Science.gov

Sample records for maples

  1. Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Roy A.; Walkington, Noel J.

    1996-06-01

    A knowledge of one or more high level symbolic mathematics programs is rapidly becoming a necessity for mathematics users from all fields of science. The aim of this book is to provide a solid grounding in Maple, one of the best known of these programs. The authors combine efficiency and economy of exposition with a complete coverage of Maple. The book has twelve chapters, of which eight are completely accessible to anyone who has completed calculus and linear sequences as taught in American universities. These chapters cover the great majority of Maple's capabilities. There are also three chapters on Maple programming that can be read without prior programming experience, although knowledge of a high level programming language (Basic, Fortran, C etc.) will help. There is also a chapter on some relevant aspects of algebra. Above all, the book allows the reader to extract value from Maple without wasting time and effort in the learning process. It is the fastest track to expertise for Maple users in mathematics and computer science.

  2. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  3. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...

  4. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...

  5. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the sap of the maple tree (Acer) or by solution in water of maple sugar (mapel concrete) made...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.107 Maple sap. (a) NAP assistance for maple sap is... maple sap. (g) The actual production history for maple sap shall be recorded on the basis of gallons...

  7. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  8. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  9. The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Maple syrup is one of several high-sugar liquids that humans consume. However, maple syrup is more than just a concentrated sugar solution. Here, we review the chemical composition of maple syrup. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  10. Using Math With Maple Sugaring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

  11. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  12. The Maple Products: An Outdoor Education Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaple, Charles; And Others

    Designed to take advantage of the spring season, this resource packet on maple products centers upon a field lesson in harvesting and making maple syrup. The resources in this packet include: a narrative on the origins of maple sugar; an illustrated description of "old time maple sugarin'"; suggestions for pre-trip activities (history of maple…

  13. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... limited to maple sap produced on private property for sale as sap or syrup. Eligible maple sap must be... sap must be established for the value of the sap before processing into syrup. If price data is available only for maple syrup, this data must be converted to a maple sap basis. The wholesale price for...

  16. Parametric Equations, Maple, and Tubeplots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feicht, Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that establishes a graphical foundation for parametric equations by using a graphing output form called tubeplots from the computer program Maple. Provides a comprehensive review and exploration of many previously learned topics. (ASK)

  17. After the Maples--What Then?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses models to illustrate the possible "migration route" of the sugar maple in response to predicted global climate change. Curriculum activities for students are provided that specifically address the sugar maple forests of the Great Lakes regions. (ZWH)

  18. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maple sirup. 168.140 Section 168.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  19. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maple sirup. 168.140 Section 168.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.140 Maple sirup. (a) Maple sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  20. Graphs and Enhancing Maple Multiplication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2002-01-01

    Description of a technique in Maple programming language that automatically prints all paths of any desired length along with the name of each vertex, proceeding in order from the beginning vertex to the ending vertex for a given graph. (Author/MM)

  1. Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghusayni, B.

    2005-01-01

    Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.

  2. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  3. Maple sap predominant microbial contaminants are correlated with the physicochemical and sensorial properties of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-03-01

    Maple sap processing and microbial contamination are significant aspects that affect maple syrup quality. In this study, two sample sets from 2005 and 2008 were used to assess the maple syrup quality variation and its relationship to microbial populations, with respect to processing, production site and harvesting period. The abundance of maple sap predominant bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens group and two subgroups, Rahnella spp., Janthinobacterium spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides) and yeast (Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp.,Guehomyces pullulans) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Maple syrup properties were analyzed by physicochemical and sensorial methods. Results indicate that P. fluorescens, Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp. G. pullulans and Rahnella spp. are stable contaminants of maple sap, as they were found for every production site throughout the flow period. Multiple factor analysis reports a link between the relative abundance of P. fluorescens group and Mrakia spp. in maple sap with maple and vanilla odor as well as flavor of maple syrup. This evidence supports the contribution of these microorganisms or a consortium of predominant microbial contaminants to the characteristic properties of maple syrup. PMID:22236761

  4. Hyperfine structure parametrisation in Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigalas, G.; Scharf, O.; Fritzsche, S.

    2006-02-01

    In hyperfine structure examinations, routine high resolution spectroscopy methods have to be combined with exact fine structure calculations. The so-called magnetic A and electric B factor of the fine structure levels allow to check for a correct fine structure analysis, to find errors in the level designation, to find new levels and to probe the electron wavefunctions and its mixing coefficients. This is done by parametrisation of these factors into different contributions of the subshell electrons, which are split further into their radial and spin-angular part. Due to the routine with which hyperfine structure measurements are done, a tool for keeping the necessary information together, performing checks online with the experiment and deriving standard quantities is of great help. MAPLE [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc.] is a highly-developed symbolic programming language, often referred to as the pocket calculator of the future. Packages for theoretical atomic calculation exist ( RACAH and JUCYS) and the language meets all the requirements to keep and present information accessible for the user in a fast and practical way. We slightly extended the RACAH package [S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 103 (1997) 51] and set up an environment for experimental hyperfine structure calculations, the HFS package. Supplying the fine structure and nuclear data, one is in the position to obtain information about the hyperfine spectrum, the different contributions to the splitting and to perform a least square fit of the radial parameters based on the semiempirical method. Experimentalist as well as theoretical physicist can do a complete hyperfine structure analysis using MAPLE. Program summaryTitle of program: H FS Catalogue number: ADXD Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXD Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computers for which the program is designed

  5. Norway maple displays greater seasonal growth and phenotypic plasticity to light than native sugar maple.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Alain; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank; Dubois, Karine; Lechowicz, Martin J; Messier, Christian; Posada, Juan M; Valladares, Fernando; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Norway maple (Acer platanoides L), which is among the most invasive tree species in forests of eastern North America, is associated with reduced regeneration of the related native species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and other native flora. To identify traits conferring an advantage to Norway maple, we grew both species through an entire growing season under simulated light regimes mimicking a closed forest understorey vs. a canopy disturbance (gap). Dynamic shade-houses providing a succession of high-intensity direct-light events between longer periods of low, diffuse light were used to simulate the light regimes. We assessed seedling height growth three times in the season, as well as stem diameter, maximum photosynthetic capacity, biomass allocation above- and below-ground, seasonal phenology and phenotypic plasticity. Given the north European provenance of Norway maple, we also investigated the possibility that its growth in North America might be increased by delayed fall senescence. We found that Norway maple had significantly greater photosynthetic capacity in both light regimes and grew larger in stem diameter than sugar maple. The differences in below- and above-ground biomass, stem diameter, height and maximum photosynthesis were especially important in the simulated gap where Norway maple continued extension growth during the late fall. In the gap regime sugar maple had a significantly higher root : shoot ratio that could confer an advantage in the deepest shade of closed understorey and under water stress or browsing pressure. Norway maple is especially invasive following canopy disturbance where the opposite (low root : shoot ratio) could confer a competitive advantage. Considering the effects of global change in extending the potential growing season, we anticipate that the invasiveness of Norway maple will increase in the future. PMID:23076822

  6. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  7. Biosensor Applications of MAPLE Deposited Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Valeria; Bloisi, Francesco; Aronne, Antonio; Federici, Stefania; Nasti, Libera; Depero, Laura E.; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc.) materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest) molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix). Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis. PMID:25587426

  8. Calculus of One and More Variables with Maple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samkova, Libuse

    2012-01-01

    This is a guide to using Maple in teaching fundamental calculus of one, two and three variables (limits, derivatives, integrals, etc.), also suitable for Maple beginners. It outlines one of the ways to effective use of computers in the teaching process. It scans advantages and disadvantages of using Maple in relation to students and teacher. The…

  9. Tapping the Sugar Maple--Learning and Appreciating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Charles

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses how to tap a maple tree. Tapping a maple tree to produce maple syrup can: (1) lead to better understanding in many subject areas, (2) develop skills through participation in a rewarding activity, and (3) help students appreciate the many important roles that trees play in our environment and daily lives. (NQ)

  10. Engineering Mathematics Assessment Using "MapleTA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian S.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of degree level engineering mathematics students using the computer-aided assessment package MapleTA is discussed. Experience of academic and practical issues for both online coursework and examination assessments is presented, hopefully benefiting other academics in this novel area of activity. (Contains 6 figures and 1 table.)

  11. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  12. Applications of Maple To Algebraic Cryptography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Neil P.

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of technology to enhance the appreciation of applications involving abstract algebra. The symbolic manipulator Maple can perform computations required for a linear cryptosystem. One major benefit of this process is that students can encipher and decipher messages using a linear cryptosystem without becoming confused and…

  13. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, Barbara; Schůrek, Jakub; Myslík, Vladimír

    2011-11-01

    During the last decade, many groups have grown thin films of various organic materials by the cryogenic Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique with a wide range of applications. This contribution is focused on the summary of our results with deposition and characterization of thin films of fibrinogen, pullulan derivates, azo-polyurethane, cryoglobulin, polyvinyl alcohol, and bovine serum albumin dissolved in physiological serum, dimethyl sulfoxide, sanguine plasma, phosphate buffer solution, H2O, ethylene glycol, and tert-butanol. MAPLE films were characterized using FTIR, AFM, Raman scattering, and SEM. For deposition, a special hardware was developed including a unique liquid nitrogen cooled target holder. Overview of MAPLE thin film applications is given. We studied SnAcAc, InAcAc, SnO2, porphyrins, and polypyrrole MAPLE fabricated films as small resistive gas sensors. Sensors were tested with ozone, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, and water vapor gases. In the last years, our focus was on the study of fibrinogen-based scaffolds for application in tissue engineering, wound healing, and also as a part of layers for medical devices.

  14. Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Valman, H. B.; Patrick, A. D.; Seakins, J. W. T.; Platt, J. W.; Gompertz, D.

    1973-01-01

    A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development. Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the keto and hydroxy acids characteristic of maple syrup urine disease, and thin layer chromatography of the plasma and urine showed greatly increased concentrations of the branched chain amino acids. The urine and plasma of the surviving child was chromatographically normal between episodes. The leucocyte branched chain keto acid decarboxylase activity in this patient and her father was reduced. The range of features in this family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease illustrates the necessity for prompt and careful investigation of metabolic acidosis of unknown aetiology. PMID:4693464

  15. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  16. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Maple Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Nursery-Grown Maples.

    PubMed

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford

    2015-06-01

    Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites. PMID:26470249

  17. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronne, Antonio; Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Fanelli, Esther; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-11-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  18. Definite Integrals, Some Involving Residue Theory Evaluated by Maple Code

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2010-01-01

    The calculus of residue is applied to evaluate certain integrals in the range (-{infinity} to {infinity}) using the Maple symbolic code. These integrals are of the form {integral}{sub -{infinity}}{sup {infinity}} cos(x)/[(x{sup 2} + a{sup 2})(x{sup 2} + b{sup 2}) (x{sup 2} + c{sup 2})]dx and similar extensions. The Maple code is also applied to expressions in maximum likelihood estimator moments when sampling from the negative binomial distribution. In general the Maple code approach to the integrals gives correct answers to specified decimal places, but the symbolic result may be extremely long and complex.

  19. Laser transfer of biomaterials: Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and MAPLE Direct Write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P. K.; Ringeisen, B. R.; Krizman, D. B.; Frondoza, C. G.; Brooks, M.; Bubb, D. M.; Auyeung, R. C. Y.; Piqué, A.; Spargo, B.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2003-04-01

    Two techniques for transferring biomaterial using a pulsed laser beam were developed: matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and MAPLE direct write (MDW). MAPLE is a large-area vacuum based technique suitable for coatings, i.e., antibiofouling, and MDW is a localized deposition technique capable of fast prototyping of devices, i.e., protein or tissue arrays. Both techniques have demonstrated the capability of transferring large (mol wt>100 kDa) molecules in different forms, e.g., liquid and gel, and preserving their functions. They can deposit patterned films with spatial accuracy and resolution of tens of μm and layering on a variety of substrate materials and geometries. MDW can dispense volumes less than 100 pl, transfer solid tissues, fabricate a complete device, and is computed aided design/computer aided manufacturing compatible. They are noncontact techniques and can be integrated with other sterile processes. These attributes are substantiated by films and arrays of biomaterials, e.g., polymers, enzymes, proteins, eucaryotic cells, and tissue, and a dopamine sensor. These examples, the instrumentation, basic mechanisms, a comparison with other techniques, and future developments are discussed.

  20. Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Shows how the computer software programs Mathematica and Maple can be used to obtain chemical equations to represent the stoichiometry of a reacting system. Specific examples are included. Contains 10 references. (DKM)

  1. Dynamics of the inverse MAPLE nanoparticle deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthew A.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is a processing technique by which laser-sensitive materials are dissolved or placed into colloidal solution with a strongly absorbing sacrificial solvent, which when frozen into a solid target and irradiated under vacuum disperses the undamaged solute material onto a desired substrate. We present an inversion of the original MAPLE process, where the irradiation of metal-based acetate precursors in solution with UV transparent water results in the deposition of inorganic nanoparticles. A theory is forwarded to explain the underlying multiscale sequence of events that control the inverse MAPLE process from acetate decomposition to nanoparticle formation and subsequent ejection. Support for this theory is provided through the analysis of deposited nanoparticles and by novel characterization of MAPLE targets post-irradiation via cryostage scanning electron microscopy. Ejection is shown to proceed through the same phase-explosion mechanism that drives conventional MAPLE, relating the two techniques and advancing the broader understanding of MAPLE deposition processes.

  2. The possible role of air quality in sugar maple decline

    SciTech Connect

    Linzon, S.N. )

    1987-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum L.) was first reported to occur in North America in 1913. A review of the literature on the occurrence of sugar maple decline and the associated causal agents was made in 1986 based on 189 reports. No single cause for the decline was identified with a number of diverse factors being reported to be involved. These factors included defoliating insects, drought, nutritional deficiencies, improper woodlot management, secondary root rot organisms, road salt and acidic precipitation. In the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada, intensive studies into the occurrence and etiology of sugar maple decline commenced in the early 1980s. Maple syrup producers in both provinces complained that sugar maple trees were declining and dying in greater numbers than usual and suspected that air pollution, including acidic precipitation, was involved. This paper describes the symptoms associated with sugar maple decline, the surveys underway in both provinces, and the field and experimental studies being carried out to determine the role of air quality.

  3. Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Martha

    The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.

  4. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1α subunit of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated. PMID:21098507

  5. Using Maple to Implement eLearning Integrated with Computer Aided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Bill; Labovic, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Advanced mathematics courses have been developed and refined by the first author, using an action research methodology, for more than a decade. These courses use the computer algebra system (CAS) Maple in an "immersion mode" where all presentations and student work are done using Maple. Assignments and examinations are Maple files downloaded from…

  6. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  7. Maple syrup-production, composition, chemistry, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Timothy D; van den Berg, Abby K

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup is made from sap exuded from stems of the genus Acer during the springtime. Sap is a dilute solution of primarily water and sucrose, with varying amounts of amino and organic acids and phenolic substances. When concentrated, usually by heating, a series of complex reactions produce a wide variety of flavor compounds that vary due to processing and other management factors, seasonal changes in sap chemistry, and microbial contamination. Color also forms during thermal evaporation. Flavor and color together are the primary factors determining maple syrup grade, and syrup can range from very light-colored and delicate-flavored to very dark-colored and strong-flavored. PMID:19389608

  8. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. The Multiple Pendulum Problem via Maple[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, K. L.; Knight, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    The way in which computer algebra systems, such as Maple, have made the study of physical problems of some considerable complexity accessible to mathematicians and scientists with modest computational skills is illustrated by solving the multiple pendulum problem. A solution is obtained for four pendulums with no restriction on the size of the…

  10. Student's Lab Assignments in PDE Course with MAPLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponidi, B. Alhadi

    Computer-aided software has been used intensively in many mathematics courses, especially in computational subjects, to solve initial value and boundary value problems in Partial Differential Equations (PDE). Many software packages were used in student lab assignments such as FORTRAN, PASCAL, MATLAB, MATHEMATICA, and MAPLE in order to accelerate…

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING FALL FOLIAGE COLOR EXPRESSION IN SUGAR MAPLE TREES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We evaluated factors influencing red autumn coloration in leaves of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by measuring mineral nutrition and carbohydrate concentrations, moisture content, and phenology of color development of leaves from 16 mature open-grown trees on 12 d...

  12. Binomial and Poisson Mixtures, Maximum Likelihood, and Maple Code

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o; Shenton, LR

    2006-01-01

    The bias, variance, and skewness of maximum likelihoood estimators are considered for binomial and Poisson mixture distributions. The moments considered are asymptotic, and they are assessed using the Maple code. Question of existence of solutions and Karl Pearson's study are mentioned, along with the problems of valid sample space. Large samples to reduce variances are not unusual; this also applies to the size of the asymptotic skewness.

  13. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  14. Assessing the Factors of Regional Growth Decline of Sugar Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, D. A.; Beier, C. M.; Pederson, N.; Lawrence, G. B.; Stella, J. C.; Sullivan, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is among the most ecologically, economically and culturally important trees in North America, but has experienced a decline disease across much of its range. We investigated the climatic and edaphic factors associated with A. saccharum growth in the Adirondack Mountains (USA) using a well-replicated tree-ring network incorporating a range of soil fertility (base cation availability). We found that nearly 3 in 4 A. saccharum trees exhibited declining growth rates during the last several decades, regardless of tree age or size. Although diameter growth was consistently higher on base-rich soils, the negative trends in growth were largely consistent across the soil chemistry gradient. Sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic variability was overall weaker than expected, but were also non-stationary during the 20th century. We observed increasingly positive responses to late-winter precipitation, increasingly negative responses to growing season temperatures, and strong positive responses to moisture availability during the 1960s drought that became much weaker during the recent pluvial. Further study is needed of these factors and their interactions as potential mechanisms for sugar maple growth decline.

  15. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy. PMID:25647359

  16. QUALITY ASSURANCE ASPECTS OF THE JOINT USA-CANADA NORTH AMERICAN SUGAR MAPLE DECLINE PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North American Sugar Maple Decline Project was implemented in 1988 in response to concerns about the condition of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) in the United States and Canada. ata collection for the project involved at least 15 federal, state, and provincial crews from ...

  17. America's Native Sweet: Chippewa Treaties and the Right to Harvest Maple Sugar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Argues in favor of a Chippewa right to harvest maple sap from trees on federal land. Discusses the history of Indian production of and trade in maple sugar, examines relevant treaties, and draws parallels with tribal rights to fish and harvest wild rice. Contains 91 references. (SV)

  18. Passive Maple-Seed Robotic Fliers for Education, Research and Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, D. M.; Abu-Ageel, A.; Alfatlawi, M.; Varney, M. W.; Thompson, C. M.; Aslam, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    As inspirations from flora and fauna have led to many advances in modern technology, the concept of drawing ideas from nature for design should be reflected in engineering education. This paper focuses on a maple-seed robotic flier (MRF) with various complexities, a robotic platform modeled after the samaras of maple or ash trees, to teach STEM…

  19. MAPLE Procedures For Boson Fields System On Curved Space - Time

    SciTech Connect

    Murariu, Gabriel

    2007-04-23

    Systems of interacting boson fields are an important subject in the last years. From the problem of dark matter to boson stars' study, boson fields are involved. In the general configuration, it is considered a Klein-Gordon-Maxwell-Einstein fields system for a complex scalar field minimally coupled to a gravitational one. The necessity of studying a larger number of space-time configurations and the huge volume of computations for each particular situation are some reasons for building a MAPLE procedures set for this kind of systems.

  20. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan T; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:27391424

  1. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan T.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:27391424

  2. Combinatorial MAPLE gradient thin film assemblies signalling to human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Axente, Emanuel; Sima, Felix; Elena Sima, Livia; Erginer, Merve; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Serban, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Petrescu, Stefana M; Toksoy Oner, Ebru; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2014-09-01

    There is increased interest in smart bioactive materials to control tissue regeneration for the engineering of cell instructive scaffolds. We introduced combinatorial matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (C-MAPLE) as a new method for the fabrication of organic thin films with a compositional gradient. Synchronized C-MAPLE of levan and oxidized levan was employed to assemble a two-compound biopolymer film structure. The gradient of the film composition was validated by fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we investigated the cell response induced by the compositional gradient using imaging of early osteoblast attachment and analysis of signalling phosphoprotein expression. Cells attached along the gradient in direct proportion to oxidized levan concentration. During this process distinct areas of the binary gradient have been shown to modulate the osteoblasts' extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling with different propensity. The proposed fabrication method results in the preparation of a new bioactive material, which could control the cell signalling response. This approach can be extended to screen new bioactive interfaces for tissue regeneration. PMID:24867882

  3. Red edge spectral measurements from sugar maple leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge portion (680-750 nm) of the spectrum among the various samples and populations of leaves. These included differences in the red edge inflection point (REIP), a ratio of reflectance at 740-720 nm (RE3/RE2), and a ratio of first derivative values at 715-705 nm (D715/D705). All three red edge parameters were highly correlated with variation in total chlorophyll content. Other spectral measures, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Simple Vegetation Index Ratio (VI), also varied among populations and over the growing season, but did not correlate well with total chlorophyll content. Leaf stacking studies on light and dark backgrounds indicated REIP, RE3/RE2 and D715/D705 to be much less influenced by differences in green leaf biomass and background condition than either NDVI or VI.

  4. How fresh is maple syrup? Sugar maple trees mobilize carbon stored several years previously during early springtime sap-ascent.

    PubMed

    Muhr, Jan; Messier, Christian; Delagrange, Sylvain; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-03-01

    While trees store substantial amounts of nonstructural carbon (NSC) for later use, storage regulation and mobilization of stored NSC in long-lived organisms like trees are still not well understood. At two different sites with sugar maple (Acer saccharum), we investigated ascending sap (sugar concentration, δ(13) C, Δ(14) C) as the mobilized component of stored stem NSC during early springtime. Using the bomb-spike radiocarbon approach we were able to estimate the average time elapsed since the mobilized carbon (C) was originally fixed from the atmosphere and to infer the turnover time of stem storage. Sites differed in concentration dynamics and overall δ(13) C, indicating different growing conditions. The absence of temporal trends for δ(13) C and Δ(14) C indicated sugar mobilization from a well-mixed pool with average Δ(14) C consistent with a mean turnover time (TT) of three to five years for this pool, with only minor differences between the sites. Sugar maple trees hence appear well buffered against single or even several years of negative plant C balance from environmental stress such as drought or repeated defoliation by insects. Manipulative investigations (e.g. starvation via girdling) combined with Δ(14) C measurements of this mobilized storage pool will provide further new insights into tree storage regulation and functioning. PMID:26639654

  5. Intellectual performance of children with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, C; Awiszus, D; Wendel, U

    1993-02-01

    The intellectual performance of 22 children aged 3-16 years with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was assessed and compared to a group of early treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and normal subjects matched by age, sex, nationality, and socio-economic status. All subjects were tested by one examiner only using the age related versions of the non-verbal Snijders-Oomen intelligence test. The mean IQ (+/- SD) score was 74 +/- 14 (range 50-103) in patients with MSUD, 101 +/- 12 (range 87-125) in early treated PKU patients, and 107 +/- 9 (range 90-122) in normal subjects. Intercorrelations indicated that length of time after birth that plasma leucine concentration remained > 1 mmol/l and quality of long-term metabolic control have important influences on IQ. PMID:8444223

  6. A Maple package for improved global mapping forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, H.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2014-03-01

    We present a Maple implementation of the well known global approach to time series analysis and some further developments designed to improve the computational efficiency of the forecasting capabilities of the approach. This global approach can be summarized as being a reconstruction of the phase space, based on a time ordered series of data obtained from the system. After that, using the reconstructed vectors, a portion of this space is used to produce a mapping, a polynomial fitting, through a minimization procedure, that represents the system and can be employed to forecast further entries for the series. In the present implementation, we introduce a set of commands, tools, in order to perform all these tasks. For example, the command VecTS deals mainly with the reconstruction of the vector in the phase space. The command GfiTS deals with producing the minimization and the fitting. ForecasTS uses all these and produces the prediction of the next entries. For the non-standard algorithms, we here present two commands: IforecasTS and NiforecasTS that, respectively deal with the one-step and the N-step forecasting. Finally, we introduce two further tools to aid the forecasting. The commands GfiTS and AnalysTS, basically, perform an analysis of the behavior of each portion of a series regarding the settings used on the commands just mentioned above. Catalogue identifier: AERW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3001 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 95018 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14. Computer: Any capable of running Maple Operating system: Any capable of running Maple. Tested on Windows ME, Windows XP, Windows 7. RAM: 128 MB

  7. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality. PMID:21569942

  8. Leafhopper control in filed-grown red maples with systemic insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red maple, a popular landscape tree, can be susceptible to foliar damage caused by potato leafhopper feeding. Typical potato leafhopper injury includes distorted leaf tissue and reduced shoot growth. This research identified systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, Allectus and Discus, which controlled...

  9. mMaple: A Photoconvertible Fluorescent Protein for Use in Multiple Imaging Modalities

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Ann L.; Hoi, Hiofan; Bates, Mark; Platonova, Evgenia; Cranfill, Paula J.; Baird, Michelle A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Ewers, Helge; Liphardt, Jan; Campbell, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have extended the spatial resolution to the nanometer scale. Here, we report an engineered photoconvertible fluorescent protein (pcFP) variant, designated as mMaple, that is suited for use in multiple conventional and super-resolution imaging modalities, specifically, widefield and confocal microscopy, structured illumination microscopy (SIM), and single-molecule localization microscopy. We demonstrate the versatility of mMaple by obtaining super-resolution images of protein organization in Escherichia coli and conventional fluorescence images of mammalian cells. Beneficial features of mMaple include high photostability of the green state when expressed in mammalian cells and high steady state intracellular protein concentration of functional protein when expressed in E. coli. mMaple thus enables both fast live-cell ensemble imaging and high precision single molecule localization for a single pcFP-containing construct. PMID:23240015

  10. Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25757438

  11. Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training

  12. Fluorescence intensities ratio F685/F740 for maple leaves during seasonal color changes and with fungal infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.

    2014-01-01

    The work is devoted to the spectral measurements of maple leaves. Fresh green leaves of maple were investigated in spring and summer, healthy leaves and leaves affected by fungal diseases - during the fall color change. F685/F740 parameter values for healthy and diseased maple leaves were found, as well as the change of this parameter during the growing season. The concentration of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids in ethanol extracts of maple leaves with different pigmentation were calculated by absorption spectroscopy and the ratio of Chl a / Chl b was found.

  13. Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Muelly, Emilie R.; Moore, Gregory J.; Bunce, Scott C.; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C.; Morton, D. Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5–35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409

  14. Development of a more efficient maple syrup evaporator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D.

    1982-11-30

    The goal of this project was to retrofit a traditional wood-fired maple syrup evaporator to make more efficient use of the wood fuel. A sap preheater was constructed that used waste heat from the steam to preheat the incoming sap. The preheater was tested on the evaporator and 8% more water was processed. There were some problems that will be discussed in the body of the report. A sap pan with fins incorporated into the bottom (described in the 1st and 2nd quarterly reports) was built but was not tested because the fins could not be properly sealed at the ends. Put more simply, it leaked. The bulk of time and energy was spent designing, building, and installing the forced draft and heat exchanger system (refer to 3rd quarterly report). A squirrel cage blower forced fresh air through twelve pipes that were arranged in the stack to the firebox and a draft inducer was mounted on top of the stack. With this arrangement plus the preheater 27% more water was processed than the original rig with the same amount of wood.

  15. Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica in an infant with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Flores, K; Chikowski, R; Morrell, D S

    2016-08-01

    Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica (AD) is a rare, newly termed, and poorly understood disease that appears to be clinically similar to acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). Both diseases are characterized by the triad of periorificial and acral dermatitis, diarrhoea, and alopecia. Unlike AE, which is caused by zinc deficiency, AD is caused by numerous metabolic disorders. One such disorder is maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a genetic deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, the enzyme that degrades the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) isoleucine, leucine and valine. Treatment involves restricting BCAAs to prevent accumulation. We report a case of an infant being treated for MSUD, who developed the triad of AE/AD after a period of poor BCAA formula intake. The child was found to have low isoleucine and normal zinc levels. Increasing the isoleucine dose improved the eruption, thus the diagnosis of AD secondary to isoleucine deficiency was made. This case emphasizes the importance of carefully balancing BCAA levels while treating MSUD, as deficiency can precipitate AD. PMID:27334242

  16. Sugar Maple Phenology: Anthocyanin Production During Leaf Senescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, E.; Rock, B.

    2007-12-01

    The Northeastern United States is known for its brilliant fall foliage colors. Foliage is responsible for a billion dollar tourism industry. Many comment that past years have not resulted in the amazing color displays seen historically. As sugar maple trees senesce they contribute bright red leaves to the mural of oranges, yellows, and greens. The pigment that produces the red color, anthocyanin, is synthesized in the fall as chlorophyll slowly degrades. Remote sensing data from LandSat during fall senescence can help investigate this event by quantifying color change and intensity. This data can then be compared to ground validation efforts in several study plots. The results will help answer the question, "Why do leaves turn red?" One hypothesis is that this pigment acts as a photoprotectant and screens leaves from UV light. It is possible that an increase in tropospheric ozone has negatively affected fall foliage due to the increased reflection of UV light before it reaches the trees; thereby reducing the leaves need to produce anthocyanin. Another hypothesis is that production of anthocyanin is linked to temperature, with maximum synthesis occurring during cold evenings and moderate days. Temperature changes caused by climate change could also be affecting anthocyanin. Through observing these changes by remote sensing and ground experiments, more can be learned about this phenological stage and why it happens.

  17. Biogeochemical Drivers of Sugar Maple Mortality at the Species-Range Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. H.; Zimmerman, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    The decline of sugar maple in the northern United States is causing concern in the resource management community, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees (Hallett et al. 2006; Horsley et al. 2000; Long et al. 2009; St.Clair et al. 2008). Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies tends to be purposive in nature; soil properties generally are assessed only on those plots where dead trees are observed. In this study, we used more than 200 plots from the USDA Forest Service's FIADB (USDA Forest Service 2012; Woudenberg et al. 2010), including the phase 3 soils data (O'Neill et al. 2005; Woodall et al. 2010), to analyze a broader population of sugar maple (alive and dead) across a wide range of soil types. This population of plots has a highly skewed, zero-inflated distribution: the number of plots in the sample without dead trees is an order of magnitude greater than the number of plots with dead trees. One effective method of analysis is a two-stage approach. In the first stage, the response variable is the presence or absence of dead sugar maple; the inferential space is the entire population of plots with sugar maple trees. The second stage uses the relative abundance of dead sugar maple as the response variable; in this case, inference is restricted to those plots where dead sugar maple trees are observed. In both sets of models, basal area and geology are significant predictors of dead sugar maple. The most significant soil variables vary between these two inferential spaces. Our model of the presence/absence of sugar maple death included the molar ratio of Mg:Mn; when conditional on the presence of dead sugar maple, our model includes the molar ratio of Ca:Al, along with exchangeable Na and Mg percentages. Multimodel inference (Burnham and Anderson 2002) assists the assessment of predictors within and between the two stages.

  18. RIR-MAPLE deposition of conjugated polymers and hybrid nanocomposites for application to optoelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Pate, Ryan; McCormick, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.

    2012-07-30

    Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) is a variation of pulsed laser deposition that is useful for organic-based thin films because it reduces material degradation by selective absorption of infrared radiation in the host matrix. A unique emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE approach has been developed that reduces substrate exposure to solvents and provides controlled and repeatable organic thin film deposition. In order to establish emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a preferred deposition technique for conjugated polymer or hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices, studies have been conducted to demonstrate the value added by the approach in comparison to traditional solution-based deposition techniques, and this work will be reviewed. The control of hybrid nanocomposite thin film deposition, and the photoconductivity in such materials deposited using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE, will also be reviewed. The overall result of these studies is the demonstration of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a viable option for the fabrication of conjugated polymer and hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices that could yield improved device performance.

  19. Changes in mRNA and protein content of SO sub 2 -fumigated maple leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stinemetz, C.L. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The effect of acute SO{sub 2} fumigation on foliar DNA, RNA, and protein levels in 2-yr-old containerized Acer seedlings was examined. While DNA content did not change appreciably in either SO{sub 2}-sensitive red maple (A. rubrum L.) or SO{sub 2}-tolerant silver maple (A. saccharinum L.), significant reductions in mRNA (35% for red maple; 21% for silver maple) were observed after 54 h fumigation (6 h/day {times} 3 days/wk {times} 3 wk) at 2.5 ppm SO{sub 2}. Reductions in mRNA and protein content were accompanied by a corresponding decline in net photosynthesis (Pn). The data from this study suggest that acute SO{sub 2} fumigation alters Pn in red and silver maple by disrupting molecular events, and that species sensitivity for these particular Acer spp may be related to the degree of change associated with mRNA and total protein content.

  20. Regional growth decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its potential causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Daniel A.; Beier, Colin M.; Pederson, Neil; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Stella, John C; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) has experienced poor vigor, regeneration failure, and elevated mortality across much of its range, but there has been relatively little attention to its growth rates. Based on a well-replicated dendrochronological network of range-centered populations in the Adirondack Mountains (USA), which encompassed a wide gradient of soil fertility, we observed that the majority of sugar maple trees exhibited negative growth trends in the last several decades, regardless of age, diameter, or soil fertility. Such growth patterns were unexpected, given recent warming and increased moisture availability, as well as reduced acidic deposition, which should have favored growth. Mean basal area increment was greater on base-rich soils, but these stands also experienced sharp reductions in growth. Growth sensitivity of sugar maple to temperature and precipitation was non-stationary during the last century, with overall weaker relationships than expected. Given the favorable competitive status and age structure of the Adirondack sugar maple populations sampled, evidence of widespread growth reductions raises concern over this ecologically and economically important tree. Further study will be needed to establish whether growth declines of sugar maple are occurring more widely across its range.

  1. Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D. )

    1990-04-01

    Constant infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H5)phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis (3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1) and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis.

  2. 75 FR 57016 - Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Maple Analytics, LLC's application for market-based...

  3. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  4. The Changing Colors of Maple Hills: Intersections of Culture, Race, Language, and Exceptionality in a Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This case describes Maple Hills Elementary, a K-8 school in a rural farming community of the Midwest. As a community, Maple Hills has historically experienced a narrow range of diversity across race, ethnicity, language, and religion. Residents have predominantly been White, with German and English heritage, speak English as a mother tongue, and…

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens levansucrase-catalyzed the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides, oligolevan and levan in maple syrup-based reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengxi; Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2015-11-20

    Maple syrups with selected degree Brix (°Bx) (15, 30, 60) were investigated as reaction systems for levansucrase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The enzymatic conversion of sucrose present in the maple syrup and the production of the transfructosylation products were assessed over a time course of 48h. At 30°C, the use of maple syrup 30°Bx led to the highest levansucrase activity (427.53μmol/mg protein/min), while maple syrup 66°Bx led to the highest converted sucrose concentration (1.53M). In maple syrup 30°Bx, oligolevans (1080%). In maple syrup 66°Bx, the most abundant products were oligolevans at 30°C and levans (DP≥30) at 8°C. The acceptor specificity study revealed the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens levansucrase to synthesize a variety of hetero-fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) in maple syrups 15°Bx and 30°Bx enriched with various disaccharides, with lactose being the preferred fructosyl acceptor. The current study is the first to investigate maple-syrup-based reaction systems for the synthesis of FOSs/oligolevans/levans. PMID:26344273

  6. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches the greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey; where it comprises 60-80% of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses.

  7. Field identification of birdseye in sugar maple (acer saccharum marsh. ). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, D.C.; Stokke, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Birdseye grain distortions in sugar maple must be identified to capture the full value of a timber sale throughout the economic range of birdseye's occurrence. Even when relatively common, birdseye veneer typically makes up less than 1 percent of the harvested volume, but may account for one-half of the value of the sale. Field identification of birdseye sugar maple is critical for two principal reasons: (1) it allows for the enumeration of a valuable resource that may influence management decisions, and (2) it may prevent improper manufacturing of logs at the job site. Both factors should help increase overall timber sale return. The objective of the paper is to provide a background on birdseye sugar maples and a detailed sequential methodology for field identification of birdseye in standing trees.

  8. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    In many areas of the glaciated northeastern United States, forested wetlands dominated by red maple (Acer rubrum) cover more of the landscape than all other nontidal wetland types combined. Yet surprisingly little of their ecology, functions, or social significance has been documented. Bogs, salt marshes, Atlantic white cedar swamps, and other less common types of wetlands have received considerable attention from scientists, but, except for botanical surveys, red maple swamps have been largely ignored. The report conveys what is known about these common wetlands and identifies topics most in need of investigation. Red maple swamps are so abundant and so widely distributed in the Northeast that their physical, chemical, and biological properties range widely as well, and their values to society are diverse. The central focus of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service community profile series is the plant and animal communities of wetlands and deepwater habitats.

