are critical in determining evaporator efficiency and the economic implications of using wood.

  14. Living donor liver transplantation from a heterozygous parent for classical maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Kadohisa, Masashi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Sawada, Hirotake; Honda, Masaki; Murokawa, Takahiro; Hayashida, Shintaro; Ohya, Yuki; Lee, Kwang-Jong; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2015-05-01

    MSUD is a hereditary metabolic disorder that is characterized by impaired activity of the BCKADC. Liver transplantation has been approved as a treatment for some MSUD cases in which the control of BCAAs is insufficient. Although there have been several reports about DDLT for MSUD, few LDLT cases have been reported. Because either of parents who are heterozygote of this disease usually applies to be a candidate of donor in LDLT, the impairment of BCKADC activity of graft liver should be concerned. We performed LDLT for 10 month-old girl with a left lateral segment graft from her father. BCKADC activities of the patient and her parents were measured using lysates of lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood specimen before the transplant. As a consequence, the activity of BCKADC of father was not inferior to a normal range. The patient tolerated the operation well. Postoperative course was uneventful and mixed milk was started at 8th POD. The serum BCAAs levels have remained within normal range. It should be necessary to follow the physical growth and mental development of the recipient in the future. PMID:25708273

  15. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  16. Heterozygous liver transplantation for maple syrup urine disease: First European reported case.

    PubMed

    Roilides, I; Xinias, I; Mavroudi, A; Ioannou, H; Savopoulou, P; Imvrios, G

    2016-09-01

    MSUD is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results from a defect in the BCKDH enzyme. This enzyme is essential for the second step in the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Patients with MSUD are subject to severe, irreversible neurologic injury unless closely managed with a specialized metabolic formula and a diet restricted in leucine throughout their lifetime. During times of illness, patients with MSUD can suffer from severe metabolic derangement, acute cerebral edema, and untimely death. Deceased donor liver transplant restores the ability to metabolize branched-chain amino acids, even on an unrestricted diet, and prevents metabolic derangements during times of illness. We report a successful case of living donor (parental) transplant for a child with MSUD. The donor was the child's father. This approach has been controversial as parents of children with MSUD are obligate heterozygotes for the condition and have diminished levels of BCKDH activity. If effective, living-related donor transplant provides a promising alternative for deceased donor liver transplant, which often requires a prolonged waiting period and may not be feasible in areas with limited medical resources. PMID:27357264

  17. Maple[R] Version of the "Indian Rope Trick". Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, D. G.

    2004-01-01

    If the point of suspension of a multiple pendulum is suitably oscillated then the pendulum can remain in motion in an upside-down position. Since such pendulums can model flexible materials, this inverted motion is sometimes referred to as an 'Indian rope trick'. Despite the complexity of the governing differential equations, this rope trick can…

  18. Natural and experimental tests of trophic cascades: gray wolves and white-tailed deer in a Great Lakes forest.

    PubMed

    Flagel, D G; Belovsky, G E; Beyer, D E

    2016-04-01

    Herbivores can be major drivers of environmental change, altering plant community structure and changing biodiversity through the amount and species of plants consumed. If natural predators can reduce herbivore numbers and/or alter herbivore foraging behavior, then predators may reduce herbivory on sensitive plants, and a trophic cascade will emerge. We have investigated whether gray wolves (Canis lupus) generate such trophic cascades by reducing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on saplings and rare forbs in a northern mesic forest (Land O' Lakes, WI). Our investigation used an experimental system of deer exclosures in areas of high and low wolf use that allowed us to examine the role that wolf predation may play in reducing deer herbivory through direct reduction in deer numbers or indirectly through changing deer behavior. We found that in areas of high wolf use, deer were 62 % less dense, visit duration was reduced by 82 %, and percentage of time spent foraging was reduced by 43 %; in addition, the proportion of saplings browsed was nearly sevenfold less. Average maple (Acer spp.) sapling height and forb species richness increased 137 and 117 % in areas of high versus low wolf use, respectively. The results of the exclosure experiments revealed that the negative impacts of deer on sapling growth and forb species richness became negligible in high wolf use areas. We conclude that wolves are likely generating trophic cascades which benefit maples and rare forbs through trait-mediated effects on deer herbivory, not through direct predation kills. PMID:26670677

  19. Effect of acid rain on the growth and nutrient content of two species of hardwood tree seedlings, and on the pH, microflora and nutrient content of the soil

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of two hardwood tree species and three soils to simulated acid rain. The value of infecting tree seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi before transplanting into acid-leached soils was also examined. Dundas silt loam, Hayden loam and Luther loam supporting coleus and sorghum were leached three times each week for 20 weeks with a mixture of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ adjusted by dilution to pH 5.5, 4.0 or 2.5 Ninety seedlings each of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) were transplanted into the soils and were misted twice weekly with the acid solutions. Ash seedlings misted with the pH 2.5 solution were shorter, had a smaller total leaf area and produced less leaf and stem material than ash seedlings misted wth pH 5.5 solution. In contrast, the growth and weight of the maple seedlings increased in response to the pH 2.5 treatments. Leaves of the ash exposed to the pH 2.5 treatment were covered with numerous small lesions, and the cuticular wax was partially worn away. Nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and roots of both species increased with increasing acidity, while phosphorus concentration in the leaves decreased. Soils became increasingly acidic as the acid treatments continued.

