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Sample records for marco institucional venezolano

  1. Marco Polo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinetti, Carolyn

    This two day lesson plan for middle school students examines Marco Polo's travels and trade during the Middle Ages. The unit consists of four activities: (1) journal entry/brainstorming; (2) lecture on trade items of the Middle Ages and Marco Polo; (3) simulation of Marco Polo's Journey; and (4) a writing assignment. It provides step-by-step…

  2. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  3. The Mark 15 Marco Library and Recent Updating of the Marco Code

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, P.B.

    2001-08-09

    This report discusses two tasks: (1) introduction of the Mark 15-MARCO library within the context of an overview of the methodology of MARCO and (2) assessment of the accuracy of MARCO calculations of the Mark 15 MOC at beginning of cycle.

  4. Análisis del futuro marco de referencia internacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, G. R.; Arias, E. F.

    La técnica de interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI) se aplica hoy a la astrometría para el cálculo de posiciones precisas de radiofuentes extragalácticas. Por tratarse de objetos lejanos, sus movimientos propios aparentes pueden considerarse nulos; esta propiedad hace que los catálogos de radiofuentes extragalácticas VLBI constituyan la mejor materialización de un sistema de referencia celeste inercial definido cinemáticamente. La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste internacional materializado por las coordenadas ecuatoriales de objetos extragalácticos observados con le técnica VLBI. Para superar la precisión astrométrica actual es necesaria una mejora en la modelización de aquellos fenómenos que pueden introducir desviaciones sistemáticas en el marco de referencia celeste. El objetivo de este trabajo es poner de manifiesto las sistematicidades presentes en los distintos marcos de referencia elaborados con el próposito de materializar el nuevo sistema de referencia celeste de la IAU. Para la comparación de los distintos marcos de referencia se propone un modelo de tres rotaciones diferenciales más un término lineal que procura absorber los efectos sistemáticos presentes en las coordenadas. Se analiza igualmente la estabilidad de la solución cuando se utilizan distintos conjuntos de objetos de definición.

  5. 76 FR 72369 - Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks... in the vicinity of Marco Island Marriott Beach Resort in Marco Island, Florida during the...

  6. In memory of Marcos Vidal (1974-2016).

    PubMed

    Cagan, Ross; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2016-03-01

    With the untimely death of Marcos Vidal, we have lost a good friend and a creative, brilliant colleague who made important contributions to the field of cancer biology through fruit fly research. Marcos began his research into Drosophila at Ross Cagan's laboratory in 2003, first at Washington University in St Louis and later at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. In 2009 Marcos was appointed as Research Group Leader at the Beatson Institute for Cancer Research in Glasgow. PMID:26758990

  7. Tidal analysis of the San Marco V and San Marco III: Density data in equatorial orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arduini, C.; Ponzi, U.; Laneve, G.

    1997-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the diurnal density variations between ~ 200 km and 400 km as evidenced by a data set of unique characteristics, namely the density data collected by the Drag Balance Instrument (DBI, Broglio et al., 1989; Arduini et al., 1993) on board the San Marco III (SM3) satellite (launched 1971) and San Marco V (SM5) satellite (launched 1988). The measurements are covering similar seasonal periods and different solar cycle conditions. They have, in addition, very high space and time resolution and very good relative accuracy. These characteristics allow us to appreciate fine details of the diurnal variation. In the present paper, besides the data presentation, a few points will be addressed, namely: -Midnight Density Maximum (MDM) feature as related to the diurnal tides; -persistence and variability of the diurnal bulge on the long period; -persistence and variability of the diurnal bulge on the short period; -comparison with model results.

  8. History of the Italian San Marco equatorial mobile range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, H. N.

    1971-01-01

    Events leading to the development of the San Marco Equatorial Range are presented. Included are background information leading to the cooperative space program between the United States and Italy, conceptual planning, training activities, equipment design and fabrication, and range utilization. The technical support provided the San Marco Program by Scout Project Office, and other NASA installations is described.

  9. Discovering Marco Polo: A Resource Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This guide is designed for teachers who wish to teach about Marco Polo and his travels to China during the 13th century. The guide was originally developed for use with a television series about Marco Polo; it can successfully be used independent of the series, however. A prologue gives the reader a basic introduction to what is known of the life…

  10. 75 FR 22712 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX...: This action proposes to establish Class D airspace at San Marcos, TX. Establishment of an air traffic... establishing Class D airspace at San Marcos Municipal Airport, San Marcos, TX. An air traffic control...

  11. Marco Polo: Near Earth Object sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawaguchi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object. The Marco Polo proposal was submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context, and on October 2007 passed the first evaluation process. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class that cannot be related to known meteorite types, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge on the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of the life on Earth.

  12. The Philippine Press after Marcos: Restored Freedoms and New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimary, Donald L.

    With the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos from his 20-year rule of the Philippines, the news media regained its freedom and its voice, and now faces a new set of problems: low circulation, questionable ethical standards of reporters and their lack of experience, and ominous indications from the Corazon Aquino government that the administration might…

  13. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawaguchi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.; Boehnhardt, H.; Coradini, M.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J.-L.; Koschny, D.; Muinonen, M.; Oberst, J.; Marco Polo Scienc

    2008-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a near-Earth object. In late 2007 this mission was selected by ESA, in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025, for an assessment scheduled to last until mid 2009.

  14. MarcoPolo Narrows the Search for Useful Classroom Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the issue of how teachers can conduct more efficient Internet searches in order to find sites that are unbiased, reliable, and accurate. Presents the MarcoPolo Project, a partnership among seven leading educational institutions, as a service that provides teachers with credible content through an easy-to-use Web interface. (NB)

  15. SETA: An Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. C.; Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Piccioni, G.; Ammannito, E.; Capria, M. T.; Coradini, A.; Migliorini, A.; Battistelli, E.; Preti, G.

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the Marco Polo target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution on the order of meters.

  16. OHMSETT 'HIGH SEAS' PERFORMANCE TESTING: MARCO CLASS V OIL SKIMMER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A MARCO Class V oil skimmer was tested at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT facility to determine the device's 'high seas' performance characteristics. Performance data was obtained for several simulated offshore wave conditions at various collection speeds. Skim...

  17. Reform in Spanish Education: The Institucion Libre de Ensenanza.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valis, Noel M.

    This document examines the development and influence of the Free Institute of Education (Institucion Libre de Ensenanza) and of its founder, Don Francisco Giner de los Rios, in late nineteenth century Spain. Founded in 1876 against a background of repression and reimposition of state-controlled education during the Bourbon Restoration the…

  18. Marco Paul's Travels on the Erie Canal: An Educational Voyage. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williammee, Janet; King, Rhonda

    In Jacob Abbott's book, "Marco Paul's Travels on the Erie Canal," Marco's cousin Forester explains to Marco that there are two modes of acquiring knowledge--through books and through observation. Students obtain more complete and meaningful understanding of a topic when provided with experiences that use both primary and secondary sources. This…

  19. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  20. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  1. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  2. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  3. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  4. MarcoPolo-R near earth asteroid sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Benner, L. A. M.; Binzel, R. P.; Bland, P. A.; Böhnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Cerroni, P.; Dotto, E.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Lara, L.-M.; Licandro, J.; Marty, B.; Muinonen, K.; Nathues, A.; Oberst, J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Robert, F.; Saladino, R.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Ulamec, S.; Zolensky, M.

    2012-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) proposed in collaboration with NASA. It will rendezvous with a primitive NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. MarcoPolo-R will return bulk samples (up to 2 kg) from an organic-rich binary asteroid to Earth for laboratory analyses, allowing us to: explore the origin of planetary materials and initial stages of habitable planet formation; identify and characterize the organics and volatiles in a primitive asteroid; understand the unique geomorphology, dynamics and evolution of a binary NEA. This project is based on the previous Marco Polo mission study, which was selected for the Assessment Phase of the first round of Cosmic Vision. Its scientific rationale was highly ranked by ESA committees and it was not selected only because the estimated cost was higher than the allotted amount for an M class mission. The cost of MarcoPolo-R will be reduced to within the ESA medium mission budget by collaboration with APL (John Hopkins University) and JPL in the NASA program for coordination with ESA's Cosmic Vision Call. The baseline target is a binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily than at a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible at a single object. Several launch windows have been identified in the time-span 2020-2024. A number of other possible primitive single targets of high scientific interest have been identified covering a wide range of possible launch dates. The baseline mission scenario of MarcoPolo-R to 1996 FG3 is as follows: a single primary spacecraft provided by ESA, carrying the Earth Re-entry Capsule, sample acquisition and transfer system provided by NASA, will be launched by a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourou into GTO and using two space segment stages. Two similar missions with two launch windows, in 2021 and 2022 and for both sample return in 2029 (with mission duration of 7 and 8 years), have been defined. Earlier or later launches, in 2020 or 2024, also offer good opportunities. All manoeuvres are carried out by a chemical propulsion system. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3, Marco Polo Yellow Book) and of the expertise of the consortium led by Dr. A.F. Cheng (PI of the NASA NEAR Shoemaker mission) of the JHU-APL, including JPL, NASA ARC, NASA LaRC, and MIT.