  9. Effects of pesticide application on arthropod pests of nursery-grown maples.

    PubMed

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Sadof, Clifford

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides used against potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), have been reported to cause problems with maple spider mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), on nursery-grown 'Red Sunset' red maple and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple. To test this, we conducted two experiments on field-grown trees in nurseries. In the first, the effects of early-season pesticide applications were examined during 2009. The second experiment was conducted in 2010 to compare effects of using threshold levels of one, three, or six leafhoppers per branch to time applications. Pesticide applications reduced abundance and damage by leafhoppers in both cultivars, but increased populations of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze during 2009. In contrast, on Red Sunset, populations of O. aceris did not increase after insecticide applications. In 2010, insecticide applications did not increase abundance of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze because use of treatment thresholds to manage leafhoppers greatly reduced numbers of trees requiring treatment for leafhoppers. Two phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) and Typhlodromus caudiglans (Schuster), and one stigmaeid, Zetzellia mali (Ewing), were identified as the principal predators of O. aceris on maple leaves. Insecticide applications had no significant effects on the total abundance of predatory mites on either Red Sunset or Autumn Blaze maples in 2009 or 2010. However, populations of predator Z. mali were higher during both years on Red Sunset than on Autumn Blaze. These results suggest that both early-season pesticide use and cultivar can affect the likelihood of secondary outbreaks of spider mites on maples. PMID:24772553

  10. Response of sugar maple to calcium addition to northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Juice, Stephanie M; Fahey, Timothy J; Siccama, Thomas G; Driscoll, Charles T; Denny, Ellen G; Eagar, Christopher; Cleavitt, Natalie L; Minocha, Rakesh; Richardson, Andrew D

    2006-05-01

    Watershed budget studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, have demonstrated high calcium depletion of soil during the 20th century due, in part, to acid deposition. Over the past 25 years, tree growth (especially for sugar maple) has declined on the experimental watersheds at the HBEF. In October 1999, 0.85 Mg Ca/ha was added to Watershed 1 (W1) at the HBEF in the form of wollastonite (CaSiO3), a treatment that, by summer 2002, had raised the pH in the Oie horizon from 3.8 to 5.0 and, in the Oa horizon, from 3.9 to 4.2. We measured the response of sugar maple to the calcium fertilization treatment on W1. Foliar calcium concentration of canopy sugar maples in W1 increased markedly beginning the second year after treatment, and foliar manganese declined in years four and five. By 2005, the crown condition of sugar maple was much healthier in the treated watershed as compared with the untreated reference watershed (W6). Following high seed production in 2000 and 2002, the density of sugar maple seedlings increased significantly on W1 in comparison with W6 in 2001 and 2003. Survivorship of the 2003 cohort through July 2005 was much higher on W1 (36.6%) than W6 (10.2%). In 2003, sugar maple germinants on W1 were approximately 50% larger than those in reference plots, and foliar chlorophyll concentrations were significantly greater (0.27 g/m2 vs. 0.23 g/m2 leaf area). Foliage and fine-root calcium concentrations were roughly twice as high, and manganese concentrations twice as low in the treated than the reference seedlings in 2003 and 2004. Mycorrhizal colonization of seedlings was also much greater in the treated (22.4% of root length) than the reference sites (4.4%). A similar, though less dramatic, difference was observed for mycorrhizal colonization of mature sugar maples (56% vs. 35%). These results reinforce and extend other regional observations that sugar maple decline in the northeastern United States and southern Canada is

  11. Application of sugar maple and black locust to the biomass/energy plantation concept. Interim report, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981. [Sugar Maples, Black Locusts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the research program is to determine the feasibility of converting existing pole-size maple stands to biomass/energy plantations using black locust as an interplanted species. Toward this end, progress has been made in quantifying sprout biomass. Significant differences have been identified in productivity by site, species, time of fertilizer application, and diameter and damage of stumps. Rhizobium strains for black locust have been identified which are tolerant of low pH and phosphorous and high aluminum levels. Frost-hardy black locust seed sources have been identified for future work. Methods for sampling and equations for young natural stands of maple have been developed. Detailed characterization of sugar and red maple sprouts by physical, chemical and thermal analysis were compared to those of old, mature trees. The results are discussed in terms of seasonal moisture content variation, effects of tree age on specific gravity, extractive contents, ash content, major cell wall components, heating values and thermal behavior. 7 references, 5 figures, 17 tables.

  12. Maple (Computer Algebra System) in Teaching Pre-Calculus: Example of Absolute Value Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuluk, Güler

    2014-01-01

    Modules in Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) make Mathematics interesting and easy to understand. The present study focused on the implementation of the algebraic, tabular (numerical), and graphical approaches used for the construction of the concept of absolute value function in teaching mathematical content knowledge along with Maple 9. The study…

  13. MICROBIAL COLONIZATION, RESPIRATION AND BREAKDOWN OF MAPLE LEAVES ALONG A STREAM-MARSH CONTINUUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate and bacterial colonization, and microbial respiration were measured on decaying maple leaves at three sites along a stream-marsh continuum. Breakdown rates were 0.0284+/-0.0045 d-1 for leaves in a high-gradient, non-tidal stream; 0.0112 +/- 0.0...

  14. Evaluation of Systemic Insecticides for Potato Leafhopper Control in Field-Grown Red Maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic insecticides and application methods were evaluated in two tests that began in 2005 and 2006 for control of potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae [Harris]) on four red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivars and rated yearly through 2007. Treatments evaluated in this study included surface drenches o...

  15. Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, I. S.

    2008-01-01

    The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…

  16. MICROBIAL COLONIZATION, RESPIRATION, AND BREAKDOWN OF MAPLE LEAVES ALONG A STREAM-MARSH CONTINUUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate and bacterial colonization, and microbial respiration were measured on decaying maple (Acer saccharum) leaves at three sites along a stream-marsh continuum. Breakdown rates (-k+-SE) were 0.0284+-0.0045 d-1 for leaves in a high-gradient, non-tida...

  17. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  18. The Effects of Maple Integrated Strategy on Engineering Technology Students' Understanding of Integral Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a learning strategy using Maple in integral calculus. This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. One hundred engineering technology students at a technical university were chosen at random. The effectiveness of the learning…

  19. INITIAL GROWTH AND ONTOGENY OF BIGLEAF MAPLE (ACER MACROPHYLLUM) IN AN ENRICHED CARBON DIOXIDE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A controlled-environment experiment was initiated to evaluate the influence of CO2 enrichment on the growth and ontogeny of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum). evelopment of seedlings was monitored from seed germination through the first five months of ontogeny in growth chambers ...

  20. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  1. Student Organizations in Canada and Quebec's "Maple Spring"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bégin-Caouette, Olivier; Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two major objectives: to describe the structure of the student movement in Canada and the formal role of students in higher education governance, and to describe and analyze the "Maple Spring," the dramatic mobilization of students in opposition to proposed tuition fee increases in Quebec that eventually led to a…

  2. The Minnesota Maple Series: Community-Generated Knowledge Delivered through an Extension Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David S.; Miedtke, Juile A.; Sagor, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Extension continuously seeks novel and effective approaches to outreach and education. The recent retirement of a longtime content specialist catalyzed members of University of Minnesota Extension's Forestry team to reflect on our instructional capacity (internal and external) and educational design in the realm of maple syrup production. We…

  3. Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

  4. Symbiotic maple saps minimize disruption of the mice intestinal microbiota after oral antibiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Riadh; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Barbeau, Julie; Fliss, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo impact of new symbiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%), were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 2-4 × 10(8) cfu mL(-1). The experiments started with intra-gastric administration of antibiotic (kanamycin 40 mg in 0.1 cc) (to induce microbiota disturbance and/or diarrhea) to 3-to-5-week-old C57BL/6 female mice followed by a combination of prebiotic and probiotics included in the maple sap or its concentrate for a week. The combination inulin and probiotics in maple sap and concentrate appeared to minimize the antibiotic-induced breakdown of mice microbiota with a marked effect on bifidobacterium and bacteroides levels, thus permitting a more rapid re-establishment of the baseline microbiota levels. Results suggest that maple sap and its concentrate represent good candidates for the production of non-dairy functional foods. PMID:26218660

  5. Use of a Colony of Cooperating Agents and MAPLE To Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrieri, Bruno

    This paper reviews an approach for finding optimal solutions to the traveling salesman problem, a well-known problem in combinational optimization, and describes implementing the approach using the MAPLE computer algebra system. The method employed in this approach to the problem is similar to the way ant colonies manage to establish shortest…

  6. Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.

    PubMed

    Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A

    2006-04-01

    At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from < 50 to 51% from pith to cambium, at both the base and top of the boles. In giant sequoia, C was essentially constant at > 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology. PMID:16414925

  7. Biogeochemical features of maple and dandelion in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    Today more than half of world population and 73% of population in Russia live in cities. Moscow is the only one megacity in Russia with the population more than 11 million. The main source of technogenic impact in Moscow is transport. Plants can be used as indicators of urban environment heavy metals and metalloids (HM) pollution. Large scale biogeochemical research was done in Eastern Administrative District of Moscow. Apart from transport there are many industrial sources of pollution: metalworking, mechanical engineering, chemical, energetic and incinerator. This study focuses on detection of HM composition of woody plant leaves (maple - Acer platanoides) and herbaceous species leaves (dandelion - Taraxacum officinale). Plant material was collected on a regular greed with a step of 500-700 m. Background plants were sampled at 40 km west away from the city. Determination of Fe, Mn, Mo, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, Sb in plants was done using atomic absorption spectrometry after washing, drying and digestion with HNO3+H2O2. It was revealed that dandelion accumulates (index - concentration factors CF relatively background) Mo13Fe6Pb5Cd4.5As4Sb3, while maple Sb13As5.5Fe3Mo2Pb,Zn1.5. Geochemical specialization of plants in functional zones (industrial, transport, recreational, agricultural, residential areas with high-, middle- and low-rise buildings) was identified. The highest CF were determined for Mo in dandelion of all zones except industrial. In which the most accumulated elements are Fe and Mo, as well as Pb10As6Sb5Cu2. Arsenic is accumulated by dandelion in all zones. Copper is not concentrated by herbaceous species because of antagonism between Mo and Cu. The highest CF were determined for HM in maple of industrial zone. There trees concentrate Sb and As9Fe7Mo6Pb3Zn2. In the other zones levels of CF are lower in 2-5 times. Dandelion and maple don't accumulate Mn because of antagonism between Zn, Mo and Mn. Urban plants condition is estimated by the ratio between

  8. Development and UFLC-MS/MS Characterization of a Product-Specific Standard for Phenolic Quantification of Maple-Derived Foods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqiang; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P

    2016-05-01

    The phenolic contents of plant foods are commonly quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay based on gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). However, this may lead to inaccuracies because gallic acid is not always representative of the structural heterogeneity of plant phenolics. Therefore, product-specific standards have been developed for the phenolic quantification of several foods. Currently, maple-derived foods (syrup, sugar, sap/water, and extracts) are quantified for phenolic contents based on GAEs. Because lignans are the predominant phenolics present in maple, herein, a maple phenolic lignan-enriched standard (MaPLES) was purified (by chromatography) and characterized (by UFLC-MS/MS with lignans previously isolated from maple syrup). Using MaPLES and secoisolariciresinol (a commercially available lignan), the phenolic contents of the maple-derived foods increased 3-fold compared to GAEs. Therefore, lignan-based standards are more appropriate for phenolic quantification of maple-derived foods versus GAEs. Also, MaPLES can be utilized for the authentication and detection of fake label claims on maple products. PMID:27101225

  9. Material properties and applications of blended organic thin films with nanoscale domains deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; McCormick, Ryan D.; Ge, Wangyao

    2015-03-01

    Resonant-infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit blended, organic thin-films with nanoscale domain sizes of constituent polymers, small molecules, or colloidal nanoparticles. In the emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE process, the target contains a nonpolar, organic solvent phase and a polar, water phase. The emulsion properties have a direct impact on the nanoscale morphology of single-component organic thin films, while the morphology of blended, organic thin films also depends on the RIR-MAPLE deposition mode. In addition to these fundamental aspects, applications of blended organic films (organic solar cells, anti-reflection coatings, and multi-functional surfaces) deposited by emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE are presented. Importantly, domain sizes in the blended films are critical to thin-film functionality.

  10. Quantification of metal loading to Silver Creek through the Silver Maple Claims area, Park City, Utah, May 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Runkel, Robert L.; Steiger, Judy I.

    2004-01-01

    The Silver Maple Claims area along Silver Creek, near Park City, Utah, is administered by the Bureau of Land Management. To quantify possible sources of elevated zinc concentrations in Silver Creek that exceed water-quality standards, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a mass-loading study in May 2002 along a 1,400-meter reach of Silver Creek that included the Silver Maple Claims area. Additional samples were collected upstream and downstream from the injection reach to investigate other possible sources of zinc and other metals to the stream. Many metals were investigated in the study, but zinc is of particular concern for water-quality standards. The total loading of zinc along the study reach from Park City to Wanship, Utah, was about 49 kilograms per day. The Silver Maple Claims area contributed about 38 percent of this load. The Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe, which empties just inside the Silver Maple Claims area, contributed more than half the load of the Silver Maple Claims area. Substantial zinc loads also were added to Silver Creek downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area. Ground-water discharge upstream from the waste-water treatment plant contributed 20 percent of the total zinc load, and another 17 percent was contributed near the waste-water treatment plant. By identifying the specific areas where zinc and other metal loads are contributed to Silver Creek, it is possible to assess the needs of a remediation plan. For example, removing the tailings from the Silver Maple Claims area could contribute to lowering the zinc concentration in Silver Creek, but without also addressing the loading from the Silver Creek tailings discharge pipe and the ground-water discharge farther downstream, the zinc concentration could not be lowered enough to meet water-quality standards. Additional existing sources of zinc loading downstream from the Silver Maple Claims area could complicate the process of lowering zinc concentration to meet water

  11. Perception of aspen and sun/shade sugar maple leaf soluble extracts by larvae of Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Panzuto, M; Lorenzetti, F; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J

    2001-10-01

    We investigated the behavioral feeding preference and the chemoreception of leaf polar extracts from trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, and from sun and shade sugar maple, Acer saccharum, by larvae of the polyphagous forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, a defoliator of deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Three polar extracts were obtained from each tree species: a total extract, a water fraction, and a methanol fraction. M. disstria larvae were allowed ad libitum access to an artificial diet from eclosion to the fifth instar. Two-choice cafeteria tests were performed comparing the mean (+/-SE) surface area eaten of the total extracts, and the following order of preference was obtained: aspen > sun maple > shade maple. Tests with the other fractions showed that M. disstria larvae preferred the total aspen extract to its water fraction, and the latter to its methanol fraction. The response to sun maple was similar to aspen. However, for the shade maple experiment, there was no difference between the total extract and its water fraction. Electrophysiological recordings for aspen showed that the sugar-sensitive cell elicited more spikes to the water fraction, followed by the total extract, and finally the methanol fraction. Spike activity to stimulations of sun and shade maple extracts revealed a similar trend, where methanol fraction > water fraction > total extract. Our findings are discussed in light of previously known information about this insect's performance on these host plants. PMID:11710605

  12. Processing of functional polymers and organic thin films by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, A.; Wu, P.; Ringeisen, B. R.; Bubb, D. M.; Melinger, J. S.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2002-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique has been successfully used to deposit highly uniform thin films of various functional materials such as non-linear optical (NLO) organic materials, conductive polymers, luminescent organic molecules and several types of proteinaceous compounds. MAPLE is a laser evaporation technique for growing thin films of organic and polymeric materials which involves directing a pulsed laser beam (λ=193 nm; fluence=0.01-0.5 J cm -2) onto a frozen target (-40 to -160 °C) consisting of a solute polymeric or organic compound dissolved in a solvent matrix. Using MAPLE, thin films of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-( L)-prolinol or NPP, an NLO material; polypyrrole, a conductive polymer; and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum or Alq3, a luminescent organic compound, have been separately deposited with minor (in the case of Alq3) or no degradation (for the NPP and polypyrrole) to their optical and electrical properties. The MAPLE process has also been used to deposit discrete thin film micro-arrays of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). The deposited BSA films, after washing with a blocking protein and fluorescently tagged streptavidin, fluoresce when exposed to UV. This fluorescence indicates that the biochemical specificity of the transferred biotinylated protein is unaffected by the MAPLE process. These results demonstrate that the MAPLE technique can be used for growing thin films of functional polymer and active biomaterials.

  13. Dosimetry aspects of the new Canadian MAPLE-X10 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lidstone, R.F.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is building the 10-MW{sub t} MAPLE-X10 reactor facility as a dedicated producer of medical and industrial radioisotopes. Dosimetry aspects of the MAPLE-X10 nuclear design include the calculated thermal and fast neutron flux distributions throughout the reactor assembly and the rate of heat generation in reactor materials and components. Examples of the resolution of design issues are also presented, such as the use of fission counters and ion chambers to provide diverse methods of detecting neutron flux levels and the use of the difference between photon and neutron signals to guard against the effects of downgrading of the heavy-water reflector. Computer codes employed in the calculations include MCNP, ONEDANT, WIMS-AECL, and 3DDT.

  14. MAPLE fabrication of thin films based on kanamycin functionalized magnetite nanoparticles with anti-pathogenic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Stănculescu, Anca; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2015-05-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of kanamycin functionalized 5 nm-magnetite (Fe3O4@KAN) nanoparticles thin films deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A laser deposition regime was established in order to stoichiometrically transfer Fe3O4@KAN thin films on silicone and glass substrates. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of powders and coatings were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, AFM and IR microscopy (IRM). Our nanostructured thin films have proved efficiency in the prevention of microbial adhesion and mature biofilms development as a result of antibiotic release in its active form. Furthermore, kanamycin functionalized nanostructures exhibit a good biocompatibility, both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating their potential for implants application. This is the first study reporting the assessment of the in vivo biocompatibility of a magnetite-antimicrobial thin films produced by MAPLE technique.

  15. Variation in mineral content of red maple sap across an atmospheric deposition gradient

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, L.H.

    1997-11-01

    Xylem sap was collected from red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees during the spring of 1988 and 1989 at seven forest sites along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north central Pennsylvania and analyzed for pH and twelve mineral constituents. The objectives of the study were to examine the sources and patterns of variation in red maple sap chemistry across an atmospheric deposition gradient and to assess the feasibility of using sap analysis as an indicator of nutrient bioavailability. For most sap constituents, there was considerable spatial and temporal variation in concentration. Sources of variation included within and between site variation, date, and year of collection. The nature and extent of variation varied for different constituents. Site differences were similar in 1988 and 1989 for most sap constituents and for some constituents corresponded with differences in soil levels.

  16. Maple Syrup Decreases TDP-43 Proteotoxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Aaron, Catherine; Beaudry, Gabrielle; Parker, J Alex; Therrien, Martine

    2016-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease causing death of the motor neurons. Proteotoxicity caused by TDP-43 protein is an important aspect of ALS pathogenesis, with TDP-43 being the main constituent of the aggregates found in patients. We have previously tested the effect of different sugars on the proteotoxicity caused by the expression of mutant TDP-43 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we tested maple syrup, a natural compound containing many active molecules including sugars and phenols, for neuroprotective activity. Maple syrup decreased several age-dependent phenotypes caused by the expression of TDP-43(A315T) in C. elegans motor neurons and requires the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 to be effective. PMID:27071850

  17. Parametric Decay of Pump Waves into two Linear Modes in SINP MaPLE Device

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Subir; Pal, Rabindranath

    2010-11-23

    Parametric decay of incident waves of ion cyclotron frequency range into linear modes is observed in experiment performed in the SINP MaPLE device where nitrogen plasma produced by ECR discharge. Along with a mode in drift wave frequency range, sideband of the incident waves are observed when amplitude of the exciter signal goes above a threshold value. Sideband of the second harmonic is also seen. Preliminary studies point towards excitation of ion Bernstein wave. Details of the experimental results are presented.

  18. Parametric Decay of Pump Waves into two Linear Modes in SINP MaPLE Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subir; Pal, Rabindranath

    2010-11-01

    Parametric decay of incident waves of ion cyclotron frequency range into linear modes is observed in experiment performed in the SINP MaPLE device where nitrogen plasma produced by ECR discharge. Along with a mode in drift wave frequency range, sideband of the incident waves are observed when amplitude of the exciter signal goes above a threshold value. Sideband of the second harmonic is also seen. Preliminary studies point towards excitation of ion Bernstein wave. Details of the experimental results are presented.

  19. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Atwal, P.S.; Macmurdo, C.; Grimm, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods. PMID:26937409

  20. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Atwal, P S; Macmurdo, C; Grimm, P C

    2015-09-01

    Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods. PMID:26937409

  1. Fuel values of stems and branches in post oak and red maple

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In red maple (Acer rubrum), there was n.s.d. in higher heating value (HHV) between stem wood and branch wood or between stem bark and branch bark. In post oak (Quercus stellata) the HHV of stem bark was significantly higher than that of branch bark, but there was n.s.d. between stem wood and branch wood. For both species the wood had a significantly higher HHV than the bark. 1 reference.

  2. Polyphenolic extract from maple syrup potentiates antibiotic susceptibility and reduces biofilm formation of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maisuria, Vimal B; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960

  3. Fungi in Ontario maple syrup & some factors that determine the presence of mold damage.

    PubMed

    Frasz, Samantha L; Miller, J David

    2015-08-17

    Maple syrup is a high value artisanal product produced mainly in Canada and a number of States primarily in the northeast USA. Mold growth (Wallemia sebi) on commercial product was first reported in syrup in 1908. Since then, few data have been published. We conducted a systematic examination for fungi in maple syrup from 68 producers from all of the syrup-producing areas of Ontario, Canada. The mean pH of the samples was pH 6.82, sugar content averaged 68.0±0.89 °Brix and aw averaged 0.841±0.011. Some 23 species of fungi were isolated based on morphology and molecular techniques. The most common fungus in the maple syrup samples was Eurotium herbariorum, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor and two species of Wallemia. Cladosporium cladosporioides was also common but only recovered when fungi known from high sugar substrates were also present in the mold damaged sample. The rarely reported yeast Citeromyces matrinsis was found in samples from three producers. There appear to be three potential causes for mold damage observed. High aw was associated with about one third of the mold damage. Independently, cold packing (bottling at ~25 °C) was a risk factor. However, syrup of good quality and quite low aw values was contaminated. We hypothesize that sanitation in the bottling line and other aspects of the bottling process may be partial explanations. Clarifying this requires further study. PMID:26001061

  4. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel; Ryser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season. PMID:27135339

  5. New Gallotannin and other Phytochemicals from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; Niesen, Daniel B; Wang, Hui; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-11-01

    The maple (Acer) genus is a reported source of bioactive (poly)phenols, including gallotannins, but several of its members, such as the sycamore maple (A. pseudoplatanus), remain uninvestigated. Herein, thirty-nine compounds, including a new gallotannin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-6-O-(p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D- glucopyranoside (1), and thirty-eight (2-39) known compounds, consisting of four gallotannins, one ellagitannin, thirteen flavonoids, eight hydroxycinnamic acids, ten benzoic acid derivatives, and two sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from sycamore maple leaves. Their structures were determined based on NMR and mass spectral analyses. The isolates were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the isolates, the gallotannins were the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with thirteen-fold more potent activity compared with the clinical drug, acarbose (IC50 = 16-31 vs. 218 µM). Similarly, the gallotannins showed the highest antioxidant activities, followed by the other phenolic sub-classes, while the sesquiterpenoids were inactive. PMID:26749841

  6. Sugar Maple Pigments Through the Fall and the Role of Anthocyanin as an Analytical Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, E.; Rock, B.; Middleton, E.; Aber, J.

    2008-12-01

    Sugar maple habitat is projected to almost disappear in future climate scenarios. In fact, many institutions state that these trees are already in decline. Being able to detect sugar maple health could prove to be a useful analytical tool to monitor changes in phenology. Anthocyanin, a red pigment found in sugar maples, is thought to be a universal indicator of plant stress. It is very prominent in the spring during the first flush of leaves, as well as in the fall as leaves senesce. Determining an anthocyanin index that could be used with satellite systems will provide a greater understanding of tree phenology and the distribution of plant stress, both over large areas as well as changes over time. The utilization of anthocyanin for one of it's functions, prevention of oxidative stress, may fluctuate in response to changing climatic conditions that occur during senescence or vary from year to year. By monitoring changes in pigment levels and antioxidant capacity through the fall, one may be able to draw conclusions about the ability to detect anthocyanin remotely from space-based systems, and possibly determine a more specific function for anthocyanin during fall senescence. These results could then be applied to track changes in tree stress.

  7. Insects attracted to Maple Sap: Observations from Prince Edward Island, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The collection of maple sap for the production of maple syrup is a large commercial enterprise in Canada and the United States. In Canada, which produces 85% of the world’s supply, it has an annual value of over $168 million CAD. Over 38 million trees are tapped annually, 6.5% of which use traditional buckets for sap collection. These buckets attract significant numbers of insects. Despite this, there has been very little investigation of the scale of this phenomenon and the composition of insects that are attracted to this nutrient source. The present paper reports the results of a preliminary study conducted on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Trichoptera were found in maple sap buckets, 19 of which are known to be attracted to saps and nectars. The physiological role of sap feeding is discussed with reference to moths of the tribe Xylenini, which are active throughout the winter, and are well documented as species that feed on sap flows. Additionally, 18 of the 28 species found in this study are newly recorded in Prince Edward Island. PMID:21594122

  8. Polyphenolic Extract from Maple Syrup Potentiates Antibiotic Susceptibility and Reduces Biofilm Formation of Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Maisuria, Vimal B.; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960

  9. MAPLE-deposited PFO films: influence of the laser fluence and repetition rate on the film emission and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Anni, M.; Cesaria, M.; Lattante, S.; Leggieri, G.; Leo, C.; Martino, M.; Perulli, A.; Resta, V.

    2015-06-01

    The Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique is emerging as an alternative route to the conventional methods for depositing organic materials, although the MAPLE-deposited films very often present high surface roughness and characteristic morphological features. Films of the blue-emitting polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)—PFO, have been deposited by MAPLE to investigate the influence of the laser fluence and repetition rate on both their topography and emission properties. The laser fluence has been changed from 150 up to 450 mJ/cm2, while laser repetition rates of 2 and 10 Hz have been considered. The interplay/relationship between the topography and the emission properties of the MAPLE-deposited films has been studied by confocal microscopy, photoluminescence spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that under high irradiation (fluence of 450 mJ/cm2) conditions, the sample surface is characterized by bubbles presenting the intrinsic PFO blue emission. Instead, while improvements in the film morphology can be observed for lowered fluence and laser repetition rate, green emission becomes predominant in such conditions. Such result is very interesting to better understand the MAPLE ablation mechanism, which is discussed in this study.

  10. Effects of cutting time, stump height, parent tree characteristics, and harvest variables on development of bigleaf maple sprout clumps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C., II; Zasada, J.; Maxwell, B.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of stump height, year of cutting, parent-tree size, logging damage, and deer browsing on bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) sprout clump development, maple trees were cut to two stump heights at three different times. Stump height had the greatest impact on sprout clump size. Two years after clearcutting, the sprout clump volume for short stumps was significantly less than that for tall stumps. The sprout clump volume, area, and number of sprouts were significantly less for trees cut 1 and 2 yr before harvest than for trees cut at harvest. Sprout clump size was positively correlated with parent tree stem diameter and stump volume, and negatively correlated with the percentage of bark removed during logging. Browsing had no significant impact on average clump size. Uncut trees produced sprout clumps at their base and epicormic branches along the length of their stems; thus their crown volume averaged four to five times that of cut trees. Cutting maple in clearcuts to low stumps may reduce maple competition with Douglas-fir regeneration and still maintain maple in the next stand.

  11. Toward an improved model of maple sap exudation: the location and role of osmotic barriers in sugar maple, butternut and white birch.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Damián; Jagels, Richard; Tyree, Melvin T

    2008-08-01

    Two theories have been proposed to explain how high positive pressures are developed in sugar maple stems when temperatures fluctuate around freezing. The Milburn-O'Malley theory proposes that pressure development is purely physical and does not require living cells or sucrose. The osmotic theory invokes the involvement of living cells and sucrose to generate an osmotic pressure difference between fibers and vessels, which are assumed to be separated by an osmotic barrier. We analyzed wood of Acer saccharum Marsh., Juglans cinerea L. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. (all generate positive pressures) examining three critical components of the osmotic model: pits in cell walls, selectivity of the osmotic barrier and stability of air bubbles under positive xylem pressure. We examined the distribution and type of pits directly by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and indirectly by perfusion of branch segments with fluorescent dyes with molecular masses similar to sucrose. The latter approach allowed us to use osmotic surrogates for sucrose that could be tracked by epifluorescence. Infusion experiments were used to assess the compartmentalization of sucrose and to determine the behavior of gas bubbles as predicted by Fick's and Henry's laws. The SEM images of sugar maple revealed a lack of pitting between fibers and vessels but connections between fiber-tracheids and vessels were present. Fluorescein-perfusion experiments demonstrated that large molecules do not diffuse into libriform fibers but are confined within the domain of vessels, parenchyma and fiber-tracheids. Results of the infusion experiments were in agreement with those of the fluorescein perfusions and further indicated the necessity of a compartmentalized osmolyte to drive stem pressure, as well as the inability of air bubbles to maintain such pressure because of instability. These results support the osmotic model and demonstrate that the secondary cell wall is an effective osmotic barrier for

  12. Management of a Woman With Maple Syrup Urine Disease During Pregnancy, Delivery, and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Ann E; Mogensen, Kris M; Rohr, Frances; Erick, Miriam; Neilan, Edward G; Chopra, Sameer; Levy, Harvey L; Gray, Kathryn J; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Berry, Gerard T

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Complications of acute elevation in plasma leucine include ketoacidosis and risk of cerebral edema, which can be fatal. Individuals with MSUD are at risk of metabolic crisis throughout life, especially at times of physiological stress. We present a case of successful management of a woman with MSUD through pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, and lactation, including nutrition therapy using modified parenteral nutrition. PMID:24618664

  13. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) seedlings in response to heavy metal stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660 nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650 nm. The differences may possibly be due to different water regimes in the two investigations. Previously announced in STAR as N81-29729

  14. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) in response to heavy metal stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650nm. The differences may possible be due to different water regimes in the two investigations.

  15. A Maple Program That Illustrates the Effect of pH on Peptide Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolik, Charles W.

    1998-11-01

    One topic covered early in an introductory biochemistry course is acid-base chemistry and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (buffer equation). Using this equation a biochemistry student can determine the partial charges of amino acids in a peptide chain. This is an important concept to master for a student who is learning the structure-function relationship in proteins. The program described in this paper, written for Maple V, release 3 (Waterloo Maple Software, Waterloo, ON, Canada), uses the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the partial charges of individual amino acids and the net charge of a peptide over the pH range 0 to 14. The amino acid sequence of a peptide is entered and an animated histogram is displayed illustrating the partial charge of the amino acids over the pH range. A graph showing the net charge of the peptide from pH 0 to 14 is also given. The program has been used with success in an introductory biochemistry course as an in-class demonstration as well as for individual homework assignments. The program is available through the Web page of the Journal of Chemical Education.

  16. A numerical study of a freely-falling maple seed with autorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Injae; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    Many single winged seeds such as those of maples exploit autorotation to decrease the descending velocity and increase the dispersal distance for the conservation of species. In this study, a numerical simulation is conducted for flow around a freely-falling maple seed (Acer palmatum) at the Reynolds number of 1186 (based on the mean chord length and characteristic terminal velocity). We use an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame (Kim & Choi, JCP, 2006) for the simulation. After a transient period, the seed reaches the steady autorotation with a stable leading edge vortex attached on the surface of the wing at which the descending velocity significantly decreases. At steady autorotation, the descending velocity is proportional to the square root of disc loading. We also study the effect of the initial position of the seeds on the timing of autorotation, and show that the autorotation occurs earlier when the wing leading edge or nut is initially positioned upward. Supported by NRF-2011-0028032.

  17. Flexible heterostructures based on metal phthalocyanines thin films obtained by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Stavarache, I.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, G.; Gherendi, F.; Grumezescu, V.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Girtan, M.; Stefan, N.

    2016-06-01

    Heterostructures based on zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyrydil)21H,23H-porphine (TPyP) were deposited on ITO flexible substrates by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Organic heterostructures containing (TPyP/ZnPc(MgPc)) stacked or (ZnPc(MgPc):TPyP) mixed layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction-XRD, photoluminescence-PL, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. No chemical decomposition of the initial materials was observed. The investigated structures present a large spectral absorption in the visible range making them suitable for organic photovoltaics applications (OPV). Scanning electron microscopy-SEM and atomic force microscopy-AFM revealed morphologies typical for the films prepared by MAPLE. The current-voltage characteristics of the investigated structures, measured in dark and under light, present an improvement in the current value (∼3 order of magnitude larger) for the structure based on the mixed layer (Al/MgPc:TPyP/ITO) in comparison with the stacked layer (Al/MgPc//TPyP/ITO). A photogeneration process was evidenced in the case of structures Al/ZnPc:TPyP/ITO with mixed layers.

  18. MAPLE prepared heterostructures with arylene based polymer active layer for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, F.; Rasoga, O.; Catargiu, A. M.; Vacareanu, L.; Socol, M.; Breazu, C.; Preda, N.; Socol, G.; Stanculescu, A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents some studies about the preparation by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique of heterostructures with single layer of arylene based polymer, poly[N-(2-ethylhexyl)2.7-carbazolyl vinylene]/AMC16 and poly[N-(2-ethylhexyl)2.7-carbazolyl 1.4-phenylene ethynylene]/AMC22, and with layers of these polymers mixed with Buckminsterfullerene/C60 in the weight ratio of 1:2 (AMC16:C60) and 1:3 (AMC22:C60). The deposited layers have been characterized by spectroscopic (UV-Vis-NIR, PL, FTIR) and microscopic (SEM, AFM) methods. The effect of the polymer particularities on the optical and electrical properties of the structures based on polymer and polymer:C60 mixed layer has been analyzed. The study of the electrical properties has revealed typical solar cell behavior for the heterostructure prepared by MAPLE on glass/ITO/PEDOT-PSS with AMC16, AMC22 and AMC22:C60 layer, confirming that this method is adequate for the preparation of polymeric and mixed active layers for solar cells applications. The highest photovoltaic effect was shown by the solar cell structure realized with single layer of AMC16 polymer: glass/ITO/PEDOT-PSS/AMC16/Al.

  19. DNA damage in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O S; Borges, Gabriela D; Munhoz, Bruna P; Leffa, Daniela D; Andrade, Vanessa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a severe deficiency of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Neurological dysfunction is a common finding in patients with maple syrup urine disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain damage in this disorder are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether acute or chronic administration of a branched chain amino acid pool (leucine, isoleucine and valine) causes transient DNA damage, as determined by the alkaline comet assay, in the brain and blood of rats during development and whether antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by branched chain amino acids. Our results showed that the acute administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in the hippocampus. However, the chronic administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in both the hippocampus and the striatum, and the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum. The present study demonstrated that metabolite accumulation in MSUD induces DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum and that it may be implicated in the neuropathology observed in the affected patients. We demonstrated that the effect of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine) prevented DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in DNA damage. PMID:22560665

  20. Spring leaf phenology and the diurnal temperature range in a temperate maple forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanes, Jonathan M.

    2014-03-01

    Spring leaf phenology in temperate climates is intricately related to numerous aspects of the lower atmosphere [e.g., surface energy balance, carbon flux, humidity, the diurnal temperature range (DTR)]. To further develop and improve the accuracy of ecosystem and climate models, additional investigations of the specific nature of the relationships between spring leaf phenology and various ecosystem and climate processes are required in different environments. This study used visual observations of maple leaf phenology, below-canopy light intensities, and micrometeorological data collected during the spring seasons of 2008, 2009, and 2010 to examine the potential influence of leaf phenology on a seasonal transition in the trend of the DTR. The timing of a reversal in the DTR trend occurred near the time when the leaves were unfolding and expanding. The results suggest that the spring decline in the DTR can be attributed primarily to the effect of canopy closure on daily maximum temperature. These findings improve our understanding of the relationship between leaf phenology and the diurnal temperature range in temperate maple forests during the spring. They also demonstrate the necessity of incorporating accurate phenological data into ecosystem and climate models and warrant a careful examination of the extent to which canopy phenology is currently incorporated into existing models.

  1. Lipase immobilization for catalytic applications obtained using fumed silica deposited with MAPLE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloisi, Francesco; Califano, Valeria; Perretta, Giuseppe; Nasti, Libera; Aronne, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Auriemma, Finizia; De Rosa, Claudio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Lipases are enzymes used for catalyzing reactions of acylglycerides in biodiesel production from lipids, where enzyme immobilization on a substrate is required. Silica nanoparticles in different morphologies and configurations are currently used in conjunction with biological molecules for drug delivery and catalysis applications, but up to date their use for triglycerides has been limited by the large size of long-chain lipid molecules. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), a laser deposition technique using a frozen solution/suspension as a target, is widely used for deposition of biomaterials and other delicate molecules. We have carried out a MAPLE deposition starting from a frozen mixture containing fumed silica and lipase in water. Deposition parameters were chosen in order to increase surface roughness and to promote the formation of complex structures. Both the target (a frozen thickened mixture of nanoparticles/catalyst in water) and the deposition configuration (a small target to substrate distance) are unusual and have been adopted in order to increase surface contact of catalyst and to facilitate access to long-chain molecules. The resulting innovative film morphology (fumed silica/lipase cluster level aggregation) and the lipase functionality (for catalytic biodiesel production) have been studied by FESEM, FTIR and transesterification tests.

  2. Effect of substrate temperature on MAPLE deposition of synthetic eumelanin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloisi, F.; Pezzella, A.; Barra, M.; Alfè, M.; Chiarella, F.; Cassinese, A.; Vicari, L.

    2011-11-01

    Eumelanin is an important pigment almost ubiquitous in animals and plants exhibiting interesting charge transport capabilities. Its poor solubility in common solvents represents a severe limitation for preparing thin films. It was recently demonstrated that eumelanin films can be successfully deposited with the MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique starting from a frozen water suspension, using infrared laser radiation. The low laser absorption of ice together with the high absorption of eumelanin suggests that the target ablation is due to laser energy absorbed by the eumelanin molecules, followed by thermal energy transfer, and ejection of ice/water/vapor containing undamaged eumelanin molecules and supramolecular structures. Here, we report on the deposition of eumelanin thin films on substrates at different temperatures eventually followed by in-situ annealing. Structural characterization (UV-VIS, FTIR, AP-MALDI) confirms that the deposited films maintain the characteristics of the eumelanin biopolymer. Morphological characterization (AFM) shows that surface roughness increases with increasing substrate temperature during MAPLE deposition, but is not influenced by annealing. Preliminary electrical characterization shows that eumelanin films seem to obey Ohm's law without evidence that charge injection from gold electrodes is affected by the presence of significant energy barriers. Moreover, charge transport is drastically reduced in vacuum, even if the phenomenon is at least partially reversible.