  20. Effects of tannin source and concentration from tree leaves on two species of tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation in and around freshwater ecosystems can affect aquatic organisms through the production of secondary compounds, which are retained in leaves after senescence and are biologically active. Tannins can be toxic to tadpoles, but the plant source of tannins and tannin concentration have been confounded in experimental designs in previous studies. To examine the effects of the concentration and source of tannins (tree species), we examined the effects of 4 factors on tadpole survival, growth, and development: tannin source (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], or sugar maple [Acer saccharum]); tannin concentration (including a control); diet protein level; and tadpole species (American toad [Anaxyrus americanus] and spring peepers [Pseudacris crucifer]). Tannin source and concentration affected spring peeper survival, but American toads had uniformly high survival. Spring peepers had a lower survival rate in high tannin concentrations of oak leachate but a high survival rate in both concentrations of sugar maple leachate. These differences in survival did not correspond with changes in dissolved oxygen, and no effect of dietary protein level on tadpole performance was observed. The presence of plant leachate resulted in increased tadpole growth in both species, but the mechanism for this finding is unclear. The results of the present study show that tannin concentration and source are important factors for tadpole performance, adding further evidence that plant chemistry can affect aquatic organisms. PMID:25319714

  1. Variation in the susceptibility of the forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki HD-1: effect of the host plant.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, K C; Lorenzetti, F; Guertin, C; Cabana, J; Mauffette, Y

    2001-10-01

    Host-mediated effect on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner against larvae of the forest tent caterpillar. Malacosoma disstria Hübner, was investigated under controlled conditions. Host plants used in this study were quaking aspen, Populus tremuloides Michx., a preferred host, and sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh., a secondary host. Larvae were reared in the laboratory on leaves of these hosts, and upon reaching the third, fourth, and fifth instar, they were fed leaves treated with one of a range of concentrations of B. thuringiensis variety kurstaki HD-1 suspensions. Larvae were tested on the host on which they were feeding before the 4-d bioassays. The estimated LC50s were 100-fold greater on quaking aspen than on sugar maple. Also, there was a decrease in efficacy over the whole ranges of concentrations with larval age on both hosts. LC50s varied approximately two-fold between third and fifth instar. These results indicate that host-mediated effects on B. thuringiensis efficacy warrant more interest. In particular, they strongly indicate that the host plant modifies the interaction between B. thuringiensis and a target insect, and offer the opportunity to investigate the mechanism(s) that may be involved in the enhancement of B. thuringiensis toxicity. PMID:11681676

  2. Plant and soil natural abundance delta (15)N: indicators of relative rates of nitrogen cycling in temperate forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Templer, Pamela H; Arthur, Mary A; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2007-08-01

    Watersheds within the Catskill Mountains, New York, receive among the highest rates of nitrogen (N) deposition in the northeastern United States and are beginning to show signs of N saturation. Despite similar amounts of N deposition across watersheds within the Catskill Mountains, rates of soil N cycling and N retention vary significantly among stands of different tree species. We examined the potential use of delta (15)N of plants and soils as an indicator of relative forest soil N cycling rates. We analyzed the delta (15)N of foliage, litterfall, bole wood, surface litter layer, fine roots and organic soil from single-species stands of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), red oak (Quercus rubra), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Fine root and organic soil delta (15)N values were highest within sugar maple stands, which correlated significantly with higher rates of net mineralization and nitrification. Results from this study suggest that fine root and organic soil delta (15)N can be used as an indicator of relative rates of soil N cycling. Although not statistically significant, delta (15)N was highest within foliage, wood and litterfall of beech stands, a tree species associated with intermediate levels of soil N cycling rates and forest N retention. Our results show that belowground delta (15)N values are a better indicator of relative rates of soil N cycling than are aboveground delta (15)N values. PMID:17479293

  3. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  4. Drought tolerance and osmotic adjustment of four deciduous tree species under altered precipitation: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Shirshac, T.L.; Gebre, G.M.; Hanson, P.J.; Tschaplinski, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    The degree and biochemical basis of drought tolerance and osmotic adjustment of dogwood (Cornus florida L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is being assessed in a mature hardwood forest using three hydrologic regimes: ambient, wet (+33% throughfall), and dry ({minus}33% throughfall). Currently, leaf water potential, osmotic potential at saturation, and metabolite concentrations are determined monthly for trees under the three treatments. First year results show that within the dry treatment, dogwood demonstrated the highest osmotic potential at saturation ({minus}1.2 MPa), indicating the greatest sensitivity to water stress. Increasing tolerance was evident in red maple ({minus}1.4 MPa), white oak ({minus}1.6 MPa), and chestnut oak ({minus}1.9 MPa). In June, dogwood displayed a 0.12 MPa adjustment to drought, relative to the ambient control. In July, chestnut oak displayed a 0.18 MPa adjustment. This osmotic adjustment resulted primarily from fructose and glucose accumulation in dogwood, and shikimic acid and sucrose accumulation in chestnut oak.

  5. Breeding bird assemblages associated with stages of forest succession in large river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; McColl, L.E.; Suarez, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain forests rival all other habitat types in bird density and diversity. However, major successional changes are predicted for floodplain forests along the Mississippi River in the coming decades; young forests may replace the existing mature silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) forests in some areas. We wanted to assess how the breeding bird community might respond to these changes. We studied stands of young forests along the middle Mississippi River, comparing the breeding bird assemblages among three stages of forest succession: shrub/scrub, young cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall) and willow (Salix nigra Marshall) forests, and mature silver maple dominated forests. We recorded a total of 54 bird species; the most frequently observed species were the indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). Bird species richness differed among the habitat types, with mature forests supporting the largest number of species and the most species of management concern. The shrub/scrub and mature forest bird assemblages were distinct and shared few species, but the young forests had no identifiable bird species assemblage, sharing species found in both of the other habitat types. The bird assemblages we observed in young forests may become more prevalent as aging floodplain forests are replaced with younger stages of forest succession. Under this scenario, we would expect a temporary local decrease in bird species richness and habitat for species of management concern.

  6. Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves

    PubMed Central

    Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5–20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water–methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70–80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert–Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm−2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

  7. {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in tree rings as monitors of environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Watmough, S.A.; Hughes, R.J.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1999-03-01

    Lead concentrations and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios were measured in annual tree rings of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) growing at two woodland sites in northwest England. One site, at Prescot, was adjacent to a metal refinery in the center of a large urban conurbation while the site at Croxteth was part of an urban woodland at least 2 km from the nearest major road. Lead concentrations and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in surface soil were higher at Prescot than at Croxteth. At both sites, Pb concentrations decreased considerably in tree rings formed after 1970. At Croxteth, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in tree rings formed between 1965 and 1987 were relatively constant, around 1.16, but increased sharply in wood formed after 1987 to over 1.17 in wood formed in 1993. This increase in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio reflects the recent reduction in Pb derived from vehicle emissions that has a/ characteristically low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio. There was no corresponding increase in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio in tree rings at Prescot, although Pb concentrations in tree rings formed after 1986 remained unchanged. In addition, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios at Prescot were generally higher than at Croxteth, and there was considerable annual variation, which is probably due to the multiple sources of Pb at this small woodland site. {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in sycamore tree rings may be used to document historical changes in the sources of bioavailable Pb, which differ between sites, although the majority of Pb in tree rings at these two woodland sites appears to have been derived from industrial and urban sources rather than from motor vehicle emissions.