  5. Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

    2008-09-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  6. MarcoPolo-R: Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert

    2012-07-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected for the assessment study in the framework of ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-25 program. MarcoPolo-R is an European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a primitive carbon-rich NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target is a binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily than at a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible at a single object. Several launch windows have been identified in the time-span 2020-2024. The baseline mission scenario of MarcoPolo-R to 1996 FG3 foresees a single primary spacecraft, carrying the Earth re-entry capsule and sample acquisition and transfer system, launched by a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourou. The scientific payload includes state-of-the-art instruments, e.g. a camera system for high resolution imaging from orbit and on the surface, spectrometers covering visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths, a neutral-particle analyser, a radio science experiment and optional laser altimeter. If resources are available, an optional Lander will be added to perform in-situ characterization close to the sampling site, and internal structure investigations. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes. The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, in orer to determine their precise chemical, mineralogical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material. In addition to addressing the exciting science goals, the MarcoPolo-R mission also involves technologies for which technical development programmes are well under way. It is the ideal platform to (i) demonstrate innovative capabilities such as: accurate planetary navigation and landing, sample return operational chain; (ii) prepare the next generation of curation facilities for extra-terrestrial sample storage and analysis; (iii) develop high speed re-entry capsule; (iv) pave the way as a pathfinder mission for future sample returns from bodies with high surface gravity.

  7. Physical Characterization of Asteroids Candidates of Marco Polo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birlan, Mirel; Binzel, R. P.; Nedelcu, D.; Vernazza, P.; Barucci, A.; Gasc, S.; Fulchignoni, M.; Dotto, E.

    2009-09-01

    The principal scientific objective of the Marco Polo mission is to return unaltered NEO materials. Marco Polo will allow us to analyze the samples in terrestrial laboratories, thereby obtaining measurements that cannot yet beperformed from a robotic spacecraft. The selection of the target asteroids for the mission has important consequences in terms of mission design, constraints, and operational requirements. A list of asteroids as possible targets for the Marco Polo mission has been drawn, taken into account both dynamical and physical constraints. The key parameters of this list were the accessibility of the object (the delta-V amount for the encounter with the target) and the desirable, primitive composition requirements of the target deduced from the groundbased data (mainly from colors and spectroscopy). While the accessibility is dealing with space technological achievements, the primitive composition of the target is oriented toward the research on asteroids belonging to D-, T-, or C-type classes. For some of the possible targets, the physical data are sparse and reveals only partial knowledge of these objects while for some of them no spectroscopic investigations are yet available in the IR spectral region. To improve the situation, observations of asteroids 1917, 8567, 16960, 156452, 163000, 164400, and 2001 SG286 were obtained using SpeX/IRTF in the 0.8-2.5µm spectral region. The analysis of their NIR spectra reveals that many of these objects belong to the S-type complex (DeMeo, Icarus 202, 2009). The exception is the asteroid 2001 SG286, for which the spectrum is flat, similar to C-complex. The analysis of slopes, band strengths, and the most probable mineralogical and meteorite analog models will be presented.

  8. Marco Todeschini - Space Dynamics and Psycho-Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2006-03-01

    This book is dedicated to the theoretical and experimental research carried out in the 20-th century, by Italian engineer and technical physicist Marco Todeschini. It describes the subjects of "space dynamics" and "psycho-biophysics" - two related physical sciences - whose foundations lay in the existence of the ether and of the vortexes that all bodies with mass produce in it. An entirely new cosmology is derived in which all the bodies in the universe - elementary particles, astronomical bodies, and the human being - are strictly related together.

  9. MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawagushi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.

    2009-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Current exobiological scenarios for the origin of Life invoke an exogenous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth: it has been proposed that primitive bodies could have brought these complex organic molecules capable of triggering the pre-biotic synthesis of biochemical compounds. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with the Earth pose a finite hazard to life. For all these reasons, the exploration of such objects is particularly interesting and urgent. The scientific objectives of MARCO POLO will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Moreover, MARCO POLO provides important information on the volatile-rich (e.g. water) nature of primitive NEOs, which may be particularly important for future space resource utilization as well as providing critical information for the security of Earth. MARCO POLO is a proposal offering several options, leading to great flexibility in the actual implementation. The baseline mission scenario is based on a launch with a Soyuz-type launcher and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC) carrying a possible Lander named SIFNOS, small hoppers, sampling devices, a re-entry capsule and scientific payloads. The MSC leaves Earth orbit, cruises toward the target with ion engines, rendezvous with the target, conducts a global characterization of the target to select a sampling site, and delivers small hoppers (MINERVA type, JAXA) and SIFNOS. The latter, if added, will perform a soft landing, anchor to the target surface, and make various in situ measurements of surface/subsurface materials near the sampling site. Two surface samples will be collected by the MSC using “touch and go” manoeuvres. Two complementary sample collection devices will be used in this phase: one developed by ESA and another provided by JAXA, mounted on a retractable extension arm. After the completion of the sampling and ascent of the MSC, the arm will be retracted to transfer the sample containers into the MSC. The MSC will then make its journey back to Earth and release the re-entry capsule into the Earth’s atmosphere.

  10. Comparative solar EUV flux for the San Marco ASSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Chakrabarti, S.; Schmidtke, G.; Doll, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Airglow and Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco D/L satellite has measured solar extreme ultraviolet irradiances. The data are currently being released for analysis. As a preliminary step in evaluating this important dataset, modeled solar irradiances from 4 to 105 nm are presented for comparison to the San Marco data. The comparable flux for March-December 1988 is obtained from a revised and extended empirical solar EUV model derived from OSO 1, OSO 3, OSO 4, OSO 6, AEROS A, and AE-E satellite and six rocket flight datasets. Solar rotational features are prominent on several occasions in the model time series. A useful example is the modeled integrated flux between 30-31 nm which includes the Si XI (30.3-nm) and He II (30.4-nm) irradiance. The modeled flux in this 1-nm range shows both an absolute 22 percent increase from beginning to end of mission and a solar rotational variability with a typical peak-to-valley ratio of 14 percent.

  11. Vaccinia virus binds to the scavenger receptor MARCO on the surface of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Daniel T; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Wang, Zhenping; di Nardo, Anna; Gallo, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Patients with altered skin immunity, such as individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD), can have a life-threatening disruption of the epidermis known as eczema vaccinatum after vaccinia virus (VV) infection of the skin. Here, we sought to better understand the mechanism(s) by which VV associates with keratinocytes. The class A scavenger receptor known as MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) is expressed on human and mouse keratinocytes and found to be abundantly expressed in the skin of patients with AD. VV bound directly to MARCO, and overexpression of MARCO increased susceptibility to VV infection. Furthermore, ligands with affinity for MARCO, or excess soluble MARCO, competitively inhibited VV infection. These findings indicate that MARCO promotes VV infection and highlights potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention of VV infection in the skin. PMID:25089661

  12. Geochemical and hydrologic data for San Marcos Springs recharge characterization near San Marcos, Texas, November 2008--December 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    During 2008–10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, collected geochemical and hydrologic data in Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties, Texas, to define and characterize the sources of recharge to San Marcos Springs. Precipitation samples were collected for stable isotope analysis at 1 site and water-quality samples were collected at 7 springs, 21 wells, and 9 stream sites in the study area between November 2008 and December 2010. Continuous water-quality monitors were installed in three springs, two wells, and at one stream site. Three continuous stream-gaging stations were installed to measure gage height and a stagedischarge rating was developed at two of the three sites. Depth to water below land surface was continuously measured in two wells.