  3. MAPLE deposition of polypyrrole-based composite layers for bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Acasandrei, Adriana Maria; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Ion, Valentin; Mihailescu, Mona; Vasile, Eugenia; Dinescu, Maria

    2015-12-01

    We report on biocompatible, electrically conductive layers of polypyrrole (PPy)-based composites obtained by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) for envisioned bone regeneration. In order to preserve the conductivity of the PPy while overcoming its lack of biodegradability and low mechanical resilience, conductive PPy nanograins were embedded in two biocompatible, insulating polymeric matrices, i.e. poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) and polyurethane (PU). PLGA offers the advantage of full biodegradability into non-toxic products, while PU provides toughness and elasticity. The PPy nanograins formed micro-domains and networks within the PLGA and PU matrices, in a compact spatial arrangement favorable for electrical percolation. The proposed approach allowed us to obtain PPy-based composite layers with biologically meaningful conductivities up to 10-2 S/cm for PPy loadings as low as 1:10 weight ratios. Fluorescent staining and viability assays showed that the MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured on the PPy-based layers deposited by MAPLE were viable and retained their capacity to proliferate. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated by quantitative evaluation of the calcium phosphate deposits from the cultured cells, as indicative for cell mineralization. Electrical stimulation using 200 μA currents passing through the PPy-based layers, during a time interval of 4 h, enhanced the osteogenesis in the cultured cells. Despite their lowest conductivity, the PPy/PU layers showed the best biocompatibility and the highest osteogenic potential.

  4. Genetic consequences of selection cutting on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall).

    PubMed

    Graignic, Noémie; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Selection cutting is a treatment that emulates tree-by-tree replacement for forests with uneven-age structures. It creates small openings in large areas and often generates a more homogenous forest structure (fewer large leaving trees and defective trees) that differs from old-growth forest. In this study, we evaluated whether this type of harvesting has an impact on genetic diversity of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall). Genetic diversity among seedlings, saplings, and mature trees was compared between selection cut and old-growth forest stands in Québec, Canada. We found higher observed heterozygosity and a lower inbreeding coefficient in mature trees than in younger regeneration cohorts of both forest types. We detected a recent bottleneck in all stands undergoing selection cutting. Other genetic indices of diversity (allelic richness, observed and expected heterozygosity, and rare alleles) were similar between forest types. We concluded that the effect of selection cutting on the genetic diversity of sugar maple was recent and no evidence of genetic erosion was detectable in Québec stands after one harvest. However, the cumulative effect of recurring applications of selection cutting in bottlenecked stands could lead to fixation of deleterious alleles, and this highlights the need for adopting better forest management practices. PMID:27330554

  5. Detecting sulfur dioxide stress in red maple foliage by changes in membrane permeability and ethylene evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, J.H. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M.

    1989-04-01

    Two-yr-old seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) pollution at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 ppm 8 hr daily for two 3-day periods spaced 3 days apart. Alterations in membrane permeability caused by SO{sub 2} stress were measured by electrolyte leakage of incubated leaf discs, and changes in ethylene biosynthesis were determined by gas chromatography using intact leaves. Ethylene increased 62% as SO{sub 2} concentration changed from 0 to 0.5 ppm, suggesting that ethylene may be a useful indicator for determining the onset of acute SO{sub 2} stress in maple. Membrane permeability was not as sensitive to the onset of SO{sub 2} stress but exhibited incremental changes associated with increasing levels of SO{sub 2}. These data suggest that membrane permeability may serve as a useful index for monitoring changes caused by SO{sub 2} at the cellular level.

  6. MAPLE deposition of 3D micropatterned polymeric substrates for cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Mihailescu, Mona; Calenic, Bogdan; Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Greabu, Maria; Dinescu, Maria

    2013-08-01

    3D micropatterned poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/polyurethane (PLGA/PU) substrates were produced by MAPLE deposition through masks and used for regulating the behavior of oral keratinocyte stem cells in response to topography. Flat PLGA/PU substrates were produced for comparison. 3D imaging of the PLGA/PU substrates and of the cultured cells was performed by Digital Holographic Microscopy. The micropatterns were in the shape of squares of 50 × 50 and 80 × 80 μm2 areas, ~1.8 μm in height and separated by 20 μm wide channels. It was found that substrate topography guided the adhesion of the cultured cells: on the smooth substrates the cells adhered randomly and showed no preferred orientation; in contrast, on the micropatterned substrates the cells adhered preferentially onto the squares and not in the separating channels. Furthermore, key properties of the cells (size, viability, proliferation rate and stem cell marker expression) did not show any dependence on substrate topography. The size of the cultured cells, their viability, the proportions of actively/slow proliferating cells, as well as the stem cell markers expressions, were similar for both flat and micropatterned substrates. Finally, it was found that the cells cultured on the PLGA/PU substrates deposited by MAPLE exhibited similar properties as the controls (i.e. cells cultured on glass slides), indicating the capability of the former to preserve the properties of the keratinocyte stem cells.

  7. Biofilm formation and biocides sensitivity of Pseudomonas marginalis isolated from a maple sap collection system.

    PubMed

    Lagacé, L; Jacques, M; Mafu, A A; Roy, D

    2006-10-01

    The susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm cells of Pseudomonas marginalis toward four commonly used biocides at different temperatures (15 and 30 degrees C) and biofilm growth times (24 and 48 h) was assessed. Using the MBEC biofilm device, biofilm production in maple sap was shown to be highly reproducible for each set of conditions tested. Biofilm formation was influenced by growth temperature and time. A temperature of 15 degrees C and incubation time of 24 h yielded fewer CFU per peg and showed fewer adhered cells and typical biofilm structures, based on scanning electron microscopy observations as compared with other conditions. Minimal biofilm eradication concentration values for P. marginalis were significantly greater (P. < 0.001) than were MBCs for planktonic cells and for every biocide tested, with the exception of minimal biofilm eradication concentration values for peracetic acid at 15 degrees C and 24 h. Sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid sanitizers were able to eliminate P. marginalis biofilms at lower concentrations as compared with hydrogen peroxide- and quaternary ammonium-based sanitizers (P < 0.001). According to the results obtained, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid sanitizers would be more appropriate for maple sap collection system sanitation. PMID:17066920

  8. Variation and correlation of properties in different grades of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amritpal S; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K

    2014-03-01

    Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products. PMID:24408861

  9. Maple Bark Biochar Affects Rhizoctonia solani Metabolism and Increases Damping-Off Severity.

    PubMed

    Copley, Tanya R; Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the effect of biochar on plant yield, nutrient uptake, and soil microbial populations; however, little work has been done on its effect on soilborne plant diseases. To determine the effect of maple bark biochar on Rhizoctonia damping-off, 11 plant species were grown in a soilless potting substrate amended with different concentrations of biochar and inoculated or not with Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4. Additionally, the effect of biochar amendment on R. solani growth and metabolism in vitro was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of maple bark biochar increased Rhizoctonia damping-off of all 11 plant species. Using multivariate analyses, we observed positive correlations between biochar amendments, disease severity and incidence, abundance of culturable bacterial communities, and physicochemical parameters. Additionally, biochar amendment significantly increased R. solani growth and hyphal extension in vitro, and altered its primary metabolism, notably the mannitol and tricarboxylic acid cycles and the glycolysis pathway. One or several organic compounds present in the biochar, as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, may be metabolized by R. solani. Taken together, these results indicate that future studies on biochar should focus on the effect of its use as an amendment on soilborne plant pathogens before applying it to soils. PMID:25938176

  10. Born total ionisation cross sections: An algebraic computing program using Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Stelbovics, Andris T.

    2003-08-01

    The software described in this paper uses the Maple algebraic computing environment to calculate an analytic form for the matrix element of the plane-wave Born approximation of the electron-impact ionisation of an atomic orbital, with arbitrary orbital and angular momentum quantum numbers. The atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater functions, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, made orthogonal to all occupied orbitals of the target atom. Clenshaw-Curtis integration techniques are then used to calculate the total ionisation cross-section. For improved performance, the numerical integrations are performed using FORTRAN by automatically converting the analytic matrix element for each orbital into a FORTRAN subroutine. The results compare favourably with experimental data for a wide range of elements, including the transition metals, with excellent convergence at high energies. Program summaryTitle of program: BIX Catalogue identifier:ADRZ Program summary URL:http://www.cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADRZ Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Platform independent Operating systems: Tested on DEC Alpha Unix, Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP Professional Edition Programming language used: Maple V Release 5.1 and FORTRAN 90 Memory required: 256 MB No. of processors used: 1 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:61754 Distributed format:tar gzip file Keywords: Born approximation, electron-impact ionisation cross-section, Maple, Hartree-Fock Nature of physical problem: Calculates the total electron impact ionisation cross-section for neutral and ionised atomic species using the first-Born approximation. The scattered electron is modelled by a plane wave, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, which is made orthogonal to all occupied atomic orbitals, and the atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater

  11. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  12. Very low roughness MAPLE-deposited films of a light emitting polymer: an alternative to spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Leo, C.; Mazzeo, M.; Genco, A.; Carallo, S.; Tunno, T.; Massafra, A.; Gigli, G.; Martino, M.

    2015-04-01

    The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique is emerging as an alternative route to conventional deposition methods of organic materials (solution-phase and thermal evaporation approaches). However, the high surface roughness of the films deposited by MAPLE makes this technique not compatible with applications in electronics and photonics. In this paper we report the deposition of MAPLE-films of a green light emitting polymer, commercially named ADS125GE, with remarkable low roughness values, down to about 10 nm at the thickness conventionally used in photonic devices (~40 nm). This issue is discussed as a function of polymer concentration, target-substrate distance and substrate rotation based on AFM topography images, roughness estimation and optical (absorption and luminescent) measurements. In addition we have fabricated an organic light emitting diode with this technique using the best deposition parameters which guarantee the lowest roughness. These results open the way to MAPLE applications in organic photonics and opto-electronics.

  13. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  14. The Role of Forest Tent Caterpillar Defoliations and Partial Harvest in the Decline and Death of Sugar Maple

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Henrik; Messier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Natural and anthropogenic disturbances can act as stresses on tree vigour. According to Manion's conceptual model of tree disease, the initial vigour of trees decreases as a result of predisposing factors that render these trees more vulnerable to severe inciting stresses, stresses that can then cause final vigour decline and subsequent tree death. This tree disease model was tested in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) by assessing the roles of natural and anthropogenic disturbances in tree decline and death. Methods Radial growth data from 377 sugar maple trees that had undergone both defoliations by insects and partial harvest were used to estimate longitudinal survival probabilities as a proxy for tree vigour. Radial growth rates and survival probabilities were compared among trees subjected to different levels of above- and below-ground disturbances, between periods of defoliation and harvest, and between live and dead trees. Key Results Manion's tree disease model correctly accounts for vigour decline and tree death in sugar maple; tree growth and vigour were negatively affected by a first defoliation, predisposing these trees to death later during the study period due to a second insect outbreak that initiated a final vigour decline. This decline was accelerated by the partial harvest disturbance in 1993. Even the most severe anthropogenic disturbances from partial harvest did not cause, unlike insect defoliation, any growth or vigour declines in live sugar maple. Conclusions Natural disturbances acted as predisposing and inciting stresses in tree sugar maple decline and death. Anthropogenic disturbances from a partial harvest at worst accelerated a decline in trees that were already weakened by predisposing and inciting stresses (i.e. repeated insect defoliations). Favourable climatic conditions just before and after the partial harvest may have alleviated possible negative effects on growth resulting from harvesting. PMID:18660493

  15. MAPLE preparation and characterization of mixed arylenevinylene based oligomers:C60 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Socol, G.; Vacareanu, L.; Socol, M.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Girtan, M.; Stanculescu, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents some studies about the preparation by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of mixed layers based on two arylenevinylene oligomers, 1,4-bis [4-(N,N‧-diphenylamino)phenylvinyl] benzene (L78) and 3,3‧-bis(N-hexylcarbazole)vinylbenzene (L13) as donor and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as acceptor, blended in three different weight ratios: 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The optical, morphological, structural and electrical properties of these mixed layers have been investigated emphasizing the effect of the layer composition and of the significant degree of disorder. I-V characteristics have revealed typically solar cell behaviour for the heterostructures prepared with mixed layers containing L78 (L13) and fullerene blended in a weight ratio of 1:2. The solar cell structure glass/ITO/L13:C60/Al has shown the best parameters.

  16. A MAPLE Package for Energy-Momentum Tensor Assessment in Curved Space-Time

    SciTech Connect

    Murariu, Gabriel; Praisler, Mirela

    2010-01-21

    One of the most interesting problem which remain unsolved, since the birth of the General Theory of Relativity (GR), is the energy-momentum localization. All our reflections are within the Lagrange formalism of the field theory. The concept of the energy-momentum tensor for gravitational interactions has a long history. To find a generally accepted expression, there have been different attempts. This paper is dedicated to the investigation of the energy-momentum problem in the theory of General Relativity. We use Einstein [1], Landau-Lifshitz [2], Bergmann-Thomson [3] and Moller's [4] prescriptions to evaluate energy-momentum distribution. In order to cover the huge volume of computation and, bearing in mind to make a general approaching for different space-time configurations, a MAPLE application to succeed in studying the energy momentum tensor was built. In the second part of the paper for two space-time configuration, the comparative results were presented.

  17. Imaging findings of anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aw-Zoretic, Jessie; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Lulla, Rishi R; Rishi, Lulla R; Ryan, Maura E

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which usually presents in childhood with encephalopathy due to cerebral edema and dysmyelination. Even with treatment, metabolic stressors may precipitate later episodes of acute decompensation. Changes related to cerebral and white matter edema have been described by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging can aid in both initial diagnosis and evaluation of decompensation. To date, there are no published known reports of cancer in patients with MSUD. Here, we present the first case report of an anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with MSUD, with a discussion of imaging findings and the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to help distinguish between tumor and metabolic changes. PMID:26084772

  18. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Chin, H L; Aw, M M; Quak, S H; Huang, J; Hart, C E; Prabhakaran, K; Goh, D L

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410

  19. [GENETIC AND METABOLIC URGENCIES IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Páez Rojas, Paola Liliana; Suarez Obando, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a hereditary disorder of branched chain amino/keto acid metabolism, caused by a decreased activity of the branched-chain alpha- ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD), which leads to abnormal elevated plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) clinically manifested as a heavy burden for Central Nervous system. The toxic accumulation of substrates promotes the development of a severe and rapidly progressive neonatal encephalopathy if treatment is not immediately given. This disorder has a specific medical management in acute phase in order to minimize mortality and morbidity. For all those reasons, it is important to include the MSUD as a possible diagnosis in a encephalopathic newborn. We present a colombian newborn with classical MSUD with fatal outcome as an example of metabolic emergency and a differential diagnosis in the encephalopathic newborn. PMID:26262748

  20. [Maples at the sub-Alpine vegetation belt: a long history].

    PubMed

    David, F; Barbero, M

    2001-02-01

    Pollen analysis was carried out on lacustrine sediment of a small hollow (15 m x 25 m) at the treeless sub-Alpine belt (202 m) of the inner Maurienne valley in the northern French Alps. A 2,500-year-long maple settlement was demonstrared. Three AMS dates of terrestrial plant macroremains support the chronology. First, Betula and Salix spread prior to 9,000 C14 BP. The first pollen grains of Acer, Abies and Pinus cembra are quoted at 8,600 C14 BP. High frequencies of Alnus glutinosa/incana (20%) and Acer (10%) show that mixed communities of Acer and Alnus persisted above the mountainous Abies forest between 7,490 and 5,850 C14 BP. After 5,850 C14 BP, the decrease in Acer stands could be attributed to fire as suggested by the strong increase in Betula and by the delayed expansion of Pinus cembra. PMID:11280048

  1. [Lists of food exchanges for use in phenylketonuria and maple-syrup urine disease].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Soto, Z

    1993-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are disorders of the amino acid metabolism. Treatment of PKU and MSUD, is based on the restriction of the involved amino acids. Diet must begin very early in life in order to prevent neurological sequelae. A wrong dietary produce central nervous system damage. The first clinical manifestations are unexplained failure to thrive, vomiting, feeding difficulties, lethargy, coma, acidosis and irritability. The most severe consequence is impaired mental development. The standard exchange foods list (EFL) used in outpatient clinics, is designed for developed countries, and contains foods that are not available in our countries. Therefore, we provide in this article a EFL, based on food that are frequently used in Central America, with data of existing food composition tables. This list is currently being used by the Costa Rica national Children's Hospital Metabolic Disease Unit. PMID:8779622

  2. Induction of tolerance to desiccation and cryopreservation in silver maple (Acer saccharinum) embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Beardmore, T; Whittle, C-A

    2005-08-01

    Twenty percent of of the world's flowering plants produce recalcitrant seeds (i.e., seeds that cannot withstand drying or freezing). We investigated whether the embryonic axis from the normally recalcitrant seeds of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) can be made tolerant to desiccation (10% water content) and low temperature (-196 degrees C, cryopreservation) by pretreatment with ABA or the compound tetcyclacis, which enhances endogenous ABA concentrations. Pretreatment of axes with both ABA and tetcyclacis increased germination after desiccation and freezing to 55% from a control value of zero. Pretreatment of axes with ABA and tetcyclacis increased the ABA content of the axes, as measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and stimulated the synthesis of storage and dehydrin-like proteins, believed to have a role in the desiccation tolerance of orthodox seeds. PMID:15929927

  3. Biomedical properties and preparation of iron oxide-dextran nanostructures by MAPLE technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this work the chemical structure of dextran-iron oxide thin films was reported. The films were obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt. % dextran with 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). The IONPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM≅25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the growth of the hybrid, iron oxide NPs-dextran thin films. Results Dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles thin films were indexed into the spinel cubic lattice with a lattice parameter of 8.36 Å. The particle sized calculated was estimated at around 7.7 nm. The XPS shows that the binding energy of the Fe 2p3/2 of two thin films of dextran coated iron oxide is consistent with Fe3+ oxides. The atomic percentage of the C, O and Fe are 66.71, 32.76 and 0.53 for the films deposited from composite targets containing 1 wt.% maghemite and 64.36, 33.92 and 1.72 respectively for the films deposited from composite targets containing 5 wt.% maghemite. In the case of cells cultivated on dextran coated 5% maghemite γ-Fe2O3, the number of cells and the level of F-actin were lower compared to the other two types of thin films and control. Conclusions The dextran-iron oxide continuous thin films obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt.% dextran as well as 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method presented granular surface morphology. Our data proved a good viability of Hep G2 cells grown on dextran coated maghemite thin films. Also, no changes in cells morphology were noticed under phase contrast microscopy. The data strongly suggest the potential use of iron oxide-dextran nanocomposites as a potential marker for biomedical applications. PMID:22410001

  4. Technetium-99 cycling in maple trees: Characterization of changes in chemical form

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D. )

    1989-08-01

    Prior field studies near an old radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge, TN, indicated that following root uptake, metabolism by deciduous trees rendered 99Tc less biogeochemically mobile than expected, based on chemistry of the pertechnetate (TcO-4) anion. Subsequently, the form of technetium (Tc) in maple tree (Acer sp.) sap, leaves, wood and forest leaf litter was characterized using one or more of the following methods: dialysis, physical fractionation, chemical extraction, gel permeation chromatography, enzymatic extraction, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of TcO-4 incubated in vitro with tree sap showed it to behave similar to TcO-4 anion. When labeled wood and leaf tissues were processed using a tissue homogenizer, 15% and 40%, respectively, of the Tc was solubilized into phosphate buffer. Most (65% to 80%) of the solubilized Tc passing a 0.45-micron filter also passed through an ultrafiltration membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 atomic mass units (amu). A majority (72% to 80%) of the Tc in wood could be chemically removed by successive extractions with ethanol, water and weak mineral acid. These same extractants removed only 23% to 31% of the Tc from maple leaves or forest floor leaf litter. Most of the Tc in leaves and leaf litter was removed only by strongly alkaline reagents typically used to release structural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) from plant tissues. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of the ethanol-water extract from wood and the alkaline extract from leaves demonstrated that Tc in these extracts was not principally TcO-4 but was complexed with molecules greater than 1000 amu. Incubations of leaf and wood homogenates with protease approximately doubled the amount of Tc released from contaminated tissues.

  5. PSsolver: A Maple implementation to solve first order ordinary differential equations with Liouvillian solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2012-10-01

    We present a set of software routines in Maple 14 for solving first order ordinary differential equations (FOODEs). The package implements the Prelle-Singer method in its original form together with its extension to include integrating factors in terms of elementary functions. The package also presents a theoretical extension to deal with all FOODEs presenting Liouvillian solutions. Applications to ODEs taken from standard references show that it solves ODEs which remain unsolved using Maple's standard ODE solution routines. New version program summary Program title: PSsolver Catalogue identifier: ADPR_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPR_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2302 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31962 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14 (also tested using Maple 15 and 16). Computer: Intel Pentium Processor P6000, 1.86 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 4 GB DDR3 Memory Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 144 (2002) 46 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Symbolic solution of first order differential equations via the Prelle-Singer method. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the standard Prelle-Singer method, with extensions for the cases when the FOODE contains elementary functions. Additionally, an extension of our own which solves FOODEs with Liouvillian solutions is included. Reasons for new version: The program was not running anymore due to changes in the latest versions of Maple. Additionally, we corrected/changed some bugs/details that were hampering the smoother functioning of the routines. Summary

  6. PSsolver: A Maple implementation to solve first order ordinary differential equations with Liouvillian solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2012-10-01

    We present a set of software routines in Maple 14 for solving first order ordinary differential equations (FOODEs). The package implements the Prelle-Singer method in its original form together with its extension to include integrating factors in terms of elementary functions. The package also presents a theoretical extension to deal with all FOODEs presenting Liouvillian solutions. Applications to ODEs taken from standard references show that it solves ODEs which remain unsolved using Maple's standard ODE solution routines. New version program summary Program title: PSsolver Catalogue identifier: ADPR_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPR_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2302 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31962 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14 (also tested using Maple 15 and 16). Computer: Intel Pentium Processor P6000, 1.86 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 4 GB DDR3 Memory Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 144 (2002) 46 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Symbolic solution of first order differential equations via the Prelle-Singer method. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the standard Prelle-Singer method, with extensions for the cases when the FOODE contains elementary functions. Additionally, an extension of our own which solves FOODEs with Liouvillian solutions is included. Reasons for new version: The program was not running anymore due to changes in the latest versions of Maple. Additionally, we corrected/changed some bugs/details that were hampering the smoother functioning of the routines. Summary

  7. Seasonal and regional diversity of maple sap microbiota revealed using community PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2010-04-01

    An arbitrary primed community PCR fingerprinting technique based on capillary electrophoresis was developed to study maple sap microbial community characteristics among 19 production sites in Québec over the tapping season. Presumptive fragment identification was made with corresponding fingerprint profiles of bacterial isolate cultures. Maple sap microbial communities were subsequently compared using a representative subset of 13 16S rRNA gene clone libraries followed by gene sequence analysis. Results from both methods indicated that all maple sap production sites and flow periods shared common microbiota members, but distinctive features also existed. Changes over the season in relative abundance of predominant populations showed evidence of a common pattern. Pseudomonas (64%) and Rahnella (8%) were the most abundantly and frequently represented genera of the 2239 sequences analyzed. Janthinobacterium, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Weissella, Epilithonimonas and Sphingomonas were revealed as occasional contaminants in maple sap. Maple sap microbiota showed a low level of deep diversity along with a high variation of similar 16S rRNA gene sequences within the Pseudomonas genus. Predominance of Pseudomonas is suggested as a typical feature of maple sap microbiota across geographical regions, production sites, and sap flow periods. PMID:20202776

  8. Effects of maple (Acer) plant part extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic colon cells.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-07-01

    Phenolic-enriched extracts of maple sap and syrup, obtained from the sugar and red maple species (Acer saccharum Marsh, A. rubrum L., respectively), are reported to show anticancer effects. Despite traditional medicinal uses of various other parts of these plants by Native Americans, they have not been investigated for anticancer activity. Here leaves, stems/twigs, barks and sapwoods of both maple species were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and non-tumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cells. Extracts were standardized to total phenolic and ginnalin-A (isolated in our laboratory) levels. Overall, the extracts inhibited the growth of the colon cancer more than normal cells (over two-fold), their activities increased with their ginnalin-A levels, with red > sugar maple extracts. The red maple leaf extract, which contained the highest ginnalin-A content, was the most active extract (IC₅₀  = 35 and 16 µg/mL for extract and ginnalin-A, respectively). The extracts were not cytotoxic nor did they induce apoptosis of the colon cancer cells. However, cell cycle analyses revealed that the antiproliferative effects of the extracts were mediated through cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. The results from the current study suggest that these maple plant part extracts may have potential anticolon cancer effects. PMID:22147441

  9. TensorPack: a Maple-based software package for the manipulation of algebraic expressions of tensors in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huf, P. A.; Carminati, J.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we: (1) introduce TensorPack, a software package for the algebraic manipulation of tensors in covariant index format in Maple; (2) briefly demonstrate the use of the package with an orthonormal tensor proof of the shearfree conjecture for dust. TensorPack is based on the Riemann and Canon tensor software packages and uses their functions to express tensors in an indexed covariant format. TensorPack uses a string representation as input and provides functions for output in index form. It extends the functionality to basic algebra of tensors, substitution, covariant differentiation, contraction, raising/lowering indices, symmetry functions and other accessory functions. The output can be merged with text in the Maple environment to create a full working document with embedded dynamic functionality. The package offers potential for manipulation of indexed algebraic tensor expressions in a flexible software environment.

  10. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C., II

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  11. Application of sugar maple and black locust to the biomass/energy plantation concept. Final report, April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, G.D.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Lai, Y.Z.; Liechty, H.O.; Hamlin, D.C.; Gale, M.F.; Sajak, R.L.; Stinhilb, H.M.

    1986-08-01

    Forests in the Upper Lakes States region, composed predominantly of sugar maple and red maple with a large number of stems in small diameter classes, were evaluated for conversion to biomass/energy plantations. The study included examining the use of black locust as an interplant species to improve maple productivity. Available water and phosphorus were found to be highly correlated with site index and biomass on the sites. Skidding of trees with tops intact caused widespread disruption of forest floor horizons. Natural coppice regrowth on all sites was poor. Results indicate it is not feasible to coppice natural stands of northern hardwoods on a 4-year rotation. Survival of interplanted black locust was very poor due to susceptibility to frost. The potential of black locust as a biomass species for SRIC plantations was demonstrated by the exceptional growth of surviving individuals. A provenance trial of 20 seed sources showed variability in frost resistance among seed sources. Data is presented on the wood characteristics of seven northern hardwoods species show that young sprouts have higher moisture content, seasonal moisture content variation, higher extractive and ash content, a lower specific gravity and lower thermal stability. All species evaluated are comparable in terms of major chemical composition, caloric values, and extent of gasification. 111 refs., 11 figs., 35 tabs.

  12. Technetium-99 cycling in maple trees: characterization of changes in chemical form

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Lomax, Ronny D

    1989-08-01

    Prior field studies near an old radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge, TN, indicated that following root uptake, metabolism by deciduous trees rendered 99Tc less biogeochemically mobile than expected, based on chemistry of the pertechnetate (TcO4-) anion. Subsequently, the form of technetium (Tc) in maple tree (Acer sp.) sap, leaves, wood and forest leaf litter was characterized using one or more of the following methods: dialysis, physical fractionation, chemical extraction, gel permeation chromatography, enzymatic extraction, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of TcO4- incubated in vitro with tree sap showed it to behave similar to TcO4- anion. When labeled wood and leaf tissues were processed using a tissue homogenizer, 15% and 40%, respectively, of the Tc was solubilized into phosphate buffer. Most (65% to 80%) of the solubilized Tc passing a 0.45-micron filter also passed through an ultrafiltration membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 10,000 atomic mass units (amu). A majority (72% to 80%) of the Tc in wood could be chemically removed by successive extractions with ethanol, water and weak mineral acid. These same extractants removed only 23% to 31% of the Tc from maple leaves or forest floor leaf litter. Most of the Tc in leaves and leaf litter was removed only by strongly alkaline reagents typically used to release structural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) from plant tissues. Chromatography (Sephadex G-25) of the ethanol-water extract from wood and the alkaline extract from leaves demonstrated that Tc in these extracts was not principally TcO4- but was complexed with molecules > 1000 amu. Incubations of leaf and wood homogenates with protease approximately doubled the amount of Tc released from contaminated tissues. Ultrafiltration of protease-solubilized Tc from leaves and wood showed that 40% and 93%, respectively, of the Tc was >10,000 amu. TLC of the <10,000 amu fraction indicated the

  13. Placental Stem Cell Correction of Murine Intermediate Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Skvorak, Kristen J.; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc C.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Gibson, K. Michael; Strom, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported improved survival and partial metabolic correction of a mouse intermediate maple syrup urine disease (iMSUD) model post allogenic hepatocyte transplant, confirming that a small number of enzyme proficient liver-engrafted cells can improve phenotype. However, clinical shortages of suitable livers for hepatocyte isolation indicate a need for alternative cell sources. Human amnion epithelial cells (hAEC) share stem cell characteristics while lacking many safety and ethical concerns, and differentiate to hepatocyte-like cells. Eight direct hepatic hAEC transplants were administered to iMSUD mice over the first 35 days beginning at birth; animals were provided a normal protein diet and sacrificed at days 35 and 100. Treatment at the neonatal stage is clinically relevant for MSUD, and may offer a donor cell engraftment advantage. Survival was significantly extended and body weight was normalized in iMSUD mice receiving hAEC transplants compared to iMSUD (severely cachectic; dead ≤28 days). Branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme activity was significantly increased in transplanted livers. Branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine, and alloisoleucine were significantly improved in the sera and brain, as were other large neutral amino acids. Conclusion: Placental-derived stem cell transplantation lengthened survival and corrected many amino acid imbalances in a mouse model of iMSUD. This highlights the potential for their use as a viable alternative clinical therapy for MSUD and other liver-based metabolic diseases. PMID:23175463

  14. Age, allocation and availability of nonstructural carbon in mature red maple trees.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Mariah S; Czimczik, Claudia I; Keenan, Trevor F; Murakami, Paula F; Pederson, Neil; Schaberg, Paul G; Xu, Xiaomei; Richardson, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    The allocation of nonstructural carbon (NSC) to growth, metabolism and storage remains poorly understood, but is critical for the prediction of stress tolerance and mortality. We used the radiocarbon ((14) C) 'bomb spike' as a tracer of substrate and age of carbon in stemwood NSC, CO2 emitted by stems, tree ring cellulose and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting in mature red maple trees. We addressed the following questions: which factors influence the age of stemwood NSC?; to what extent is stored vs new NSC used for metabolism and growth?; and, is older, stored NSC available for use? The mean age of extracted stemwood NSC was 10 yr. More vigorous trees had both larger and younger stemwood NSC pools. NSC used to support metabolism (stem CO2 ) was 1-2 yr old in spring before leaves emerged, but reflected current-year photosynthetic products in late summer. The tree ring cellulose (14) C age was 0.9 yr older than direct ring counts. Stump sprouts were formed from NSC up to 17 yr old. Thus, younger NSC is preferentially used for growth and day-to-day metabolic demands. More recently stored NSC contributes to annual ring growth and metabolism in the dormant season, yet decade-old and older NSC is accessible for regrowth. PMID:24032647

  15. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Surdu, A. V.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Oprea, A. E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O.; Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Mihaiescu, D.; Enculescu, M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization, highlighting their potential to be used for the design of anti-biofilm surfaces.

  16. Combinatorial MAPLE deposition of antimicrobial orthopedic maps fabricated from chitosan and biomimetic apatite powders.

    PubMed

    Visan, A; Stan, G E; Ristoscu, C; Popescu-Pelin, G; Sopronyi, M; Besleaga, C; Luculescu, C; Chifiriuc, M C; Hussien, M D; Marsan, O; Kergourlay, E; Grossin, D; Brouillet, F; Mihailescu, I N

    2016-09-10

    Chitosan/biomimetic apatite thin films were grown in mild conditions of temperature and pressure by Combinatorial Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation on Ti, Si or glass substrates. Compositional gradients were obtained by simultaneous laser vaporization of the two distinct material targets. A KrF* excimer (λ=248nm, τFWHM=25ns) laser source was used in all experiments. The nature and surface composition of deposited materials and the spatial distribution of constituents were studied by SEM, EDS, AFM, GIXRD, FTIR, micro-Raman, and XPS. The antimicrobial efficiency of the chitosan/biomimetic apatite layers against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains was interrogated by viable cell count assay. The obtained thin films were XRD amorphous and exhibited a morphology characteristic to the laser deposited structures composed of nanometric round shaped grains. The surface roughness has progressively increased with chitosan concentration. FTIR, EDS and XPS analyses indicated that the composition of the BmAp-CHT C-MAPLE composite films gradually modified from pure apatite to chitosan. The bioevaluation tests indicated that S. aureus biofilm is more susceptible to the action of chitosan-rich areas of the films, whilst the E. coli biofilm proved more sensible to areas containing less chitosan. The best compromise should therefore go, in our opinion, to zones with intermediate-to-high chitosan concentration which can assure a large spectrum of antimicrobial protection concomitantly with a significant enhancement of osseointegration, favored by the presence of biomimetic hydroxyapatite. PMID:27418570

  17. MAPLE fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum antimicrobial surfaces for improved gastrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chirea, Mariana; Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization. PMID:24979402

  18. Maple syrup urine disease: analysis of branched chain ketoacid decarboxylation in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wendel, U; Wentrup, H; Rüdiger, H W

    1975-09-01

    Kinetic data are presented for the decarboxylation of branched chain alpha-ketoacids (BCKA) by intact human fibroblasts. Cultured cells of normal individuals and nine patients with different clinical pictures of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are studied with both alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (2-oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid (KIC)) and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (2-oxo-3-methylbutanoic acid (KIVA)) as substrates. One normal cell strain and one patient cell strain is analyzed with alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (2-oxo-3-methylpentanoic acid (MEVA)) as a substrate. A biphasic degradation kinetic for each BCKA is obtained for normal control subjects. The component with higher substrate affinity is affected in MSUD: for KIC the normally hyperbolic substrate curve is changed to sigmoid shape, for KIVA and MEVA as substrates this component is not detectable at all. Considering qualitative aspects of the BCKA decarboxylation kinetics intact fibroblasts yield the same results as our recent studies with the decarboxylase moieties of partially purified kidney BCKA dehydrogenase of normal individuals and one patient with classic MSUD (27). The decarboxylation velocities for normal and patient fibroblasts with one exception differ widely at low but not at high substrate concentrations of BCKA. To get meaningful data on the residual substrate degradation activities with intact fibroblasts of different phenotypes of MSUD physiologically low substrate concentrations are required in the assay. PMID:1202420

  19. Heterogeneity in maple syrup urine disease: aspects of cofactor requirement and complementation in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Willers, I; Goedde, H W

    1977-04-01

    Fibroblast strains derived from six patients with maple syrup urine disease have been investigated for their requirements of the cofactors NAD, CoASH, Mg++ and TPP in comparison with 10 normal control strains. The reconstitution of the decarboxylase function of branched chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex in lysed cells was studied with respect to the substrates alpha-keto-isocaproic acid, alpha-keto-isovaleric acid, and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KIC, KIVA, MEVA). The enzyme activity of all normal control strains for the substrates KIC and KIVA was not reconstituted by TPP + Mg++ alone, but CoASH + NAD could reconstitute the enzyme activity with KIC and KIVA in different degrees. Only two control strains were tested with MEVA as substrate, and these showed in contrast that TPP + Mg++ could partly reconstitute the enzyme activity. In contrast to the relative homogeneity in the reconstitution profiles of normal strains, the five classical and one intermittent MSUD strains showed heterogeneity in cofactor requirements. Complementation analysis using heterokaryons prepared from fibroblasts of four patients with classical MSUD and one patient with intermittent MSUD showed, in contrast to experiments with normal controls, a partial amelioration of the defect in two combinations; it is suggested that the defect in these strains is located at different functional subunits of the multienzyme complex. PMID:192504

  20. Relationship of causative genetic mutations in maple syrup urine disease with their clinical expression.

    PubMed

    Nellis, Mary M; Kasinski, Andrea; Carlson, Martha; Allen, Richard; Schaefer, Anna Marie; Schwartz, Edward M; Danner, Dean J

    2003-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease [MSUD] is a rare inborn error of metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait through mutations in any of three different genes that encode components of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase [BCKD] complex. In this work, the genotype of affected individuals was correlated with their clinical histories. These individuals were diagnosed and followed in a single centralized clinic, and their molecular genetic characterization was done by one laboratory. Three individuals had mutant alleles in the gene for the E1alpha component, five had mutations in the gene for E1beta, and three had mutations in the gene for E2. The results emphasize the diversity of the molecular and clinical presentations for individuals with MSUD and support the complexity of diseases termed "single gene traits." Of primary importance is early identification of at risk infants through newborn screening programs to minimize many of the complications associated with this protein intolerance. Attention to abnormal neurological signs in the neonate or evidence of neurological decompensation in older infants and children by a centralized medical management team minimizes permanent brain damage and improves survival. PMID:14567968

  1. Successful Pregnancy in a Woman with Maple Syrup Urine Disease: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Heiber, Stefanie; Zulewski, Henryk; Zaugg, Marianne; Kiss, Caroline; Baumgartner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We present the positive outcome of a pregnancy in a woman with severe classic maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Maintaining the maternal plasma levels of leucine between 200 and 300 μmol/L allowed normal development of the foetus. Tolerance of protein and leucine increased continuously from the 16th gestational week until delivery. The patient was able to increase protein and leucine intake from 5 g to nearly 30 g and 300-3,000 mg/day, respectively. Weekly measurement of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations and the assessment of dietary intake were used to adjust protein intake. After 41 weeks of pregnancy, she gave birth to a healthy baby girl and was able to breastfeed her daughter for 6 months during which time, the protein and leucine intake were lower than during pregnancy, but higher than with her usual pre-pregnancy diet. The development of the girl is normal at the age of 3 years. PMID:25720565

  2. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969

  3. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    PubMed

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se. PMID:27547326

  4. Changes in the auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses in a case of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Geal-Dor, Miriam; Adelman, Cahtia; Levi, Haya; Goitein, Kalman; Sohmer, Haim

    2004-03-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease due to deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down branched chain amino acids. Lack of the enzyme causes accumulation of these amino acids and, if untreated, causes severe neurological damage. A case study of a 10-day old female infant, born after 40 weeks' gestation with a birthweight of 2740 g with MSUD hospitalized in the acute stage with respiratory failure and severe brain oedema is described. As part of the neurological evaluation, auditory nerve brainstem evoked response testing was conducted and revealed bilateral presence of the first wave from the auditory nerve, with no later brainstem waves. Over the course of days when her condition improved following dialysis treatment and a diet to reach balanced levels of branched chain amino acids, the later brainstem waves appeared on one side, and several weeks later they were also observed on the other side. The possible mechanisms of the reversibility of the appearance of brainstem waves in this case are discussed. PMID:14995088

  5. Maple procedures for the coupling of angular momenta. IX. Wigner D-functions and rotation matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagaran, J.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaigalas, G.