  8. Responses of canopy duration to temperature changes in four temperate tree species: relative contributions of spring and autumn leaf phenology.

    PubMed

    Vitasse, Yann; Porté, Annabel Josée; Kremer, Antoine; Michalet, Richard; Delzon, Sylvain

    2009-08-01

    While changes in spring phenological events due to global warming have been widely documented, changes in autumn phenology, and therefore in growing season length, are less studied and poorly understood. However, it may be helpful to assess the potential lengthening of the growing season under climate warming in order to determine its further impact on forest productivity and C balance. The present study aimed to: (1) characterise the sensitivity of leaf phenological events to temperature, and (2) quantify the relative contributions of leaf unfolding and senescence to the extension of canopy duration with increasing temperature, in four deciduous tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior and Quercus petraea). For 3 consecutive years, we monitored the spring and autumn phenology of 41 populations at elevations ranging from 100 to 1,600 m. Overall, we found significant altitudinal trends in leaf phenology and species-specific differences in temperature sensitivity. With increasing temperature, we recorded an advance in flushing from 1.9 +/- 0.3 to 6.6 +/- 0.4 days degrees C(-1) (mean +/- SD) and a 0 to 5.6 +/- 0.6 days degrees C(-1) delay in leaf senescence. Together both changes resulted in a 6.9 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 0.7 days degrees C(-1) lengthening of canopy duration depending on species. For three of the four studied species, advances in flushing were the main factor responsible for lengthening canopy duration with increasing temperature, leading to a potentially larger gain in solar radiation than delays in leaf senescence. In contrast, for beech, we found a higher sensitivity to temperature in leaf senescence than in flushing, resulting in an equivalent contribution in solar radiation gain. These results suggest that climate warming will alter the C uptake period and forest productivity by lengthening canopy duration. Moreover, the between-species differences in phenological responses to temperature evidenced here could affect

  9. Substrate influences ecophysiological performance of tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Pröll, Gisela; Hietz, Peter; Delaney, Christina M; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Unfavourable soil conditions frequently limit tree regeneration in mountain forests on calcareous bedrock. Rocky, shallow organic soils on dolomite pose a particular problem for tree regeneration due to commonly restricted water and nutrient supplies. Moreover, an often dense layer of understorey vegetation competes for the limited resources available. Hence, an array of interacting factors impairs tree seedlings' performance on dolomite, but there is little information on the ecophysiological mechanisms. We studied the effects of substrate, competing vegetation and foliar nutrient concentrations on the photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potentials (ψ) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and larch (Larix decidua Mill.) under controlled (well-watered/drought-stressed) conditions and under prevailing field conditions. While A and gs of well-watered spruce in the pot experiment were reduced by the mineral substrate, the organic dolomite substrate with dense competing vegetation reduced gs and ψ of sycamore, spruce and larch under drought-stressed conditions in the field. For sycamore and spruce, A and gs were strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) concentrations in the pot experiment. In contrast, soil water primarily affected beech and larch. Finally, dense competing vegetation negatively affected A and gs of spruce and A of larch on dolomite. Our results highlight the critical role of N, K and water availability for tree seedlings in shallow soils on calcareous bedrock. On these sites, natural tree regeneration is at particular risk from episodic drought, a likely consequence of climate change. PMID:26446268

  10. Interplay of Mg2+, ADP, and ATP in the cytosol and mitochondria: Unravelling the role of Mg2+ in cell respiration

    PubMed Central

    Gout, Elisabeth; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Douce, Roland; Bligny, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In animal and plant cells, the ATP/ADP ratio and/or energy charge are generally considered key parameters regulating metabolism and respiration. The major alternative issue of whether the cytosolic and mitochondrial concentrations of ADP and ATP directly mediate cell respiration remains unclear, however. In addition, because only free nucleotides are exchanged by the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, whereas MgADP is the substrate of ATP synthase (EC 3.6.3.14), the cytosolic and mitochondrial Mg2+ concentrations must be considered as well. Here we developed in vivo/in vitro techniques using 31P-NMR spectroscopy to simultaneously measure these key components in subcellular compartments. We show that heterotrophic sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells incubated in various nutrient media contain low, stable cytosolic ADP and Mg2+ concentrations, unlike ATP. ADP is mainly free in the cytosol, but complexed by Mg2+ in the mitochondrial matrix, where [Mg2+] is tenfold higher. In contrast, owing to a much higher affinity for Mg2+, ATP is mostly complexed by Mg2+ in both compartments. Mg2+ starvation used to alter cytosolic and mitochondrial [Mg2+] reversibly increases free nucleotide concentration in the cytosol and matrix, enhances ADP at the expense of ATP, decreases coupled respiration, and stops cell growth. We conclude that the cytosolic ADP concentration, and not ATP, ATP/ADP ratio, or energy charge, controls the respiration of plant cells. The Mg2+ concentration, remarkably constant and low in the cytosol and tenfold higher in the matrix, mediates ADP/ATP exchange between the cytosol and matrix, [MgADP]-dependent mitochondrial ATP synthase activity, and cytosolic free ADP homeostasis. PMID:25313036