  13. Filipino Americans and the Marcos Overthrow: The Transformation of Political Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Madge; Reyes, Vince

    1987-01-01

    The following three factors explain how the U.S. Filipino community became a base for the movement against the Marcos dictatorship: (1) the immigrant character of the community, (2) the presence of a broad anti-Marcos movement, and (3) the role of the Filipino left in the community. (LHW)

  14. Role of Lysosomes in Silica-Induced Inflammasome Activation and Inflammation in Absence of MARCO

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Rupa; Hamilton, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    MARCO is the predominant scavenger receptor for recognition and binding of silica particles by alveolar macrophages (AM). Previously, it was shown that mice null for MARCO have a greater inflammatory response to silica, but the mechanism was not described. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between MARCO and NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Silica increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and release of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1?, to a greater extent in MARCO?/? AM compared to wild type (WT) AM. Furthermore, in MARCO?/? AM there was greater cathepsin B release from phagolysosomes, Caspase-1 activation, and acid sphingomyelinase activity compared to WT AM, supporting the critical role played by lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) in triggering silica-induced inflammation. The difference in sensitivity to LMP appears to be in cholesterol recycling since increasing cholesterol in AM by treatment with U18666A decreased silica-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and cells lacking MARCO were less able to sequester cholesterol following silica treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MARCO contributes to normal cholesterol uptake in macrophages; therefore, in the absence of MARCO, macrophages are more susceptible to a greater inflammatory response by particulates known to cause NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the effect is due to increased LMP. PMID:25054161

  15. 75 FR 41983 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class D... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class D airspace for San Marcos...

  16. Sequence-Based RNA Profiling - Marco Marra, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Sequence-Based RNA Profiling - Marco Marra Sequence-Based RNA Profiling - Marco Marra, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011 You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later and JavaScript enabled to view this video. You

  17. MarcoPolo-R: Mission and Spacecraft Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacocke, L.; Kemble, S.; Chapuy, M.; Scheer, H.

    2013-09-01

    The MarcoPolo-R mission is a candidate for the European Space Agency's medium-class Cosmic Vision programme, with the aim to obtain a 100 g sample of asteroid surface material and return it safely to the Earth. Astrium is one of two industrial contractors currently studying the mission to Phase A level, and the team has been working on the mission and spacecraft design since January 2012. Asteroids are some of the most primitive bodies in our solar system and are key to understanding the formation of the Earth, Sun and other planetary bodies. A returned sample would allow extensive analyses in the large laboratory-sized instruments here on Earth that are not possible with in-situ instruments. This analysis would also increase our understanding of the composition and structure of asteroids, and aid in plans for asteroid deflection techniques. In addition, the mission would be a valuable precursor for missions such as Mars Sample Return, demonstrating a high speed Earth re-entry and hard landing of an entry capsule. Following extensive mission analysis of both the baseline asteroid target 1996 FG3 and alternatives, a particularly favourable trajectory was found to the asteroid 2008 EV5 resulting in a mission duration of 4.5 to 6 years. In October 2012, the MarcoPolo-R baseline target was changed to 2008 EV5 due to its extremely primitive nature, which may pre-date the Sun. This change has a number of advantages: reduced DeltaV requirements, an orbit with a more benign thermal environment, reduced communications distances, and a reduced complexity propulsion system - all of which simplify the spacecraft design significantly. The single spacecraft would launch between 2022 and 2024 on a Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle from Kourou. Solar electric propulsion is necessary for the outward and return transfers due to the DeltaV requirements, to minimise propellant mass. Once rendezvous with the asteroid is achieved, an observation campaign will begin to characterise the asteroid properties and map the surface in detail. Five potential sampling sites will be selected and closely observed in a local characterisation phase, leading to a single preferred sampling site being identified. The baseline instruments are a Narrow Angle Camera, a Mid-Infrared Spectrometer, a Visible Near-Infrared Spectrometer, a Radio Science Experiment, and a Close-up Camera. For the sampling phase, the spacecraft will perform a touch-and-go manoeuvre. A boom with a sampling mechanism at the end will be deployed, and the spacecraft will descend using visual navigation to touch the asteroid for some seconds. The rotary brush sampling mechanism will be activated on touchdown to obtain a good quality sample comprising regolith dust and pebbles. Low touchdown velocities and collision avoidance are critical at this point to prevent damage to the spacecraft and solar arrays. The spacecraft will then move away, returning to a safe orbit, and the sample will be transferred to an Earth Re-entry Capsule. After a final post-sampling characterisation campaign, the spacecraft will perform the return transfer to Earth. The Earth Re-entry Capsule will be released to directly enter the Earth's atmosphere, and is designed to survive a hard landing with no parachute deceleration. Once recovered, the asteroid sample would be extracted in a sample curation facility in preparation for the full analysis campaign. This presentation will describe Astrium's MarcoPolo-R mission and spacecraft design, with a focus on the innovative aspects of the design.

  18. Archaeological Geophysics at the San Marcos Pueblo, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, K.; Joiner, C. J.; Musa, D.; Allred, I.; Delhaye, R. P.; Zorin, N.; Feucht, D. W.; Johnston, G.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The students and faculty of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) geophysical field course have studied the San Marcos Pueblo (LA 98) since 2004. This activity has provided instruction in near-surface geophysics and research into the application of geophysical techniques to southwestern archaeological problems. Our study site, the San Marcos Pueblo, is a classical and colonial period (1200-1680) pueblo that was once one of the largest communities in the southwest. Previous SAGE publications have discussed the discovery of archaeological features, the underlying geology and hydrological conditions. This study focuses on the interpretation of 'El Mapo Grande', 150 m X 150 m, high-resolution (0.5 m) maps of magnetic and electrical properties and 12 seismic refraction lines. The map covers room block, plaza and midden areas as well as areas where colonial period metallurgical activities were known to have occurred. We acquired magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data in 30 m X 30 m quads producing geophysical maps of each quad (2 or 3 produced each year). Total magnetic field measurements were made with a Geometrics cesium vapor magnetometer, GPR data collected using a Sensors and Software 250 MHz radar were on 0.5 m spaced lines, and EM data were acquired with a Geonics EM-31 on 1 m spaced lines. Seismic data were collected on interconnected lines with 0.5 m receiver and 3 m source interval. El Mapo Grande shows anomalies correlated among the diverse physical properties that were mapped. The edges of strong magnetic anomalies correlate with areas of high GPR scattering possibly associated with rocky floors under room blocks. Areas of high magnetic response are associated with hill-slope erosion channels and plumes of debris in the plaza to the south that are apparently washing down from the metallurgical sites near room blocks. EM data display a good correlation with the magnetic map. Debris channels and plumes are more conductive as well as more magnetically susceptible. Seismic velocity models reveal archaeological features and Plio-Pleistocene geology.

  19. SETA-Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, M. Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra; Battistelli, Enrico; Preti, Giampaolo

    2010-05-01

    The Marco Polo NEO sample return M-class mission has been selected for assessment study within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The Marco Polo mission proposes to do a sample return mission to Near Earth Asteroid. With this mission we have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the entire mission. The imaging spectrometer is a key instrument being capable to characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire asteroid and to analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment. SETA is a Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer able to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target in order to characterize the mineral properties of the surface. The spectral sampling is of at least 20 nm and the spatial resolution of the order of meter. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter with respect to the target or by using a scan mirror. The SETA optical concept is mostly inherited from the SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) imaging spectrometer aboard Bepi Colombo mission but also from other space flying imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS (on Rosetta and Venus Express, VIR on DAWN).

  20. Marco Polo : an Italian Mission Scoring a lot of Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pippo, Simonetta; Bracciaferri, Fabio M.

    2002-01-01

    The first astronaut of the European Astronaut Corps of Italian nationality, Roberto Vittori, will fly on a Soyuz capsule at the end of April 2002, opening a new era of space flight. The mission, sponsored by the Italian Space Agency, has been developed in the framework of an ESA- ROSAVIAKOSMOS agreement, reached in order to give European astronauts additional possibilities to fly. It's the first mission of this kind. In addition to that, this is the real first time in which a Soyuz mission is in the hands of two cosmonauts, and one of them is non Russian. On the same flight, in fact, Mark Shuttleworth, the second tourist in the history of space activities, is going to fly, performing also a set of scientific experiments. Marco Polo is also the first mission in which the two Agencies, ASI and ESA, are developing a joint commercialisation program, devoted to attire sponsors for improving research and development activities in the Human Spaceflight area. This will allow the two agencies to improve also the quality of life on Earth. A comprehensive scientific program is also foreseen accompanying Vittori on board, mainly in the field of life science. Experiments devoted to neurophysiology, arms rehabilitation, test of new materials for dressing in space, evaluation of the behaviour of the Nobel Prize Montalcini discovery named NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) will be performed on board. A R&D payload for Blood Pressure Measurements could have in the future commercial spin-off. In addition, a possible institutional sponsorship of the World Health Organization is under discussion. It will be the real first time in which a space mission gets this kind of sponsorship, and this strictly related to the World Health Day this year, devoted in promoting health throughout movement, i.e. "Move for Health". The Italian Space Agency proposed a joint combination of the two slogans, coupling the "Move for Health" message with the Italian "Space for Health" one. This is because of the Marco Polo scientific program, and because of an advanced training and rehabilitation protocol we have studied, to be applied to old population in order to improve their quality of life, through the parallelism between astronauts (in microgravity conditions) and aging population. The mission, at the time of the World Space Congress, will be already performed and the results can be presented.