    2006-04-01

    expressions to be evaluated. Licensing provisions:None Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it is operable: All computers with a license for the computer algebra package Maple [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc.] Installations:University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Linux 8.2+ Program language used:MAPLE, Release 8 and 9 Memory required to execute with typical data:10-50 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:52 653 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 195 346 Distribution format:tar.gzip Nature of the physical problem: The Wigner D-functions and (reduced) rotation matrices occur very frequently in physical applications. They are known not only as the (infinite) representation of the rotation group but also to obey a number of integral and summation rules, including those for their orthogonality and completeness. Instead of the direct computation of these matrices, therefore, one first often wishes to find algebraic simplifications before the computations can be carried out in practice. Reasons for new version: The RACAH program has been found an efficient tool during recent years, in order to evaluate and simplify expressions from Racah's algebra. Apart from the Wigner n-j symbols ( j=3,6,9) and spherical harmonics, we now extended the code to allow for Wigner rotation matrices. This extension will support the study of those quantum processes especially where different axis of quantization occurs in course of the theoretical deviations. Summary of revisions: In a revised version of the RACAH program [S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 103 (1997) 51; S. Fritzsche, T. Inghoff, M. Tomaselli, Comput. Phys. Comm. 153 (2003) 424], we now also support the occurrence of the Wigner D-functions and reduced rotation matrices. By following our previous design, the (algebraic) properties of these rotation matrices as well as a number of

  6. Soil and tree-ring chemistry response to liming in a sugar maple stand.

    PubMed

    Houle, Daniel; Duchesne, Louis; Moore, Jean-David; Laflèche, Marc Richer; Ouimet, Rock

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of the impact of dolomitic lime [CaMg(CO3)2] on soils (five years after treatment) and sapwood chemistry (after four growing seasons) was realized for a Ca-deficient sugar maple stand at the lake Clair watershed. The effect on humus chemistry was significant: exchangeable Mg and Ca, effective acidity (EA), base saturation (BSe), pH, and effective cation exchange capacity (CECe) significantly increased, while exchangeable Fe significantly decreased. In the B horizon, liming increased exchangeable Ca, Mg, and Mn concentrations while decreasing other acid cations. No significant temporal trends in element concentrations in tree rings could be detected, although the lime treatment significantly changed the average xylem Mg and Mn concentrations as well as the average Mg/Mn and Ca/Mn ratios of the sapwood. The absence of temporal trends in rings from the last 20 yr implied a significant re-equilibration of elements through the sapwood. Significant relationships were found between averaged xylem Ca/Mn and Mg/Mn ratios and exchangeable humus Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Fe, and H+ concentration, EA, CECe, and BSe, suggesting that the average xylem Ca/Mn and Mg/Mn ratios are strong indicators of the soil acid-base status. PMID:12469849

  7. Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities in Dogwood, Maple, and Peach Nurseries in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Niblack, T. L.; Bernard, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nursery blocks (48 dogwood, 27 red maple, and 17 peach) distributed among 20 Tennessee nurseries were sampled for nematodes in March, July, and October 1981. Plant-parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil, counted by genera, and identified to species after fixation. A total of 57 species in 24 genera were found, with 1-16 species occurring in a site. The species most commonly detected were Paratylenchus projectus and Xiphinema americanum, which were found in 88% and 78% of the sites, respectively. Relationships existed between distribution and densities of some species present in more than 10% of the sites and certain soil factors (pH, bulk density, texture, and organic matter content). Plant-parasitic nematode community diversity was related to tree age, percentage of weed ground cover, and number of weed species. Site similarities in community ordinations were dependent on the individual nurseries sampled, tree age, and soil type, but clusters of sites of similar tree ages and soil types were not exclusive. PMID:19294071

  8. Duration of extracorporeal therapy in acute maple syrup urine disease: a kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Phan, Véronique; Clermont, Marie-José; Merouani, Aicha; Litalien, Catherine; Tucci, Marisa; Lambert, Marie; Mitchell, Grant; Jouvet, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, MIM 248600) can be complicated by metabolic crises necessitating extracorporeal removal therapy (ECRT). Since leucine levels are usually not immediately available during therapy, an accurate kinetic model of leucine plasma levels during removal would be useful to establish the duration of ECRT. Such a kinetic model is available for neonates undergoing continuous ECRT (CECRT) with a leucine clearance>or=35 ml min-1 1.73 m-2. The current study tests the validity of this model in older children. Plasma leucine levels were obtained from eleven ECRT sessions [seven CECRT and four intermittent hemodialysis (HDi) sessions] in seven children aged 1-14 years. No hemodynamic instability or neurological complications were observed during treatment. HDi provided a higher leucine clearance and required shorter sessions than CECRT (5.4+/-0.6 vs. 17.1+/-6.0 h). All patients regained precrisis neurological status except for one patient who had severe neurological damage (severe cerebral edema) at the time of dialysis and subsequently died despite efficient leucine removal. A leucine clearance>or=50 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 is required to obtain a kinetic model similar to that reported in neonates, both with CECRT and HDi. This model should be helpful in predicting the duration of therapy needed to attain desired leucine levels. PMID:16518628

  9. Deposition of antibacterial of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-(sebacic anhydride)) 20:80/gentamicin sulfate composite coatings by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Gittard, S. D.; Miller, P. R.; Martin, T. N.; Narayan, R. J.; Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2011-04-01

    We report on thin film deposition of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-sebacic anhydride)) 20:80 thin films containing several gentamicin concentrations by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the polymer-drug composite thin films. Release of gentamicin from these MAPLE-deposited polymer conjugate structures was assessed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that the functional groups of the MAPLE-transferred materials were not changed by the deposition process nor were new functional groups formed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of gentamicin-doped films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using disk diffusion and antibacterial drop test. Our studies indicate that deposition of polymer-drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE is a suitable technique for performing controlled drug delivery. Antimicrobial thin film coatings have several medical applications, including use for indwelling catheters and implanted medical devices.

  10. Whole-plant water flux in understory red maple exposed to altered precipitation regimes.

    PubMed

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Hanson, Paul J.; Tschaplinski, Tim J.

    1998-02-01

    Sap flow gauges were used to estimate whole-plant water flux for five stem-diameter classes of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) growing in the understory of an upland oak forest and exposed to one of three large-scale (0.64 ha) manipulations of soil water content. This Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) used subcanopy troughs to intercept roughly 30% of the throughfall on a "dry" plot and a series of pipes to move this collected precipitation across an "ambient" plot and onto a "wet" plot. Saplings with a stem diameter larger than 10 cm lost water at rates 50-fold greater than saplings with a stem diameter of 1 to 2 cm (326 versus 6.4 mol H(2)O tree(-1) day(-1)). These size-class differences were driven largely by differences in leaf area and cross-sectional sapwood area, because rates of water flux expressed per unit leaf area (6.90 mol H(2)O m(-2) day(-1)) or sapwood area (288 mol H(2)O dm(-2) day(-1)) were similar among saplings of the five size classes. Daily and hourly rates of transpiration expressed per unit leaf area varied throughout much of the season, as did soil matrix potentials, and treatment differences due to the TDE were observed during two of the seven sampling periods. On July 6, midday rates of transpiration averaged 1.88 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "wet" plot, 1.22 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "ambient" plot, and 0.76 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "dry" plot. During the early afternoon of August 28, transpiration rates were sevenfold lower for saplings in the "dry" plot compared to saplings in the "wet" plot and 2.5-fold lower compared to saplings in the "ambient" plot. Treatment differences in crown conductance followed a pattern similar to that of transpiration, with values that averaged 60% lower for saplings in the "dry" plot compared to saplings in the "wet" plot and 35% lower compared to saplings in the "ambient" plot. Stomatal and boundary layer conductances were roughly equal in magnitude

  11. Glucose and Alanine Metabolism in Children with Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haymond, Morey W.; Ben-Galim, Ehud; Strobel, Karen E.

    1978-01-01

    In vitro studies have suggested that catabolism of branched chain amino acids is linked with alanine and glutamine formed in, and released from, muscle. To explore this possibility in vivo, static and kinetic studies were performed in three patients with classical, and one patient with partial, branched chain α-ketoacid decarboxylase deficiency (maple syrup urine disease, MSUD) and compared to similar studies in eight age-matched controls. The subjects underwent a 24-30-h fast, and a glucose-alanine flux study using stable isotopes. Basal plasma leucine concentrations were elevated (P <0.001) in patients with MSUD (1,140±125 μM vs. 155±18 μM in controls); and in contrast to the controls, branched chain amino acid concentrations in plasma increased during the fast in the MSUD patients. Basal plasma alanine concentrations were lower (P <0.01) in patients with classical MSUD (153±8 μM vs. 495±27 μM in controls). This discrepancy was maintained throughout the fast despite a decrease in alanine concentrations in both groups. Plasma alanine and leucine concentrations in the patient with partial MSUD were intermediate between those of the controls and the subjects with the classical form of the disease. Circulating ketone bodies and glucoregulatory hormones concentrations were similar in the MSUD and normal subjects during the fast. Alanine flux rates in two patients with classical MSUD (3.76 and 4.00 μmol/Kg per min) and the patient with partial MSUD (5.76 μmol/Kg per min) were clearly lower than those of the controls (11.72±2.53 [SD] μmol/Kg per min). After short-term starvation, glucose flux and fasting concentrations were similar in the MSUD patients and normal subjects. These data indicate that branched chain amino acid catabolism is an important rate limiting event for alanine production in vivo. PMID:670400

  12. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx}3-5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} and temperature {approx}7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  13. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact. PMID:25954263

  14. Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; de Rochi, Natália; Jeremias, Isabela C; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is an inherited metabolic disease predominantly characterized by neurological dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disease are still not defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic administration of a branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) pool (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and gene expression in the brain and serum of rats and to assess if antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by BCAA administration. Our results show that the acute administration of a BCAA pool in 10- and 30-day-old rats increases AChE activity in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and serum. Moreover, chronic administration of the BCAA pool also increases AChE activity in the structures studied, and antioxidant treatment prevents this increase. In addition, we show a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of AChE in the hippocampus following acute administration in 10- and 30-day-old rats. On the other hand, AChE expression increased significantly after chronic administration of the BCAA pool. Interestingly, the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent the increased AChE activity without altering AChE expression. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate a marked increase in AChE activity in all brain structures following the administration of a BCAA pool. Moreover, the increased AChE activity is prevented by the coadministration of N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine as antioxidants. PMID:22328136

  15. Antioxidant administration prevents memory impairment in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Teodorak, Brena P; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O; Mina, Francielle; Dominguini, Diogo; Pescador, Bruna; Comim, Clarissa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-05-16

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting from deficiency of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex leading to branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and valine accumulation as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-keto acids. MSUD patients present neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Here, we investigated whether acute and chronic administration of a BCAA pool causes impairment of acquisition and retention of avoidance memory in young rats. We have used two administration protocols. Acute administration consisted of three subcutaneous administrations of the BCAA pool (15.8 μL/g body weight at 1-h intervals) containing 190 mmol/L leucine, 59 mmol/L isoleucine, and 69 mmol/L valine or saline solution (0.85% NaCl; control group) in 30 days old Wistar rats. Chronic administration consisted of two subcutaneous administrations of BCAA pool for 21 days in 7 days old Wistar rats. N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 20 mg/kg) and deferoxamine (DFX; 20 mg/kg) co administration influence on behavioral parameters after chronic BCAA administration was also investigated. BCAA administration induced long-term memory impairment in the inhibitory avoidance and CMIA (continuous multiple-trials step-down inhibitory avoidance) tasks whereas with no alterations in CMIA retention memory. Inhibitory avoidance alterations were prevented by NAC and DFX. BCAA administration did not impair the neuropsychiatric state, muscle tone and strength, and autonomous function evaluated with the SHIRPA (SmithKline/Harwell/ImperialCollege/RoyalHospital/Phenotype Assessment) protocol. Taken together, our results indicate that alterations of motor activity or emotionality probably did not contribute to memory impairment after BCAA administration and NAC and DFX effects suggest that cognition impairment after BCAA administration may be caused by oxidative brain damage. PMID:22433584

  16. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.

  17. SU-E-P-04: Transport Theory Learning Module in the Maple Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Both, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The medical physics graduate program at the University of Miami is developing a computerized instructional module which provides an interactive mechanism for students to learn transport theory. While not essential in the medical physics curriculum, transport theory should be taught because the conceptual level of transport theory is fundamental, a substantial literature exists and ought to be accessible, and students should understand commercial software which solves the Boltzmann equation.But conventional teaching and learning of transport theory is challenging. Students may be under prepared to appreciate its methods, results, and relevance, and it is not substantially addressed in textbooks for the medical physicists. Other resources an instructor might reasonably use, while excellent, may be too briskly paced for beginning students. The purpose of this work is to render teaching of transport theory more tractable by making learning highly interactive. Methods: The module is being developed in the Maple mathematics environment by instructors and graduate students. It will refresh the students' knowledge of vector calculus and differential equations, and will develop users' intuition for phase space concepts. Scattering concepts will be developed with animated simulations using tunable parameters characterizing interactions, so that students may develop a “feel” for cross section. Transport equations for one and multiple types of radiation will be illustrated with phase space animations. Numerical methods of solution will be illustrated. Results: Attempts to teach rudiments of transport theory in radiation physics and dosimetry courses using conventional classroom techniques at the University of Miami have had small success, because classroom time is limited and the material has been hard for our students to appreciate intuitively. Conclusion: A joint effort of instructor and students to teach and learn transport theory by building an interactive

  18. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes)more » in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.« less

  19. Living related versus deceased donor liver transplantation for maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Feier, Flavia; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D; Benkert, Abigail R; Neto, Joao Seda; Miura, Irene; Chapchap, Paulo; da Fonseca, Eduardo Antunes; Vieira, Sandra; Zanotelli, Maria Lúcia; Vairo, Filippo Pinto E; Camelo, Jose Simon; Margutti, Ana Vitoria Barban; Mazariegos, George V; Puffenberger, Erik G; Strauss, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain ketoacid (BCKA) oxidation associated with episodic and chronic brain disease. Transplantation of liver from an unrelated deceased donor restores 9-13% whole-body BCKA oxidation capacity and stabilizes MSUD. Recent reports document encouraging short-term outcomes for MSUD patients who received a liver segment from mutation heterozygous living related donors (LRDT). To investigate effects of living related versus deceased unrelated grafts, we studied four Brazilian MSUD patients treated with LRDT who were followed for a mean 19±12 postoperative months, and compared metabolic and clinical outcomes to 37 classical MSUD patients treated with deceased donor transplant. Patient and graft survival for LRDT were 100%. Three of 4 MSUD livers were successfully domino transplanted into non-MSUD subjects. Following LRDT, all subjects resumed a protein-unrestricted diet as mean plasma leucine decreased from 224±306μM to 143±44μM and allo-isoleucine decreased 91%. We observed no episodes of hyperleucinemia during 80 aggregate postoperative patient-months. Mean plasma leucine:isoleucine:valine concentration ratios were ~2:1:4 after deceased donor transplant compared to ~1:1:1.5 following LRDT, resulting in differences of predicted cerebral amino acid uptake. Mutant heterozygous liver segments effectively maintain steady-state BCAA and BCKA homeostasis on an unrestricted diet and during most catabolic states, but might have different metabolic effects than grafts from unrelated deceased donors. Neither living related nor deceased donor transplant affords complete protection from metabolic intoxication, but both strategies represent viable alternatives to nutritional management. PMID:26786177

  20. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative damage in Maple syrup urine disease: the L-carnitine role.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Gilian; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Sitta, Angela; Donida, Bruna; Marchetti, Desirèe; Hammerschmidt, Tatiane; Faverzani, Jessica; Coelho, Daniella de Moura; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The defect in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity leads to an accumulation of these compounds and their corresponding α-keto-acids and α-hydroxy-acids. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. L-carnitine (L-car), which has demonstrated an important role as antioxidant by reducing and scavenging free radicals formation and by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, have been used in the treatment of some metabolic rare disorders. This study evaluated the oxidative stress parameters, di-tyrosine, isoprostanes and antioxidant capacity, in urine of MSUD patients under protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with L-car capsules at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1). It was also determined urinary α-keto isocaproic acid levels as well as blood free L-car concentrations in blood. It was found a deficiency of carnitine in patients before the L-car supplementation. Significant increases of di-tyrosine and isoprostanes, as well as reduced antioxidant capacity, were observed before the treatment with L-car. The L-car supplementation induced beneficial effects on these parameters reducing the di-tyrosine and isoprostanes levels and increasing the antioxidant capacity. It was also showed a significant increase in urinary of α-ketoisocaproic acid after 2 months of L-car treatment, compared to control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that L-car may have beneficial effects in the treatment of MSUD by preventing oxidative damage to the cells and that urine can be used to monitorize oxidative damage in patients affected by this disease. PMID:25680940

  1. Evolution of maple syrup urine disease in patients diagnosed by newborn screening versus late diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Couce, M L; Ramos, F; Bueno, M A; Díaz, J; Meavilla, S; Bóveda, M D; Fernández-Marmiesse, A; García-Cazorla, A

    2015-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder for which the newborn screening (NBS) is possible but it has not been yet implemented for most Spanish regions. In the present study, we assess the clinical features and outcome of 14 MSUD Spanish patients with similar treatment protocol diagnosed either by NBS or by clinical symptoms. Eight patients were detected by NBS, four classic and four moderate MSUD. The average age at detection was 4.6 days, the mean plasmatic concentration of leucine at diagnosis was 1807 μM; the average number of days with leucine >1000 μM was 0.7 (0-4) and the mean number of total hospitalizations was 1.6 (0-5). Mean follow-up time was 70 months. They had good evolution: all remain asymptomatic, but 2 patients have attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Six patients with late diagnosis of classic MSUD were followed during 41 months. All presented with acute encephalopathy during the first month of life, mean leucine levels of 2355 μM, mean number of days with leucine >1000 μM of 6.6 (1-13) and mean number of total hospitalizations of 5.3 (4-7). Only two patients have a psychomotor development index in the lower limit (80 and 83). For all patients a good genotype-phenotype correlation was found and four novel mutations were identified: p.A311H, p.T84S, p.T397L, pL398P. Our study support that NBS improves prognosis of MSUD patients. But early diagnosis and an aggressive treatment together with a close monitoring of leucine levels improve neurological evolution in MSUD patients, even for those not detected by NBS. PMID:26232051

  2. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Cedar N; Mueller, Rebecca C; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Zak, Donald R; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact. PMID:25954263

  3. Collophora aceris, a novel antimycotic producing endophyte associated with Douglas Maple.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Strobel, Gary A; Mends, Morgan T; Hilmer, Jonathan; Nigg, Jared; Geary, Brad

    2013-11-01

    A novel endophyte designated Collophora aceris, was obtained from stem tissues of Douglas Maple (Acer glabrum var. douglasii) in a Pacific Northwest temperate rainforest. Colonies were slow growing, white, creamy, moist, and translucent to opaque on potato dextrose agar and other media with few aerial hyphae. It also produced solid, dark sclerotia (200-400 μm) on oatmeal agar and no evidence of pseudopycnidia as per other Collophora spp. Conidia were rod-like in the size ranging from 2.2-8.4 × 0.8-1.8 μm and produced holoblastically on conidiogenous cells by budding with no collarette at the budding site. Phylogenetic analyses, based on 18S rDNA sequence data, showed that C. aceris possessed 99 % similarity to other Collophora spp. However, ITS-5.8S rDNA sequence data indicated that the organism was potentially related to Allantophomopsis spp. Finally, combined morphological, physiological, and molecular genetics data indicated that this organism is most like Collophora spp. but it is distinctly unique when compared to all other fungi in this group. It is to be noted that this is the first report of any member of this genus existing as an endophyte. This fungus makes a wide spectrum antimycotic agent (Collophorin) with biological activity against such pathogenic fungi as Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora palmivora, and Rhizoctonia solani. Collophorin was purified to homogeneity and shown to have a unique mass of 120.0639, an empirical formula of C8H8O1, and UV absorption bands at 260 and 378 nm. This work also indicates that C. aceris possesses the biological potential to provide protection of its host against an array of common plant pathogens. PMID:23996143

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid status in females of reproductive age with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Laura M; Yi, Sarah H L; Singh, Rani H

    2010-04-01

    Individuals with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) have impaired metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, isoleucine, and leucine. Life-long dietary therapy is recommended to restrict BCAA intake and thus prevent poor neurological outcomes and death. To maintain adequate nutritional status, the majority of protein and nutrients are derived from synthetic BCAA-free medical foods with variable fatty acid content. Given the restrictive diet and the importance of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in neurological development, this study evaluated the dietary and fatty acid status of females of reproductive age with MSUD attending a metabolic camp. Healthy controls of similar age and sex were selected from existing normal laboratory data. Total lipid fatty acid concentration in plasma and erythrocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Participants with MSUD had normal to increased concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte alpha linolenic acid (ALA) but significantly lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as percent of total lipid fatty acids compared with controls (plasma DHA: MSUD 1.03 +/- 0.35, controls 2.87 +/- 1.08; P = 0.001; erythrocyte DHA: MSUD 2.58 +/- 0.58, controls 3.66 +/- 0.80; P = 0.011). Dietary records reflected negligible or no DHA intake over the 3-day period prior to the blood draw (range 0-2 mg). These results suggest females of reproductive age with MSUD have lower blood DHA concentrations than age-matched controls. In addition, the presence of ALA in medical foods and the background diet may not counter the lack of preformed DHA in the diet. The implications of these results warrant further investigation. PMID:20217236

  5. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  6. Effect of stem water content on sap flow from dormant maple and butternut stems: induction of sap flow in butternut.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R W; Tyree, M T

    1992-10-01

    Sap flow from excised maple stems collected over the winter (1986/87) was correlated with stem water content. Stem water content was high in the fall (>0.80) and decreased rapidly during 2 weeks of continuous freezing temperatures in late winter (<0.60). Exudation of sap from stem segments subjected to freeze/thaw cycles was small (<10 mL/kg) in the fall, but substantial exudation (45-50 mL/kg) occurred following the decline in water content. These observations are consistent with Milburn's and O'Malley's models (J.A. Milburn, P.E.R. O'Malley [1984] Can J Bot 62: 2101-2106; P.E.R. O'Malley, J.A. Milburn [1983] Can J Bot 61:3100-3106) of sap absorption into gas-filled fibers during freezing. Exudation volume was increased 200 to 300% in maple stems originally at high water content (>0.80) after perfusion with sucrose and dehydration at -12 degrees C. Sap flow was also induced in butternut stem segments after the same treatment. Thus, sap flow may not be unique to maples. Sap flow could not be increased in stem segments dehydrated at 4 degrees C. Migration of water molecules from small ice crystals in fibers to larger crystals in vessels while stems were frozen may account for increase exudation after dehydration at -12 degrees C. This would result in preferential dehydration of fibers and a distribution of gas and sap favorable for stem-based sap flow. PMID:16653067

  7. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  8. MAPL: Tissue microstructure estimation using Laplacian-regularized MAP-MRI and its application to HCP data.

    PubMed

    Fick, Rutger H J; Wassermann, Demian; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Deriche, Rachid

    2016-07-01

    The recovery of microstructure-related features of the brain's white matter is a current challenge in diffusion MRI. To robustly estimate these important features from multi-shell diffusion MRI data, we propose to analytically regularize the coefficient estimation of the Mean Apparent Propagator (MAP)-MRI method using the norm of the Laplacian of the reconstructed signal. We first compare our approach, which we call MAPL, with competing, state-of-the-art functional basis approaches. We show that it outperforms the original MAP-MRI implementation and the recently proposed modified Spherical Polar Fourier (mSPF) basis with respect to signal fitting and reconstruction of the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP) and Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) in noisy, sparsely sampled data of a physical phantom with reference gold standard data. Then, to reduce the variance of parameter estimation using multi-compartment tissue models, we propose to use MAPL's signal fitting and extrapolation as a preprocessing step. We study the effect of MAPL on the estimation of axon diameter using a simplified Axcaliber model and axonal dispersion using the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) model. We show the positive effect of using it as a preprocessing step in estimating and reducing the variances of these parameters in the Corpus Callosum of six different subjects of the MGH Human Connectome Project. Finally, we correlate the estimated axon diameter, dispersion and restricted volume fractions with Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and clearly show that changes in FA significantly correlate with changes in all estimated parameters. Overall, we illustrate the potential of using a well-regularized functional basis together with multi-compartment approaches to recover important microstructure tissue parameters with much less variability, thus contributing to the challenge of better understanding microstructure-related features of the brain's white matter. PMID:27043358

  9. Photosynthesis and water-use efficiency of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in relation to pear thrips defoliation.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, D S; Tyree, M T; Parker, B L; Skinner, M

    1994-06-01

    An experimental introduction of pear thrips (Taeniothrips inconsequens Uzel), a major defoliator in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) forests in northeastern North America, was conducted in a field plantation to determine if compensatory gas exchange occurs in response to feeding damage by this piercing-sucking insect. Sugar maple trees were enclosed in netting (167 micro m mesh) and pear thrips adults were introduced before leaf expansion in the spring. Pear thrips reduced whole-tree leaf area by approximately 23% and reduced leaf size (both mass and area) by 20% in the upper crown. Measurements of net CO(2) assimilation rate (A(net)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were made on tagged foliage that was later analyzed for stable carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) to provide estimates of short- and long-term leaf water use efficiency (WUE). Pear thrips feeding reduced A(net) for fully expanded leaves by approximately 20%, although leaf chlorophyll content and leaf mass per unit area were apparently not affected. Comparison of A(net), g(s), instantaneous WUE and leaf delta(13)C between damaged and control trees as well as visibly undamaged versus moderately damaged foliage on pear thrips-infested trees indicated that there were no effects of pear thrips feeding damage on WUE or leaf delta(13)C. Long-term WUE among sugar maple trees in the field plantation, indicated by leaf delta(13)C analysis, was related to shorter-term estimates of leaf gas exchange behavior such as g(s) and calculated leaf intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)). We conclude that pear thrips feeding has no effect on leaf WUE, but at the defoliation levels in our experiment, it may reduce leaf A(net), as a result of direct tissue damage or through reduced g(s). Therefore, even small reductions in leaf A(net) by pear thrips feeding damage may have an important effect on the seasonal carbon balance of sugar maple when integrated over the entire growing season. PMID:14967678

  10. The Method for Assigning Priority Levels (MAPLe): A new decision-support system for allocating home care resources

    PubMed Central

    Hirdes, John P; Poss, Jeff W; Curtin-Telegdi, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Background Home care plays a vital role in many health care systems, but there is evidence that appropriate targeting strategies must be used to allocate limited home care resources effectively. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a methodology for prioritizing access to community and facility-based services for home care clients. Methods Canadian and international data based on the Resident Assessment Instrument – Home Care (RAI-HC) were analyzed to identify predictors for nursing home placement, caregiver distress and for being rated as requiring alternative placement to improve outlook. Results The Method for Assigning Priority Levels (MAPLe) algorithm was a strong predictor of all three outcomes in the derivation sample. The algorithm was validated with additional data from five other countries, three other provinces, and an Ontario sample obtained after the use of the RAI-HC was mandated. Conclusion The MAPLe algorithm provides a psychometrically sound decision-support tool that may be used to inform choices related to allocation of home care resources and prioritization of clients needing community or facility-based services. PMID:18366782

  11. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A. V.; Oprea, A. E.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  12. The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Guller, Bilgin

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and durations. The physical properties of heat-treated samples were compared against controls in order to determine their; oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Three main roughness parameters; mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) obtained from the surface of wood, were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant differences were determined (p>0.05) between surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rmax) at three different temperatures and three periods of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors. PMID:17698357

  13. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Beier, Colin M.; Weathers, K.C.; McPherson, G.T.; Bishop, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been documented. Sugar maple is a dominant canopy species in the Adirondack Mountain ecoregion, and it has a high demand for Ca. Trees in this region growing on soils with poor acid–base chemistry (low exchangeable Ca and % base saturation [BS]) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition exhibited a near absence of SM seedling regeneration and lower crown vigor compared with study plots with relatively high exchangeable Ca and BS and lower levels of acidic deposition. Basal area increment averaged over the 20th century was correlated (p < 0.1) with acid–base chemistry of the Oa, A, and upper B soil horizons. A lack of Adirondack SM regeneration, reduced canopy condition, and possibly decreased basal area growth over recent decades are associated with low concentrations of nutrient base cations in this region that has undergone soil Ca depletion from acidic deposition.

  14. Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: principles of management and formula design.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L; Puffenberger, Erik G; Shellmer, Diana; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B; Morton, D Holmes

    2010-04-01

    Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) for entry into the brain via a common transporter (LAT1), (2) compensate for episodic depletions of glutamine, glutamate, and alanine caused by reverse transamination, and (3) correct deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, and selenium widespread among MSUD patients. The formula was enriched with LAT1 amino acid substrates, glutamine, alanine, zinc, selenium, and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Fifteen Old Order Mennonite children were started on study formula between birth and 34 months of age and seen at least monthly in the office. Amino acid levels were checked once weekly and more often during illnesses. All children grew and developed normally over a period of 14-33 months. Energy demand, leucine tolerance, and protein accretion were tightly linked during periods of normal growth. Rapid shifts to net protein degradation occurred during illnesses. At baseline, most LAT1 substrates varied inversely with plasma leucine, and their calculated rates of brain uptake were 20-68% below normal. Treatment with study formula increased plasma concentrations of LAT1 substrates and normalized their calculated uptakes into the nervous system. Red cell membrane omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum zinc and selenium levels increased on study formula. However, selenium and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) levels remained below normal. During the study period, hospitalizations decreased from 0.35 to 0.14 per patient per year. There were 28 hospitalizations

  15. Earthworm species influence on carbon-mineral association in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hale, C. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    Non-native European earthworms are invading previously earthworm-free hardwood forests in the northern Great Lakes Region. Whereas earthworms' impacts on soil morphology and geochemical properties have been well documented in agricultural settings, the role of earthworms in biogeochemical cycles of undisturbed forests remains poorly understood. The forest soils that were recently invaded by exotic earthworms, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to understand how and how much earthworms contribute to biogeochemistry of non-agricultural environments. Increased degree and extent of soil mixing is one of the better known consequences of the earthworm invasion. Our hypothesis is that invasive earthworms positively affect carbon (C) stabilization by enhancing contacts between organic matter and minerals. We are studying C-mineral complexation along a well-established earthworm chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. We have observed changes in total earthworm biomass, A horizon C storage, and total specific surface area (SSA) of minerals as the invasion progresses. Because each earthworm species has different feeding and dwelling habits, biogeochemical imprints of the invasion reflect not only earthworms' biomass but also their species composition. All earthworm species show an increase in their biomass with greater time length since the invasion, though epigeic earthworms tend to be the pioneer species. As the total earthworm biomass increases, we find greater incorporation of organic C into the A horizon; the O horizon thickness decreases from 8 to 0 cm as the A horizon thickens from ~5 cm to ~12 cm. While leaf litter biomass is negatively correlated with total earthworm biomass, dramatic decreases in litter biomass are coupled with considerable increases in the biomass of epi-endogeic species. Despite the general decrease in C storage in the A horizon with greater degree of invasion, the storages fluctuate along the transect because

  16. Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: Principles of management and formula design

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kevin A.; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B.; Morton, D. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) for entry into the brain via a common transporter (LAT1), (2) compensate for episodic depletions of glutamine, glutamate, and alanine caused by reverse transamination, and (3) correct deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, and selenium widespread among MSUD patients. The formula was enriched with LAT1 amino acid substrates, glutamine, alanine, zinc, selenium, and alphalinolenic acid (18:3n – 3). Fifteen Old Order Mennonite children were started on study formula between birth and 34 months of age and seen at least monthly in the office. Amino acid levels were checked once weekly and more often during illnesses. All children grew and developed normally over a period of 14– 33 months. Energy demand, leucine tolerance, and protein accretion were tightly linked during periods of normal growth. Rapid shifts to net protein degradation occurred during illnesses. At baseline, most LAT1 substrates varied inversely with plasma leucine, and their calculated rates of brain uptake were 20–68% below normal. Treatment with study formula increased plasma concentrations of LAT1 substrates and normalized their calculated uptakes into the nervous system. Red cell membrane omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum zinc and selenium levels increased on study formula. However, selenium and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n – 3) levels remained below normal. During the study period, hospitalizations decreased from 0.35 to 0.14 per patient per year. There were 28

  17. Identification of the Bacterial Community of Maple Sap by Using Amplified Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) Restriction Analysis and rDNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lagacé, L.; Pitre, M.; Jacques, M.; Roy, D.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterial community of maple sap was characterized by analysis of samples obtained at the taphole of maple trees for the 2001 and 2002 seasons. Among the 190 bacterial isolates, 32 groups were formed according to the similarity of the banding patterns obtained by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A subset of representative isolates for each ARDRA group was identified by 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing. Results showed a wide variety of organisms, with 22 different genera encountered. Pseudomonas and Ralstonia, of the γ- and β-Proteobacteria, respectively, were the most frequently encountered genera. Gram-positive bacteria were also observed, and Staphylococcus, Plantibacter, and Bacillus were the most highly represented genera. The sampling period corresponding to 50% of the cumulative sap flow percentage presented the greatest bacterial diversity according to its Shannon diversity index value (1.1). γ-Proteobacteria were found to be dominant almost from the beginning of the season to the end. These results are providing interesting insights on maple sap microflora that will be useful for further investigation related to microbial contamination and quality of maple products and also for guiding new strategies on taphole contamination control. PMID:15066796

  18. Emulsion-Based RIR-MAPLE Deposition of Conjugated Polymers: Primary Solvent Effect and Its Implications on Organic Solar Cell Performance.

    PubMed

    Ge, Wangyao; Li, Nan K; McCormick, Ryan D; Lichtenberg, Eli; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D

    2016-08-01

    Emulsion-based, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been demonstrated as an alternative technique to deposit conjugated polymer films for photovoltaic applications; yet, a fundamental understanding of how the emulsion target characteristics translate into film properties and solar cell performance is unclear. Such understanding is crucial to enable the rational improvement of organic solar cell (OSC) efficiency and to realize the expected advantages of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE for OSC fabrication. In this paper, the effect of the primary solvent used in the emulsion target is studied, both experimentally and theoretically, and it is found to determine the conjugated polymer cluster size in the emulsion as well as surface roughness and internal morphology of resulting polymer films. By using a primary solvent with low solubility-in-water and low vapor pressure, the surface roughness of deposited P3HT and PCPDTBT polymer films was reduced to 10 nm, and the efficiency of P3HT:PC61BM OSCs was increased to 3.2% (∼100 times higher compared to the first MAPLE OSC demonstration [ Caricato , A. P. ; Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012 , 100 , 073306 ]). This work unveils the mechanism of polymer film formation using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE and provides insight and direction to determine the best ways to take advantage of the emulsion target approach to control film properties for different applications. PMID:27414167

  19. On the Least-Squares Fitting of Slater-Type Orbitals with Gaussians: Reproduction of the STO-NG Fits Using Microsoft Excel and Maple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Cory C.; Mercer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    The symbolic algebra program Maple and the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel were used in an attempt to reproduce the Gaussian fits to a Slater-type orbital, required to construct the popular STO-NG basis sets. The successes and pitfalls encountered in such an approach are chronicled. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  20. CHLORPYRIFOS IMMERSION TO ELIMINATE THIRD INSTAR JAPANESE BEETLE (COLEOPTERA:SCARABAEIDAE) IN BALLED AND BURLAPPED TREES AND SUBSEQUENT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON RED MAPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined chlorpyrifos immersion of balled and burlapped (B&B) root balls for elimination of third instar Japanese beetle (JB) (Popillia japonica Newman) and for phytotoxicity on red maple (Acer rubrum L.). Trees were harvested as 45 and 60 cm diameter B&B and immersed in chlorpyrifos at ...

  1. Method for Assigning Priority Levels in Acute Care (MAPLe-AC) predicts outcomes of acute hospital care of older persons - a cross-national validation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although numerous risk factors for adverse outcomes for older persons after an acute hospital stay have been identified, a decision making tool combining all available information in a clinically meaningful way would be helpful for daily hospital practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Method for Assigning Priority Levels for Acute Care (MAPLe-AC) to predict adverse outcomes in acute care for older people and to assess its usability as a decision making tool for discharge planning. Methods Data from a prospective multicenter study in five Nordic acute care hospitals with information from admission to a one year follow-up of older acute care patients were compared with a prospective study of acute care patients from admission to discharge in eight hospitals in Canada. The interRAI Acute Care assessment instrument (v1.1) was used for data collection. Data were collected during the first 24 hours in hospital, including pre-morbid and admission information, and at day 7 or at discharge, whichever came first. Based on this information a crosswalk was developed from the original MAPLe algorithm for home care settings to acute care (MAPLe-AC). The sample included persons 75 years or older who were admitted to acute internal medical services in one hospital in each of the five Nordic countries (n = 763) or to acute hospital care either internal medical or combined medical-surgical services in eight hospitals in Ontario, Canada (n = 393). The outcome measures considered were discharge to home, discharge to institution or death. Outcomes in a 1-year follow-up in the Nordic hospitals were: living at home, living in an institution or death, and survival. Logistic regression with ROC curves and Cox regression analyses were used in the analyses. Results Low and mild priority levels of MAPLe-AC predicted discharge home and high and very high priority levels predicted adverse outcome at discharge both in the Nordic and Canadian data sets

  2. Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Y L

    2001-01-01

    Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

  3. Simulated root dynamics of a 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree with and without ozone exposure using the TREGRO model.