  11. Multiple effects of glycerol on plant cell metabolism. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

    PubMed

    Aubert, S; Gout, E; Bligny, R; Douce, R

    1994-08-26

    The effects of glycerol on plant cell metabolism were studied with sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After a long period of sucrose starvation, the addition of 50 mM glycerol to the medium did not restore the original glucose-6-P pool and led to a rapid accumulation of sn-glycerol-3-P in the cytoplasmic compartment. The synthesis of sn-glycerol-3-P was rapid and occurred first at the expense of cytoplasmic P(i). Accumulated sn-glycerol-3-P competitively inhibited glucose-6-phosphate isomerase activity when fructose-6-P was the varied substrate. Such a situation prevented the rapid recycling of triose phosphates back to hexose phosphates and led to an arrest of the functioning of the cytosolic and plastidial pentose phosphate pathways. Under these conditions, the flow of carbon to drive cell respiration derived almost exclusively from glycerol, and this polyalcohol was not used as a source of carbon skeletons for biosynthesis. Glycerol also induced the accumulation of O-phosphohomoserine in the cytoplasmic compartment as long as the cell culture medium contained sucrose. Finally glycerol added to sucrose-starved cells stopped the accumulation of phosphocholine (Roby, C., Martin J.-B., Bligny, R., and Douce, R. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 5000-5007) and prevented a further decline in the uncoupled rate of O2 consumption by the cells (Journet, E. P., Bligny, R., and Douce, R. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 3193-3199). These last observations strongly suggest that glycerol prevented the triggering of autophagy induced by sucrose starvation in sycamore cells. PMID:8063774

  12. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  13. BIFoR FACE: A Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) facility in old-growth temperate deciduous woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Rob; Thomas, Rick; Ellsworth, David; Hemming, Debbie; Crous, Kristine; Blaen, Phillip; Poynter, Alex; Blenkhorn, Daniel; Pope, Francis

    2016-04-01

    The Birmingham Institute of Forest research (BIFoR) focuses on fundamental physical, biological, ecological, social and cultural research of direct relevance to forested landscapes worldwide. A core platform for BIFoR is a Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) facility, with which we study the ten-year response of a mature temperate deciduous forest ecosystem to a 150-ppmv step-change in atmospheric [CO2]. BIFoR FACE is being established in Mill Haft, a mature (~150 year-old) oak (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) coppice-with-standards woodland in central England, UK. The facility enables elevated CO2 (eCO2) treatments to be introduced in 30 m diameter rings (3 treatment plots, 3 fully-replicated control plots, and 3 unmodified ambient controls). Primary research questions focus on carbon uptake and storage, corresponding nutrient limitations, and biodiversity and ecosystem responses to elevated CO2. Here we describe the facility and experimental design, and present baseline data collected through the growing season of 2015. These data include: biophysical tree properties; atmospheric CO2/H2O fluxes; airborne and ground laser scatterometry; leaf area index; geophysical survey data; canopy phenology; soil and water chemical and physical properties; and invertebrate surveys. Data from an intensive campaign conducted during august 2015 are also shown, including in- and above- canopy characterisation of biogenic VOCs using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer, aerosol loading including bioaerosols, and air quality. Further campaign results are presented from leaf level photosynthetic carbon-dioxide response curve (A/Ci) performed at different canopy heights on oak trees, and on the dominant understory species - hazel and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) across the site. BIFoR FACE is intended to be an international facility for forest science - ideas for collaborations are encouraged. Please see http

  14. Disparity in elevational shifts of European trees in response to recent climate warming.

    PubMed

    Rabasa, Sonia G; Granda, Elena; Benavides, Raquel; Kunstler, Georges; Espelta, Josep M; Ogaya, Romá; Peñuelas, Josep; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Gil, Wojciech; Grodzki, Wojciech; Ambrozy, Slawomir; Bergh, Johan; Hódar, José A; Zamora, Regino; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Predicting climate-driven changes in plant distribution is crucial for biodiversity conservation and management under recent climate change. Climate warming is expected to induce movement of species upslope and towards higher latitudes. However, the mechanisms and physiological processes behind the altitudinal and latitudinal distribution range of a tree species are complex and depend on each tree species features and vary over ontogenetic stages. We investigated the altitudinal distribution differences between juvenile and adult individuals of seven major European tree species along elevational transects covering a wide latitudinal range from southern Spain (37°N) to northern Sweden (67°N). By comparing juvenile and adult distributions (shifts on the optimum position and the range limits) we assessed the response of species to present climate conditions in relation to previous conditions that prevailed when adults were established. Mean temperature increased by 0.86 °C on average at our sites during the last decade compared with previous 30-year period. Only one of the species studied, Abies alba, matched the expected predictions under the observed warming, with a maximum abundance of juveniles at higher altitudes than adults. Three species, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, showed an opposite pattern while for other three species, such as Quercus ilex, Acer pseudoplatanus and Q. petraea, we were no able to detect changes in distribution. These findings are in contrast with theoretical predictions and show that tree responses to climate change are complex and are obscured not only by other environmental factors but also by internal processes related to ontogeny and demography. PMID:23572443

  15. Living part on soil bioengineering structures in Appennino Tosco-emiliano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico; Dani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    From analisys headed up in soil bioengineered areas in different parts of Tuscany, the suitest root systems in slope stabilization turn out to be those spreading from seed-born plants, while adventitious roots from cuttings are often absent in the part more distant from the neck, and in some cases are insufficient to grant life support just in case of minor stress conditions. Genus Alnus shows it's adaptation capability to restore initial restoration steps and to create renovation prerequisites for other species through ammending litter production and symbiosis for nitrogen fixation with Frankia genus bacteria; other similar symbiosis (with Rhizobium and fungi) are carried out by Robinia pseudacacia. Soil fecundity increase is confirmed by the following entrance of more demanding species, as Ostrya carpinifolia and Acer pseudoplatanus at the tree level, Urtica dioica and Rubus Ulmifolius (nitrophilouses) at grass level. In the project phase it ought to imagine a well-structured implant, including rooted plants, cuttings and posibly a seed mix of colonising species aiming to form a germplasm on the structure itself in order to sprout whenever the local conditions allow it. Verifying that many after developed species came from ornithocore dissemination (Ficus carica, Pinus spp., Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra), lead to toughts about bedding out bird-attracting species on structures in order to realise a faster (and maybe more complex) succession development. This higher velocity could grant in a shorter period the production of a root mass spread in a more disomogeneous and complex pattern than that deriving from cuttings disposed in the traditional way; such a variability could allow a better interaction with other biological factors in the soil (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, ...) that are important for the plant nutrient cicle (Ohsowski et al., 2012) and then the constituion of an articulate, long-term system.

  16. Plants as biomarkers for monitoring heavy metal contaminants on landfill sites using sequential extraction and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES).