  1. Near-Earth Object Exploration and Marco Polo-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Therefore robotic investigations of NEAs, such as ESA's Marco Polo-R sample return mission to 2008 EV5, would allow NASA and its international partners to gain critical operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., close proximity operations, surface sample collection, etc.) under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a potential human destination. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  2. Genetic Variants in MARCO Are Associated with the Susceptibility to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Hai-Bing; Li, Hao; Yang, Jun-Hai; Yan, Yan; Xie, Lan-Pin; Qi, Ying-Cheng; Li, Jun-Lian; Chen, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to tuberculosis is not only determined by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but also by the genetic component of the host. Macrophage receptor with a collagenous structure (MARCO) is essential components required for toll like receptor-signaling in macrophage response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which may contribute to tuberculosis risk. Principal Findings To specifically investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MARCO gene are associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in Chinese Han population. By selecting tagging SNPs in MARCO gene, 17 tag SNPs were identified and genotyped in 923 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 1033 healthy control subjects using a hospital based case-control association study. Single-point and haplotype analysis revealed an association in intron and exon region of MARCO gene. One SNP (rs17009726) was associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis, where the carriers of the G allele had a 1.65 fold (95% CI?=?1.32–2.05, pcorrected?=?9.27E–5) increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. Haplotype analysis revealed that haplotype GC containing G allele of 17009726 and haplotype TGCC (rs17795618T/A, rs1371562G/T, rs6761637T/C, rs2011839C/T) were also associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (pcorrected?=?0.0001 and 0.029, respectively). Conclusions Our study suggested that genetic variants in MARCO gene were associated with pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility in Chinese Han population, and the findings emphasize the importance of MARCO mediated immune responses in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:21886847

  3. MARCO is the major binding receptor for unopsonized particles and bacteria on human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Arredouani, Mohamed S; Palecanda, Aiyappa; Koziel, Henry; Huang, Yuh-Ching; Imrich, Amy; Sulahian, Timothy H; Ning, Yao Yu; Yang, Zhiping; Pikkarainen, Timo; Sankala, Marko; Vargas, Sara O; Takeya, Motohiro; Tryggvason, Karl; Kobzik, Lester

    2005-11-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) avidly bind and ingest inhaled environmental particles and bacteria. To identify the particle binding receptor(s) on human AMs, we used functional screening of anti-human AM hybridomas and isolated a mAb, PLK-1, which inhibits AM binding of unopsonized particles (e.g., TiO2, latex beads; 63 +/- 5 and 67 +/- 4% inhibition, respectively, measured by flow cytometry; n = 11) and unopsonized bacteria ( approximately 84 and 41% inhibition of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus binding by mAb PLK-1, respectively). The PLK-1 Ag was identified as the human class A scavenger receptor (SR) MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) by observing specific immunolabeling of COS cells transfected with human MARCO (but not SR-AI/II) cDNA and by immunoprecipitation by PLK-1 of a protein of appropriate molecular mass (approximately 70 kDa) from both normal human bronchoalveolar lavage cells (>90% AMs) and human MARCO-transfected COS cells. PLK-1 also specifically inhibited particle binding by COS cells, only after transfection with human MARCO cDNA. Immunostaining showed specific labeling of AMs within human lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage samples, as well as macrophages in other sites (e.g., lymph node and liver). Using COS transfectants with different truncated forms of MARCO, allowed epitope mapping for the PLK-1 Ab to MARCO domain V between amino acid residues 420 and 431. A panel of Abs to various SRs identified expression on AMs, but failed to inhibit TiO2 or S. aureus binding. The data support a dominant role for MARCO in the human AM defense against inhaled particles and pathogens. PMID:16237101

  4. Radar Tomography of Asteroids ASSERT / Marco Polo-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Zine, S.; Barucci, A.; Biele, J.; Ho, T.; Kofman, W. W.; Krause, C.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Prado, J.; Souyris, J.; Ulamec, S.; Assert Team

    2011-12-01

    The internal structure of NEAs remains largely unknown. It is a key point for the understanding of asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. From a science point of view, the internal structure is also a key point for the understanding of asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. For risk management and mitigation, it is required to characterize whether a small asteroid will survive the transit through the atmosphere and also to define a deflection policy. There are some indirect evidences that a rubble pile structure is really common at least for objects larger than a few hundreds of meters in diameter. But a more precise characterisation of the internal structure is required, such as the size and the structure of the main blobs and their distribution within the NEAs main body as well as a statistical characterisation of the surface regolith in term of density and size distribution. Radar tomography is the only way to image the internal structure from decimetric to global scale in order to better understand the nature of the primary object and its posterior alterations. It is also a way to estimate the ratio between micro- and macro-porosity. Bistatic radar tomography is an original technique, developed with the CONSERT Experiment (Rosetta / ESA) to image ant characterize the internal structures of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimeko with a signal transmitted from the Orbiter to the Lander. By regards to a more classical monostatic radar like Marsis (MarsExpress/ESA), this bistatic configuration requires limited resources (mass, power and dataflow) and increases the capacity of deep sounding. So ASSERT (ASteroid Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) is proposed to instrument a MASCOT-type lander e.g. as payload of the ESA Marco Polo R mission (ESA). The first addressed question is a rubble pile or a monolithic body: For a rubble pile, the tomography will allow to estimate the size distribution of the boulders by direct imaging or statistical analysis of the scattered signal. The estimation of the mean permittivity of the blobs is a way to estimate the macro- versus micro-porosity. Its spatial variations highlight the heterogeneity of the parent bodies and segregation mechanism during reaccretion. - And for a monolithic object, we can expect only micro-porosity. Then images of the body interior and spatial distributions of the permittivity give the heterogeneity. In a further analysis, the characterization of the heterogeneity by statistical or imagery approach is a key point to understand asteroid accretion and evolution: - is this body accreted or re-accreted from the same material or not, from similar parent bodies or not? - is there some evidence of collisional metamorphism with change in the porosity and or mineralogy? - is there some evidence of metamorphism per hydration? This advanced interpretation will be based on the sample return analysis and constitutes a complete recontextualization of the analyzed samples at the global body scale

  5. Marco Polo: Hunting and Capture of Material from a Primitive Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, Javier

    A description of the Spanish contribution to the Marco Polo mission and of the mission itself is presented. Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object (NEO). Submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, Marco Polo passed the first evaluation process on October 2007. Seventeen Spanish researchers belonging to six Spanish institutes signed the proposal. The mission is planned to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class that cannot be related to known meteorite types, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge on the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of the life on Earth. Three Spanish institutes are involved in the feasibility studies of two instruments: the THERmal MAPper (THERMAP) and the Marco Polo Camera System (MPCS).

  6. Gravity Investigations with the MarcoPolo-R Radio Science Experiment RSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andert, T. P.; Pätzold, M.; Bellerose, J.; Barriot, J. P.; Oberst, J.; Hahn, M.; Tellmann, S.; Remus, S.; Förstner, R.; Häusler, B.

    2013-09-01

    The ESA sample return mission MarcoPolo-R is one of the current candidate M3 missions. It will rendezvous with a primitive Near Earth Asteroid (NEA), scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth [3] The determination of the global physical properties of the mission target, the Near Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5, is among others one science objective of the MarcoPolo-R mission. In this context one key parameter is the gravity field, especially GM (gravitational constant times the mass) and the low order gravity coefficients C20 and C22 of the asteroid.

  7. Solar EUV/UV and equatorial airglow measurements from San Marco-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimdtke, G.; Doll, H.; Wita, C.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of the solar flux measurements performed by the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) aboard the San Marco-5 satellite in March-December 1988 are presented. Emphasis is placed on the in-flight performance of the ASSI, its in-flight calibration, and the planned scheme of the airglow modelling.

  8. 78 FR 33263 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959...) at San Marcos Municipal Airport and the decommissioning of the Garys Locator Outer Marker (LOM)....

  9. The San Marcos River Habitat Conservation Plan: Using HCP's as a Tool for Ecological Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Howard, M. S.; Arsuffi, T. L.