    PubMed

    Retzlaff, W. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Laurence, J. A.; Gollands, B.

    1996-01-01

    Because of difficulties in directly assessing root responses of mature forest trees exposed to atmospheric pollutants, we have used the model TREGRO to analyze the effects of a 3- and a 10-year exposure to ozone (O(3)) on root dynamics of a simulated 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree. We used existing phenological, allometric, and growth data to parameterize TREGRO to produce a simulated 160-year-old tree. Simulations were based on literature values for sugar maple fine root production and senescence and the photosynthetic responses of sugar maple seedlings exposed to O(3) in open-top chambers. In the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3), 2 x ambient atmospheric O(3) concentrations reduced net carbon (C) gain of the 160-year-old tree. This reduction occurred in the C storage pools (total nonstructural carbohydrate, TNC), with most of the reduction occurring in coarse (woody) roots. Total fine root production and senescence were unaffected by the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3). However, extending the simulated O(3) exposure period to 10 years depleted the TNC pools of the coarse roots and reduced total fine root production. Similar reductions in TNC pools have been observed in forest-grown sugar maple trees exhibiting symptoms of stress. We conclude that modeling can aid in evaluating the belowground response of mature forest trees to atmospheric pollution stress and could indicate the potential for gradual deterioration of tree health under conditions of long-term stress, a situation similar to that underlying the decline of sugar maple trees. PMID:14871784

  4. The MaPLE device: A linear machine for laboratory studies of the magnetized plasma physics phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subir; Chowdhury, Satyajit; Pal, Abhik M.; Bhattacharya, Shashwat; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Pal, Rabindranath

    2015-04-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is developed in the plasma physics laboratory of the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics for studying basic plasma physics phenomena like waves, instabilities and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma. Details description of the device and its plasma characteristics are presented. The machine provides flexibilities in terms of magnetic configuration and plasma sources. Recently, low frequency drift waves are excited in the weak density gradient region of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) produced low density plasmas and their nonlinear coupling is studied. Results of this experiment and some more experiments done in the device are summarized. Reasoning behind a possible upgrade plan of the device for studying shear Alfven waves (SAW) and magnetic drift waves in future is also discussed.

  5. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  6. Bioactive ZnO Coatings Deposited by MAPLE-An Appropriate Strategy to Produce Efficient Anti-Biofilm Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Pandel, Loredana Mihaela; Dumitrescu, Ana Maria; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Bălşeanu, Tudor-Adrian; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Iordache, Florin; Maniu, Horia; Chirea, Mariana; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    Deposition of bioactive coatings composed of zinc oxide, cyclodextrin and cefepime (ZnO/CD/Cfp) was performed by the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The efficient release of cefepime was correlated with an increased anti-biofilm activity of ZnO/CD/Cfp composites. In vitro and in vivo tests have revealed a good biocompatibility of ZnO/CD/Cfp coatings, which recommend them as competitive candidates for the development of antimicrobial surfaces with biomedical applications. The release of the fourth generation cephalosporin Cfp in a biologically active form from the ZnO matrix could help preventing the bacterial adhesion and the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on various surfaces, and thus decreasing the risk of biofilm-related infections. PMID:26891290

  7. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Chin, H.L.; Aw, M.M.; Quak, S.H.; Huang, J.; Hart, C.E.; Prabhakaran, K.; Goh, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410

  8. A new missense mutation in the BCKDHB gene causes the classic form of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD).

    PubMed

    Miryounesi, Mohammad; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Goodarzi, Hamedreza; Fardaei, Majid

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT and DLD genes, which encode the E1α, E1β, E2 and E3 subunits of the branched chain α ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, respectively. This complex is involved in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. In this study, we analyzed the DNA sequences of BCKDHA and BCKDHB genes in an infant who suffered from MSUD and died at the age of 6 months. We found a new missense mutation in exon 5 of BCKDHB gene (c.508C>T). The heterozygosity of the parents for the mentioned nucleotide change was confirmed by direct sequence analysis of the corresponding segment. Another missense mutation has been found in the same codon previously and shown by in silico analyses to be deleterious. This report provides further evidence that this amino acid change can cause classic MSUD. PMID:25381949

  9. The impact of ozone fumigations on the biology of a late season sugar maple defoliator (Heterocampa guttivitta Walker)

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M.; Mauffette, Y. )

    1993-06-01

    Two-year old sugar maple seedlings were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CFA) and to three multiples (1x, 1.5x or 3x) of the ambient ozone (O[sub 3]) concentrations during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The saddled prominent (Heterocampa guttivitta Walker) was reared on leaves sampled from CFA and fumigated plants. Developmental cues such as pupal weight, survival rate, egg production and larval developmental time were measured and compared among CFA and 0, treatments. In 1991, larvae reared on the CFA foliage developed significantly lighter pupal weights than those reared on 1x and 3x (306mg vs 355mg and 353mg); the other variables were not affected by the treatments. A similar trend was observed in 1992 although pupal weights did not significantly differ among CFA and O[sub 3] fumigations. These results indicate that this lepidopteran can respond to biochemical changes induced by abiotic stresses such as ozone.

  10. Functionalized antibiofilm thin coatings based on PLA-PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid natural compounds fabricated by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Ficai, Anton; Truşcǎ, Roxana; Bleotu, Coralia; Balaure, Paul Cǎtǎlin; Cristescu, Rodica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-05-01

    We report the fabrication of thin coatings of PLA-PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto Ti substrate. The obtained coatings have been physico-chemically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared microscopy (IRM). In vitro biological assays have been performed in order to evaluate the influence of fabricated microsphere thin coatings on the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development as well as their biocompatibility. SEM micrographs have revealed a uniform morphology of thin coatings, while IRM investigations have proved both the homogeneity and functional groups integrity of prepared thin coatings. The obtained microsphere-based thin coatings have proved to be efficient vehicles for usnic acid natural compound with antibiofilm activity, as demonstrated by the inhibitory activity on S. aureus mature biofilm development, opening new perspectives for the prevention and therapy associated to biofilm related infections.

  11. RAEEM: A Maple package for finding a series of exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Yin-Ping

    2004-11-01

    In Maple 8, by taking advantage of the package RIF contained in DEtools, we developed a package RAEEM which is a comprehensive and complete implementation of such methods as the tanh-method, the extended tanh-method, the Jacobi elliptic function method and the elliptic equation method. RAEEM can entirely automatically output a series of exact traveling wave solutions, including those of polynomial, exponential, triangular, hyperbolic, rational, Jacobi elliptic, Weierstrass elliptic type. The effectiveness of the package is illustrated by applying it to a large variety of equations. In addition to recovering previously known solutions, we also obtain more general forms of some solutions and new solutions. Program summaryTitle of program: RAEEM Catalogue identifier: ADUP Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUP Program obtained from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: PC Pentium IV Installations: Copy Operating systems: Windows 98/2000/XP Program language used: Maple 8 Memory required to execute with typical data: depends on the problem, minimum about 8M words No. of bits in a word: 8 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3163 No. of bytes in distributed program, including the test data, etc.: 26 720 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Our program provides exact traveling wave solutions, which describe various phenomena in nature, and thus can give more insight into the physical aspects of problems. These solutions may be easily used in further applications. Restriction on the complexity of the problem: The program can handle system of nonlinear evolution equations with any number of independent and dependent variables, in which each equation is a polynomial (or can be converted to a polynomial) in the dependent variables and their derivatives. Typical running time: It depends on the input equations as well as the degrees of the desired polynomial solutions. For

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on the Timing of the Production Season of Maple Syrup in Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Benoît; Logan, Travis; Power, Hugues; Charron, Isabelle; Duchesne, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999–2011 period from 121 maple stands in 11 regions of Québec (Canada) to predict how the period of production may be impacted by climate warming. The date at which the production begins is highly variable between years with an average range of 36 days among the regions. However, the average start date for a given region, which ranged from Julian day 65 to 83, was highly predictable (r2 = 0.88) using the average temperature from January to April (TJ-A). A logistic model predicting the weekly presence or absence of production was also developed. Using the inputs of 77 future climate scenarios issued from global models, projections of future production timing were made based on average TJ-A and on the logistic model. The projections of both approaches were in very good agreement and suggest that the sap season will be displaced to occur 15–19 days earlier on average in the 2080–2100 period. The data also show that the displacement in time will not be accompanied by a greater between years variability in the beginning of the season. However, in the southern part of Québec, very short periods of syrup production due to unfavourable conditions in the spring will occur more frequently in the future although their absolute frequencies will remain low. PMID:26682889

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on the Timing of the Production Season of Maple Syrup in Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Houle, Daniel; Paquette, Alain; Côté, Benoît; Logan, Travis; Power, Hugues; Charron, Isabelle; Duchesne, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999-2011 period from 121 maple stands in 11 regions of Québec (Canada) to predict how the period of production may be impacted by climate warming. The date at which the production begins is highly variable between years with an average range of 36 days among the regions. However, the average start date for a given region, which ranged from Julian day 65 to 83, was highly predictable (r2 = 0.88) using the average temperature from January to April (TJ-A). A logistic model predicting the weekly presence or absence of production was also developed. Using the inputs of 77 future climate scenarios issued from global models, projections of future production timing were made based on average TJ-A and on the logistic model. The projections of both approaches were in very good agreement and suggest that the sap season will be displaced to occur 15-19 days earlier on average in the 2080-2100 period. The data also show that the displacement in time will not be accompanied by a greater between years variability in the beginning of the season. However, in the southern part of Québec, very short periods of syrup production due to unfavourable conditions in the spring will occur more frequently in the future although their absolute frequencies will remain low. PMID:26682889

  14. The influence of soil-site factors on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) growth response to climatic change in central Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutten, K.; Gedalof, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, concerns about climatic change and its potential impacts on Canada’s various geographical regions and associated ecological processes have grown steadily, especially among land and resource managers. As these risks transition into tangible outcomes in the field, it will be important for resource managers to understand historical climatic variability and natural ecological trends in order to effectively respond to a changing climate. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is considered a stable endpoint for mature forests in the northern hardwood community of central Ontario, and it tends to be the dominant species, in a beech-ironwood-yellow birch matrix. In North America, this species is used for both hardwood lumber and for maple sugar (syrup) products; where it dominates, large recreational opportunities also exist. There are many biotic and abiotic factors that play a large role in the growth and productivity of sugar maple stands, such as soil pH, moisture regime, and site slope and aspect. This research undertaking aims to add to the body of literature addressing the following question: how do site factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic change? The overall objective of the research is to evaluate how biotic and abiotic factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple annual radial growth to climatic variability. This research will focus on sugar maple growth and productivity in Algonquin Provincial Park, and the impact that climatic variability has had in the past on these stands based on site-specific characteristics. In order to complete this goal, 20 sites were identified in Algonquin Provincial Park based on variability of known soil and site properties. These sites were visited in order to collect biotic and abiotic site data, and to measure annual radial growth increment of trees. Using regional climate records and standard dendrochronological methods, the collected increment growth data will be

  15. A two-phase flow regime map for a MAPLE-type nuclear research reactor fuel channel: Effect of hexagonal finned bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Harvel, G.D.; Chang, J.S.; Krishnan, V.S.

    1997-05-01

    A two-phase flow regime map is developed experimentally and theoretically for a vertical hexagonal flow channel with and without a 36-finned rod hexagonal bundle. This type of flow channel is of interest to MAPLE-type nuclear research reactors. The flow regime maps are determined by visual observations and observation of waveforms shown by a capacitance-type void fraction meter. The experimental results show that the inclusion of the finned hexagonal bundle shifts the flow regime transition boundaries toward higher water flow rates. Existing flow regime maps based on pipe flow require slight modifications when applied to the hexagonal flow channel with and without a MAPLE-type finned hexagonal bundle. The proposed theoretical model agrees well with experimental results.

  16. Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:15287660

  17. Administration of a maple syrup extract to mitigate their hepatic inflammation induced by a high-fat diet: a transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Asuka; Watanabe, Yuki; Shinozaki, Fumika; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kondo, Takashi; Ishijima, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tsudoi; Arai, Soichi; Abe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the administration of maple syrup extract (MSX) on hepatic gene expression were investigated in mice fed a high-fat diet. Gene annotation enrichment analysis based on gene ontology revealed some changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and the immune response in MSX-fed mice. Detailed analysis of these data indicated that MSX ingestion mitigates hepatic inflammation. PMID:25982262

  18. A Semi-Empirical Multi-Scale Dynamic Monte Carlo Model of Organic Photovoltaic Performance in RIR-MAPLE Bulk Heterojunction Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Atewologun, Ayomide

    A semi-empirical method for investigating the performance of OPVs in resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) films is explored. Emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE offers a unique experimental backdrop for investigating trends through simulation and gaining a better understanding of how different thin film characteristics impact OPV device performance. A novel multi-scale formulation of the Dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) model is developed based on observable morphology features. Specifically, using confocal microscopy, we observe the presence of micro-scale regimes of pure materials and nano-scale regions of the composite blend. This enables us to assign weighted percentages to DMC implementations on two different scales: the microscale and nanoscale regions. In addition to this, we use input simulation parameters acquired by characterization of as-deposited films. The semi-empirical multi-scale model presented serves as a unique simulation opportunity for exploring different properties of RIR-MAPLE deposited OPVs, their effects on OPV performance and potential design routes for improving device efficiencies. This work was supported, in part, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-10-1-0481 and the NSF Triangle MRSEC on Soft Matter.

  19. Are leaves that fall from imidacloprid-treated maple trees to control Asian longhorned beetles toxic to non-target decomposer organisms?

    PubMed

    Kreutzweiser, David P; Good, Kevin P; Chartrand, Derek T; Scarr, Taylor A; Thompson, Dean G

    2008-01-01

    The systemic insecticide imidacloprid may be applied to deciduous trees for control of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive wood-boring insect. Senescent leaves falling from systemically treated trees contain imidacloprid concentrations that could pose a risk to natural decomposer organisms. We examined the effects of foliar imidacloprid concentrations on decomposer organisms by adding leaves from imidacloprid-treated sugar maple trees to aquatic and terrestrial microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. Imidacloprid in maple leaves at realistic field concentrations (3-11 mg kg(-1)) did not affect survival of aquatic leaf-shredding insects or litter-dwelling earthworms. However, adverse sublethal effects at these concentrations were detected. Feeding rates by aquatic insects and earthworms were reduced, leaf decomposition (mass loss) was decreased, measurable weight losses occurred among earthworms, and aquatic and terrestrial microbial decomposition activity was significantly inhibited. Results of this study suggest that sugar maple trees systemically treated with imidacloprid to control Asian longhorned beetles may yield senescent leaves with residue levels sufficient to reduce natural decomposition processes in aquatic and terrestrial environments through adverse effects on non-target decomposer organisms. PMID:18396551

  20. Impacts of leaves, roots, and earthworms on soil organic matter composition and distribution in sycamore maple stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, N.; Mueller, K. E.; Mueller, C. W.; Oleksyn, J.; Hale, C.; Freeman, K. H.; Eissenstat, D.

    2009-12-01

    The relative contributions of leaf and root material to soil organic matter (SOM) are poorly understood despite the importance of constraining SOM sources to conceptual and numeric models of SOM dynamics. Selective ingestion and bioturbation of litter and soil by earthworms can alter the fate and spatial distribution of OM in soils, including stabilization pathways of leaf and root litter. However, studies on the contributions of leaves, roots, and earthworms to SOM dynamics are rare. In 3 stands of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) with minimal O horizon development and high earthworm activity, we sampled surface litter (> 2 mm) from the Oi horizon, fine roots (< 2 mm), bulk mineral soils (0-20 cm depth), and earthworm casts from Lumbricus terrestris middens. The chemical composition of these samples was estimated by wet-chemical degradation followed by GC-MS analysis. In addition, elemental analyses (C and N) were performed on bulk soils and earthworm casts, before and after physical fractionation by means of particle size and density. Relative to bulk soils, earthworm casts were highly enriched in organic matter, dominated by large particulate OM, and had lower acid to aldehyde ratios among lignin monomers (a proxy for extent of decomposition), confirming that L. terrestris casts stabilize recent plant litter inputs. Maple fine roots and surface litter were distinguished by different profiles of carboxylic acids estimated by GC-MS, facilitating interpretation of OM sources in bulk soil and earthworm casts. Earthworm casts were characterized by a distribution of carboxylic acids similar to that of surface litter while bulk soils had a carboxylic acid profile much closer to that of roots. These results confirm that L. terrestris is primarily a surface, leaf feeder and suggest that OM in the bulk soil may be dominated by root inputs. In bulk soils, the ratio of lignin to hydroxy- and diacids derived from suberin and cutin was low relative to plant litter

  1. Intrahippocampal administration of the alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease provokes learning deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro Vasques, Vilson; de Boer, Melissa Avila; Diligenti, Felipe; Brinco, Fabrício; Mallmann, Fabrício; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Wajner, Moacir

    2004-01-01

    Learning disability is a common feature of patients affected by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). However, the pathomechanisms underlying learning deficit in this disorder are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acute administration of the alpha-keto acids accumulating in MSUD into the hippocampus on the behavior of rats in the open field and in the inhibitory avoidance tasks. Adult male Wistar rats received intrahippocampal injections of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC, 8 micromol), alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV, 5 micromol), alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMV, 5 micromol), or NaCl (8 micromol) (controls) immediately after or 10 min before training. Testing session was performed 24 h later. Posttraining administration of the keto acids had no effect on learning in the open-field task. In contrast, pretraining administration of KIV and KMV impaired habituation in the open field. Similarly, pretraining administration of KIC, KIV, and KMV affected rat performance in the inhibitory avoidance task, suggesting disruption of acquisition. The results indicate that the alpha-keto acids accumulating in MSUD induce learning deficits in aversive and nonaversive tasks. We therefore suggest that these findings may be related to the psychomotor delay/mental retardation observed in MSUD, and may indicate the contribution of increased brain concentrations of these organic acids to the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction of MSUD patients. PMID:14724056

  2. Maple Syrup Urine Disease: Identification and Carrier-Frequency Determination of a Novel Founder Mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Lisa; Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Kornreich, Ruth; Sansaricq, Claude; Snyderman, Selma E.; Diaz, George A.

    2001-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. We noted that a large proportion (10 of 34) of families with MSUD that were followed in our clinic were of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent, leading us to search for a common mutation within this group. On the basis of genotyping data suggestive of a conserved haplotype at tightly linked markers on chromosome 6q14, the BCKDHB gene encoding the E1β subunit was sequenced. Three novel mutations were identified in seven unrelated AJ patients with MSUD. The locations of the affected residues in the crystal structure of the E1β subunit suggested possible mechanisms for the deleterious effects of these mutations. Large-scale population screening of AJ individuals for R183P, the mutation present in six of seven patients, revealed that the carrier frequency of the mutant allele was ∼1/113; the patient not carrying R183P had a previously described homozygous mutation in the gene encoding the E2 subunit. These findings suggested that a limited number of mutations might underlie MSUD in the AJ population, potentially facilitating prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection of MSUD in this group. PMID:11509994

  3. Adsorption and desorption of ammonium by maple wood biochar as a function of oxidation and pH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Lehmann, Johannes; Hanley, Kelly; Hestrin, Rachel; Enders, Akio

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the retention mechanisms of ammonium in aqueous solution by using progressively oxidized maple wood biochar at different pH values. Hydrogen peroxide was used to oxidize the biochar to pH values ranging from 8.1 to 3.7, with one set being adjusted to a pH of 7 afterwards. Oxidizing the biochars at their lowered pH did not increase their ability to adsorb ammonium. However, neutralizing the oxygen-containing surface functional groups on oxidized biochar to pH 7 increased ammonia adsorption two to three-fold for biochars originally at pH 3.7-6, but did not change adsorption of biochars oxidized to pH 7 and above. The adsorption characteristics of ammonium are well described by the Freundlich equation. Adsorption was not fully reversible in water, and less than 27% ammonium was desorbed in water in two consecutive steps than previously adsorbed, for biochars with a pH below 7, irrespective of oxidation. Recovery using an extraction with 2M KCl increased from 34% to 99% of ammonium undesorbed by both preceding water extractions with increasing oxidation, largely irrespective of pH adjustment. Unrecovered ammonium in all extractions and residual biochar was negligible at high oxidation, but increased to 39% of initially adsorbed amounts at high pH, likely due to low amounts adsorbed and possible ammonia volatilization losses. PMID:26057391

  4. Effects of soil freezing and drought stress on abscisic acid content of sugar maple sap and leaves.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, A; Robitaille, G; Nadeau, P; Boutin, R

    1994-04-01

    In 1991 and 1992, mature maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were freeze-stressed or drought-stressed by preventing precipitation (snow or rain) from reaching the forest floor under selected trees. Lack of snow cover caused a decrease in soil temperature to well below 0 degrees C from December to April and a lowering of the soil water content to 10%. The abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in the spring sap of deep-soil frost-stressed trees was significantly higher than in control or drought-stressed trees. The increase in ABA concentration in the xylem sap in the spring of 1991 and 1992 preceded symptoms of canopy decline and a decrease in leaf area that were observed during the summers of 1991 and 1992. These results suggest a role for ABA in root-to-shoot communication in response to environmental stress. The largest differences in ABA concentration induced by the treatments was found in sap collected at the end of sap flow. The increase in ABA concentration in spring sap at the end of the sap flow could be used as an early indicator of stress suffered by trees during the winter. Not only did the increase in ABA concentration occur before any visible symptoms of tree decline appeared, but the trees that showed the most evident decline had the highest ABA concentrations in the spring sap. Leaf ABA concentration was not a good indicator of induced stress. PMID:14967696

  5. Fine roots are the dominant source of recalcitrant plant litter in sugar maple-dominated northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengxue; Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2015-11-01

    Most studies of forest litter dynamics examine the biochemical characteristics and decomposition of leaf litter, but fine roots are also a large source of litter in forests. We quantified the concentrations of eight biochemical fractions and nitrogen (N) in leaf litter and fine roots at four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated hardwood forests in the north-central United States. We combined these results with litter production data to estimate ecosystem biochemical fluxes to soil. We also compared how leaf litter and fine root biochemistry responded to long-term simulated N deposition. Compared with leaf litter, fine roots contained 2.9-fold higher acid-insoluble fraction (AIF) and 2.3-fold more condensed tannins; both are relatively difficult to decompose. Comparatively, leaf litter had greater quantities of more labile components: nonstructural carbohydrates, cellulose and soluble phenolics. At an ecosystem scale, fine roots contributed over two-thirds of the fluxes of AIF and condensed tannins to soil. Fine root biochemistry was also less responsive than leaf litter to long-term simulated N deposition. Fine roots were the dominant source of difficult-to-decompose plant carbon fractions entering the soil at our four study sites. Based on our synthesis of the literature, this pattern appears to be widespread in boreal and temperate forests. PMID:26073624

  6. Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña; Ugarte, Magdalena; Gregersen, Niels; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Bross, Peter; Palmfeldt, Johan

    2014-09-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited metabolic disorder. Four different genes encode the catalytic subunits of BCKDH: E1α (BCKDHA), E1β (BCKDHB), E2 (DBT), and E3 (DLD). All four proteins were successfully quantified in healthy individuals. However, the E1α and E1β proteins were not detected in patients carrying mutations in one of those genes, whereas mRNA levels were almost unaltered, indicating instability of E1α and E1β monomers. Using SRM we elucidated the protein effects of mutations generating premature termination codons or misfolded proteins. SRM is a complement to transcript level measurements and a valuable tool to shed light on molecular mechanisms and on effects of pharmacological therapies at protein level. SRM is particularly effective for inherited disorders caused by multiple proteins such as defects in multienzyme complexes. PMID:25333063

  7. Identification of six novel mutations in Iranian patients with maple syrup urine disease and their in silico analysis​.

    PubMed

    Abiri, Maryam; Karamzadeh, Razieh; Karimipoor, Morteza; Ghadami, Shirin; Alaei, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Samira Dabagh; Bagherian, Hamideh; Setoodeh, Aria; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza; Sirous Zeinali

    2016-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The disease prevalence is higher in populations with elevated rate of consanguineous marriages such as Iran. Different types of disease causing mutations have been previously reported in BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT and DLD genes known to be responsible for MSUD phenotype. In this study, two sets of multiplex polymorphic STR (Short Tandem Repeat) markers linked to the above genes were used to aid in homozygosity mapping in order to find probable pathogenic change(s) in the studied families. The families who showed homozygote haplotype for the BCKDHA gene were subsequently sequenced. Our findings showed that exons 2, 4 and 6 contain most of the mutations which are novel. The changes include two single nucleotide deletion (i.e. c. 143delT and c.702delT), one gross deletion covering the whole exon four c.(375+1_376-1)_(8849+1_885-1), two splice site changes (c.1167+1G>T, c. 288+1G>A), and one point mutation (c.731G>A). Computational approaches were used to analyze these two novel mutations in terms of their impact on protein structure. Computational structural modeling indicated that these mutations might affect structural stability and multimeric assembly of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). PMID:26901124

  8. Two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the BCKDHB gene that cause the intermittent form of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Liming, Liu; Jiang, Li

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. In contrast to classic MSUD, children with the intermittent form usually have an atypical clinical manifestation. Here, we describe the presenting symptoms and clinical course of a Chinese boy with intermittent MSUD. Mutation analysis identified two previously unreported mutations in exon 7 of the BCKDHB gene: c.767A > G (p.Y256C) and c.768C > G (p.Y256X); the parents were each heterozygous for one of these mutations. In silico analysis predicted Y256C probably affects protein structure; Y256X leads to a premature stop codon. This case demonstrates intermittent MSUD should be suspected in cases with symptoms of recurrent encephalopathy, especially ataxia or marked drowsiness, which usually present after the neonatal period and in conjunction with infection. symmetrical basal ganglia damage but normal myelination in the posterior limb will assist differential diagnosis; alloisoleucine is a useful diagnostic marker and mutation analysis may be of prognostic value. These novel mutations Y256C and Y256X result in the clinical manifestation of a variant form of MSUD, expanding the mutation spectrum of this disease. PMID:26239723

  9. Neonatal screening in Italy for congenital hypothyroidism and metabolic disorders: hyperphenylalaninemia, maple syrup urine disease and homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Antonozzi, I; Dominici, R; Andreoli, M; Monaco, F

    1980-01-01

    A multiple screening program to establish the frequency of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), homocystinuria and hypertyrosinemia in endemic and sporadic goitrous regions of Italy is being carried out. Valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, eluted from a single spot and separated by column chromatography, are measured, using whole blood adsorbed on filter paper. CH is detected by RIA assay of TSH eluted from dried blood spot. A cut-off of 100 microU/ml for TSH is used providing a recall rate of 0.38%. Out of 116,000 newborn infants screened for aminoacidopathies (since 1974), 16 PKU patients, 3 affected by MSUD, 2 homocystinuric babies have been detected. Out of 25,400 newborn infants screened for CH, 5 patients were affected by permanent CH and 29 by transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Thus PKU shows a frequency of 1:7,200 newborn infants, and permanent congenital hypothyroidism 1:5,080. The coordination of screening programs for congenital metabolic diseases in a single central unit allows:--the unification of the input of samples and output of data in a single data bank;--a minimization of the physical and psychological stress to the patients and their families;--and a more satisfactory cost/benefit ratio. PMID:7204885

  10. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins. PMID:22387705

  11. Inborn errors of metabolic diseases in Malaysia: a preliminary report of maple syrup urine diseases for 1993.

    PubMed

    Zakiah, I; Ashikin, Y N; Aisiah, S M; Ismail, H I

    1995-01-01

    The Malaysian level of health care has greatly improved so that many of the infectious diseases are now under control. However, perinatal death or death due to unknown childhood diseases remains high (10.3%) being second on the list of causes of death amongst Malaysians. Could inborn metabolic diseases be the main cause of death among these children? Recently, with our success in the development of confirmatory techniques for amino acid disorders using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we have examined 404 samples received from all over the country in 1993. Each specimen with abnormal findings from screening tests by one-dimensional thin layer chromatography was confirmed using HPLC. 41% had generalized aminoacidurias and 4.2% had maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Patients were aged between 11 days to 6 years. Most of them were Malay males and presented with a history suggestive of MSUD. With this preliminary finding, further studies will be carried out in order to have an investigation and management protocol for the diseases and more importantly to formulate a strategy of screening for the country. PMID:8629092

  12. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): a case with long-term follow-up after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Paula M; Hinshaw, Jessica; Stringer, Anthony Y

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare hereditary metabolic condition where the body is unable to breakdown amino acids causing toxic buildup. Acute and long-term management of MSUD involves a restricted diet and regular monitoring of amino acid levels; however, more recently liver transplants have been shown to be successful in treating this condition. Even with successful management of MSUD there is evidence from pediatric cases that shows a distinct pattern of neurocognitive deficits associated with this condition, including impaired nonverbal skills and psychomotor functioning with relatively intact verbal abilities. In the present paper, we report an adult case of MSUD with associated neurocognitive deficits and functional limitations following liver transplantation. Neuroimaging revealed no structural abnormalities, while the results from the neuropsychological evaluation showed impairment in visual-spatial processing, attention, executive functioning, and psychomotor abilities, with relative strengths in verbal skills. The patient also showed reduced adaptive functioning and mild anxiety. This case demonstrates neurocognitive deficiencies within the context of normal magnetic resonance imaging. The possible underlying mechanism of this neuropsychological profile is discussed in relation to other neurodevelopmental models. PMID:23829516

  13. Interactions between organic matter and mineral surfaces along an earthworm invasion gradient in a sugar maple forest of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyttle, A.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Hale, C.

    2012-12-01

    Sorption of organic matter on mineral surface is critical for protection of organic carbon (C) against decomposition and thus may potentially increase the capacity of soils to store C. Such sorption, however, requires physical contacts between organic matter and available mineral surfaces. This study attempts to better understand how bioturbation by invasive earthworms influences the contacts between organic matter and mineral surface, and affects sorption of organic matter on mineral surface. Vertical soil mixing is a direct consequence of the introduction of invasive earthworms in natural forests previously devoid of native earthworm populations. Here we focus on an intensively studied earthworm invasion chronosequence in a glaciated sugar maple forest in northern Minnesota. With the advance of invasive earthworms, leaf litter disappears while the A horizon expands at the expense of the overlying litter layer and the underlying wind blown silt materials. Earthworms' biomasses and functional group compositions, depth profiles of soil C contents, and total and organic matter-covered mineral surface areas are determined at different stages of invasion. We found that minerals' specific surface areas (SSA) in the A horizons decrease with greater degree of earthworm invasion. Furthermore, less fractions of mineral SSA were found to be coated with organic C in the soils with active earthworm populations. These observations appear to contradict another finding that amounts of crystalline Fe oxide and organically-complexed Fe increase with the greater earthworm population. The overall trend shows that earthworms' active mixing resulting in incorporating silt materials with low SSA from the underlying E horizons to the A horizons. We are currently investigating whether the increased crystalline Fe oxides and organically-complexed Fe pools with increasing earthworm population helped reducing the gradient of overall trend. Our study highlights the importance of earthworm

  14. Identification of mutations, genotype-phenotype correlation and prenatal diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease in Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepti; Bijarnia-Mahay, Sunita; Saxena, Renu; Kohli, Sudha; Dua-Puri, Ratna; Verma, Jyotsna; Thomas, E; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Deb, Roumi; Verma, Ishwar Chander

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by mutations in genes BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT encoding E1α, E1β, and E2 subunits of enzyme complex, branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH). BCKDH participates in catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) - leucine, isoleucine and valine in the energy production pathway. Deficiency or defect in the enzyme complex causes accumulation of BCAAs and keto-acids leading to toxicity. Twenty-four patients with MSUD were enrolled in the study for molecular characterization and genotype-phenotype correlation. Molecular studies were carried out by sequencing of the 3 genes by Sanger method. Bioinformatics tools were employed to classify novel variations into pathogenic or benign. The predicted effects of novel changes on protein structure were elucidated by 3D modeling. Mutations were detected in 22 of 24 patients (11, 7 and 4 in BCKDHB, BCKDHA and DBT genes, respectively). Twenty mutations including 11 novel mutations were identified. Protein modeling in novel mutations showed alteration of structure and function of these subunits. Mutations, c.1065 delT (BCKDHB gene) and c.939G > C (DBT gene) were noted to be recurrent, identified in 6 of 22 alleles and 5 of 8 alleles, respectively. Two-third patients were of neonatal classical phenotype (16 of 24). BCKDHB gene mutations were present in 10 of these 16 patients. Prenatal diagnoses were performed in 4 families. Consanguinity was noted in 37.5% families. Although no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation could be found in our study, most cases with mutation in BCKDHB gene presented in neonatal period. Large number of novel mutations underlines the heterogeneity and distinctness of gene pool from India. PMID:26257134

  15. Symbolic computation engines and molecular modeling templates: Maple-assisted point group analysis of the vibrational activity of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vail, Benjamin; Aris, Damian; Scarlete, Mihai

    The present study proposes an algorithm for point-group analysis (PGA) of the vibrational activity of molecules, adapted for the efficient utilization of the linear packages incorporated into currently available symbolic computation engines (SCE), such as Maple, Mathcad, or Mathematica. By the creation of this algorithm, we have addressed the need for a numerically friendly environment, outside the "locked" procedures within molecular modeling packages, which will preserve its flexibility, transparency, and maneuverability, regardless of the complexity of the calculation. The format of the character tables of the point groups significant to chemical species has been adapted to ensure automatic numerization, and consistent input of the alphanumeric data from the existent character tables into the SCE templates designed to perform the PGA. The two proposed templates address two complementary objectives: (i) a totally transparent and interactive file has been designed to allow access to all intermediate results at all levels of the procedure for easy implementation of potential additional modules of special interest 1-5, and (ii) for fast output and routine calculations of the IR/Raman vibrational activity of molecules based on their point groups, a totally automatic file with a highly simplified input interface has been designed. The numerical interface conveniently replaces the usual graphic user interface that is common to most commercial molecular modeling software packages, requiring minimum input determination. The structure for both templates is based on the use of the digitized forms for the character tables, for the symmetry operations, and for symmetry elements, all saved in dedicated libraries uploaded to the numerical database of the SCE.

  16. Development of the teneral adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): time to initiate and completely bore out of maple wood.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, V; Keena, M A

    2013-02-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is an introduced invasive pest with the potential to devastate hardwood forests in North America. Using artificial pupal chambers, we documented the time required by teneral adults at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30 °C), 60-80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h to initiate boring after eclosion and subsequently bore completely through a 7-mm (range, 3-11 mm) layer of Norway maple wood (Acer platanoides L.). In total, 218 laboratory-reared pupae from the Chicago, IL, or Inner Mongolia, China, populations were used in the study. Females (1.54 ± 0.03 g) weighed significantly more than males (1.12 ± 0.03 g), but the average weights of the beetles emerging in each temperature did not differ. Adult weight was positively correlated with exit hole diameter (diameter [mm] = 2.2 * weight [g] + 7.9). The rate at which beetles bored through the wood (136, 178, and 168 mm(3)/d at 20, 25 and 30 °C, respectively) significantly differed between temperatures but did not differ with beetle weight. Temperature had a significant effect on the time it took adults to initiate boring (7, 5, and 4 d at 20, 25, and 30 °C, respectively) and subsequently to complete boring to emerge (5, 4, and 4 d at 20, 25, and 30 °C, respectively). This suggests that beetles require more than a week to progress from eclosion to emergence in wood, even at summer temperatures. This information on A. glabripennis basic biology is critical for developing phenology models that are used to time exclusion and eradication methodologies. PMID:23339780

  17. Spin-half Heisenberg antiferromagnet on two archimedian lattices: From the bounce lattice to the maple-leaf lattice and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnell, D. J. J.; Darradi, R.; Schmidt, R.; Richter, J.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the ground state of the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet on two Archimedean lattices, namely, the maple-leaf and bounce lattices as well as a generalized J-J' model interpolating between both systems by varying J'/J from J'/J=0 (bounce limit) to J'/J=1 (maple-leaf limit) and beyond. We use the coupled cluster method to high orders of approximation and also exact diagonalization of finite-sized lattices to discuss the ground-state magnetic long-range order based on data for the ground-state energy, the magnetic order parameter, the spin-spin correlation functions as well as the pitch angle between neighboring spins. Our results indicate that the “pure” bounce (J'/J=0) and maple-leaf (J'/J=1) Heisenberg antiferromagnets are magnetically ordered, however, with a sublattice magnetization drastically reduced by frustration and quantum fluctuations. We found that magnetic long-range order is present in a wide parameter range 0⩽J'/J≲Jc'/J and that the magnetic order parameter varies only weakly with J'/J. At Jc'≈1.45J, a transition to a quantum orthogonal-dimer singlet ground state without magnetic long-range order takes place that is probably of first-order type, although we cannot rule out that this transition is second order. The orthogonal-dimer state is the exact ground state in this large-J' regime, and so our model has similarities to the Shastry-Sutherland model. Finally, we use the exact diagonalization to investigate the magnetization curve. We find a 1/3 magnetization plateau for J'/J≳1.07 and another one at 2/3 of saturation emerging only at large J'/J≳3.