    PubMed

    Murphy, A P; Coudert, M; Barker, J

    2000-12-01

    There have been a number of studies investigating metal uptake in plants on contaminated landfill sites, but little on their role as biomarkers to identify metal mobility for continuous monitoring purposes. Vegetation can be used as a biomonitor of site pollution, by identifying the mobilisation of heavy metals and by providing an understanding of their bioavailability. Plants selected were the common nettle (Uritica Dioica), bramble (Rubus Fruticosa) and sycamore (Acer Pseudoplatanus). A study of the soil fractionation was made to investigate the soil properties that are likely to influence metal mobility and a correlation exercise was undertaken to investigate if variations in concentration of metals in vegetation can reflect variations in concentration of the metals in soil. The soil was digested using aqua regia in a microwave closed vessel. The vegetation was digested using both microwave and a hydrogen peroxide-nitric acid mixture, refluxed on a heating block and a comparison made. The certified reference materials (CRMs) used were Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, peach leaves for vegetation (NIST) and for soil CRM 143R, sewage sludge-amended soil (BCR). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2-6% for the analyses. Our findings show evidence of phytoextraction by some plants, (especially bramble and nettle), with certain plants, (sycamore) exhibiting signs of phytostabilisation. The evidence suggests that there is a degree of selectivity in metal uptake and partitioning within the plant compartments. It was also possible to correlate mobility phases of certain metals (Pb, Cu and Zn) using the soil and plant record. Zn and Cu exhibited the greatest potential to migrate from the roots to the leaves, with Pb found principally in the roots of ground vegetation. Our results suggest that analysis of bramble leaves, nettle leaves and roots can be used to monitor the mobility of Pb in the soil with nettle, bramble and sycamore leaves to monitor Cu and Zn

  17. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8–926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34–2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak

  18. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture.

    PubMed

    Bochnia, M; Ziegler, J; Sander, J; Uhlig, A; Schaefer, S; Vollstedt, S; Glatter, M; Abel, S; Recknagel, S; Schusser, G F; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Zeyner, A

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7-319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8-8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8-926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17-0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34-2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak could be

  19. Tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, Sarah E; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Ogdahl, Megan; Zytkowiak, Roma; Hale, Cynthia; Karolewski, Piotr

    2006-09-01

    We studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous litter bag experiments to tease apart species effects on decomposition via leaf litter chemistry vs. effects on the decomposition environment. Decomposition rates of litter in its plot of origin were negatively correlated with litter lignin and positively correlated with mean annual soil temperature (MAT(soil)) across species. Likewise, decomposition of a common litter type across all plots was positively associated with MAT(soil), and decomposition of litter from all plots in a common plot was negatively related to litter lignin but positively related to litter Ca. Taken together, these results indicate that tree species influenced microbial decomposition primarily via differences in litter lignin (and secondarily, via differences in litter Ca), with high-lignin (and low-Ca) species decomposing most slowly, and by affecting MAT(soil), with warmer plots exhibiting more rapid decomposition. In addition to litter bag experiments, we examined forest floor dynamics in each plot by mass balance, since earthworms were a known component of these forest stands and their access to litter in litter bags was limited. Forest floor removal rates estimated from mass balance were positively related to leaf litter Ca (and unrelated to decay rates obtained using litter bags). Litter Ca, in turn, was positively related to the abundance of earthworms, particularly Lumbricus terrestris. Thus, while species influence microbially mediated decomposition primarily through differences in litter lignin, differences among species in litter Ca are most important in

  20. Seedling Growth and Phosphorus Cycling in Northern Forest Soils Amended With Biochar and Wood Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyce, G. L.; Jones, T.; Fulthorpe, R.; Basiliko, N.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar may be a powerful soil amendment to reduce nutrient depletion in North American forests where long-term nitrogen deposition has led to phosphorus (P) limitation, but many effects of biochar in these ecosystems are still unknown. We performed a 12-week growth chamber experiment in which red pine (Pinus resinosa) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings were grown in pots with soil from three Ontario forests and varying amounts of sugar maple biochar. Additionally, biochar effects were compared with the effects of wood ash, a forest biomass bioenergy by-product that may also be a beneficial soil amendment in these ecosystems. We assessed plant biomass, soil microbial biomass and phosphatase activity; additional chemical analyses of plant tissue and soils are ongoing. Biochar effects on seedling growth were not consistent across tree species, soil type, and addition rate. For sugar maple seedlings grown in sand and sandy-loam textured soils, biochar additions of 20 t ha-1 significantly (p = 0.03) decreased root biomass by 25 %, and the root-to-shoot ratio correspondingly declined, but this effect was not observed in a silty soil. For red pine seedlings, the same biochar addition rate slightly increased root biomass. Wood ash effects on biomass were similarly variable. For example, in the sandy soil, sugar maple root biomass was significantly lower after application of 16 t ash ha-1, but unchanged by rates of 4 or 40 t ash ha-1. Microbial biomass and soil phosphatase activity also varied by soil type. Phosphatase activity was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in soils with sugar maple compared to red pine, but there were no consistent biochar or ash effects across all soils and species. However, for red pine seedlings grown in silt, biochar significantly (p = 0.04) reduced the phosphatase activity compared to the control and ash soils. Overall, biochar may lessen P-limitation in forested ecosystems, but the suitability of biochar, and wood ash, for increasing P

  1. Effect of soil frost on growing season nitrogen uptake by fine roots of mature trees in northern hardwood forests of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socci, A. M.; Templer, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    Forests of the northeastern United States are predicted to experience a decrease in the depth and duration of the winter snowpack over the next 100 years. Even when coupled with warmer winter air temperatures, the absence of snow as insulation can increase soil frost during the winter months. Past research has determined that there are species-level effects of soil frost on dominant forest trees. For example, in stands dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum), induced soil frost led to increased fine root mortality and soil nitrate leaching. Soil frost also increased fine root mortality in stands dominated by yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis), but there was no significant change in leaching of soil nitrate. We hypothesized that greater nitrogen (N) losses from stands dominated by sugar maple may be due to reduced N uptake by fine roots of this tree species. To determine the impact of increased soil freezing on fine root uptake of N, we established a snow manipulation experiment in mixed sugar maple/American beech (Fagus grandifolia) forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire (n=4 paired snow-removal and reference plots; each 13m X 13m). Snow removal occurred during the first six weeks of winter over two years. During each growing season following snow removal, we used the N depletion technique to measure in situ rates of uptake of ammonium and nitrate by fine roots of sugar maple during the early, peak and late growing season. Among all sampling dates and plots, we observed significantly lower uptake of N as nitrate compared to ammonium. During the first growing season, at moderate ammonium availability (35 μM N) we observed significantly less uptake of ammonium by fine roots of sugar maple in the snow removal plots relative to the reference plots during the early growing season (April-May), with no significant differences in uptake of ammonium during the peak (July) and late (September) growing season. We observed no differences in