    2005-05-01

    The San Marcos River in San Marcos, Hays County, Texas is a biologically unique system with several listed species found in the headwaters. Flowing from the Edwards Aquifer and the second largest spring system in Texas, the water is clear and thermally constant. The physical and biological character of the habitat within and surrounding the river has been severely degraded by human activity. As a means of dealing with the continued disturbance and finding a balance between human needs and conservation, the San Marcos River Habitat Conservation Plan was written as provided by Section 10(a) of the Endangered Species Act. The plan provides habitat mitigation for the fountain darter (Etheostoma fonticola), Comal Springs riffle beetle, (Heterelmis comalensis), and San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana), while allowing for incidental take resulting from specific restoration and management projects. We used a science-based ecological/experimental approach to address some of the problems and optimize solutions, including restoration of stream banks damaged from overuse, planning for permanent access points and trails, removal of silt deposits caused by extensive flood control structures, wet-pond construction, managing flow, and the control of submerged and emergent non-native vegetation to improve habitat and enhance recreation.

  10. Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    The San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program for 1972-73 was evaluated in this report. The program consisted of 684 students in grades K-5 in 4 elementary schools. The majority of these students were Mexican American with only 18% monolingual English speakers. The program's objectives were, first, to provide bilingual…

  11. Orbital stability during the mapping and approach phases of the MarcoPolo-R spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickhusen, K.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Luedicke, F.

    2012-09-01

    In support of the Marco-Polo-R mission we are analyzing the motion of the spacecraft in the vicinity of its primary target, the binary asteroid system 175706 (1996 FG3). We ran simulations in order to support the general mapping, the approach, and the sampling phase

  12. Stability and Evolution of Orbits around Binary Asteroids: Applications to the Marco Polo Mission Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickhusen, K.; Oberst, J.; Hussmann, H.; Shi, X.; Damme, F.

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the orbit stability of a spacecraft moving around a small Near-Earth-Asteroid (NEA), focusing on the primary target of the Marco Polo Mission: 175706 (1996 FG3). The simulation showed that most orbits are unstable over time but under certain conditions the S/C stays in orbit without crashing or escaping into space.

  13. Macrophage Receptor with Collagenous Structure (MARCO) Is Processed by either Macropinocytosis or Endocytosis-Autophagy Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Seishiro; Kanno, Sanae

    2015-01-01

    The Macrophage Receptor with COllagenous structure (MARCO) protein is a plasma membrane receptor for un-opsonized or environmental particles on phagocytic cells. Here, we show that MARCO was internalized either by ruffling of plasma membrane followed by macropinocytosis or by endocytosis followed by fusion with autophagosome in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with GFP-MARCO. The macropinocytic process generated large vesicles when the plasma membrane subsided. The endocytosis/autophagosome (amphisome) generated small fluorescent puncta which were visible in the presence of glutamine, chloroquine, bafilomycin, ammonia, and other amines. The small puncta, but not the large vesicles, co-localized with LC3B and lysosomes. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio increased in the presence of glutamine, ammonia, and chloroquine in various cells. The small puncta trafficked between the peri-nuclear region and the distal ends of cells back and forth at rates of up to 2–3 μm/sec; tubulin, but not actin, regulated the trafficking of the small puncta. Besides phagocytosis MARCO, an adhesive plasma membrane receptor, may play a role in incorporation of various extracellular materials into the cell via both macropinocytic and endocytic pathways. PMID:26545255

  14. Project Marco Polo: Bridging the Gap between Natural and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, Frederick L.; Rea, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Describes Project Marco Polo in which students, teachers, and staff from "National Geographic" and the U.S. Navy traveled to Japan. Reports that they studied Japanese culture, oceanography, and natural science while on the trip. Includes excerpts from field journals kept by the participants, photographs of the trip, and a map. (DK)

  15. Protection against inhaled oxidants through scavenging of oxidized lipids by macrophage receptors MARCO and SR-AI/II

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Morten; Bauer, Alison K.; Arredouani, Mohamed; Soininen, Raija; Tryggvason, Karl; Kleeberger, Steven R.; Kobzik, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) express the class A scavenger receptors (SRAs) macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor AI/II (SRA-I/II), which recognize oxidized lipids and provide innate defense against inhaled pathogens and particles. Increased MARCO expression in lungs of ozone-resistant mice suggested an additional role protecting against inhaled oxidants. After ozone exposure, MARCO–/– mice showed greater lung injury than did MARCO+/+ mice. Ozone is known to generate oxidized, proinflammatory lipids in lung lining fluid, such as 5?,6?-epoxycholesterol (?-epoxide) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(9?-oxo-nonanoyl)-glycerophosphocholine (PON-GPC). Intratracheal instillation of either lipid caused substantial neutrophil influx in MARCO–/– mice, but had no effect in MARCO+/+ mice. Normal AMs showed greater uptake in vitro of ?-epoxide compared with MARCO–/– AMs, consistent with SRA function in binding oxidized lipids. SR-AI/II–/– mice showed similar enhanced acute lung inflammation after ?-epoxide or another inhaled oxidant (aerosolized leachate of residual oil fly ash). In contrast, subacute ozone exposure did not enhance inflammation in SR-AI/II–/– versus SR-AI/II+/+ mice, reflecting increased AM expression of MARCO. These data identify what we believe to be a novel function for AM SRAs in decreasing pulmonary inflammation after oxidant inhalation by scavenging proinflammatory oxidized lipids from lung lining fluids. PMID:17332894

  16. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission in ESA assessment study phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Michel, P.; Cheng, A.; Böhnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Dotto, E.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Lara, L. M.; Marty, B.; Koschny, D.

    2012-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3). The aim of the new Assessment Study is to reduce the cost of the mission while maintaining its high science level, on the basis of advanced studies and technologies, optimization of the mission, and consolidation of the collaboration with other partners (NASA, AEB…). The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. The limited sampling provided by meteorites does not offer the most primitive material available in near-Earth space. More primitive material, having experienced less alteration on the asteroid, will be more friable and would not survive atmospheric entry in any discernible amount. Only in Earth laboratories can instruments measure the individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith with the necessary precision and sensitivity to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority by a number of the leading space agencies. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive binary NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive binary NEA (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return: the choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed including those of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible to obtain from a single object. Precise measurements of the mutual orbit and rotation state of both components can be used to probe higher-level harmonics of the gravitational potential, and therefore the internal structure. A unique opportunity is offered to study the dynamical evolution driven by the YORP/ Yarkovsky thermal effects. Possible migration of regolith on the primary from poles to equator allows the increasing maturity of asteroidal regolith with time to be expressed as a latitude-dependent trend, with the most-weathered material at the equator matching what is seen in the secondary. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes. Moreover, MarcoPolo-R will provide a sample from a known target with known geological context. Direct investigation of both the regolith and fresh interior fragments is also impossible by any means other than sample return.

  17. Marginal Zone Macrophage Receptor MARCO Is Trapped in Conduits Formed by Follicular Dendritic Cells in the Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Kellermayer, Zoltán; Fisi, Viktória; Mihalj, Martina; Berta, Gergely; Kóbor, József

    2014-01-01

    The marginal zone (MZ) region of the spleen plays an important role in leukocyte traffic and the removal of blood-borne pathogens by resident macrophages. Macrophage receptor with a collagenous structure (MARCO), expressed by MZ macrophages, recognizes several microbial ligands and is also involved in the retention of MZ B cells. Here, we report that MARCO is also associated with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in the spleen. In its FDC-associated form MARCO is arranged in 0.3–0.5-?m diameter granular-fibrillar structures with an appearance similar to the white pulp conduit system formed by fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), but with different compartment preference. The follicular display of MARCO resists irradiation and requires the presence of both MZ macrophages and differentiated FDCs. The follicular delivery of MARCO is independent from the shuffling of marginal zone B cells, and it persists after clodronate liposome-mediated depletion of MZ macrophages. Our findings thus indicate that MARCO is distributed to both MZ and follicles within the spleen into conduit-like structures, where FDC-bound MARCO may mediate communication between the stromal microenvironments of MZ and follicles. PMID:24670793

  18. The DeMarco factor: interview with a health policy advocate.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H

    2010-05-01

    An interview with Vincent DeMarco, President of the Maryland Citizen's Health Initiative, reviews the history and strategies used to win victories for public health on gun policy and tobacco taxes and to seek passage of higher alcohol taxes in the state of Maryland. DeMarco emphasizes the need to build broad coalitions, to engage policy makers at election time and not just or primarily during legislative sessions, and to take advantage of the power of the news media as a microphone for reaching millions of possible supporters. The interview concludes with recommendations for public health training and practitioners in order to become successful policy advocates in a rapidly changing media and political landscape. PMID:20495097

  19. Dr. Marco Marra: Pioneer and Visionary in Cancer Genomics Research | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Marco Marra is a highly distinguished genomics and bioinformatics researcher. He is the Director of Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre at the BC Cancer Agency and holds a faculty position at the University of British Columbia. The Centre is a state-of-the-art sequencing facility in Vancouver, Canada, with a major focus on the study of cancers.  Many of their research projects are undertaken in collaborations with other Canadian and international institutions.