  18. Współczesny opad pyłku lipy i klonu jako przyczynek do palinologicznej interpretacji gleb kopalnych / The deposition of lime and maple pollen as a contribution to the palynological interpretation of fossil soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mędrek, Karolina; Hołub, Beata; Bałaga, Krystyna

    2013-06-01

    This paper aims to explore the modern deposition of lime and maple pollen in various plant communities as compared to the results obtained in palynological analyses of the Holocene paleosols in Kaczórki (the Middle Roztocze) and the Błędów Desert which are characterized by very high amounts of the pollen of these trees. The research shows that a high annual deposition of both lime and maple pollen on the soil surface is possible. This deposition far surpasses the average pollen values recorded in the Holocene but is not as high as those recorded in fossil soils. In relation to paleosols in Kaczórki such results show that lime and maple were important components of forests surrounding dune and simultaneously point to the fact that the deposition of pollen in these soils was a complex process.

  19. Gamma-cyclodextrin/usnic acid thin film fabricated by MAPLE for improving the resistance of medical surfaces to Staphylococcus aureus colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, Florin; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Curuţiu, Carmen; Diţu, Lia Mara; Socol, Gabriel; Ficai, Anton; Truşcă, Roxana; Holban, Alina Maria

    2015-05-01

    This study reports on the successful deposition of γ-cyclodextrin/usnic acid (γCD/UA) thin film by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) as anti-adherent coating on medical surfaces against microbial colonization. The obtained results demonstrate that these bioactive thin films inhibit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation at all stages, starting with their initiation. The antibiofilm effect was constant along the bacterial incubation time. Furthermore, the γCD/UA coatings show a great biocompatibility which means that this material is suitable for the development of modern medical devices with antimicrobial properties.

  20. Operational Procedures for Collecting Water-Quality Samples at Monitoring Sites on Maple Creek Near Nickerson and the Platte River at Louisville, Eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Steven M.; Swanson, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Prototype stream-monitoring sites were operated during part of 1992 in the Central Nebraska Basins (CNBR) and three other study areas of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQ) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Results from the prototype project provide information needed to operate a net- work of intensive fixed station stream-monitoring sites. This report evaluates operating procedures for two NAWQA prototype sites at Maple Creek near Nickerson and the Platte River at Louisville, eastern Nebraska. Each site was sampled intensively in the spring and late summer 1992, with less intensive sampling in midsummer. In addition, multiple samples were collected during two high- flow periods at the Maple Creek site--one early and the other late in the growing season. Water-samples analyses included determination of pesticides, nutrients, major ions, suspended sediment, and measurements of physical properties. Equipment and protocols for the water-quality sampling procedures were evaluated. Operation of the prototype stream- monitoring sites included development and comparison of onsite and laboratory sample-processing proce- dures. Onsite processing was labor intensive but allowed for immediate preservation of all sampled constituents. Laboratory processing required less field labor and decreased the risk of contamination, but allowed for no immediate preservation of the samples.

  1. Ethyl m-digallate from red maple, Acer rubrum L., as the major resistance factor to forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zaid, M M; Helson, B V; Nozzolillo, C; Arnason, J T

    2001-12-01

    An ethanolic extract of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) leaves (RME) applied to trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves reduced feeding in choice test assays with forest tent caterpillar larvae (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.) (FTC), whereas a trembling aspen foliage extract, similarly applied, stimulated feeding. Compounds isolated from the RME were gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, m-digallate, ethyl m-digallate, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 1-O-galloyl-alpha-L-rhamnose, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside, (-)-epicatechin. (+)-catechin and ellagic acid. All of the gallates, (-)-epicatechin, and kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside deterred feeding on trembling aspen leaf disks when applied at 0.28 mg/cm2. The two digallates deterred feeding by 90% and were the most effective. HPLC analysis indicated that ethyl m-digallate is present in amounts 10-100 x higher in RME (approximately 2.5-250 mg/g) than any other compound. Thus, ethyl m-digallate appears to be the major compound protecting red maple from feeding by FTC, with a minor contribution from other gallates. PMID:11789956

  2. The effects of ozone-exposed sugar maple seedlings on the biological performance and the feeding preference of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.).

    PubMed

    Fortin, M; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J

    1997-01-01

    The effects of exposure of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) to ozone on the entire larval stage of a native insect have not been previously investigated. This study reports the effects of sugar maple seedlings exposed to different ozone concentrations on the relative performance and the feeding preference of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.). Three-year-old seedlings were set in nine open-top field chambers in the spring of 1992 and 1993. Three ozone concentrations were generated: charcoal-filtered ambient air (0x), ambient air (1x) and three times ambient air (3x). In 1992, female and male larval development time did not differ among ozone treatments. In 1993, female larvae reared on 3x developed faster than those on 0x and 1x, while male larvae were not affected. Ozone treatments did not influence pupal weights except for males in 1993 where pupae reared on 0x were heavier than 1x but did not differ from 3x. Larval and pupal survival rates were not affected by ozone in either year. Finally, 4th and 5th instar larvae showed a significant feeding preference for 3x foliage in 1993 but not in 1992. The response of the forest tent caterpillar to ozone exposed seedlings varied between years and could be more sensitive to annual climatic variations than ozone. PMID:15093369

  3. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Socol, Gabriel; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Rădulescu, Marius; Surdu, Adrian; Trusca, Roxana; Rădulescu, Radu; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Stan, Miruna S.; Constanda, Sabrina; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  4. Earthworm effects on the incorporation of litter C and N into soil organic matter in a sugar maple forest.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Timothy J; Yavitt, Joseph B; Sherman, Ruth E; Maerz, John C; Groffman, Peter M; Fisk, Melany C; Bohlen, Patrick J

    2013-07-01

    To examine the mechanisms of earthworm effects on forest soil C and N, we double-labeled leaf litter with 13C and 15N, applied it to sugar maple forest plots with and without earthworms, and traced isotopes into soil pools. The experimental design included forest plots with different earthworm community composition (dominated by Lumbricus terrestris or L. rubellus). Soil carbon pools were 37% lower in earthworm-invaded plots largely because of the elimination of the forest floor horizons, and mineral soil C:N was lower in earthworm plots despite the mixing of high C:N organic matter into soil by earthworms. Litter disappearance over the first winter-spring was highest in the L. terrestris (T) plots, but during the warm season, rapid loss of litter was observed in both L. rubellus (R) and T plots. After two years, 22.0% +/- 5.4% of 13C released from litter was recovered in soil with no significant differences among plots. Total recovery of added 13C (decaying litter plus soil) was much higher in no-worm (NW) plots (61-68%) than in R and T plots (20-29%) as much of the litter remained in the former whereas it had disappeared in the latter. Much higher percentage recovery of 15N than 13C was observed, with significantly lower values for T than R and NW plots. Higher overwinter earthworm activity in T plots contributed to lower soil N recovery. In earthworm-invaded plots isotope enrichment was highest in macroaggregates and microaggregates whereas in NW plots silt plus clay fractions were most enriched. The net effect of litter mixing and priming of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), stabilization of SOM in soil aggregates, and alteration of the soil microbial community by earthworm activity results in loss of SOM and lowering of the C:N ratio. We suggest that earthworm stoichiometry plays a fundamental role in regulating C and N dynamics of forest SOM. PMID:23967585

  5. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... be done to check for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There ...

  6. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J.; Lawrence, Greg B.; Sullivan, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor

  7. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA.

    PubMed

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Greg B; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor

  8. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the

  9. Branched Chain Amino Acids Induce Apoptosis in Neural Cells without Mitochondrial Membrane Depolarization or Cytochrome c Release: Implications for Neurological Impairment Associated with Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jouvet, Philippe; Rustin, Pierre; Taylor, Deanna L.; Pocock, Jennifer M.; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Mazarakis, Nicholas D.; Sarraf, Catherine; Joashi, Umesh; Kozma, Mary; Greenwood, Kirsty; Edwards, A. David; Mehmet, Huseyin

    2000-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency in branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase that can result in neurodegenerative sequelae in human infants. In the present study, increased concentrations of MSUD metabolites, in particular α-keto isocaproic acid, specifically induced apoptosis in glial and neuronal cells in culture. Apoptosis was associated with a reduction in cell respiration but without impairment of respiratory chain function, without early changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and without cytochrome c release into the cytosol. Significantly, α-keto isocaproic acid also triggered neuronal apoptosis in vivo after intracerebral injection into the developing rat brain. These findings suggest that MSUD neurodegeneration may result, at least in part, from an accumulation of branched chain amino acids and their α-keto acid derivatives that trigger apoptosis through a cytochrome c-independent pathway. PMID:10793161

  10. Efficient upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Burkett, Allan; Blackwell, Ashley; Taylor, Keylantra; Walker, Vernell; Sarkisov, Sergey; Koplitz, Brent

    2014-09-01

    We report on fabrication and investigation of optical and morphological properties of highly efficient (a quantum yield of 1%) upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the new technique of double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE). Polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) host was evaporated on a silicon substrate using a 1064-nm pulsed laser beam using a target made of frozen (to the temperature of liquid nitrogen) solution of PMMA in chlorobenzene. Concurrently, the second 532-nm pulsed beam from the same laser was used to impregnate the polymer host with the inorganic nanoparticulate made of the rare earth upconversion compounds NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+, NaYF4: Yb3+, Ho3+, and NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+. The compounds were initially synthesized using the wet process, baked, and compressed in solid pellet targets. The proposed DB-MAPLE method has the advantage of making highly homogeneous nanocomposite films with precise control of the doping rate due to the optimized overlapping of the plumes produced by the ablation of the organic and inorganic target with the infrared and visible laser beams respectively. X-ray diffraction, electron and atomic force microscopy, and optical fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the inorganic nanoparticulate preserved its crystalline structure and upconversion properties (strong emission in green, red, and blue bands upon illumination with 980-nm laser diode) after being transferred from the target in the polymer nanocomposite film. The produced films can be used in applications varying from the efficiency enhancement of the photovoltaic cells, optical sensors and biomarkers to anti-counterfeit labels.

  11. Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Low Soil Moisture on the Physiological Responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) Seedlings to Light

    PubMed Central

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol−1) and elevated (784 µmol mol−1) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (Rd), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and gs did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the Ci/Ca in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable. PMID:24146894

  12. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    PubMed

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable. PMID:24146894

  13. Comparing Measures of Fine Root Uptake by Mature Trees: Applications for Determining the Potential Impacts of Climate Change-Induced Soil Freezing on Nutrient Uptake by Sugar Maple and Red Spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socci, A. M.; Templer, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    Forests of the northeastern United States are predicted to experience a decrease in the depth and duration of snow pack due to global climate change. Even when coupled with milder winter temperatures, the loss of forest floor insulation can increase soil freezing depth and duration during the winter months. Soil frost leads to increased root mortality and soil nitrate leaching in stands dominated by sugar maple, a dominant tree species of northern hardwood forests. Greater nitrogen losses may be due to reduced nitrogen uptake by plant roots. As nitrogen is an essential nutrient for trees, changes in nitrogen uptake by fine roots may have implications for forest productivity and carbon storage. To test the impact of increased soil freezing on fine root uptake of nutrients from the soil, we established a snow removal experiment in sugar maple and red spruce dominated forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. In the first year of this study, we measured uptake of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) by fine roots of sugar maple and red spruce during the early (May), peak (July), and late (September) growing season. Individuals of sugar maple were located on paired plots (n=4 reference and snow-removal plots, n= 3 individuals per plot) and sampled for rates of nutrient uptake prior to snow removal. We used both an in situ intact root uptake measurement known as "nitrogen depletion", and an ex situ excised root measurement. Individuals of red spruce (n=1 reference and snow-removal plot, n=3 individuals per plot) were sampled after one winter of snow removal, also using one in situ and one ex situ method of measuring fine root uptake of nutrients. Individuals of sugar maple took up significantly more NH4+ than NO3- during the early growing season, but there was no significant difference between forms of nitrogen taken up during the peak growing season. Individuals of red spruce took up significantly more NH4+ than NO3- during both the early

  14. Maple polyphenols, ginnalins A-C, induce S- and G2/M-cell cycle arrest in colon and breast cancer cells mediated by decreasing cyclins A and D1 levels.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Ma, Hang; Edmonds, Maxwell E; Seeram, Navindra P

    2013-01-15

    Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in plant foods. Ginnalins A-C are polyphenols present in the sap and other parts of the sugar and red maple species which are used to produce maple syrup. Here we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of ginnalins A-C on colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic colon (CCD-18Co) cells and investigated whether these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Ginnalins A-C were twofold more effective against the tumourigenic than non-tumourigenic cells. Among the polyphenols, ginnalin A (84%, HCT-116; 49%, MCF-7) was more effective than ginnalins B and C (50%, HCT-116; 30%, MCF-7) at 50 μM concentrations. Ginnalin A did not induce apoptosis of the cancer cells but arrested cell cycle (in the S- and G(2)/M-phases) and decreased cyclins A and D1 protein levels. These results suggest that maple polyphenols may have potential cancer chemopreventive effects mediated through cell cycle arrest. PMID:23122108

  15. MICROPATTERNING OF GOLD SUBSTRATES BASED ON POLY(PROPYLENE SULFIDE-BL-ETHYLENE GLYCOL), (PPS-PEG) BACKGROUND PASSIVATION AND THE MOLECULAR-ASSEMBLY PATTERNING BY LIFT-OFF (MAPL) TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, L; Bearinger, J P; Wu, L; Hubbell, J A; Textor, M; Tosatti, S

    2007-11-13

    Poly(propylene sulfide-bl-ethylene glycol) (PPS-PEG) is an amphiphilic block copolymer that spontaneously adsorbs onto gold from solution. This results in the formation of a stable polymeric layer that renders the surface protein resistant when an appropriate architecture is chosen. The established molecular assembly patterning by lift-off (MAPL) technique can convert a prestructured resist film into a pattern of biointeractive chemistry and a noninteractive background. Employing the MAPL technique, we produced a micron-scale PPS-PEG pattern on a gold substrate, and then characterized the patterned structure with Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Subsequent exposure of the PPS-PEG/gold pattern to protein adsorption (full human serum) was monitored in situ; SPR-imaging shows a selective adsorption of proteins on gold, but not on PPS-PEG areas. Analysis shows a reduction of serum adsorption up to 93% on the PPS-PEG areas as compared to gold, in good agreement with previous analysis on homogeneously adsorbed PPS-PEG on gold. MAPL patterning of PPS-PEG block copolymers fast, versatile and reproducible, and allows for subsequent use of biosensor-based surface analysis methods.

  16. Thin coatings based on ZnO@C18-usnic acid nanoparticles prepared by MAPLE inhibit the development of Salmonella enterica early biofilm growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Miruna Silvia; Constanda, Sabrina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ene, Ana Maria; Holban, Alina Maria; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Bălşeanu, Tudor-Adrian; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Dinischiotu, Anca; Lazar, Veronica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a nanostructured bioactive surface based on zinc oxide, sodium stearate (C18) and usnic acid (UA) exhibiting harmless effects with respect to the human cells, but with a significant antimicrobial effect, limiting the attachment and biofilm formation of food pathogens. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method and functionalized with C18 and UA. The coatings were fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique (MAPLE) and further characterized by TEM, SEM, SAED, XRD and IRM. The biological characterization of the prepared coatings consisted in cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays. The cytotoxicity of ZnO@C18 and ZnO@C18-UA films was evaluated with respect to the human skin fibroblasts (CCD 1070SK cell line) by phase contrast microscopy, MTT assay and nitric oxide (NO) release. The covered surfaces exhibited a decreased cell attachment, effect which was more pronounced in the presence of UA as shown by purple formazan staining of adhered cells. The unattached fibroblasts remained viable after 24 h in the culture media as it was revealed by their morphology analysis and NO level which were similar to uncovered slides. The quantitative microbiological assays results have demonstrated that the bioactive coatings have significantly inhibited the adherence and biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica. The obtained results recommend these materials as efficient approaches in developing anti-adherent coatings for various industrial, medical and food processing applications.

  17. Application of sugar maple and black locust to the biomass/energy-plantation concept. Annual report, March 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Sajdak, R.L.

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this research program is to determine the feasibility of converting existing pole-size maple stands to biomass/energy plantations using black locust as an interplanted species. Methods to quantify biomass production in northern hardwood stands have been refined and additional sites have been sampled. Hardwood sprout biomass production was shown to be greatly affected by site, fertilizer treatment, and tree species. Screening of black locust Rhizobium strains for acid tolerance has been completed. Seven strains have been found to be tolerant of both high aluminum and low pH conditions. A greenhouse and outplanting study testing the competitiveness and nitrogen-fixing ability of these strains under forest conditions has begun. Second year results of black locust provenance testing has shown frost hardiness variation among trees to be greater than among sources. Consequently, present work is now concentrated on propagating northern locust sources vegetatively. Biomass characterization of young northern hardwood sprouts by chemical and thermal analysis is complete.

  18. Prevention of DNA damage by L-carnitine induced by metabolites accumulated in maple syrup urine disease in human peripheral leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mescka, Caroline Paula; Wayhs, Carlos Alberto Yasin; Guerreiro, Gilian; Manfredini, Vanusa; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2014-09-15

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy caused by a deficiency in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity that leads to the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine (Leu), isoleucine, and valine and their respective α-keto-acids, α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), α keto-β-methylvaleric acid, and α-ketoisovaleric acid. The major clinical features presented by MSUD patients include ketoacidosis, failure to thrive, poor feeding, apnea, ataxia, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay, and mental retardation; however, the pathophysiology of this disease is poorly understood. MSUD treatment consists of a low protein diet supplemented with a mixture containing micronutrients and essential amino acids but excluding BCAAs. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in the neuropathology of MSUD, with the existence of lipid and protein oxidative damage in affected patients. In recent years, studies have demonstrated the antioxidant role of L-carnitine (L-Car), which plays a central function in cellular energy metabolism and for which MSUD patients have a deficiency. In this work, we investigated the in vitro effect of Leu and KIC in the presence or absence of L-Car on DNA damage in peripheral whole blood leukocytes using the alkaline comet assay with silver staining and visual scoring. Leu and KIC resulted in a DNA damage index that was significantly higher than that of the control group, and L-Car was able to significantly prevent this damage, mainly that due to KIC. PMID:25046137

  19. Nonlinear optical studies on 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, Andreea; Marinescu, Maria; Constantinescu, Catalin; Ion, Valentin; Mitu, Bogdana; Ionita, Iulian; Dinescu, Maria; Emandi, Ana

    2016-06-01

    We present results on a new, laboratory synthesized ferrocene-derivative, i.e. 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Thin films with controlled thickness are deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), on quartz and silicon substrates, with the aim of evaluating the nonlinear optical properties for potential optoelectronic applications. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as matrix, with 1% wt. concentration of the guest compound. The frozen target is irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser (4ω/266 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate), at low fluences ranging from 0.1 to 1 J/cm2. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to probe the surface morphology of the films. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy reveal similar structure of the thin film material when compared to the starting material. The optical properties of the thin films are investigated by spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE), and the refractive index dependence with respect to temperature is studied. The second harmonic generation (SHG) potential is assessed by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 60-100 fs pulse duration, 80 MHz repetition rate), at 200 mW maximum output power, revealing that the SHG signal intensity is strongly influenced by the films' thickness.

  20. Determination of DNA methylation associated with Acer rubrum (red maple) adaptation to metals: analysis of global DNA modifications and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Im, Min-Ji; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Red maple (Acer rubum), a common deciduous tree species in Northern Ontario, has shown resistance to soil metal contamination. Previous reports have indicated that this plant does not accumulate metals in its tissue. However, low level of nickel and copper corresponding to the bioavailable levels in contaminated soils in Northern Ontario causes severe physiological damages. No differentiation between metal-contaminated and uncontaminated populations has been reported based on genetic analyses. The main objective of this study was to assess whether DNA methylation is involved in A. rubrum adaptation to soil metal contamination. Global cytosine and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses were carried out in A. rubrum populations from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated sites. The global modified cytosine ratios in genomic DNA revealed a significant decrease in cytosine methylation in genotypes from a metal-contaminated site compared to uncontaminated populations. Other genotypes from a different metal-contaminated site within the same region appear to be recalcitrant to metal-induced DNA alterations even ≥30 years of tree life exposure to nickel and copper. MSAP analysis showed a high level of polymorphisms in both uncontaminated (77%) and metal-contaminated (72%) populations. Overall, 205 CCGG loci were identified in which 127 were methylated in either outer or inner cytosine. No differentiation among populations was established based on several genetic parameters tested. The variations for nonmethylated and methylated loci were compared by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). For methylated loci, molecular variance among and within populations was 1.5% and 13.2%, respectively. These values were low (0.6% for among populations and 5.8% for within populations) for unmethylated loci. Metal contamination is seen to affect methylation of cytosine residues in CCGG motifs in the A. rubrum populations that were analyzed. PMID:27547351

  1. Publisher's Note: ''The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073507 (2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx} 3-5 Multiplication-Sign 1010 cm-3 and temperature {approx} 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  2. First year sugar maple (Acer saccharum, Marsh. ) seedling nutrition, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, physiology, and growth along an acidic deposition gradient in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of foliar amino acid and root reducing sugar accumulations to separate acidic deposition from natural (i.e., soil phosphorus, mycorrhizae, and temperature) ecosystem stressors on first-year sugar maple seedling growth in three Michigan forests. Seedling growth was greatest at the sites exposed to highest levels of acidic deposition. However, sites receiving greatest acidic deposition rates also had high available soil phosphorus contents. No significant differences occurred, suggesting increased nitrogen loadings were not reflected in seedling tissue nitrogen. Seedling root or foliar calcium, magnesium, or potassium also were not significantly different, suggesting those elements were not growth limiting. Significant differences, however, occurred for seedling arginine and glutamine concentrations in foliage and reducing sugar concentrations in roots and were negatively correlated with seedling tissue phosphorus concentrations, suggesting phosphorus was limiting seedling growth at the low acidic deposition site. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of seedling roots was greater at the low acidic deposition site and positively correlated with seedling amino acid and reducing sugar accumulation but negatively correlated with sucrose concentrations in seedling roots, indicating that the fungal partner may have stimulated sucrose degradation to reducing sugars. Both air and soil temperatures were positively correlated with total sugar and sucrose concentrations in seedling roots. High levels of arginine, glutamine, and reducing sugars were negatively correlated with seedling growth indicating that seedlings at the low acidic deposition site were more stressed than seedlings at the sites receiving higher levels of pollutant loads. The results suggest differences in foliar arginine and glutamine and root reducing sugars in the forests in this study are likely due to natural rather than acidic deposition stress.

  3. Deposition of H15NO3 vapour to white oak, red maple and loblolly pine foliage: experimental observations and a generalized model

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Paul J; Garten Jr, Charles T

    1992-10-01

    Nitric acid vapour enriched with {sup 15}N (H{sup 15}NO{sub 3}) was volatilized into the cuvette of an open-flow gas exchange system containing red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling shoots to facilitate direct measurements of total foliar deposition, and subsequent assessments of the rate of HNO{sub 3} movement across the cuticle (transcuticular uptake). Total H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} vapour deposition to foliar surfaces ranged from <5 to 27 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} the variability being largely accounted for by differences in HNO{sub 3} concentrations and leaf conductance. Mean whole-leaf conductance to HNO{sub 3} ranged between 0.9 and 3.4 mm s{sup -1} for hardwoods and between 6 and 34 mm s{sup -1} for loblolly pine. Of the total H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} vapour deposited to leaves, an average of 39 to 48% was immediately 'bound' into hardwood foliage whereas only 3% was bound to loblolly pine needles. This implies that rain events might extract greater amounts of HNO{sub 3}-derived nitrate in throughfall from conifer canopies as compared to hardwood canopies. Post-exposure H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} uptake rates across the leaf cuticle increased with surface nitrate concentrations, but were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower (O06 to 0.24 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) than total HNO{sub 3}, deposition during exposures. A generalized leaf-level model of HNO{sub 3} deposition to foliage capable of simulating deposition pathways to sorption sites on the leaf surface, and to the metabolically active leaf interior via transcuticular or stomatal pathways is formulated and suggested for use in planning future work on HNO{sub 3} deposition.

  4. AB107. Challenges in the management of patients with maple syrup urine disease diagnosed by newborn screening in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    De Castro-Hamoy, Leniza; Chiong, Mary Anne; Estrada, Sylvia; Cordero, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. MSUD has been reported to be the most common inborn error of metabolism in the Philippines. This study describes all patients with MSUD patients diagnosed through newborn screening during its first two years of implementation and the challenges encountered during their medical management. We reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with MSUD by newborn screening in the Philippines from its initiation in July 2012 to June 2014. There were 24 patients diagnosed with MSUD by newborn screening for the two-year period. The mean age at newborn screening is 4 days. All patients needed hospital admission. The most common complication during hospital admission was infection, needing intravenous antibiotics which were given to 21 of the patients. Out of the 24 diagnosed, 16 (66.67%) of patients are alive, while 8 (33.33%) have died. Several neurologic and non-neurologic complications have been observed during the follow-up of the patients. The common challenges of MSUD diagnosis and management in a low-resource setting identified in this study were late diagnosis, lack of access to metabolic specialists and medical supplies, nosocomial septicaemia, and protein deficiency. Aside from early properly-timed collection, improvement in other logistical concerns such as an efficient system of sending and delivery of samples will also help in earlier diagnosis. Mechanisms of transfer of critically ill patients, albeit challenging in our setting due to geographical concerns, must be improved. Hospitals in difficult-to-reach areas must be equipped to handle critical metabolic cases when transfers are not possible. Newborn screening has been proven to improve outcome in patients diagnosed to have MSUD but the success of the newborn screening program in preventing disability is also dependent on improvements in other

  5. Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, M.J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, B.E.; Blair, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p < 0.0001) in areas that had been subjected to moderate-to-severe ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  6. A Whole-Cell Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on a Leucine Auxotroph of Escherichia coli Displaying a Gold-Binding Protein: Usefulness for Diagnosis of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Woo, Min-Ah; Park, Jung Hun; Cho, Daeyeon; Sim, Sang Jun; Kim, Moon Il; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2016-03-01

    We developed a whole-cell surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on a leucine auxotroph of Escherichia coli displaying a gold-binding protein (GBP) in response to cell growth and applied this sensor to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease, which is represented by the elevated leucine level in blood. The leucine auxotroph was genetically engineered to grow displaying GBP in a proportion to the concentration of target amino acid leucine. The GBP expressed on the surface of the auxotrophs directly bound to the golden surface of an SPR chip without the need for any additional treatment or reagents, which consequently produced SPR signals used to determine leucine levels in a test sample. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were further applied to the SPR system, which significantly enhanced the signal intensity up to 10-fold by specifically binding to GBP expressed on the cell surface. Finally, the diagnostic utility of our system was demonstrated by its employment in reliably determining different statuses of maple syrup urine disease based on a known cutoff level of leucine. This new approach based on an amino acid-auxotrophic E. coli strain expressing a GBP that binds to an SPR sensor holds great promise for detection of other metabolic diseases of newborn babies including homocystinuria and phenylketonuria, which are also associated with abnormal levels of amino acids. PMID:26828904

  7. Modeling intra-crown and intra-canopy interactions in red maple: assessment of light transfer on carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, William L; Bowden, Joseph D; McLeod, Michael F; Toler, Joe E

    2004-05-01

    Daily and seasonal net photosynthesis (Anet), transpiration (E), absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (Qa) and light-use efficiency (epsilonc) in a red maple container nursery were simulated with MAESTRA, a three-dimensional canopy model. Effects of canopy heterogeneity were simulated by imposing changes in crown spacing. The light transfer sub-model, a distribution model of incident, direct, diffuse and scattered radiation within MAESTRA, was validated against field measurements of light interception on an intra-crown scale. In the container nursery, we found that a fiber-optic-based method of integrating photosynthetically active radiation (Q) was more suitable for crown-layer light transfer measurements and adjustments than either orthogonal line or individual quantum sensor measurements. The model underestimated intercepted Q by 9.3, 18 and 11.1% for crown layers 1, 2 and 3, respectively; however, there were linear relationships between model estimates and observations made with each of the three measurement methods. We used the validated and parameterized light transfer model to assess intra-crown and intra-canopy light transfer on a layer, crown and canopy basis, and investigated effects of tree size ratio and tree spacing interactions on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc in the container nursery. Heterogeneous crown and canopy photosynthesis were predicted to exceed values for a uniform canopy under space-limiting conditions. Tree size ratio had large effects on Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc when light to lower-canopy layers was limited by inadequate space between crowns. Increasing Qa at lower-crown layers had the largest impact on whole-crown and whole-canopy Anet, E, Qa and epsilonc. Increases in canopy productivity led to increased water use. Simulations of heterogeneous stands with adequate soil water indicated that light absorption is maximized under space-limiting conditions as a canopy crown moves toward heterogeneity. Nursery and plantation productivity

  8. AB115. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles of Filipino patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and correlation with their neurologic features

    PubMed Central

    Chiong, Mary Anne D.; Cordero, Cynthia P.; Fodra, Esphie Grace D; Manliguis, Judy S.; Lopez, Cristine P.; Dalmacio, Leslie Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is the most common inborn error of metabolism in the country. The main cause of the neuropathology is still not well established although the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and alteration in large neutral amino acids (LNAA) as well as energy deprivation have been suggested. It is the aim of the study to determine the plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles of Filipino patients with MSUD and correlate the findings with their neurologic features. Methods Twenty six Filipino patients confirmed to have MSUD were studied in terms of their plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles. Their results were compared with 26 age and sex matched controls. Their neurologic features were reviewed and correlated with the results of their plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles. Results Majority of the patients with MSUD had developmental delay/intellectual disability (88%), speech delay (69%) and seizures (65%). The amino acid profile of MSUD patients revealed low glutamine and alanine with high levels of leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine and alloisoleucine compared to controls (P<0.05). The urine organic acids showed significantly elevated excretion of the branched chain ketoacids and succinate (P<0.05), however other Krebs cycle metabolites that would indicate possible energy perturbation were not found in significant amounts. There were also no metabolite markers in the plasma amino acids or urine organic acids that correlated significantly with the neurologic features. The most remarkable finding in this study was the discriminant analysis done on 7 clinically and statistically significant important amino acids in the plasma wherein elevations in leucine, isoleucine, alloisoleucine, phenylalanine and threonine, and decreased levels of glutamine and alanine clearly defined the boundary between an MSUD case and control. Conclusions The findings suggest that there

  9. Eleven novel mutations of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes associated with maple syrup urine disease in the Chinese population: Report on eight cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiyuan; Ding, Yuan; Liu, Yupeng; Ma, Yanyan; Song, Jinqing; Wang, Qiao; Li, Mengqiu; Qin, Yaping; Yang, Yanling

    2015-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the degradation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). Only a few cases of MSUD have been documented in Mainland China, and prenatal diagnosis has not been performed so far. In this report, 8 patients (4 girls and 4 boys) with MSUD from 8 unrelated Chinese families were diagnosed at the age of 9 days to 1 year and 8 months. The diagnosis was confirmed by serum BCAAs and genetic analyses. Among the 8 patients, only one was detected by newborn screening. The remaining 7 patients were admitted because of neurological disorders and underwent selective screening. Significantly elevated BCAAs were observed in 7 patients. One patient was diagnosed by post-mortem study. 12 mutations were found in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes. 11 of these mutations were novel: c.178G > T, c.491T > C, c.740A > G, c.1214_1219dupCCAACC and IVS6+1delG in BCKDHA; c.482T > G, c.508C > T, c.767A > G, c.768C > G and IVS4,-2A > C in BCKDHB; and c.1A > G in DBT. Only one mutation, c.659C > T in the BCKDHA gene, had been previously reported. 7 patients were treated by dietary intervention and symptomatic therapy. 6 of them showed clinical improvement. The mother of one patient who died from MSUD underwent amniocentesis during her second pregnancy. The BCAAs level in her amniotic fluid was normal. Only one heterozygous mutation, IVS4,-2A > C in the BCKDHB gene, was detected in the cultured amniocytes. The results revealed that the fetus was not affected by MSUD. Normal development and the blood BCAAs profile confirmed the prenatal diagnosis after birth. Thus, we identified eleven novel mutations associated with MSUD in the Chinese population. Prenatal diagnosis of MSUD was successfully performed on one fetus by genetic analysis of the cultured amniocytes. PMID:26453840

  10. Maple Tapping Access Program Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Welch, Peter [D-VT-At Large

    2013-03-19

    04/02/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Root tensile strength of grey alder and mountain maple grown on a coarse grained eco-engineered slope in the Swiss Alps related to wood anatomical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kink, Dimitri; Bast, Alexander; Meyer, Christine; Meier, Wolfgang; Egli, Markus; Gärtner, Holger

    2014-05-01

    . In order to confirm this assumption and possibly find more important root properties which have an influence on soil stabilization, the root systems of seven trees (three grey alder, four mountain maple) were excavated and analyzed. The study site is a catchment, where shallow landslides are common. It is located in the Prättigau valley in the Eastern Swiss Alps and was eco-engineered in 1997. The substrate is coarse-grained morainic material, mean annual air temperature reaches 4.64°C, average precipitation is 1170 mm, and the altitude is about 1000 m a.s.l.. The root system of each tree was uncovered carefully by hand to keep the roots undamaged, before removal it was photographed in situ to document the root distribution. The root systems were then cut into single root pieces of about 20 cm length and the position of each sample was documented. The root samples were then hierarchically classified in several root classes. The tensile strength of more than 500 samples was determined. In addition, the values for age, diameter, and root moisture were ascertained. Since it was assumed, that the cellular structure of the roots has an influence on the tensile strength, two microscopic thin-sections were prepared from all successfully tested root samples. The microscopic analysis focused on anatomical parameters such as the size and number of vessels, their distribution as well as their conductivity. The results for the final correlation between the anatomical characteristics and the root's tensile strength are presented for both tree species.

  12. Effect of brefeldin A on the structure of the Golgi apparatus and on the synthesis and secretion of proteins and polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Driouich, A; Zhang, G F; Staehelin, L A

    1993-01-01

    Brefeldin A (BFA), a specific inhibitor of Golgi-mediated secretion in animal cells, has been used to study the organization of the secretory pathway and the function of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells. To this end, we have employed a combination of electron microscopical, immunocytochemical, and biochemical techniques to investigate the effects of this drug on the architecture of the Golgi apparatus as well as on the secretion of proteins and complex cell wall polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells. We have used 2.5 and 7.5 micrograms/mL of BFA, which is comparable to the 1 to 10 micrograms/mL used in experiments with animal cells. Electron micrographs of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted cells show that although BFA causes swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, unlike in animal cells, it does not induce the disassembly of sycamore maple Golgi stacks. Instead, BFA induces the formation of large clusters of Golgi stacks, an increase in the number of trans-like Golgi cisternae, and the accumulation in the cytoplasm of very dense vesicles that appear to be derived from trans Golgi cisternae. These vesicles contain large amounts of xyloglucan (XG), the major hemicellulosic cell wall polysaccharide, as shown by immunocytochemical labeling with anti-XG antibodies. All of these structural changes disappear within 120 min after removal of the drug. In vivo labeling experiments using [3H]leucine demonstrate that protein secretion into the culture medium, but not protein synthesis, is inhibited by approximately 80% in the presence of BFA. In contrast, the incorporation of [3H]fucose into N-linked glycoproteins, which occurs in trans-Golgi cisternae, appears to be affected to a greater extent than the incorporation of [3H]xylose, which has been localized to medial Golgi cisternae. BFA also affects secretion of complex polysaccharides as evidenced by the approximate 50% drop in incorporation of [3H]xylose and

  13. Cerebral Oedema, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and the Decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus are Prevented by Dexamethasone in an Animal Model of Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciana; Galant, Leticia S; Dall'Igna, Dhébora M; Kolling, Janaina; Siebert, Cassiana; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Wyse, Angela T S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-08-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder associated with acute and chronic brain dysfunction. This condition has been shown to lead to macroscopic cerebral alterations that are visible on imaging studies. Cerebral oedema is widely considered to be detrimental for MSUD patients; however, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether acute administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) causes cerebral oedema, modifies the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, affects the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and alters the levels of cytokines in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 10-day-old rats. Additionally, we investigated the influence of concomitant administration of dexamethasone on the alterations caused by BCAA. Our results showed that the animals submitted to the model of MSUD exhibited an increase in the brain water content, both in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus. By investigating the mechanism of cerebral oedema, we discovered an association between H-BCAA and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the permeability of the BBB to small molecules. Moreover, the H-BCAA administration increases Il-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, whereas IL-10 levels were decreased in the hippocampus. Interestingly, we showed that the administration of dexamethasone successfully reduced cerebral oedema, preventing the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, BBB breakdown and the increase in the cytokines levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that dexamethasone can improve the acute cerebral oedema and brain injury associated with high levels of BCAA, either through a direct effect on brain capillary Na(+),K(+)-ATPase or through a generalized effect on the permeability of the BBB to all compounds. PMID:26133302

  14. Levan nanostructured thin films by MAPLE assembling.

    PubMed

    Sima, Felix; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Sima, Livia E; Serban, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Petrescu, Stefana M; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2011-06-13

    Synthesis of nanostructured thin films of pure and oxidized levan exopolysaccharide by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation is reported. Solutions of pure exopolysaccharides in dimethyl sulfoxide were frozen in liquid nitrogen to obtain solid cryogenic pellets that have been used as targets in pulsed laser evaporation experiments with a KrF* excimer source. The expulsed material was collected and assembled onto glass slides and Si wafers. The contact angle studies evidenced a higher hydrophilic behavior in the case of oxidized levan structures because of the presence of acidic aldehyde-hydrogen bonds of the coating formed after oxidation. The obtained films preserved the base material composition as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. They were compact with high specific surface areas, as demonstrated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy investigations. In vitro colorimetric assays revealed a high potential for cell proliferation for all coatings with certain predominance for oxidized levan. PMID:21520921

  15. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is unable to process certain protein building blocks (amino acids) properly. The condition gets its name from the ... protein complex is essential for breaking down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are present in ...