  2. Climate change triggers effects of fungal pathogens and insect herbivores on litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butenschoen, Olaf; Scheu, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Increasing infestation by insect herbivores and pathogenic fungi in response to climate change will inevitably impact the amount and quality of leaf litter inputs into the soil. However, little is known on the interactive effect of infestation severity and climate change on litter decomposition, and no such study has been published for deciduous forests in Central Europe. We assessed changes in initial chemical quality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and maple litter (Acer platanoides L.) in response to infestation by the gall midge Mikiola fagi Hart. and the pathogenic fungus Sawadaea tulasnei Fuckel, respectively, and investigated interactive effects of infestation severity, changes in temperature and soil moisture on carbon mineralization in a short-term laboratory study. We found that infestation by the gall midge M. fagi and the pathogenic fungus S. tulasnei significantly changed the chemical quality of beech and maple litter. Changes in element concentrations were generally positive and more pronounced, and if negative less pronounced for maple than beech litter most likely due to high quality fungal tissue remaining on litter after abscission. More importantly, alterations in litter chemical quality did not translate to distinct patterns of carbon mineralization at ambient conditions, but even low amounts of infested litter accelerated carbon mineralization at moderately increased soil moisture and in particular at higher temperature. Our results indicate that insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can markedly alter initial litter chemical quality, but that afterlife effects on carbon mineralization depend on soil moisture and temperature, suggesting that increased infestation severity under projected climate change potentially increases soil carbon release in deciduous forests in Central Europe.

  3. Characterization of Transpiration in a Deciduous Forest of the US Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, D.; Caylor, K. K.; Schmid, H.

    2006-12-01

    The exchange of water between atmosphere and biosphere is an important determinant of climate and the productivity of vegetation, as transpiration involves substantial amounts of energy. Knowing how transpiration changes over seasonal and diurnal cycles can help increase the understanding of how a forest reacts to changes in the biosphere and atmosphere on both short and long time scales. A study was conducted to characterize the daily and seasonal variation of transpiration in sugar maple (Acer Saccharum) at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (MMSF) AmeriFlux site in Indiana (USA), were this species represent more than 25% of the forest basal area. Transpiration was estimated by up-scaling single point measurements of sap flow density obtained using the heat-pulse technique. To characterize the variability of sap flow density in the deep sapwood of sugar maples, 3 to 4 radial profiles were obtained for each sampled tree at different positions around the trunk. Different approaches were then tested to scale up to whole tree sap flow. Seventeen trees of different diameter were sampled by three roving sap flow systems, taking measurements from each tree for 5-7 contiguous days. Because of the small scale but complex topography in the area and the relatively shallow soil, particular attention was given to the effect of spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture content on transpiration; for this reason, sampled trees were selected along a topographic gradient and soil water content was measured in the proximity of each tree. Meteorological measurements taken at the nearby MMSF AmeriFlux tower were used to explain transpiration variability in terms of vapor pressure deficit, and solar radiation, while eddy- covariance measurements of latent heat flux were related to the up-scaled transpiration of sugar maples in the study area.

  4. Particulate organic matter quality influences nitrate retention and denitrification in stream sediments: evidence from a carbon burial experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, Robert S.; Scott, J. Thad; Bartsch, Lynn; Parr, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Organic carbon supply is linked to nitrogen transformation in ecosystems. However, the role of organic carbon quality in nitrogen processing is not as well understood. We determined how the quality of particulate organic carbon (POC) influenced nitrogen transformation in stream sediments by burying identical quantities of varying quality POC (northern red oak (Quercus rubra) leaves, red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves, red maple wood) in stream mesocosms and measuring the effects on nitrogen retention and denitrification compared to a control of combusted sand. We also determined how POC quality affected the quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen concentration in groundwater. Nitrate and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) retention were assessed by comparing solute concentrations and fluxes along groundwater flow paths in the mesocosms. Denitrification was measured by in situ changes in N2 concentrations (using MIMS) and by acetylene block incubations. POC quality was measured by C:N and lignin:N ratios and DOC quality was assessed by fluorescence excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. POC quality had strong effects on nitrogen processing. Leaf treatments had much higher nitrate retention, TDN retention and denitrification rates than the wood and control treatments and red maple leaf burial resulted in higher nitrate and TDN retention rates than burial of red oak leaves. Leaf, but not wood, burial drove pore water to severe hypoxia and leaf treatments had higher DOC production and different DOC chemical composition than the wood and control treatments. We think that POC quality affected nitrogen processing in the sediments by influencing the quantity and quality of DOC and redox conditions. Our results suggest that the type of organic carbon inputs can affect the rates of nitrogen transformation in stream ecosystems.