  20. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission candidate as ESA-M3 class mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase of M3-class missions in the framework of ESAs Cosmic Vision (CV) 2015-2025 programme. The phase A study started at the end of 2012 and will proceed throughout 2013. The final selection by ESA will occur in February 2014. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a possible contribution from other agencies. MarcoPolo-R will rendez-vous with the primitive NEA 2008 EV5. Before returning a unique sample to Earth, the asteroid will be scientifically characterized at multiple scales. MarcoPolo-R will provide detailed knowledge of the physical and compositional properties of a member of the population of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHA), which is an important contribution to mitigation studies.

  1. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  2. Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  3. Marco Polo, a JAXA-ESA sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.

    2009-04-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). It is proposed to be performed in collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA). Both JAXA and ESA are currently performing Phase-A studies for this mission; within ESA, the mission is studied as part of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. The main objective of the mission is to return unmodified material from a primitive NEO to the Earth to allow its accurate analysis in ground-based laboratories. These primitive NEOs are part of the small body population that represents the leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago and carry records both of the Solar System's birth and early phases. In addition, the mission will allow studying the geological evolution and physical properties of small bodies. Marco Polo will provide the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the terrestrial planets and advance our understanding of some of the fundamental issues in the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, the Earth and possibly life itself. Determining the physical properties of a NEO will also help assessing mitigation strategies for the impact risk of such an object on the Earth. This presentation will focus on the ESA side of the assessment study. The technical development status in Europe will be presented.

  4. Solar measurements from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of the solar spectral irradiance from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite is the focus for this research grant. A pre-print copy of the paper describing the calibrations of and results from the San Marco ASSI is attached to this report. The calibration of the ASSI included (1) transfer of photometric calibration from a rocket experiment and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME), (2) use of the on-board radioactive calibration sources, (3) validation of the ASSI sensitivity over its field of view, and (4) determining the degradation of the spectrometers. We have determined that the absolute values for the solar irradiance needs adjustment in the current proxy models of the solar UV irradiance, and the amount of solar variability from the proxy models are in reasonable agreement with the ASSI measurements. This research grant also has supported the development of a new solar EUV irradiance proxy model. We expected that the magnetic flux is responsible for most of the heating, via Alfen waves, in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. From examining time series of solar irradiance data and magnetic fields at different levels, we did indeed find that the chromospheric emissions correlate best with the large magnetic field levels.

  5. MARCO, TLR2, and CD14 are required for macrophage cytokine responses to mycobacterial trehalose dimycolate and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bowdish, Dawn M E; Sakamoto, Kaori; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kroos, Mariliis; Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Leifer, Cynthia A; Tryggvason, Karl; Gordon, Siamon; Russell, David G

    2009-06-01

    Virtually all of the elements of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenesis, including pro-inflammatory cytokine production, granuloma formation, cachexia, and mortality, can be induced by its predominant cell wall glycolipid, trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM/cord factor). TDM mediates these potent inflammatory responses via interactions with macrophages both in vitro and in vivo in a myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent manner via phosphorylation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), implying involvement of toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, specific TLRs or binding receptors for TDM have yet to be identified. Herein, we demonstrate that the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a class A scavenger receptor, is utilized preferentially to "tether" TDM to the macrophage and to activate the TLR2 signaling pathway. TDM-induced signaling, as measured by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB)-luciferase reporter assay, required MARCO in addition to TLR2 and CD14. MARCO was used preferentially over the highly homologous scavenger receptor class A (SRA), which required TLR2 and TLR4, as well as their respective accessory molecules, in order for a slight increase in NF-kappaB signaling to occur. Consistent with these observations, macrophages from MARCO(-/-) or MARCO(-/-)SRA(-/-) mice are defective in activation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to TDM. These results show that MARCO-expressing macrophages secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to TDM by cooperation between MARCO and TLR2/CD14, whereas other macrophage subtypes (e.g. bone marrow-derived) may rely somewhat less effectively on SRA, TLR2/CD14, and TLR4/MD2. Macrophages from MARCO(-/-) mice also produce markedly lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection with virulent Mtb. These observations identify the scavenger receptors as essential binding receptors for TDM, explain the differential response to TDM of various macrophage populations, which differ in their expression of the scavenger receptors, and identify MARCO as a novel component required for TLR signaling. PMID:19521507

  6. Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meters to Quantify Flow From Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gary, Marcus O.; Gary, Robin H.; Asquith, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflows for survival. It is therefore imperative that the Edwards Aquifer Authority have accurate and timely springflow data to guide resource management. Discharge points for Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are submerged in Landa Lake and in Spring Lake, respectively. Flows from the springs currently (2008) are estimated by the U.S Geological Survey in real time as surface-water discharge from conventional stage-discharge ratings at sites downstream from each spring. Recent technological advances and availability of acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) now provide tools to collect data (stream velocity) related to springflow that could increase accuracy of real-time estimates of the springflows. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, did a study during May 2006 through September 2007 to evaluate ADVMs to quantify flow from Comal and San Marcos Springs. The evaluation was based on two monitoring approaches: (1) placement of ADVMs in important spring orifices - spring run 3 and spring 7 at Comal Springs, and diversion spring at San Marcos Springs; and (2) placement of ADVMs at the nearest flowing streams - Comal River new and old channels for Comal Springs, Spring Lake west and east outflow channels and current (2008) San Marcos River streamflow-gaging site for San Marcos Springs. For Comal Springs, ADVM application at spring run 3 and spring 7 was intended to indicate whether the flows of spring run 3 and spring 7 can be related to total springflow. The findings indicate that velocity data from both discharge features, while reflecting changes in flow, do not reliably show a direct relation to measured streamflow and thus to total Comal Springs flow. ADVMs at the Comal River new channel and old channel sites provide data that potentially could yield more accurate real-time estimates of total Comal Springs flow than streamflow measured at the downstream Comal River site. For San Marcos Springs, the findings indicate shortcomings with ADVM installations at diversion spring and in the west and east outflow channels. However, the accuracy of streamflow measured at the San Marcos River gage as an estimate of real-time San Marcos Springs flow could potentially be increased through use of ADVM data from that site.

  7. Sample return from a Near Earth Object: Future perspectives from Marco Polo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert; Barucci, M. A.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Binzel, Richard P.; Koschny, Detlef; Agnolon, David; Romstedt, Jens

    We are entering in a new era of space exploration defined by sample return missions. The study of extraterrestrial samples in the laboratory has given us many insights to Solar System formation and evolution, but is hampered by having to rely on the arrival of meteorites -fairly random samples from asteroids, the Moon and Mars. There is now increased interest from the scientific community in the acquisition of samples from specific parent-bodies; this is reflected by proposals for an increasing number of sample return missions within international programs of Solar System exploration. The study of extraterrestrial samples in laboratory provides new opportunities to advance fun-damental issues on the origin and evolution of the Solar System, on primordial cosmochemistry and on nature of the building blocks of terrestrial planets. Samples returned from primitive carbonaceous small bodies could help us in deciphering relevant clues on the origin and early evolution of life on Earth. Once returned on Earth, samples will undergo preliminary charac-terization and classification within dedicated sample curation facilities before being delivered to worldwide laboratories for detailed investigation of the elemental and isotopic compositions, mineralogy, petrology, organic and interstellar grain inventories, etc. The samples returned from the surface of a primitive NEO will contain material more primitive than currently avail-able from meteorites as this is generally lost during atmospheric entry, with only more coherent meteorites, the product of asteroidal modification, surviving to be collected on the surface of the Earth. Marco Polo was shortlisted for the assessment phase of ESA's Cosmic Vision program to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as a C-or D-type asteroid or extinct comet. Although the scientific objectives were very highly rated it was not selected for mission development as an ESA-only Medium Mission because it exceeded cost envelope. However, in view of the evolving international context, Marco Polo has gathered the interest of a huge scientific community and it is now proposed as a potential participation in missions currently under discussion within other agencies. In this talk Marco Polo's scientific case and future perspectives will be presented.

  8. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission in the ESA program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, Elisabetta; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawaguchi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.

    2009-09-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near Earth Object. In October 2007 this mission passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge of the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of life on Earth.