  16. Maple Graphing Tools for Calculus III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Darwyn

    2006-01-01

    For those instructors lacking artistic skills, teaching 3-dimensional calculus can be a challenge. Although some instructors spend a great deal of time working on their illustrations, trying to get them just right, students nevertheless often have a difficult time understanding some of them. To address this problem, the author has written a series…

  17. Occurrence of a 2-bp (AT) deletion allele and a nonsense (G-to-T) mutant allele at the E2 (DBT) locus of six patients with maple syrup urine disease: Multiple-exon skipping as a secondary effect of the mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, C.W.; Fisher, C.R.; Chuang, J.L.; Lau, K.S.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P. )

    1993-02-01

    The authors have identified two novel mutant alleles in the transacylase (E2) gene of the human branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex in 6 of 38 patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). One mutation, a 2-bp (AT) deletion in exon 2 of the E2 gene, causes a frameshift downstream of residue ([minus]26) in the mitochondrial targeting presequence. The second mutation, a G-to-T transversion in exon 6 of the E2 gene, produces a premature stop codon at Glu-163 (E163*). Transfection of constructs harboring the E163* mutation into an E2-deficient MSUD cell line produced a truncated E2 subunit. However, this mutant E2 chain is unable to assemble into a 24-mer cubic structure and is degraded in the cell. The 2-bp (AT) deletion and the E163* mutant alleles occur in either the homozygous or compound-heterozygous state in the 6 of 38 unrelated MSUD patients studied. Moreover, an array of precise single- and multiple-exon deletions were observed in many amplified E2 mutant cDNAs. The latter results appear to represent secondary effects on RNA processing that are associated with the MSUD mutations at the E2 locus. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Maple syrup urine disease: The E1{beta} gene of human branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex has 11 rather than 10 exons, and the 3{prime} UTR in one of the two E1{beta} mRNAs arises from intronic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.L.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P.

    1996-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) or branched-chain ketoaciduria is caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. The clinical manifestations are characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino and {alpha}-ketoacids, which leads to severe cerebral edema with seizures, ketoacidosis, and mental retardation. The BCKAD complex comprises three catalytic components, i.e., a decarboxylase (E1) consisting of two E1{alpha} (M{sub r} = 46,000) and two E1{Beta} (M{sub r} = 37,500) subunits, a transacylase (E2) that contains 24 lipoic acid-bearing subunits, and a dehydrogenase (E3), which is a homodimeric flavoprotein. MSUD is genetically heterogeneous, since mutations in the E1{alpha} subunit (type IA MSUD), the E1{Beta} subunit (type IB), the E2 subunit (type II) and the E3 subunit (type III) have been described. The functional consequences of certain mutations in the BCKAD complex have been studied. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Molecular basis of maple syrup urine disease: Novel mutations at the E1[alpha] locus that impair E1([alpha][sub 2][beta][sub 2]) assembly or decrease steady-state E1[alpha] mRNA levels of branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.L.; Fisher, C.R.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P. )

    1994-08-01

    The authors report the occurrence of three novel mutations in the E1[alpha] (BCKDHA) locus of the branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex that cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). An 8-bp deletion in exon 7 is present in one allele of a compound-heterozygous patient (GM-649). A single C nucleotide insertion in exon 2 occurs in one allele of an intermediate-MSUD patient (Lo). The second allele of patient Lo carries an A-to-G transition in exon 9 of the E1[alpha] gene. This missense mutation changes Tyr-368 to Cys (Y368C) in the E1[alpha] subunit. Both the 8-bp deletion and the single C insertion generate a downstream nonsense codon. Both mutations appear to be associated with a low abundance of the mutant E1[alpha] mRNA, as determined by allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. Transfection studies strongly suggest that the Y368C substitution in the E1[alpha] subunit impairs its proper assembly with the normal E1[beta]. Unassembled as well as misassembled E1[alpha] and E1[beta] subunits are degraded in the cell. 32 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Irrigation timing and volume affects growth of container grown maples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container nursery production requires large inputs of water and nutrients but frequently irrigation inputs exceed plant demand and lack application precision or are not applied at optimal times for plant production. The results from this research can assist producers in developing irrigation manage...

  1. Maple Agriculture Protection and Law Enforcement Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2011-10-20

    10/20/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6875-6876) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Module for Learning Integral Calculus with Maple: Lecturers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2012-01-01

    Engineering technology students can attain a meaningful mathematics learning if they are allowed to actively participate in hands-on activities. However, the current dissemination of knowledge in the classroom still focuses on teacher-centered paradigm of teaching. A study to explore lecturers' views regarding a newly developed integral calculus…

  3. Becoming less tolerant with age: sugar maple, shade, and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Sendall, Kerrie M; Lusk, Christopher H; Reich, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Although shade tolerance is often assumed to be a fixed trait, recent work suggests ontogenetic changes in the light requirements of tree species. We determined the influence of gas exchange, biomass distribution, and self-shading on ontogenetic variation in the instantaneous aboveground carbon balance of Acer saccharum. We quantified the aboveground biomass distributions of 18 juveniles varying in height and growing in low light in a temperate forest understory in Minnesota, USA. Gas exchange rates of leaf and stem tissues were measured, and the crown architecture of each individual was quantified. The YPLANT program was used to estimate the self-shaded fraction of each crown and to model net leaf-level carbon gain. Leaf respiration and photosynthesis per gram of leaf tissue increased with plant size. In contrast, stem respiration rates per gram of stem tissue declined, reflecting a shift in the distribution of stem diameter sizes from smaller (with higher respiration) to larger diameter classes. However, these trends were outweighed by ontogenetic increases in self-shading (which reduces the net photosynthesis realized) and stem mass fraction (which increases the proportion of purely respiratory tissue) in terms of influence on net carbon exchange. As a result, net carbon gain per gram of aboveground plant tissue declined with increasing plant size, and the instantaneous aboveground light compensation point increased. When estimates of root respiration were included to model whole-plant carbon gain and light compensation points, relationships with plant size were even more pronounced. Our findings show how an interplay of gas exchange, self-shading, and biomass distribution shapes ontogenetic changes in shade tolerance. PMID:26318296

  4. Fast Modular Exponentiation and Elliptic Curve Group Operation in Maple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, S. Y.; James, G.

    2006-01-01

    The modular exponentiation, y[equivalent to]x[superscript k](mod n) with x,y,k,n integers and n [greater than] 1; is the most fundamental operation in RSA and ElGamal public-key cryptographic systems. Thus the efficiency of RSA and ElGamal depends entirely on the efficiency of the modular exponentiation. The same situation arises also in elliptic…

  5. Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning after Liver Transplantation for Maple Syrup Urine Disease: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Shellmer, D. A.; Dabbs, A. DeVito; Dew, M. A.; Noll, R. B.; Feldman, H.; Strauss, K.; Morton, D. H.; Vockley, G.; Mazariegos, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    MSUD is a complex metabolic disorder that has been associated with central nervous system damage, developmental delays, and neurocognitive deficits. Although liver transplantation provides a metabolic cure for MSUD, changes in cognitive and adaptive functioning following transplantation have not been investigated. In this report we present data from 14 patients who completed cognitive and adaptive functioning testing pre- and one year and/or three years post-liver transplantation. Findings show either no significant change or improvement in IQ scores pre- to post-liver transplantation. Greater variability was observed in adaptive functioning scores, but the majority of patients evidenced either no significant change or improvement in adaptive scores. In general, findings may indicate that liver transplantation curtails additional central nervous system damage and neurocognitive decline providing an opportunity for stabilization or improvement in functioning. PMID:20946191

  6. Turning around Maple Shade Middle School: A Principal's Initial Reform Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmonowicz, Michael J.; Levy, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    This case was written for use in courses dealing with school administration, specifically those related to organizational change, school improvement/turnaround, and the principalship. It explores a veteran principal's first year as a "turnaround specialist" in a low-performing middle school, where she works with a sense of urgency to achieve an…

  7. Use of Maple Seeding Canopy Reflectance Dataset for Validation of SART/LEAFMOD Radiative Transfer Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Barbara J.; Peterson, David L.

    1999-01-01

    This project was a collaborative effort by researchers at ARC, OSU and the University of Arizona. The goal was to use a dataset obtained from a previous study to "empirically validate a new canopy radiative-transfer model (SART) which incorporates a recently-developed leaf-level model (LEAFMOD)". The document includes a short research summary.

  8. Heterozygote to homozygote related living donor liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, N; Loveland, J; Zuckerman, M; Moshesh, P; Britz, R; Botha, J

    2015-05-01

    Liver transplantation is an accepted treatment modality in the management of MSUD. To our knowledge, ours is only the second successful case to date of a patient with MSUD receiving an allograft from an RLD who is a heterozygous carrier for the disease. In view of the worldwide shortage of available organs for transplantation, heterozygote to homozygote transplantation in the setting of MSUD may provide a viable alternative for those awaiting transplantation. We report on the case of a two-yr-old infant with MSUD, who received a left lateral segment (segments II and III) liver transplant from his mother, a heterozygote carrier of one of the three abnormal genes implicated in MSUD. Post-operative BCAA levels normalized in our patient and remained so on an unrestricted protein diet and during times of physiological stress. To date, this is only the second case of a successful RLD liver transplant in a child with MSUD. Preliminary results indicate that RLD liver transplants are at least equivalent to deceased donor liver transplants in the treatment of MSUD, although longer term follow-up is required. Heterozygote to homozygote RLD transplant in patients with MSUD presents a new pool of potential liver donors. PMID:25677046

  9. Efficiency of using solid wood fuels in maple syrup evaporators. Forest service research paper (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study of commercial, wood-fired evaporators revealed that normal expected thermal efficiencies are between 35 to 50 percent. The moisture content and quality of wood fuels used and the design and method of firing the evaporator are critical in determining evaporator efficiency and the economic implications of using wood.

  10. Living donor liver transplantation from a heterozygous parent for classical maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Kadohisa, Masashi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Sawada, Hirotake; Honda, Masaki; Murokawa, Takahiro; Hayashida, Shintaro; Ohya, Yuki; Lee, Kwang-Jong; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2015-05-01

    MSUD is a hereditary metabolic disorder that is characterized by impaired activity of the BCKADC. Liver transplantation has been approved as a treatment for some MSUD cases in which the control of BCAAs is insufficient. Although there have been several reports about DDLT for MSUD, few LDLT cases have been reported. Because either of parents who are heterozygote of this disease usually applies to be a candidate of donor in LDLT, the impairment of BCKADC activity of graft liver should be concerned. We performed LDLT for 10 month-old girl with a left lateral segment graft from her father. BCKADC activities of the patient and her parents were measured using lysates of lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood specimen before the transplant. As a consequence, the activity of BCKADC of father was not inferior to a normal range. The patient tolerated the operation well. Postoperative course was uneventful and mixed milk was started at 8th POD. The serum BCAAs levels have remained within normal range. It should be necessary to follow the physical growth and mental development of the recipient in the future. PMID:25708273

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Embryogenesis and the Acquisition of Seed Dormancy in Norway Maple (Acer platanoides L.)

    PubMed Central

    Staszak, Aleksandra Maria; Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The proteome of zygotic embryos of Acer platanoides L. was analyzed via high-resolution 2D-SDS-PAGE and MS/MS in order to: (1) identify significant physiological processes associated with embryo development; and (2) identify changes in the proteome of the embryo associated with the acquisition of seed dormancy. Seventeen spots were identified as associated with morphogenesis at 10 to 13 weeks after flowering (WAF). Thirty-three spots were associated with maturation of the embryo at 14 to 22 WAF. The greatest changes in protein abundance occurred at 22 WAF, when seeds become fully mature. Overall, the stage of morphogenesis was characterized by changes in the abundance of proteins (tubulins and actin) associated with the growth and development of the embryo. Enzymes related to energy supply were especially elevated, most likely due to the energy demand associated with rapid growth and cell division. The stage of maturation is crucial to the establishment of seed dormancy and is associated with a higher abundance of proteins involved in genetic information processing, energy and carbon metabolism and cellular and antioxidant processes. Results indicated that a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein and proteasome proteins may be directly involved in dormancy acquisition control, and future studies are warranted to verify this association. PMID:24941250

  12. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  13. Heterozygous liver transplantation for maple syrup urine disease: First European reported case.

    PubMed

    Roilides, I; Xinias, I; Mavroudi, A; Ioannou, H; Savopoulou, P; Imvrios, G

    2016-09-01

    MSUD is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results from a defect in the BCKDH enzyme. This enzyme is essential for the second step in the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Patients with MSUD are subject to severe, irreversible neurologic injury unless closely managed with a specialized metabolic formula and a diet restricted in leucine throughout their lifetime. During times of illness, patients with MSUD can suffer from severe metabolic derangement, acute cerebral edema, and untimely death. Deceased donor liver transplant restores the ability to metabolize branched-chain amino acids, even on an unrestricted diet, and prevents metabolic derangements during times of illness. We report a successful case of living donor (parental) transplant for a child with MSUD. The donor was the child's father. This approach has been controversial as parents of children with MSUD are obligate heterozygotes for the condition and have diminished levels of BCKDH activity. If effective, living-related donor transplant provides a promising alternative for deceased donor liver transplant, which often requires a prolonged waiting period and may not be feasible in areas with limited medical resources. PMID:27357264

  14. Maple[R] Version of the "Indian Rope Trick". Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, D. G.

    2004-01-01

    If the point of suspension of a multiple pendulum is suitably oscillated then the pendulum can remain in motion in an upside-down position. Since such pendulums can model flexible materials, this inverted motion is sometimes referred to as an 'Indian rope trick'. Despite the complexity of the governing differential equations, this rope trick can…

  15. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup...

  17. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M.; Kelley, Michael J.; Haglund, R. F.

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  18. Application of tung oil to improve adhesion strength and water resistance of cottonseed meal and protein adhesives on maple veneer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed meal-based products show promise in serving as environment-friendly wood adhesives. However, their practical utilization is currently limited due to low durability and water resistant properties. In this research, we tested the improvement of adhesion strength and water resistance of cott...

  19. Living donor liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease - Case series and world's youngest domino liver donor and recipient.

    PubMed

    Mohan, N; Karkra, S; Rastogi, A; Vohra, V; Soin, A S

    2016-05-01

    MSUD occurs due to deficiency of enzyme BCKAD required for metabolism of leucine, isoleucine, and valine leading to the accumulation of these and their ketoacids causing acute metabolic decompensation manifesting as encephalopathy or sudden death. The patient requires special protein-restricted diet to survive. As this enzyme is expressed in liver, liver transplantation has been successfully performed as a cure. We report two patients of MSUD who underwent LDLT while their livers were used as a domino graft for other biliary cirrhotic patients. A 22-month-old male child diagnosed as a case of classic MSUD underwent LDLT from an altruistic aunt as donor following which his serum leucine levels normalized on an unrestricted protein diet. His liver was used as a domino graft. A 38-month-old female child with diagnosed MSUD underwent LDLT from a swap donor, and her liver was used as a domino graft. Her DQ improved post-transplant. LDLT from non-heterozygous donors is a cure for classical MSUD. Their livers can be used as domino grafts for non-MSUD cases. PMID:26869348

  20. Using the Computer Algebra System "Maple" to Generate Research Questions for Pre-Service Teachers in a Capstone Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Rosemary Carroll

    2013-01-01

    At Manhattan College, secondary mathematics education students take a capstone course designed specifically for them. In this course, students revisit important topics in the high school curriculum from a mathematically advanced perspective; incorporating the mathematical knowledge they have attained in their college mathematics classes to an…

  1. Viewing the Roots of Polynomial Functions in Complex Variable: The Use of Geogebra and the CAS Maple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Admittedly, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus-TFA holds an important role in the Complex Analysis-CA, as well as in other mathematical branches. In this article, we bring a discussion about the TFA, the Rouché's theorem and the winding number with the intention to analyze the roots of a polynomial equation. We propose also a description for a…

  2. 7 CFR 301.74-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Wilson bordered on the north by Lake Ontario; bordered on the west by Maple Road; then south on Maple...; then west on West County House Road to Maple Ridge Road; then west on Maple Ridge Road to Culvert Road... north by Lake Road at its intersection with Redman Road; then east on Lake Road to Maple Avenue;...

  3. 7 CFR 301.74-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Wilson bordered on the north by Lake Ontario; bordered on the west by Maple Road; then south on Maple...; then west on West County House Road to Maple Ridge Road; then west on Maple Ridge Road to Culvert Road... north by Lake Road at its intersection with Redman Road; then east on Lake Road to Maple Avenue;...

  4. 7 CFR 301.74-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Wilson bordered on the north by Lake Ontario; bordered on the west by Maple Road; then south on Maple...; then west on West County House Road to Maple Ridge Road; then west on Maple Ridge Road to Culvert Road... north by Lake Road at its intersection with Redman Road; then east on Lake Road to Maple Avenue;...

  5. 7 CFR 301.74-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Wilson bordered on the north by Lake Ontario; bordered on the west by Maple Road; then south on Maple...; then west on West County House Road to Maple Ridge Road; then west on Maple Ridge Road to Culvert Road... north by Lake Road at its intersection with Redman Road; then east on Lake Road to Maple Avenue;...

  6. 77 FR 1551 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement on the Bottineau Transitway Project From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Transitway Project From Minneapolis to Maple Grove in Hennepin County, MN AGENCY: Federal Transit... the following suburbs: Robbinsdale, Golden Valley, Crystal, New Hope, Brooklyn Park, Maple Grove, and..., Maple Grove, and Osseo. Possible Alternatives The Bottineau Transitway Alternatives Analysis (AA)...

  7. 75 FR 56086 - Combined Notice of Filings # 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Numbers: ER10-2541-000. Applicants: Maple Analytics, LLC. Description: Maple Analytics, LLC submits tariff filing per 35.12: Maple Analytics, LLC 205 to be effective 10/3/2010. Filed Date: 09/03/2010....

  8. 20 CFR 404.1056 - Explanation of agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agricultural labor. If you work in the processing of maple sap into maple syrup or maple sugar you are not... for supplying and storing water for farm purposes and are not owned or operated for profit; or...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup or sugar with other products); or (6) The production or harvesting of crude gum (oleoresin) from a...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup or sugar with other products); or (6) The production or harvesting of crude gum (oleoresin) from a...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... water for farming purposes; (5) The production or harvesting of maple sap or the processing of maple sap into maple sirup or maple sugar (but not the subsequent blending or other processing of such sirup or sugar with other products); or (6) The production or harvesting of crude gum (oleoresin) from a...

  12. To designate the facility of the United States Postal Service located at 16300 Broadway Avenue in Maple Heights, Ohio, as the "Daniel Kondas Post Office".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Fudge, Marcia L. [D-OH-11

    2011-05-02

    05/13/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Comparison of adhesive properties of water- and phosphate-buffer-washed cottonseed meals with cottonseed protein isolate on bonding maple and poplar veneers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water- and phosphate buffer (35 mM Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4, pH 7.5)-washed cottonseed meals (abbreviated as WCM and BCM, respectively) could be low-cost and environmentally friendly protein-based adhesives as their preparation does not involve corrosive alkali and acid solutions that are needed for cottonse...

  14. Living donor domino liver transplantation using a maple syrup urine disease donor: A case series of three children - The first report from Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunami, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Akinari; Sasaki, Kengo; Uchida, Hajime; Shigeta, Takanobu; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Horikawa, Reiko; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Mizuta, Koichi; Kasahara, Mureo

    2016-08-01

    As the priority of LD-Domino LT is the safety of the first recipient, limitations and technical difficulties in the second recipient often occur. The most technically challenging part of LD-Domino LT is the reconstruction of the vessels. For the reconstruction of HVs, the native HVs were exteriorized as far as possible using a CUSA because longer extensive HVs are essential for facilitating the reconstruction. At the back table, the HVs of the domino graft were sutured together, and the single cuff of the HVs was anastomosed to the IVC by joining the orifices. The HAs, the presence of insufficient length, and multiple vessels in the whole liver rendered the reconstruction more difficult. We determined the dividing sites of the vessels according to the preoperative 3D-CT findings obtained in two institutions. This is the first case series using grafts in DLT obtained from LDLT for patients with MSUD between two institutions. In conclusion, LD-Domino LT is a safe and feasible therapeutic option to expand the donor pool by technical refinement in the reconstruction of the second recipient. Further studies with a greater accumulation of patients and a longer follow-up will be necessary to establish LD-Domino LT using an MSUD donor. PMID:26857795

  15. Issues and Importance of "Good" Starting Points for Nonlinear Regression for Mathematical Modeling with Maple: Basic Model Fitting to Make Predictions with Oscillating Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our modeling effort is to predict future outcomes. We assume the data collected are both accurate and relatively precise. For our oscillating data, we examined several mathematical modeling forms for predictions. We also examined both ignoring the oscillations as an important feature and including the oscillations as an important…

  16. Thirty Years of Compositional Change in an Old-Growth Temperate Forest: The Role of Topographic Gradients in Oak-Maple Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Julia I; McEwan, Ryan W

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured in response to spatial and temporal variation of numerous factors, including edaphic conditions, biotic interactions, climatic patterns and disturbance regimes. Widespread anthropogenic factors such as timber harvesting can create long-lasting impacts, obscuring the relationship between community structure and environmental conditions. Minimally impacted systems such as old-growth forests can serve as a useful ecological baseline for predicting long-term compositional shifts. We utilized decadal tree species sampling data (1979-2010) divided into three strata (understory, midstory, overstory) to examine temporal changes in relative abundances and spatial distributions of dominant taxa, as well as overall shifts in community composition, in a relatively pristine Appalachian old-growth forest in eastern Kentucky, USA. Quercus and Carya species persisted mainly as mature canopy trees with decreasing juvenile recruitment, especially in mesic areas. In contrast, Acer, Fagus, and other mesophytic species were abundant and spatially widespread in subcanopy layers suggesting these species are more likely to recruit in gap-scale canopy openings. In the overstory, mesophytic species were spatially restricted to lower and mid-slope mesic habitats. Temporal changes in community composition were most evident in the understory and tended to be greater in mesic areas, a trend seemingly driven by recruitment failure among xerophytic species. In subcanopy vegetation we discovered a loss of distinction through time among the ecological community designations established following the 1979 survey (Chestnut oak, Mixed mesophytic, and Beech). The overstory was more stable through time, suggesting a storage effect where long-lived trees have maintained a particular community composition through time in areas where regeneration opportunities are minimal under current environmental conditions. Overall, sitewide canopy succession is occurring slowly in the absence of major disturbance, and topography-driven environmental variation appears to have an important local-scale filtering effect on communities. PMID:27467130

  17. Thirty Years of Compositional Change in an Old-Growth Temperate Forest: The Role of Topographic Gradients in Oak-Maple Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Julia I.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured in response to spatial and temporal variation of numerous factors, including edaphic conditions, biotic interactions, climatic patterns and disturbance regimes. Widespread anthropogenic factors such as timber harvesting can create long-lasting impacts, obscuring the relationship between community structure and environmental conditions. Minimally impacted systems such as old-growth forests can serve as a useful ecological baseline for predicting long-term compositional shifts. We utilized decadal tree species sampling data (1979–2010) divided into three strata (understory, midstory, overstory) to examine temporal changes in relative abundances and spatial distributions of dominant taxa, as well as overall shifts in community composition, in a relatively pristine Appalachian old-growth forest in eastern Kentucky, USA. Quercus and Carya species persisted mainly as mature canopy trees with decreasing juvenile recruitment, especially in mesic areas. In contrast, Acer, Fagus, and other mesophytic species were abundant and spatially widespread in subcanopy layers suggesting these species are more likely to recruit in gap-scale canopy openings. In the overstory, mesophytic species were spatially restricted to lower and mid-slope mesic habitats. Temporal changes in community composition were most evident in the understory and tended to be greater in mesic areas, a trend seemingly driven by recruitment failure among xerophytic species. In subcanopy vegetation we discovered a loss of distinction through time among the ecological community designations established following the 1979 survey (Chestnut oak, Mixed mesophytic, and Beech). The overstory was more stable through time, suggesting a storage effect where long-lived trees have maintained a particular community composition through time in areas where regeneration opportunities are minimal under current environmental conditions. Overall, sitewide canopy succession is occurring slowly in the absence of major disturbance, and topography-driven environmental variation appears to have an important local-scale filtering effect on communities. PMID:27467130

  18. 78 FR 20107 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    .... License No.: 016816F. Name: Green Integrated Logistics, Inc. Address: 16210 South Maple Avenue, Gardena... Forwarding Inc. Address: 1290 Maple View Drive, Pomona, CA 91766. Date Revoked: March 13, 2013....

  19. 75 FR 1809 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Hamlet Historic District, NY Rts. 22 & 23, Anthony, Cold Water & Maple Sts., Old Town & Pill Hill Rds.... & Dutchess, Park, S. Maple & Elm Aves., Millerton, 09001284. Monroe County Sage, Simeon, House, 69 Main...

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer (c) EXT.-MAPLE MEADOW BROOK AQUEDUCT, WILMINGTON, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middlesex Canal, Maple Meadow Brook Aqueduct, Wilmington, Middlesex County, MA

  1. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  2. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  3. There's No Place Like Home -- For Growing Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearest you. One family’s story The house on Maple Street has been Ellen Pinkham’s home for more ... to the local library. But because staying on Maple Street is so important to Ellen, her family ...

  4. 29 CFR 780.801 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. Section...

  5. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap is within the exemption....

  6. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap is within the exemption....

  7. 29 CFR 780.801 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. Section...

  8. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap is within the exemption....

  9. 29 CFR 780.816 - Processing of specific commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap is within the exemption....

  10. 29 CFR 780.801 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. Section...

  11. 29 CFR 780.801 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. Section...

  12. MSUD Family Support Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.1M to develop first drug for Maple Syrup Urine Disease Baby screening: Life-saving scheme expanded ... does not replace medical consultation. The MSUD (Maple Syrup Urine Disease) Family Support Group is not liable ...

  13. 29 CFR 780.800 - Scope and significance of interpretative bulletin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. The...

  14. Bloom's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glycogen Storage Disease, Type 1A Joubert Syndrome Maple Syrup Urine Disease and DLD Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) Nemaline ... Glycogen Storage Disease, Type 1A Joubert Syndrome Maple Syrup Urine Disease and DLD Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) Nemaline ...

  15. 75 FR 62520 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ..., 2010. Docket Numbers: ER10-2541-001. Applicants: Maple Analytics, LLC. Description: Maple Analytics, LLC submits tariff filing per 35: Maple Analytics, LLC Compliance Filing to be effective 10/8/2010... link on the Web site that enables subscribers to receive e-mail notification when a document is...

  16. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  17. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  18. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  19. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  1. Ininatig's Gift of Sugar: Traditional Native Sugarmaking. We Are Still Here: Native Americans Today Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittstock, Laura Waterman

    This book describes the traditional method of making maple syrup and maple sugar as practiced by the Anishinabe people in Minnesota. It begins with the Ojibway story of Ininatig "the man tree" and how Native Americans have relied on the sugar maple tree for food. It then tells how an Anishinabe man named Porky White continues his people's…

  2. McGill algorithm for precipitation nowcasting by lagrangian extrapolation (MAPLE) applied to the South Korean radar network. Part I: Sensitivity studies of the Variational Echo Tracking (VET) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellon, Aldo; Zawadzki, Isztar; Kilambi, Alamelu; Lee, Hee Choon; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Gyuwon

    2010-08-01

    A Variational Echo Tracking (VET) technique has been applied to four months of archived data from the South Korean radar network in order to examine the influence of the various user-selectable parameters on the skill of the resulting 20-min to 4-h nowcasts. The latter are computed over a (512 × 512) array at 2-km resolution. After correcting the original algorithm to take into account the motion of precipitation across the boundaries of such a smaller radar network, we concluded that the set of default input parameters initially assumed is very close to the optimum combination. Decreasing to (5 sx 5) or increasing to (50 × 50) the default vector density of (25 × 25), using two or three maps for velocity determination, varying the relative weights for the constraints of conservation of reflectivity and of the smoothing of the velocity vectors, and finally the application of temporal smoothing all had only marginal effects on the skill of the forecasts. The relatively small sensitivity to significant variations of the VET default parameters is a direct consequence of the fact that the major source of the loss in forecast skill cannot be attributed to errors in the forecast motion, but to the unpredictable nature of the storm growth and decay. Changing the time interval between maps, from 20 to 10 minutes, and significantly increasing the reflectivity threshold from 15 to 30 dBZ had a more noticeable reduction on the forecast skill. Comparisons with the Eulerian "zero velocity" forecast and with a "single" vector forecast have also been performed in order to determine the accrued skill of the VET algorithm. Because of the extensive stratiform nature of the precipitation areas affecting the Korean peninsula, the increased skill is not as large as may have been anticipated. This can be explained by the greater extent of the precipitation systems relative to the size of the radar coverage domain.

  3. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Nathaniel R. Ewan, Photographer April 20, 1936 INTERIOR - OLD SCROLL SAW IN ATTIC - Reuben Matlack Blacksmith & Wheelwright Shop, Maple Shade, Burlington County, NJ

  4. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. MAIN ENTRANCE - SOUTH FACADE - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 27. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. PLASTER CORNICE - MUSIC ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October 1, 1935. GENERAL VIEW, SOUTH ELEVATION - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 76 FR 39800 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... railroad. Fishing Creek Approximately 500 feet +50 +49 Town of Leggett, upstream of the Maple....9 mile None +63 upstream of North Carolina Highway 122. Maple Swamp At the Fishing Creek +50...

  9. 77 FR 39547 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...\\ \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66871 (April 27, 2012) 77 FR 26323 (May 3, 2012) (File 10..., Canada (``TMX Group'') by Maple Group Acquisition Corporation, a company incorporated in Ontario, Canada (``Maple''). The text of the proposed rule change is available from the principal office of the...

  10. Elliptic Curve Cryptography with Java

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klima, Richard E.; Sigmon, Neil P.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the computer, and specifically the mathematics software package Maple, has played a central role in the authors' abstract algebra course because it provides their students with a way to see realistic examples of the topics they discuss without having to struggle with extensive computations. However, Maple does not provide the computer…

  11. The Joy of Creating Virtual Mathematical Sculptures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuan, Jen-chung

    The process of turning symbols into a mathematical sculpture has never been easier. A copy of Maple V release five and a Web browser configured with a VRML plug-in such as the Cosmo Player is necessary to do these activities. Maple V furnishes the computing environment with the capability of allowing for concentration on the mathematical…

  12. 76 FR 251 - Country of Origin Labeling of Packed Honey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... final rule published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2009 (74 FR 32389) to include provisions for... loading, grade mark, grade statement (except honey and maple syrup which may bear such grade mark or... or combinations of one or more of the above. Therefore, honey and maple syrup may bear official...

  13. Self-Interest and Volunteerism: Analysis of a Statewide Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passewitz, Gregory R.; Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of all known Ohio maple syrup producers indicated that economic self-interest is an important factor explaining the levels of participation in the statewide association. Although maple syrup is an important source of income for many Amish, none was involved in the association. (JOW)

  14. Influence of Morphological Disorder on In- and Out-of-Plane Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ban; Li, Anton; Green, Peter

    We report the unequal impacts of morphological disorder on in- and out-of-plane charge transport in thin films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) fabricated by both conventional spin-casting and the novel technique Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE). MAPLE produces films with inhomogeneous globular subfeatures with dimensions on the order of 100 nm. Optical absorbance spectroscopy corroborates that MAPLE-deposited films are more energetically disordered, but possesses average conjugation lengths comparable to spin-cast P3HT. Both in- and out-of-plane carrier transport measurements of MAPLE-deposited films show characteristics that reflect a higher degree of energetic disorder and broadened density of states. Whereas in-plane carrier mobilities of MAPLE-deposited thin-film transistors are comparable to spin-cast analogues (8.3 x 10-3 cm2V-1s-1 versus 5.5 x 10-3 cm2V-1s-1) , the out-of-plane mobilities of MAPLE-deposited samples are nearly an order of magnitude lower (4.1 x 10-4 cm2V-1s-1 versus 2.7 x 10-3 cm2V-1s-1) . The unusual ensemble of properties and behaviors arising from the unique morphologies produced by MAPLE provide important perspectives on the extent to which disorder impacts different mechanisms of charge transport in conjugated polymers.

  15. Altered Acer Rubrum Fecundity Induced By Chemical Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, J. L.; Peters, A.

    2014-12-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is becoming the most dominating tree in North American eastern deciduous forests. Concurrently, human activities have altered the chemical climate of terrestrial ecosystems via acidic deposition, which increases the available of nitrogen (N), while decreasing phosphorus (P) availability. Once a minor forest component prior to European settlement, the abundance of red maple may be a symptom of the modern age. The current paradigm explaining red maple's rise to prominence concerns fire suppression that excludes competitors. However, this still does not explain why red maple is unique compared to other functionally similar trees. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactive influence of acid rain mitigation on the fecundity of red maple. Objectives were achieved by measuring flowering, seed production, germination, and growth from red maple on plots that have been experimentally manipulated to increase soil pH, P, or both in three unglaciated eastern deciduous hardwood forests. At least 50% of the red maple population is seed bearing in our control soils, however the median percent of seed-bearing trees declined to zero when mitigating soils from acidic deposition. This can be explained by the curious fact that red maple is polygamodioecious, or has labile sex-expression, in which an individual tree can change its sex-expression in response to the environment. Furthermore, seed-bearing trees in the mitigated plots grew less, produced less seeds, and germinated at lower rates than their counterparts in control soils. Our results provide evidence that chemical climate change could be the primary contributing factor accelerating the dominance of red maple in eastern North American forests. Our observations can provide a boarder conceptual framework for understanding how nutrient limitations can be applied beyond plant productivity towards explaining distribution changes in vegetation.

  16. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER, COURT YARD - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup Nov. 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup Nov. 17, 1936 10:00 A.M. DETAIL OF INTERIOR SIDE OF ENTRANCE DOOR - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer Nov. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer Nov. 17, 1936 9:40 A.M. DETAIL OF DOOR TO BALL ROOM (OR MUSIC ROOM) - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, February 25, 1935 BUILT IN CHINA CABINET IN DINING ROOM, S.W. ROOM - Hunter-Callaway House, 811 North Maple Street, Tuskegee, Macon County, AL

  20. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, February 25, 1935 DOUBLE DOOR IN DINING ROOM OPENING INTO PARLOR - Hunter-Callaway House, 811 North Maple Street, Tuskegee, Macon County, AL

  1. 77 FR 26552 - Update to Notice of Financial Institutions for Which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... issue of the Federal Register (57 FR 29491). For further information concerning the identification of... MD 4/27/2012. 10436 Inter Savings Bank, FSB D/B/ Maple Grove MN 4/27/2012. A/InterBank, fsb....

  2. Development of a new flux map processing code for moveable detector system in PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Lu, H.; Li, J.; Dang, Z.; Zhang, X.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the development of the flux map processing code MAPLE developed by China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute (CNPPJ), China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGN). The method to get the three-dimensional 'measured' power distribution according to measurement signal has also been described. Three methods, namely, Weight Coefficient Method (WCM), Polynomial Expand Method (PEM) and Thin Plane Spline (TPS) method, have been applied to fit the deviation between measured and predicted results for two-dimensional radial plane. The measured flux map data of the LINGAO nuclear power plant (NPP) is processed using MAPLE as a test case to compare the effectiveness of the three methods, combined with a 3D neutronics code COCO. Assembly power distribution results show that MAPLE results are reasonable and satisfied. More verification and validation of the MAPLE code will be carried out in future. (authors)

  3. 77 FR 18883 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds; Change in Business Address and Redomestication...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR 38892. FOR FURTHER... Maple Avenue, Keene, NH 03431'' effective immediately. In addition, the above named companies...

  4. 26. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. FRAGMENTS OF PLASTER CEILING ROSETTE - MUSIC ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer October 1, 1935. DETAIL OF NORTH ELEVATION AT COURT WALL. - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer Nov. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer Nov. 17, 1936 9:10 A.M. DETAIL OF STAIR -- Entrance Hall. - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer Nov. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer Nov. 17, 1936 9:30 A.M. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SOUTHEAST ROOM (DRAWING ROOM) - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 78 FR 8220 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Change In Business Address and Redomestication...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ..., 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874-6850... changed their ``BUSINESS ADDRESS'' to ``62 Maple Avenue, Keene, NH 03431'' effective immediately....

  9. 25. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. CEILING AND CHANDELIER IN MUSIC ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. MANTEL, SOUTHWEST BEDROOM - 2d FLOOR - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey Albert S. Burns, Photographer September 30, 1935. MANTEL, SECOND FLOOR LIVING ROOM - The Maples, 630 South Carolina Avenue Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 75 FR 37881 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Change in Business Address and Redomestication...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ..., published July 1, 2009, at 74 FR 31536. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874... Company (NAIC 24759) formally changed its ``Business Address'' to ``62 Maple Avenue, Keene, NH...

  13. 76 FR 6614 - Notice of a Regional Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... requires semi-rigid protection boards because the Maple Leaf Reservoir is being covered by a concrete roof... reservoir roof concrete deck. Semi-rigid rubberized asphaltic fiberglass reinforced protection board will...

  14. 2. Photocopy of circa 183839 engraving Thomas B. Ashton, Artist ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of circa 1838-39 engraving Thomas B. Ashton, Artist J. Sartain, Engraver SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE CIRCA 1838 - West Chester Young Ladies Seminary, 300 Maple Avenue, West Chester, Chester County, PA

  15. Two Schools: Two Approaches to Personalized Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John M.; Keefe, James W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how two secondary schools implemented the six basic elements of personalized instruction: The Thomas Haney Secondary Centre in Maple Ridge, British Columbia, and the Francis W. Parker Charter Essential School in Devens, Massachusetts. (Contains 14 references.) (PKP)

  16. 29 CFR 780.818 - Employees not engaged in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... called the “boarding house”). (c) Hauling raw sugar or molasses away from the mill. (d) Any work...

  17. 29 CFR 780.818 - Employees not engaged in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... called the “boarding house”). (c) Hauling raw sugar or molasses away from the mill. (d) Any work...

  18. Raspberry Ketone

    MedlinePlus

    Raspberry ketone is a chemical from red raspberries, as well as kiwifruit, peaches, grapes, apples, other berries, vegetables such as rhubarb, and the bark of yew, maple, and pine trees. People take raspberry ketone by mouth for ...

  19. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  20. 29 CFR 780.800 - Scope and significance of interpretative bulletin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. The...