  5. Plant and Soil Natural Abundance delta-15N: Indicators of Nitrogen Cycling in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templer, P. H.; Lovett, G. M.; Weathers, K.; Arthur, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    We examined the potential use of natural abundance 15N of plants and soils as an indicator of forest nitrogen (N) cycling rates within the Catskill Mountains, NY. These watersheds receive among the highest rates of N deposition in the northeastern United States and are beginning to show signs of N saturation. Many studies have shown a link between increased N cycling rates and 15N enrichment of soil and plant pools. Faster rates of N cycling processes, especially nitrification, lead to fractionation of 14/15N, creating N products that are relatively depleted in 15N. This can lead to enrichment of soil pools, as lighter 14N is lost from the system via leaching or denitrification. Plant N pools can become increasingly enriched as they take up 15N-enriched soil N. Despite similar amounts of N deposition across the Catskill Mountains, forests dominated by different tree species appear to vary in the amount of N retained or lost to nearby streams. To determine if plant and soil 15N could be used as indicators of N cycling rates, we collected foliage, wood, litterfall, organic and mineral soil, and fine roots from single species stands of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), red oak (Quercus rubra), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Fine roots and soil 15N were highest within sugar maple stands (p<0.05). Sugar maple soils also had the highest rates of net nitrification and N leaching. Therefore, soil 15N appears to correlate with forest N retention and loss. However, 15N enrichment was highest within foliage, litterfall and wood of beech trees (p<0.05). The decoupling between foliage 15N and N cycling, as well as between 15N of foliage and fine roots, illustrates that it may not be possible to use a single plant pool as an indicator of N cycling rates.

  6. Separating temperature from other factors in phenological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Hanes, Jonathan M.; Liang, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Phenological observations offer a simple and effective way to measure climate change effects on the biosphere. While some species in northern mixed forests show a highly sensitive site preference to microenvironmental differences (i.e., the species is present in certain areas and absent in others), others with a more plastic environmental response (e.g., Acer saccharum, sugar maple) allow provisional separation of the universal "background" phenological variation caused by in situ (possibly biological/genetic) variation from the microclimatic gradients in air temperature. Moran's I tests for spatial autocorrelation among the phenological data showed significant ( α ≤ 0.05) clustering across the study area, but random patterns within the microclimates themselves, with isolated exceptions. In other words, the presence of microclimates throughout the study area generally results in spatial autocorrelation because they impact the overall phenological development of sugar maple trees. However, within each microclimate (where temperature conditions are relatively uniform) there is little or no spatial autocorrelation because phenological differences are due largely to randomly distributed in situ factors. The phenological responses from 2008 and 2009 for two sugar maple phenological stages showed the relationship between air temperature degree-hour departure and phenological change ranged from 0.5 to 1.2 days earlier for each additional 100 degree-hours. Further, the standard deviations of phenological event dates within individual microclimates (for specific events and years) ranged from 2.6 to 3.8 days. Thus, that range of days is inferred to be the "background" phenological variation caused by factors other than air temperature variations, such as genetic differences between individuals.

  7. Nutrients stimulate leaf breakdown rates and detritivore biomass: Bottom-up effects via heterotrophic pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, J.L.; Rosemond, A.D.; Wallace, J.B.; Cross, W.F.; Weyers, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    Most nutrient enrichment studies in aquatic systems have focused on autotrophic food webs in systems where primary producers dominate the resource base. We tested the heterotrophic response to long-term nutrient enrichment in a forested, headwater stream. Our study design consisted of 2 years of pretreatment data in a reference and treatment stream and 2 years of continuous nitrogen (N) + phosphorus addition to the treatment stream. Studies were conducted with two leaf species that differed in initial C:N, Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) and Acer rubrum (red maple). We determined the effects of nutrient addition on detrital resources (leaf breakdown rates, litter C:N and microbial activity) and tested whether nutrient enrichment affected macroinvertebrate consumers via increased biomass. Leaf breakdown rates were ca. 1.5 and 3?? faster during the first and second years of enrichment, respectively, in the treatment stream for both leaf types. Microbial respiration rates of both leaf types were 3?? higher with enrichment, and macroinvertebrate biomass associated with leaves increased ca. 2-3?? with enrichment. The mass of N in macroinvertebrate biomass relative to leaves tended to increase with enrichment up to 6?? for red maple and up to 44?? for rhododendron leaves. Lower quality (higher C:N) rhododendron leaves exhibited greater changes in leaf nutrient content and macroinvertebrate response to nutrient enrichment than red maple leaves, suggesting a unique response by different leaf species to nutrient enrichment. Nutrient concentrations used in this study were moderate and equivalent to those in streams draining watersheds with altered land use. Thus, our results suggest that similarly moderate levels of enrichment may affect detrital resource quality and subsequently lead to altered energy and nutrient flow in detrital food webs. ?? 2006 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Contributions of Mycorrhizal Trees to Mg Isotopic Variations in Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, J. G.; Hobbie, E. A.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Colpaert, J.; Hoff, C.; Prado, M. F.; Pettitt, E.; Telouk, P.

    2013-12-01

    Although it is well established that organisms contribute significantly to the weathering process and to the distribution of elements within continental environments, the degree to which biota actively drive weathering versus the degree to which organisms benefit from nutrients released during largely inorganic weathering processes remains shrouded in mystery. Furthermore, the relative influence of different organisms on key emerging isotopic systems, especially Mg, remains poorly understood. To address these questions, we have carried out a series of Mg isotopic investigations on semi-hydroponically cultured trees (pine, Pinus sylvestris and sugar maple, Acer saccharum) grown with appropriate mycorrhizal symbionts (ectomycorrhizal, Suillus, or arbuscular, Glomus, respectively) in different geologic substrates (carbonate and granitic) under low nutrient supply. Plant tissues and eluting solutions across these biogeochemical experiments were studied for elemental abundances and Mg isotopic signatures. Eluting solutions were most distinctive from the abiotic control for those trees grown in granite-bearing cultures, an observation we attribute to biotite weathering. Foliar and root tissues recorded distinctive isotopic compositions (e.g., differences up to 0.6 ‰ δ26/24Mg) in both the pines and sugar maples. Foliar δ26/24Mg varied amongst the trees grown in the different experiments: compared to the substrate, ectomycorrhizal pine had more depleted Mg isotopic signatures in foliage than nonmycorrhizal pine and arbuscular mycorrhizal sugar maple. Taken together our results indicate that ectomycorrhizal symbioses contribute to Mg isotopic variations during weathering and that this effect may be more pronounced in soils forming over biotite-bearing terrains.

  9. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup...