  9. Equatorial composition in the 137- to 225-km region from the San Marco 3 mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, G. P.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Pelz, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    The neutral atmospheric composition experiment (Nace) carried by the San Marco 3 (SM 3) satellite measured the equatorial atmospheric composition during the reentry period of Nov. 21-28, 1971. The mass density and molecular nitrogen density measured by the Nace are in agreement with values measured by rocket experiments and inferred from satellite experiments. The average total oxygen content measured by Nace is 30% below the value suggested by von Zahn at 150-km altitude. When it is assumed that his value for the molecular oxygen density at 150 km represents averaged rocket results applicable to the equatorial thermosphere, the Nace total oxygen content results in an atomic oxygen concentration comparable to the mean value of Cira (1965). The Nace helium measurements interpreted in terms of an altitude profile have an altitude distribution similar to that of molecular nitrogen below 165 km.

  10. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work. PMID:22536148

  11. Solar EUV irradiance from the San Marco ASSI - A reference spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidtke, Gerhard; Woods, Thomas N.; Worden, John; Rottman, Gary J.; Doll, Harry; Wita, Claus; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1992-01-01

    The only satellite measurement of the solar EUV irradiance during solar cycle 22 has been obtained with the Airglow Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) aboard the San Marco 5 satellite flown in 1988. The ASSI in-flight calibration parameters are established by using the internal capabilities of ASSI and by comparing ASSI results to the results from other space-based experiments on the ASSI calibration rocket and the Solar Mesospheric Explorer (SME). A solar EUV irradiance spectrum derived from ASSI observations on November 10, 1988 is presented as a reference spectrum for moderate solar activity for the aeronomy community. This ASSI spectrum should be considered as a refinement and extension of the solar EUV spectrum published for the same day by Woods and Rottman (1990).

  12. [The Hospital of the people of San Marcos. First in Aguascalientes, Mexico].

    PubMed

    López de la Peña, Xavier A

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, the major hospital of San Juan de Dios has been historically considered the first hospital in Aguascalientes,Mexico, founded on 1685. However, in this paper we report that the Hospital of the people of San Marcos, in operation at least since 1630, was really the first hospital in the state in functions and which services to the needy population continued until today’s last notice, as of 1728. As evidence, we offer various first-hand documentary sources obtained in different archive files, which give credit to this modest charity institution. The aforementioned for the memory and pride of the history of health care in Aguascalientes and Mexico. PMID:23435083

  13. THERMAP : a mid-infrared spectro-imager for the Marco Polo R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groussin, O.; Brageot, E.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Lamy, P.; Jorda, L.; Licandro, J.; Helbert, J.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Delbó, M.

    2012-09-01

    We present THERMAP, a mid-infrared (8-16 ?m) spectro-imager based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays. Due to the recent technological development of these detectors, which have undergone significant improvements in the last decade, we wanted to test their performances for a space mission to small bodies in the inner Solar System. THERMAP was selected by ESA in January 2012 for a one year assessment study, in the framework of a call for declaration of interest in science instrumentation for the Marco Polo R Cosmic Vision mission. In this paper, we present some results of this study and in particular demonstrate that the new generation of uncooled micro-bolometer detectors has all the imaging and spectroscopic capabilities to fulfill the scientific objectives of the Marco Polo R mission. THERMAP scientific objectives - The midinfrared instrument of the Marco Polo R mission must be able i) to determine the surface temperature by mapping the entire surface with an absolute accuracy of at least 5 K (goal 1 K) above 200 K, ii) to determine the thermal inertia with an accuracy of 10% and iii) to determine the surface composition by mapping the entire surface with a spectral resolution of 70 between 8 and 16 ?m. The above mappings should be performed with a spatial resolution of 10 m for the entire surface (global characterization) and 10 cm for the sampling sites (local characterization). THERMAP imaging capabilities - In order to test the imaging capabilities of the THERMAP uncooled microbolometer detector, we set up an experiment based on a 640x480 ULIS micro-bolometer array, a germanium objective and a black body. Using the results of this experiment, we show that calibrated radiometric images can be obtained down to at least 258 K (lower limit of our experiment), and that two calibration points are sufficient to determine the absolute scene temperature with an accuracy better than 1.5 K. An extrapolation to lower temperatures provides an accuracy of about 5 K at 180 K, the lowest temperature the detector can measure. THERMAP spectroscopic capabilites - In order to test the spectroscopic performances of the detector, we added flux attenuating neutral density mid-infrared filters (transmittance: 50%, 10%, 1%) to our experiment. Our results show that we can perform spectroscopic measurements with a spectral resolution R=40-80 in the wavelength range 8-16 ?m for a scene temperature larger than 300 K, the typical surface temperature of a Near Earth Asteroid at 1 AU from the Sun. THERMAP preliminary design - From the above results, we defined a preliminary design for the instrument. THERMAP is a mid-infrared (8-16 ?m) spectro-imager based on two uncooled microbolometer arrays. It is composed of two channels, one for imaging and one for spectroscopy. A flip mirror allows switching between the two channels. Calibration is performed using deep space and two black bodies at known temperature. The design of the THERMAP instrument has a strong heritage from the MERTIS instrument on board Bepi-Colombo [1], which guarantees its feasibility and reliability. Our design is very flexible in term of operations, which is fundamental for a mission to a binary asteroid system (1996 FG3). The THERMAP instrument will be proposed for Marco Polo R and any future space missions to small bodies in the inner solar system.

  14. A joint JAXA-ESA mission to return a sample from an asteroid - Marco Polo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Simon; Barucci, Antonella; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Böhnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elizabetta; Franchi, Ian; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawaguchi, Junichero; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Jürgen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard

    2008-09-01

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA for an assessment phase study in the frame of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. The primary objective is to return unaltered materials from a primitive Near Earth Object (NEO) to the Earth. NEOs are part of the small body population that represents the primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago and carry records both of the Solar System's birth/early phases and of the geological evolution of small bodies. This mission will provide the opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the terrestrial planets and advance our understanding of some of the fundamental issues in the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, the Earth and possibly life itself.

  15. A launch strategy for high-inclination orbit missions from the San Marco Equatorial Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinalducci, Antonio

    The San Marco Equatorial Range (SMER), due to its favourable geographic position (less than three degrees away from the Equator), has represented an ideal launch facility to achieve low-inclination and equatorial orbits. However, safety restrictions does not allow to achieve high-inclination orbits by in-plane launch maneuvers, requiring a large fuel expense for plane-change by means of the so called dog-leg maneuver. A guidance system has been developed to execute the out-of-plane maneuver during the guided ascent phase, in order to reduce the ?v required for plane changes. The numerical test of this guidance algorithm showed satisfying performances in terms of orbit acquisition (small errors on the orbital elements); at the same time, it proved itself capable to execute plane-change maneuvers, allowing signifiant reductions in fuel consumption with respect to the dog-leg technique.

  16. Geochemical evaluation of the geothermal resources in the San Marcos region, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Hanshaw, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of hot springs in the San Marcos region of Guatemala are internally consistent with a hydrologic model in which a deep 240??C reservoir and one or more shallow 195-200??C reservoirs are present. Variations in hot-spring water compositions results from a combination of boiling, mixing with cold, dilute water, and chemical re-equilibration with decreasing temperature. The recharge water for the deep 240??C reservoir is isotopically heavier than the local meteoric water and probably comes from many kilometers to the west or southwest. The water in the shallow reservoir is a mixture of the 240??C water with about 20 ?? 5% of cold, locally derived meteoric water. After mixing, the water in the shallow reservoir re-equilibrates with reservoir rock at 195-200??C. In some places additional mixing with cold water occurs after water leaves the shallow reservoir. ?? 1986.

  17. Planetary protection issues for the MarcoPolo NEO sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romstedt, Jens; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawagushi, Jun; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Pillinger, Judith; Prieur, Daniel; Yano, Hajime; Agnolon, David; Binzel, Richard P.

    The MarcoPolo mission has been selected as an M-class candidate for assessment study within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through a competitive process the final candidate will be selected at the end of the year 2011. The primary goal of this mission is to return samples of material from a Near Earth Object (NEO) to Earth. An automated system will collect material from the top surface layer with a mass of around 100g. The actual sampling sequence is preceded by an intensive mapping and characterisation campaign of the target body by remote sensing instruments on an orbiting spacecraft. The collected material will be transferred to a return capsule that enters Earth's atmosphere and lands. The proposed candidate targets are primitive objects of various spectral classes. In a current process based on scientific evaluation, engineering and programmatic requirements the list of objects will be narrowed down to a short list of prime target bodies. The delivery of alien material to Earth using a spacecraft places this mission in Category V according to COSPAR planetary protection rules. Depending on the target or region of a target the mission is subclassified as "none-restricted" or" restricted" return. The latter implies a severe impact on the complexity of the mission architecture due to much higher technological constraints and sample handling procedures on Earth. Among the NEO population there is a large variety of very different objects. Only a few are assessed on the basis of planetary protection rules. Future small body exploration missions like MarcoPolo require the assessment and categorisation according to the biologic potential of the respective target body. This presentation will assess the proposed mission according to the COSPAR planetary protection rules as adopted by ESA.