  1. 29 CFR 780.800 - Scope and significance of interpretative bulletin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. The...

  2. 29 CFR 780.800 - Scope and significance of interpretative bulletin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. The...

  3. 29 CFR 780.800 - Scope and significance of interpretative bulletin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. The...

  4. Walden-in-the-Woods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1977-01-01

    Describing a program aimed at learning disabled boys aged 11-15, this article presents the program's purpose and goals (mainstreaming), activities, and main focus (a maple syrup operation and guide development project). (JC)

  5. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymer-antibiotic thin films fabricated by advanced pulsed laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Dorcioman, G.; Miroiu, F. M.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Gittard, S. D.; Miller, P. R.; Narayan, R. J.; Enculescu, M.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2013-08-01

    We report on thin film deposition by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of two polymer-drug composite thin film systems. A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used to deposit composite thin films of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) containing several gentamicin concentrations. FTIR spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical structures similar to those of drop cast materials. Scanning electron microscopy data indicated that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of PDLLA-gentamicin composite thin films against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using drop testing. The influence of drug concentration on microbial viability was also assessed. Our studies indicate that polymer-drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE may be used to impart antimicrobial activity to implants, medical devices, and other contact surfaces.

  6. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  7. A Sweet Springtime Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlone, Edward J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how the tapping of maple trees can be used to teach lessons in science on boiling points, density, solubility, and other sugaring projects in the curricula. Outlines activities and precautions to follow when doing this project. (RT)

  8. 29 CFR 780.808 - Who may qualify for the exemption generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section...

  9. 29 CFR 780.811 - Exemption dependent upon place of employment generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements...

  10. 29 CFR 780.809 - Employees engaged in exempt operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15)...

  11. A Monte-Carlo maplet for the study of the optical properties of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Man Ho; Carvalho, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    Monte-Carlo simulations are commonly used to study complex physical processes in various fields of physics. In this paper we present a Maple program intended for Monte-Carlo simulations of photon transport in biological tissues. The program has been designed so that the input data and output display can be handled by a maplet (an easy and user-friendly graphical interface), named the MonteCarloMaplet. A thorough explanation of the programming steps and how to use the maplet is given. Results obtained with the Maple program are compared with corresponding results available in the literature. Program summaryProgram title:MonteCarloMaplet Catalogue identifier:ADZU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:3251 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:296 465 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language:Maple 10 Computer: Acer Aspire 5610 (any running Maple 10) Operating system: Windows XP professional (any running Maple 10) Classification: 3.1, 5 Nature of problem: Simulate the transport of radiation in biological tissues. Solution method: The Maple program follows the steps of the C program of L. Wang et al. [L. Wang, S.L. Jacques, L. Zheng, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 47 (1995) 131-146]; The Maple library routine for random number generation is used [Maple 10 User Manual c Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc., 2005]. Restrictions: Running time increases rapidly with the number of photons used in the simulation. Unusual features: A maplet (graphical user interface) has been programmed for data input and output. Note that the Monte-Carlo simulation was programmed with Maple 10. If attempting to run the simulation with an earlier version of Maple

  12. Nanostructured polymer stable glasses via matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Kimberly B.

    Amorphous materials, or glasses, which lack a crystalline structure, are technologically ubiquitous with applications including structural components, pharmaceuticals, and electronic devices. Glasses are traditionally formed by rapid cooling from the melt state, where molecules become kinetically trapped into a non-equilibrium configuration. The temperature at which the material transforms from supercooled liquid to glass is the glass transition temperature. The glass transition temperature is the most important property of amorphous materials, as it determines the range of temperatures where they are fabricated, used and stored. Recent technological developments in which glasses are formed by alternative routes, such as physical vapor deposition and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), enable tunability of Tg and related physical properties. High-Tg glasses formed by these techniques are termed "stable glasses" and exhibit a wide range of exceptional properties. This work focuses on the formation and characterization of stable polymer glasses fabricated via MAPLE. Bulk films (>1 microm thick) of glassy polymers fabricated by MAPLE at slow growth rates (<1 nm/s) and controlled substrate temperature (T sub = 0.85Tg,bulk) have greatly elevated Tg, low density, high enthalpy, increased kinetic stability and a spheroidal nanostructure. We focus on connecting the bulk and nanoscale properties of MAPLE-deposited polymer glasses. Building on molecular dynamics simulations from the literature on the MAPLE process, we experimentally study the origin of nanostructure in our MAPLE-deposited films. We measure the time-of-flight of MAPLE-deposited material, confirming that the velocity is sufficiently low for intact deposition of polymer nanoglobules. The size distribution of polymer nanoglobules fabricated in short MAPLE depositions provides insight into how nanostructured MAPLE films form. Using our atomic force microscopy-based nanoscale dilatometry technique

  13. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Competition for nitrogen (N), particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With inter-specific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to inter-specific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with inter-specific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech. PMID:25983738

  14. Importance of protein quality versus quantity in alternative host plants for a leaf-feeding insect.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Niewiadomski, Julie; Kochmanski, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The nutritional value of alternative host plants for leaf-feeding insects such as caterpillars is commonly measured in terms of protein quantity. However, nutritional value might also depend on the quality of the foliar protein [i.e., the composition of essential amino acids (EAAs)]. A lack of comparative work on the EAA compositions of herbivores and their host plants has hampered the testing of this hypothesis. We tested the "protein quality hypothesis" using the tree-feeding caterpillars of Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) and two taxonomically unrelated host plants, red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Because L. dispar has higher fitness on oak than on maple, support for the hypothesis would be found if protein were of higher quality from oak than from maple. The whole-body EAA composition of L. dispar larvae was measured to estimate its optimum dietary protein composition, which was compared with the EAA compositions of oak and maple leaves. Contrary to the protein quality hypothesis, the EAA compositions of oak and maple were not significantly different in the spring. The growth-limiting EAAs in both tree species were histidine and methionine. Similar results were observed in the summer, with the exception that the histidine composition of oak was between 10 and 15 % greater than in maple leaves. The two main factors that affected the nutritional value of protein from the tree species were the quantities of EAAs, which were consistently higher in oak, and the efficiency of EAA utilization, which decreased from 80 % in May to <50 % in August. We conclude that the relative nutritional value of red oak and sugar maple for L. dispar is more strongly affected by protein quantity than quality. Surveys of many wild herbaceous species also suggest that leaf-feeding insects would be unlikely to specialize on plants based on protein quality. PMID:23297046

  15. Influence of the composition of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine based microemulsions on the dermal delivery of flufenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Ettl, Hanna; Holper, Evelyn; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-11-20

    Although microemulsions are one of the most promising dermal carrier systems, their clinical use is limited due to their skin irritation potential. Therefore, microemulsions based on naturally derived monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPL) were developed. The influence of the water, oil and surfactant content on dermal delivery of flufenamic acid was systematically investigated for the first time. A water-rich microemulsion led to significantly higher in vitro skin penetration of flufenamic acid compared to other microemulsions. The superiority of the water-rich microemulsion over a marketed flufenamic acid containing formulation was additionally confirmed. Differences in drug delivery could be explained by alterations of the microemulsions after application. Evaporation of isopropanol led to crystal-like structures of MAPL on the skin surface from the surfactant- or oleic acid-rich microemulsions. In contrast, the formation of this additional barrier was hindered in case of the water-rich microemulsion. The skin penetration of MAPL was additionally analyzed by combined ATR-FTIR and tape stripping experiments, where MAPL itself penetrated only into the initial layers of the stratum corneum, independent of the microemulsion composition. Since a surfactant must penetrate the skin to cause irritation, MAPL can be presumed as a skin-friendly emulsifier with the ability to stabilize pharmaceutically acceptable microemulsions. PMID:25178824

  16. Ecology of red swamps in the glaciated northeast: a community profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golet, Francis C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; DeRagon, William R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches its greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey, where it comprises 60-800/o of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses. On a regional scale, red maple swamps support at least 50 species of trees, more than 90 species of shrubs and vines, and more than 300 species of nonwoody plants. These swamps also provide habitat for a rich faunal community, including several wetland-dependent species. In areas that are becoming urbanized, these wetlands often constitute critical habitat for facultative species as well. Red maple swamps also are important sites for flood storage, water quality improvement, recreation, scenic beauty, and open space.

  17. Leaf litter decomposition in three Adirondack lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Quinby, H.L.; Hendrey, G.R.; Hoogendyk, C.G.

    1983-04-01

    Decomposition of terrestrial leaf litter in three Adirondack lakes with water pH values approximately 5, 6, and 7 was studied. Litter bags containing leaves of American beech, sugar maple, red maple, leather leaf, and red spruce were placed in the lakes. Samples were removed periodically over a 3-year period and analyzed for loss in weight, changes in leaf surface area, carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial populations. The rate of decomposition of litter depended on the leaf species tested as well as on the lake water in which they were incubated. Of the five leaf species tested, red maple decomposed much faster and red spruce more slowly, i.e., red maple > sugar maple > beech > leather leaf > red spruce. Further, the data indicated that the rate of decomposition of the leaves differed among the lakes in the order Woods (pH approx. 5) < Sagamore (pH approx. 6) < Panther (pH approx. 7), and that the microbial colonization of some leaf species was affected. Accumulations of leaf litter in acid lakes due to reduction in microbial decomposition may affect nutrient recycling in lake ecosystems. 8 references, 4 tables.

  18. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis

  19. The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Daniela; Robinson, Sara C; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose. PMID:23245292

  20. Effects of UV-B radiation on phenolic composition and deposition patterns and leaf physiology in three Eastern tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Joseph H.; Gitz, Dennis C.; Peek, Michael S.; McElrone, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative changes in foliar chemistry in response to UVB radiation are frequently reported but less is known about the qualitative changes in putative UV-screening compounds. It has also not been conclusively shown whether qualitative differences in screening compounds or differences in localization patterns influences the sensitivity of plants to damage from UVB radiation. In this study we evaluated the chemical composition and deposition patterns of UV-absorbing compounds in three tree species and assayed these species for possible effects on gas exchange and photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Branches of mature trees of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and red maple (Acer rubrum) were exposed to supplemental levels of UVB radiation over three growing seasons. Controls for UVA were also measured by exposing branches to supplemental UVA only, and additional branches not irradiated were also used for controls. These species demonstrated contrasting chemical composition and deposition patterns with poplar being the most responsive in terms of epidermal accumulation of phenolics including flavonols and chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamates. Sweetgum and red maple showed increases primarily in hydroxycinnamates, particularly in the mesophyll in red maple. Leaf area was marginally influenced by UV exposure level. Assimilation was generally not reduced by UVB radiation in these species and was enhanced in red maple by both UVB and UVA and by UVA in sweetgum. These finding are consistent with a hypothesis that epidermal attenuation of UVB would only be reduced in poplar, which accumulated the additional epidermal screening compounds. It is possible that photosynthetic efficiency was enhanced in red maple by the increased absorption of blue light within the mesophyll. Stomatal conductance was generally reduced, and this led to an increase in water use efficiency in red maple and poplar.

  1. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Acer palmatum and comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes under salt stress in two contrasting genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rong, Liping; Li, Qianzhong; Li, Shushun; Tang, Ling; Wen, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Maple (Acer palmatum) is an important species for landscape planting worldwide. Salt stress affects the normal growth of the Maple leaf directly, leading to loss of esthetic value. However, the limited availability of Maple genomic information has hindered research on the mechanisms underlying this tolerance. In this study, we performed comprehensive analyses of the salt tolerance in two genotypes of Maple using RNA-seq. Approximately 146.4 million paired-end reads, representing 181,769 unigenes, were obtained. The N50 length of the unigenes was 738 bp, and their total length over 102.66 Mb. 14,090 simple sequence repeats and over 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which represent useful resources for marker development. Importantly, 181,769 genes were detected in at least one library, and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes. Among these DEGs, 125 were upregulated and 178 were downregulated genes. Two MYB-related proteins and one LEA protein were detected among the first 10 most downregulated genes. Moreover, a methyltransferase-related gene was detected among the first 10 most upregulated genes. The three most significantly enriched pathways were plant hormone signal transduction, arginine and proline metabolism, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis provided a rich genetic resource for gene discovery related to salt tolerance in Maple, and in closely related species. The data will serve as an important public information platform to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in salt tolerance in Maple. PMID:26475609

  2. Nitrogen Gas Fluxes in Northeastern Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafave, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Venterea, R. T.; Lovett, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Nitrogen gas fluxes are a poorly quantified component of the nitrogen (N) cycle of forest ecosystems and are important to water quality, atmospheric chemistry and forest health. We measured fluxes of nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and dinitrogen (N2) in oak and maple stands in the Catskill mountains of New York State. Fluxes of NO and N2O were measured using in situ chambers and N2 flux was measured in intact cores incubated in a helium-oxygen atmosphere closed recirculation system in the laboratory. Fluxes of NO and N2O were higher in maple than in oak stands, which is consistent with previous work showing higher rates of N cycling under maple than oak. NO fluxes averaged 1.7 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.2 in oak. N2O fluxes averaged 0.10 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.004 in oak. However, N2 fluxes were higher in oak (2.3 mg N m-2 d-1) than maple (0.15), a surprising result that was supported by independent measurements of denitrification potential. There was marked variability in fluxes between replicate plots that was linked to the presence of understory vegetation and physical characteristics of the forest floor. Results suggest that N gas fluxes in northeastern temperate forests may be more important than previously thought and may be an important regulator of export of N to coastal waters, N-related atmospheric chemistry and forest N saturation.

  3. Fiber 3.0: An ecological growth model for northeastern forest types. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, D.S.; Herman, D.A.; Leak, W.B.

    1995-05-22

    Fiber, a stand projection growth model, simulates the growth and structural development of stands in the Northeast. The internal structure of the model is specified and constructed by the ecological type classifications of sugar maple--ash, beech--red maple, oad--white pine, spruce--fir, hemlock--spruce, and cedar--black spruce. Guidelines are provided on operational procedures for the major commercial species growing on these different ecologic land classifications for a range of even-aged and uneven-aged silvicultural treatments and harvesting schedules.

  4. Plant hydraulic traits govern forest water use and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheny, Ashley; Bohrer, Gil; Fiorella, Rich; Mirfenderesgi, Golnazalsadat

    2016-04-01

    Biophysical controls at the leaf, stem, and root levels govern plant water acquisition and use. Suites of sometimes co-varying traits afford plants the ability to manage water stress at each of these three levels. We studied the contrasting hydraulic strategies of red oaks (Q. rubra) and red maples (A. rubrum) in northern Michigan, USA. These two species differ in stomatal regulation strategy and xylem architecture, and are thought to root at different depths. Water use was monitored through sap flux, stem water storage, and leaf water potential measurements. Depth of water acquisition was determined on the basis of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes from xylem water samples taken from both species. Fifteen years of bole growth records were used to compare the influence of the trees' opposing hydraulic strategies on carbon acquisition and growth. During non-limiting soil moisture conditions, transpiration from red maples typically exceeded that of red oak. However, during a 20% soil dry down, transpiration from red maples decreased by more than 80%, while transpiration from red oaks only fell by 31%. Stem water storage in red maple also declined sharply, while storage in red oaks remained nearly constant. The more consistent isotopic compositions of xylem water samples indicated that oaks can draw upon a steady, deep supply of water which red maples cannot access. Additionally, red maple bole growth correlated strongly with mean annual soil moisture, while red oak bole growth did not. These results indicate that the deeper rooting strategy of red oaks allowed the species to continue transpiration and carbon uptake during periods of intense soil water limitation, when the shallow-rooted red maples ceased transpiration. The ability to root deeply could provide an additional buffer against drought-induced mortality, which may permit some anisohydric species, like red oak, to survive hydrologic conditions that would be expected to favor survival of more isohydric

  5. Bulk heterojunction PCPDTBT:PC71BM organic solar cells deposited by emulsion-based, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wangyao; McCormick, Ryan D.; Nyikayaramba, Gift; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2014-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) were fabricated by emulsion-based, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE). Two different deposition modes, namely simultaneous deposition and sequential deposition, were investigated for fabricating bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. This work demonstrates that the RIR-MAPLE sequential deposition mode provides precise ratio control for the fabrication of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells.

  6. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation of poly( D, L-lactide) thin films for controlled-release drug systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Doraiswamy, A.; Patz, T.; Socol, G.; Grigorescu, S.; Axente, E.; Sima, F.; Narayan, R. J.; Mihaiescu, D.; Moldovan, A.; Stamatin, I.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Chisholm, B.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2007-07-01

    We report the successful deposition of the porous polymer poly( D, L-lactide) by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) using a KrF* excimer laser (248 nm, τ = 7 ns) operated at 2 Hz repetition rate. The chemical structure of the starting materials was preserved in the resulting thin films. Fluence played a key role in optimizing our depositions of the polymer. We demonstrated MAPLE was able to improve current approaches to grow high quality thin films of poly( D, L-lactide), including a porosity control highly required in targeted drug delivery.

  7. Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Geier-Hayes, K.

    1994-03-01

    Natural regeneration of five conifer species was surveyed in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. The habitat types range from warm, dry (grand fir/white spirea) to mesic (Grand fir/Mountain Maple). Four harvest-regeneration methods and four site preparation techniques were sampled. Recommendations for obtaining natural regeneration vary primarily by habitat type. Conifer seedlings in the warm, dry grand fir white spirea habitat type require site protection for establishment. In the mesic grand fir/mountain maple habitat type, tall shrub potential can reduce the opportunity to establish early seral conifer species.

  8. Wisconsin timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Whipple, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In terms of volume of wood used, pulp mills dominate Wisconsin's forest industry, but sawmills far outnumber any other category. There were 323 mills of all types operating in Wisconsin in 1990. Wisconsin is divided into five Survey Units. Industrial roundwood production rose from 328.7 million cubic feet in 1988 to 342.6 million cubic feet in 1990. Pulpwood accounted for 66 percent of the industrial roundwood production in 1990. In 1990, 83 percent of the total growing-stock removals due to harvest came from aspen, red oak, hard maple, red pine, white birch, jack pine, and soft maple.

  9. Foods The Indians Gave Us. Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hail, Raven

    This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…

  10. New Travelling Solitary Wave and Periodic Solutions of the Generalized Kawahara Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huaitang; Yin Huicheng

    2007-09-06

    A simple elliptic equation method is used for constructing exact trevelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations(PDEs) in a unified way. With the aid of Maple, more new travelling solitary wave and periodic solutions are obtained for the generalized Kawahara equation.

  11. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  12. Humectants as Post-plant Soil Amendments: Effects on Growth and Physiological Activity of Drought-stressed, Container-grown Tree Seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-year-o1d, container-grown seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipirera L.) were treated with Hydretain ES~ (HydES) or Ecosentia1~ (ECOS) applied as a soil drench. A p~ogressive drought cycle was imposed after treatment and, as each seedling wilted, the leave...

  13. Engineering Competition--A Win-Win Event for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Preston

    2010-01-01

    Hosting an engineering competition can bring great success to a technology department. Development and planning of an event can prove frustrating at times, but it pays off in the end. The author describes the first-ever engineering competition held at Maple Avenue Middle School in Saratoga Springs, New York, which provided an evening of creative…

  14. New Double Periodic Solutions of the Classical Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huaitang

    2008-09-01

    The elliptic equation method is extended for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations(PDEs). With the aid of Maple, more new double periodic solutions are obtained for the classical Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation. This method can be applied to other PDEs.

  15. School Improvement: A Case of Competing Priorities!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Katina; Winton, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Maple Leaf School is a large English elementary school in Ontario, Canada. Wanda Miller, the principal, has been at the school for 2 years. Upon arrival, she engaged the teachers in a collaborative exercise to determine their school goal (as required by the province). Character education was selected. The district insisted that the school adopt an…

  16. Comparison of irrigation, leachate and tree growth between soilless and coal ash based media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In nursery production, knowledge of water quality and quantity is needed to improve irrigation and fertilizer application efficiency as it relates to potential for soil and groundwater contamination. Water and fertilizer use and loss as well as tree growth were investigated for Red Sunset maple (Ace...

  17. Native natural enemies of native woodborers: Potential as biological control agents for the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China. ALB has attacked 25 deciduous tree species in 13 genera in N.A., most notable seven maple species. Biological control represents an alternative approach for control...

  18. Sapindaceae and Acer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Acer (maples) is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Six species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical and ec...

  19. 77 FR 67325 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 70397. The... rule published at 76 FR 70397, in the November 14, 2011, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published... inspection at Village Hall, 103 North Maple Street, North Freedom, WI 53951. Village of Rock Springs Maps...

  20. Optimal Spray Application Rates for Ornamental Nursery Liner Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray deposition and coverage at different application rates for nursery liners of different sizes were investigated to determine the optimal spray application rates. Experiments were conducted on two and three-year old red maple liners. A traditional hydraulic sprayer with vertical booms was used t...

  1. Research Update: Natural Enemies of Native Woodborers and their Potential as Biological Control Agents for Asian Longhorned Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China. ALB has attacked 25 deciduous tree species in 13 genera in N.A., most notable seven maple species. Biological control represents an alternative approach for control...

  2. New integrable sl (2, R) -generalization of the classical Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Yu, Shuimeng; Shen, Shoufeng; Ma, Wen-Xiu

    2015-05-01

    With the aid of symbolic computation by Maple, a new integrable generalization of the classical Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa hierarchy is derived from a corresponding matrix spectral problem associated with the Lie algebra sl (2, R) . Each equation in the resulting hierarchy has a bi-Hamiltonian structure furnished by the trace identity, and possesses infinitely many independent commuting symmetries and conservation laws.

  3. Effects of inoculum density and wounding on stem infection of three Eastern U.S. forest species by Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedlings of three Eastern US forest species (red maple, northern red oak, and chestnut oak) were inoculated by applying Phytophthora ramorum sporangia to stems at different inoculum densities with and without wounding. Disease occurred in all treatments involving wounds, and no disease was observe...

  4. Predicting Unsaturated Zone Nitrogen Mass Balances in Agricultural Settings of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unsaturated zone N fate and transport were evaluated at four sites to identify the predominant pathways of N cycling: an almond orchard and cornfield in the lower Merced River study basin, California (CA); and corn-soybean rotations in study basins at Maple Creek, Nebraska (NE) and at Morgan Creek, ...

  5. Novel soliton hierarchies of Levi type and their bi-Hamiltonian structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liya; Jin, Yongyang; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Shen, Shoufeng; Zhu, Haiyan

    2015-06-01

    We present two new matrix spectral problems, and construct the corresponding soliton hierarchies of Levi type with the aid of symbolic computation by Maple. Bi-Hamiltonian structures of the resulting soliton hierarchies are obtained by means of the trace identity. Thus it is shown that these soliton hierarchies are Liouville integrable.

  6. Use of additives to enhance the properties of cottonseed protein as wood adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy protein is currently being used commercially as a “green” wood adhesive. Previous work in this laboratory has shown that cottonseed protein isolate, tested on maple wood veneer, produced higher adhesive strength and hot water resistance relative to soy protein. In the present study, cottonseed...

  7. Active synchronization between two different chaotic dynamical system

    SciTech Connect

    Maheri, M.; Arifin, N. Md; Ismail, F.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper we investigate on the synchronization problem between two different chaotic dynamical system based on the Lyapunov stability theorem by using nonlinear control functions. Active control schemes are used for synchronization Liu system as drive and Rossler system as response. Numerical simulation by using Maple software are used to show effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  8. Active synchronization between two different chaotic dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri, M.; Arifin, N. Md; Ismail, F.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we investigate on the synchronization problem between two different chaotic dynamical system based on the Lyapunov stability theorem by using nonlinear control functions. Active control schemes are used for synchronization Liu system as drive and Rossler system as response. Numerical simulation by using Maple software are used to show effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  9. Titration Calculations with Computer Algebra Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Russ; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic algebraic solution of the titration equations for a diprotic acid, as obtained using "Mathematica," "Maple," and "Mathcad." The equilibrium and conservation equations are solved symbolically by the programs to eliminate the approximations that normally would be performed by the student. Of the three programs,…

  10. 78 FR 29652 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... of Richland Parish. Just upstream of Maple +80 Street. Stream No. 2 Just downstream of Farm +78...

  11. 78 FR 43821 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132.... 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3.... Village of North Freedom Maps are available for inspection at Village Hall, 103 North Maple Street,...

  12. Ozone exposure-response curves for tree species in Great Smoky Mountains National Park: A re-evaluation of how potential impacts may have changed over the past 25 years

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seedlings of tree species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park were exposed to ozone in open-top chambers for one or two growing seasons. Species used were red maple (Acer rubrum), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), black locust (Robinia pseudoacadia), winged sumac (Rhus co...

  13. Some new modular equations and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jinhee; Sim, Hyo Seob

    2006-07-01

    Ramanujan derived 23 beautiful eta-function identities, which are certain types of modular equations. We found more than 70 of certain types of modular equations by using Garvan's Maple q-series package. In this paper, we prove some new modular equations which we found by employing the theory of modular form and we give some applications for them.

  14. Using Information Technology in Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooke, D. James, Ed.; Henderson, Norma, Ed.

    This collection of essays examines the history and impact of computers in mathematics and mathematics education from the early, computer-assisted instruction efforts through LOGO, the constructivist educational software for K-9 schools developed in the 1980s, to MAPLE, the computer algebra system for mathematical problem solving developed in the…

  15. Detoxication activity in the gypsy moth: Effects of host CO[sub 2] and NO[sub 3][sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Jung, S.M.; Feuker, A.M. )

    1993-02-01

    The authors investigated the effects of host species and resource (carbon dioxide, nitrate) availability on activity of detoxication enzymes in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Larvae were fed foliage from quaking aspen or sugar maple grown under ambient or elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2], with low or high soil NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  16. Effective Live Online Faculty Development Workshops: One Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Russell D.; May, Michael K.; Rainbolt, Julianne G.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes live, online faculty development workshops that show faculty how to use software packages (to date, GAP and Maple) in teaching college-level mathematics. The authors' primary goal in this article is to encourage others in any discipline to run similar online workshops by providing a resource for their successful operation,…

  17. Response of a forest ecotone to ionizing radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.G.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1986-05-01

    Compositional and structural characteristics of three forest types, including aspen dominated, maple-birch dominated, and an intervening ecotone (midecotone), were studied before and after irradiation in northern Wisconsin. The cumulative exposure resulting from 3300 hours of point-source gamma irradiation was estimated to be 55 kR at 10 m. In all three areas, the density of seedlings at 10 m was greatly reduced within a year following the 1972 radiation event. In the maple-birch area, seedlings were virtually absent at 10 m until 1982 and 1983 when their numbers were comparable to preirradiation levels, and 1984 when they were more than twice as abundant. In the aspen and midecotone areas, 1984 seedling densities at 10 m were only 42 and 17%, respectively, of the preirradiation levels. Similar but less pronounced seedling trends were observed at 20 m but not beyond that distance. Woody plants of tree stature were eliminated at 10 m in all three areas within two years of irradiation but by 1979 (maple-birch area) and 1982 (midecotone area) this size class was once again represented. By 1984 only the aspen area lacked plants at least 2.5 cm in dbh. In 1984, 12 years subsequent to irradiation, total leaf litter production was 109 and 97% of 1971 preirradiation levels at 10 m in aspen and midecotone areas, respectively. But at 10 m in the maple-birch area, it was only 58% of the preirradiation level.

  18. ISOLATION AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA FROM ITS INVASIVE ALTERNATIVE HOST, PORCELAIN BERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of X. fastidiosa was isolated from an invasive alternative host species, porcelain berry. Its genetic relationship with strains isolated from a native alternative host, wild grape, and other economically important hosts including grape, peach, plum, oak, mulberry, maple and oleander was det...

  19. Impact of host tree on forest tent caterpillar performance and offspring overwintering mortality.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, M; Mauffette, Y; Rochefort, S; Han, E; Bauce, E

    2010-04-01

    One of the most damaging insect pests in deciduous forests of North America is the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner. It can feed on a variety of plants, but trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) is its preferred host and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) serves as a secondary one in the northern part of its distribution. Because host plant characteristics influence insect performance and survival, we evaluated the impact of trembling aspen and sugar maple foliage on M. disstria performance. Host effects on insect cold hardiness and overwintering survival of offspring were also studied. Forest tent caterpillar reared on aspen leaves had a shorter development time, higher pupal weights and fecundity, and superior egg parameters (length and weight) compared with those reared on sugar maple leaves. Larvae from the two food treatments had low glucose levels during diapause, whereas glycerol content of insects reared on maple was significantly higher during diapause than larvae fed on aspen. Lower glycerol content may explain the higher overwinter mortality of pharate larvae from aspen-reared parents even though their supercooling points were as low as -36 degrees C. This study shows the influence of host plant on insect life history and the need to consider overwintering success and offspring performance in studies to understand and predict population growth and cycling. PMID:20388280

  20. 4. View of Clovelley Farm tenant house, back side (east) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Clovelley Farm tenant house, back side (east) area of two room addition. Note dark metal heating oil tank against rear wall and silver maple trees to shade house from south and east. - Clovelley Farm Tenant House, 4958 Paris Road (east side), Paris, Bourbon County, KY

  1. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phylliss

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

  2. Samara Probe For Remote Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Imaging probe descends through atmosphere of planet, obtaining images of ground surface as it travels. Released from aircraft over Earth or from spacecraft over another planet. Body and single wing shaped like samara - winged seed like those of maple trees. Rotates as descends, providing panoramic view of terrain below. Radio image obtained by video camera to aircraft or spacecraft overhead.

  3. EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID RAIN ON TWO MODEL HARDWOOD FORESTS: THROUGHFALL, LITTER LEACHATE, AND SOIL SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.6) was applied to model forests containing either sugar maple (Acer saccharum) or red alder (Alnus rubra). Water samples were collected above and below the canopy, below the litter, and from 20 cm and 1 m below the surface of ...

  4. Unique Factorization in Cyclotomic Integers of Degree Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, W. Ethan

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a survey of some basic results in algebraic number theory and applies this material to prove that the cyclotomic integers generated by a seventh root of unity are a unique factorization domain. Part of the proof uses the computer algebra system Maple to find and verify factorizations. The proofs use a combination of historic…

  5. Dynamic Programming: An Introduction by Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zietz, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The author introduces some basic dynamic programming techniques, using examples, with the help of the computer algebra system "Maple". The emphasis is on building confidence and intuition for the solution of dynamic problems in economics. To integrate the material better, the same examples are used to introduce different techniques. One covers the…

  6. CAS as Environments for Implementing Mathematical Microworlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpers, Burkhard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether computer algebra systems (CAS) are suitable environments for implementing mathematical microworlds. Recalls what constitutes a microworld and explores how CAS can be used for implementation, stating potentials as well as limitations. Provides as an example the microworld "Formula 1", implemented in Maple Software. (Author/KHR)

  7. Formula 1--A Mathematical Microworld with CAS: Analysis of Learning Opportunities and Experiences with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerny, Marianne; Alpers, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe a mathematical microworld for investigating car motion on a racing course and its use with a group of grade 12 students. The microworld is concerned with the mathematical construction of courses and functions which describe car motion. It is implemented in the computer algebra system, Maple[R], which provides the means…

  8. The Use of a Computer Algebra System in Capstone Mathematics Courses for Undergraduate Mathematics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer algebra system in a capstone mathematics course for undergraduate mathematics majors preparing to teach secondary school mathematics. Provides sample exercises intended to demonstrate how the power of a computer algebra system such as MAPLE can contribute to desired outcomes including reinforcing and strengthening…

  9. Teaching Mathematics Using a Computer Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermann, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates the principal concept and the application of MAPLE in mathematical education in various examples. Discusses lengthy and abstract topics like the convergence of Fourier series to a given function, performs the visualization of the wave equation in the case of a vibrating string, and computes the oscillations of an idealized skyscraper…

  10. Some Unexpected Results Using Computer Algebra Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, Felix; Garcia, Alfonsa; Garcia, Francisco; Hoya, Sara; Rodriguez, Gerardo; de la Villa, Agustin

    2001-01-01

    Shows how teachers can often use unexpected outputs from Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) to reinforce concepts and to show students the importance of thinking about how they use the software and reflecting on their results. Presents different examples where DERIVE, MAPLE, or Mathematica does not work as expected and suggests how to use them as a…

  11. USE OF QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES TO ASSESS ERRORS IN MEASURING FOREST CANOPY CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality control data collected during the measurement of ponderosa pine canopy cover and sugar maple crown damage was analyzed. easurement precision (root mean square of differences in replicate measurements) of pine canopy cover was high (+2.6-4.0%) was similar for field replica...

  12. Sawtooth Functions. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Using MAPLE enables students to consider many examples which would be very tedious to work out by hand. This applies to graph plotting as well as to algebraic manipulation. The challenge is to use these observations to develop the students' understanding of mathematical concepts. In this note an interesting relationship arising from inverse…

  13. Introducing Computer Algebra to School Teachers of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2007-01-01

    Since the last decade, the use of computer algebra systems at the Hong Kong school level is still very limited. Among various reasons behind, the lack of exposure of this kind of software to local school teachers should be taken into account. In this article, we describe how to introduce MAPLE in a BEd module of a local teacher-training programme.…

  14. Step-by-Step Solution Possibilities in Different Computer Algebra Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno

    This paper compares a number of different Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in their solution of one-step and multi-step problems. The CAS programs considered include DERIVE, Maple, Mathematica, and MuPAD while the problems are taken from the final examinations of grades 9 and 12 in Estonian schools. The different outputs to one-step problems with…

  15. Samara Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyche, Steven E.

    1985-01-01

    Samara (winged seeds from maple and ash trees) can be used for open-ended inquiry or a series of directed science activities. Attributes, observations/inferences, drawing, motion, floating, seed structure, creative design, and measurement are some of the suggestions for classroom use of these seeds. (DH)

  16. Integrated Curricula and Cultural Change: A Question of Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blenkinsop, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to describe a large research project, which has integrated curricula and is currently emerging as a publicly funded K-7 place-based, imaginative, and ecological learning centre in Maple Ridge, British Columbia; second, to spend some time exploring more deeply the theoretical implications of the project…

  17. New Brunswick`s forestry sector. Forest report number 7

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.D.; Simpson, C.M.

    1991-12-31

    The report presents data on the New Brunswick forestry industry, including forest land area, ownership, stock inventory, wood utilization, forest management expenditures, volume of roundwood production, silviculture activities, economic benefits from forest, fish, and wildlife, fuelwood consumption, Christmas tree production, maple syrup production, forest sector employment, salaries, income taxes from the industry, exports, and gross domestic product due to the forest sector.

  18. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of...

  19. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of...

  20. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of...

  1. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  2. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of...

  3. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  4. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  5. 29 CFR 780.802 - What determines application of the exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15... depend upon the character of the business of the employer. A determination of whether an employee...

  6. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2016-05-01

    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied (15)N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species. PMID:26786538

  7. Transformation: Reinforcing Bridges to the 21st Century: Proceedings of the Annual Missouri Conference on Blacks in Higher Education (7th, Kirksville, Missouri, April 24-25, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson-Threat, Janice, Ed.

    These proceedings present summaries of presentations and roundtable discussion sessions from a Missouri Conference on Blacks in Higher Education. Session summaries are: (1) "Measuring Inter-Racial Differences and Attitudes" (O.C. Bobby Daniels); (2) "Flight of the Maple Leaf Canada Economic Outlook: Impact on Women" (James E. Bell); (3) "Bridging…

  8. The Mathlet Toolkit: Creating Dynamic Applets for Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic/interactive graphing applets can be used to supplement standard computer algebra systems such as Maple, Mathematica, Derive, or TI calculators, in courses such as Calculus, Differential Equations, and Dynamical Systems. The addition of this type of software can lead to discovery learning, with students developing their own conjectures, and…

  9. 29 CFR 780.817 - Employees engaged in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... who are engaged in the processing will come within the exemption. The processing of sugarcane to which... sugarcane processing mill are considered to be engaged in “the processing of” the sugarcane into the...

  10. 29 CFR 780.817 - Employees engaged in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... who are engaged in the processing will come within the exemption. The processing of sugarcane to which... sugarcane processing mill are considered to be engaged in “the processing of” the sugarcane into the...

  11. 29 CFR 780.817 - Employees engaged in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... who are engaged in the processing will come within the exemption. The processing of sugarcane to which... sugarcane processing mill are considered to be engaged in “the processing of” the sugarcane into the...

  12. 29 CFR 780.817 - Employees engaged in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... who are engaged in the processing will come within the exemption. The processing of sugarcane to which... sugarcane processing mill are considered to be engaged in “the processing of” the sugarcane into the...

  13. Digital Maps, Matrices and Computer Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The way in which computer algebra systems, such as Maple, have made the study of complex problems accessible to undergraduate mathematicians with modest computational skills is illustrated by some large matrix calculations, which arise from representing the Earth's surface by digital elevation models. Such problems are often considered to lie in…

  14. The Blackout of Native American Cultural Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that American Indian achievements are overlooked and even specifically denied in the face of overwhelming evidence of their reality. Examines the denials of Indian originality in three specific matters that have been controversial in recent decades: medicine, the manufacture of maple syrup, and the use of fertilizer. (JHZ)

  15. Black Males in the Green Mountains: Colorblindness and Cultural Competence in Vermont Public Schools. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Denise Helen

    2013-01-01

    Mention the state of Vermont and images of maple syrup, scenic mountains, and progressive politics come to mind. But in addition to skiing, farming, and fall foliage, there is also a startling history of racial and religious intolerance and bigotry. Burlington is known as the birthplace of John Dewey, whose enlightened views about education…

  16. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple sugar; or any of the sweeteners listed...

  17. From Sap to Syrup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Janna

    2005-01-01

    Warm days, cold nights, melting snow-signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in some areas, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and the process…

  18. 21 CFR 131.203 - Lowfat yogurt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose, maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple...

  19. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup. 780.819..., or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15... syrup. The second part of the section 13(b)(15) exemption is specifically limited to the production...

  20. 29 CFR 780.801 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Introductory § 780.801..., sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap, into sugar (other than refined sugar) or syrup. Section 13... resulting in unrefined sugar or syrup....