  11. Hypersensitivity to common tree pollens in New York City patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Robert Y; Clauss, Allison E; Bennett, Edward S

    2002-01-01

    Testing for tree pollen hypersensitivity typically requires the use of several tree pollens. Identifying patterns of cross-sensitivity to tree pollens could reduce the number of trees used for testing. The goal of this study was to relate reported tree pollen levels to hypersensitivity patterns. Three hundred seventy-one allergy patients were tested serologically for hypersensitivity toward prevalent tree pollens in the surrounding New York area over the years 1993-2000. Specific tree pollens that were examined included oak (Quercus alba), birch (Betula verrucosa), beech (Fagus grandifolia), poplar (Populus deltoides), maple (Acer negundo), ash (Fraxinus americana), hickory (Carya pecan), and elm (Ulmus americana). Statistical analysis of the levels of hypersensitivity was performed to identify correlations and grouping factors. Pollen levels, obtained from published annual pollen and spore reports, were characterized and related to the prevalence of hypersensitivity for the various trees. The highest prevalence of hypersensitivity (score > or = class 1) was for oak (34.3%), birch (32.9%), and maple (32.8%) tree pollens. Lower prevalences were observed for beech (29.6%), hickory (27.1%), ash (26%), elm (24.6%), and poplar (20.6%) trees. Significant correlations were observed between oak, birch, and beech radioallergosorbent test scores. Factor analysis identified two independent pollen groups with oak, birch, and beech consisting of one group and the other five tree pollens constituting the other group. Peak pollen counts clearly were highest for oak, birch, and maple trees. The peak pollen counts corresponded roughly to seropositivity prevalences for the tree pollens. When elm, poplar, and beech test scores were not used to identify patients who were allergic to tree pollens, only 1 of 106 patients with any positive tree radioallergosorbent test score was missed. It is concluded that in the New York City area, hypersensitivity to tree pollens most often is

  12. Soil Warming Alters the Nitrogen Cycle: Ecosystem Implications and Feedbacks to the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, S. M.; Melillo, J. M.; Johnson, J. E.; Mohan, J. E.; Steudler, P. A.; Bowles, F. P.

    2008-12-01

    shown that red maples (Acer rubrum), when grown with high levels of nitrate, have a greater ability to produce this enzyme than many other species common to the region's forests. We have also observed that red maple seedlings and saplings show a higher growth response to soil warming than juvenile plants of other species. Our working hypothesis is that some of this response is linked to the capacity of red maple to use the nitrate produced in the warmed soils. In the long term, warming could lead to red maples becoming a more dominant tree in the forests of southern New England.

  13. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryogenic technologies are required to preserve embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds. Formation of potentially lethal intracellular ice limits successful cryopreservation; thus, it is important to understand the relationships among cryo-exposure techniques, water content and survival. In this pap...

  14. Programs for At-Risk Youth: A Review of the American, Canadian and British Literature since 1984. ACER Research Monograph No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withers, Graeme; Batten, Margaret

    All adolescents feel anger, frustration, and a range of temperamental disurbances due to the many physical, emotional and social stresses associated with their developmental stage. This document provides Australian and international perspectives on programs, both in schools and in the wider community, which attempt to prevent and treat the more…

  15. Youth and Society: The Two Transitions. A Review of Australian Research on Young People in Work and Education. ACER Research Monograph No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakers, Catherine

    This literature review is part of a project designed to provide an in-depth picture of the experiences and views of long-term unemployed people in Australia. The review outlines what the research shows and says about the situation of young people (15-24 years) in work and education in the changing society of the 1980s in Australia. The book is…

  16. Soil nitrogen availability and in situ nitrogen uptake by Acer rubrum L. and Pinus palustris Mill. in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant uptake of soil organic N in addition to inorganic N could play an important role in ecosystem N cycling as well as plant nutrition. We measured in situ plant uptake of organic and inorganic N by the dominant canopy species in two contrasting temperate forest ecosystems (bottomland floodplain ...

  17. Six Hundred Schools: A Study of Resources in Australian and New Zealand Government Schools. Staffing and Resources Study Report No. 2. ACER Research Monograph No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John

    Questionnaire data underlie this analysis of the patterns of personnel availability and utilization in a sample of government schools in Australia and New Zealand. An introduction reviews research and outlines some theoretical issues relevant to school organization and resource allocation. The design and administration of the survey are reported…

  18. Growth and photosynthesis of seedling of five bottom land tree species following nutrient enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Ciravolo, T.G.; McLeod, K.W.; Mavity, E.M.; Novak, K.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Land management practices are increasingly focusing on the use of native plant communities to filter wastewater. Nutrient uptake from these effluents may affect overall growth and physiology. We examined the effects of increased nutrient levels on the seedlings of five species of bottomland trees. Seedlings of Carpinus caroliniana Walter. (hornbeam), Pinus serotina Michaux (pond pine), Acer rubrum L. (red maple), Quercus michauxii Nuttall (swamp chestnut oak), and Q, nigra L. (water oak) were grown outside in full sun under six levels of nutrient enrichment. During the 3rd growing season, height, component biomass, total biomass, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area and foliar nitrogen concentrations were determined. Height and total biomass of all species increased from low to high nutrient levels, with A. rubrum and P. serotina exhibiting the highest rates of increase. Biomass and foliar nitrogen relationships suggested differing patterns of nutrient uptake and use among the species. Acer rubrum, C. caroliniana and Q. michauxii used all nitrogen taken up for growth. Pinus serotina showed an accumulation of foliar nitrogen with a rapid rate of growth. Wuercus nigra grew more slowly. The effect of nutrient level on net photosynthesis was variable and species-specific. Only W. nigra and A. rubrum showed a positive relationship. Net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen showed no clear relationship among individual species, although a regression of all species together showed net photosynthesis to be positively correlated to foliar nitrogen. In a natural setting, the biomass response of A. rubrum and P. serotina, along with a corresponding increase height, could give seedlings of these species a competitive advantage in capturing light or tolerating floods. Differential responses may thus alter the competitive relationships of these five species in nutrient-enriched bottomland forest communities. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M.; Kelley, Michael J.; Haglund, R. F.

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  20. Application of tung oil to improve adhesion strength and water resistance of cottonseed meal and protein adhesives on maple veneer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed meal-based products show promise in serving as environment-friendly wood adhesives. However, their practical utilization is currently limited due to low durability and water resistant properties. In this research, we tested the improvement of adhesion strength and water resistance of cott...