  18. Lifetime predictions for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and San Marco spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Ward, D. T.; Schmitt, M. W.; Phenneger, M. C.; Vaughn, F. J.; Lupisella, M. L.

    1989-01-01

    Lifetime prediction techniques developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) are described. These techniques were developed to predict the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft orbit, which is decaying due to atmospheric drag, with reentry predicted to occur before the end of 1989. Lifetime predictions were also performed for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was deployed on the 1984 SMM repair mission and is scheduled for retrieval on another Space Transportation System (STS) mission later this year. Concepts used in the lifetime predictions were tested on the San Marco spacecraft, which reentered the Earth's atmosphere on December 6, 1988. Ephemerides predicting the orbit evolution of the San Marco spacecraft until reentry were generated over the final 90 days of the mission when the altitude was less than 380 kilometers. The errors in the predicted ephemerides are due to errors in the prediction of atmospheric density variations over the lifetime of the satellite. To model the time dependence of the atmospheric densities, predictions of the solar flux at the 10.7-centimeter wavelength were used in conjunction with Harris-Priester (HP) atmospheric density tables. Orbital state vectors, together with the spacecraft mass and area, are used as input to the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Propagations proceed in monthly segments, with the nominal atmospheric drag model scaled for each month according to the predicted monthly average value of F10.7. Calibration propagations are performed over a period of known orbital decay to obtain the effective ballistic coefficient. Progagations using plus or minus 2 sigma solar flux predictions are also generated to estimate the despersion in expected reentry dates. Definitive orbits are compared with these predictions as time expases. As updated vectors are received, these are also propagated to reentryto continually update the lifetime predictions.

  19. THERMAP: the mid-infrared (8-16 µm) spectro-imager of the ESA Marco Polo R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groussin, O.; Licandro, J.; Helbert, J.; Alí Lagoa, V.; Brageot, E.; Davidsson, B.; Delbó, M.; Delsanti, A.; Garcia-Talavera, M. R.; Green, S.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lamy, P.; Lellouch, E.; Levacher, P.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Rozitis, B.; Sunshine, J.; Vernazza, P.

    2013-09-01

    THERMAP is a mid-infrared (8-16 ?m) spectroimager, selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) in February 2013 for the scientific payload of the Marco Polo R M-class mission. We present in this paper the instrument and its scientific objectives.

  20. Japan's Future Plans for Missions to Primitive Bodies: Hayabusa-2, Hayabusa-Mk2, and Marco Polo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Yano, H.; Kawaguchi, J.; Hayabusa-2 Pre-Project Team; Small Body Exploration Wg

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, we have studied about the future missions to primitive bodies in the solar system after Hayabusa mission. The new missions are called Hayabusa-2 and Hayabusa-Mk2. Hayabusa-Mk2 is now considered as Marco Polo with European researchers.

  1. Evaluation Report of the Bilingual Education Program. Harlandale Independent School District, San Marcos Independent School District, Southwest Texas State University, 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, B. E.

    The Bilingual Education Program for 1969-70 was evaluated in this report. The program consisted of 1,220 Mexican American pupils in grades 1-3 in Harlandale Independent School District, San Marcos Independent School District, and St. John's Catholic School in San Marcos. Its primary objective was to provide a learning situation to meet the special…

  2. Evaluation Report of the Bilingual Education Program. Harlandale Independent School District, San Marcos Independent School District, Southwest Texas State University. 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    Bilingual classes in grades K-5 in the San Marcos and Harlandale (Texas) school districts comprise this bilingual education program. Most of the pupils come from Spanish-speaking homes with low socioeconomic-educational background; however, a certain proportion of the San Marcos pupils are Anglos. Program objectives include preventing educational…

  3. European asteroid sample return mission: MarcoPolo-R and its future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M.

    2014-07-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission study to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) carried out at ESA from 2008 in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision (CV) programme, with the objective to answer to the fundamental CV questions ''How does the Solar System work?'' and ''What are the conditions for life and planetary formation?''. The returned material will allow us to study in terrestrial laboratories some of the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes, to explore initial stages of habitable planet formation, to identify and characterize the organics and volatiles in a primitive asteroid. In fact, only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. In addition to addressing these major science goals, the MarcoPolo-R mission study (ESA/SRE (2013)4) also involved innovative European technologies for which ESA technical development programs are still under way. As a result of the several industrial studies, ESA designed a remarkably cost-effective and robust asteroid sample return mission scenario. The spacecraft has been defined making use of low-cost units for most of the sub-systems. The key sample return capabilities, i.e. asteroid navigation, touch and go, sampling mechanism and the re-entry capsule have reached at ESA a validation status to enter implementation phase. In this new era of international effort and interest of sample return with the selected missions of Hayabusa-2 (JAXA) and OSIRIS-Rex (NASA), the development of sample return technology represents in Europe a crucial element for planetary science and for the space technology development. The status of the mission study at ESA will be presented and the future for European asteroid sample return will be discussed.

  4. Herschel observations of the Marco Polo-R asteroid 175706 (1996 FG3).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Barucci, A.; Gònzalez-Garcìa, B.; Dotto, E.; Küppers, M.

    2012-09-01

    Background: The Marco Polo-R mission has been selected for the assessment study phase of the ESA M3 missions. This ESA-led sample return mission to the binary asteroid 1996 FG3 (launch window between 2020 and 2024) is proposed with a design that allows it to fit within the pre-defined cost cap of a M-class mission. The binary nature of the target will allow more precise measurements of mass, gravity, and density than for a single object, as well as additional insights into the geology and geophysics of the system. The asteroid has been classified by Binzel et al. [1] as a C-type. It is considered to be a typical example of a primitive object [2]. Dynamically, this is an Apollo asteroid with semimajor axis a of 1.054 AU, eccentricity e of 0.35, and and inclination i of 1.98 degrees. Measurements of the albedo derived from thermal infrared observations give a value of pV = 0.042 (+0.035 -0.017), and a combined diameter of D = 1.84 (+0.56 -0.47) km [3]. The Herschel observations : The MACH-11 (Measurements of 11 Asteroids & Comets) Programme observed this binary asteroid in two occasions in November of 2012. The observations performed had a duration of 0.6 hours with the asteroid pair moving rapidly at 6'/hr thus making removal of the background quite straightforward. The observations were performed in two observing blocks; the first block consisted of a 2 repetition blue/red map, the second block consisted of a 2 repetition green/red map, with the intention to observe the target at different phase angles. Our Results : Our measurements will serve to update the known radiometric properties for this binary asteroid through their inclusion into a thermophysical model (TPM) [4] which has been validated against a large database of asteroids including targets of other spacecraft mission e.g. Lutetia [5], Itokawa [6]. Using existing sets of published thermal observations (Spitzer, TNG NICS), combined with our Herschel observations, applied within this thermophysical model, we will derive the radiometric properties of this target pair. The calculations are to be performed for the full range of possible shape and spin-vector solutions derived from the available sample of visual lightcurve observations, taking into account the implications of the asteroid satellites impact on the derived flux. The output of our model will aid in deriving the asteroids thermal inertia, as well as provide important information on the surface properties of this binary asteroid; important due to their relevance in the preparation of the future Marco Polo-R spacecraft.

  5. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission candidate as ESA-M3 class mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Lara, Luisa-M.; Marty, Bernard; Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Cheng, Andy; Bohnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John R.; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.

    2015-03-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESAfs Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3). The aim of the new Assessment Study is to reduce the cost of the mission while maintaining its high science level, on the basis of advanced studies and technologies, as well as optimization of the mission. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive binary NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive binary NEA (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return: the choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily compared to a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible to obtain from a single object. Precise measurements of the mutual orbit and rotation state of both components can be used to probe higher-level harmonics of the gravitational potential, and therefore the internal structure. A unique opportunity is offered to study the dynamical evolution driven by the YORP/Yarkovsky thermal effects. Possible migration of regolith on the primary from poles to equator allows the increasing maturity of asteroidal regolith with time to be expressed as a latitude-dependent trend, with the most-weathered material at the equator matching what is seen in the secondary. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes. Moreover, MarcoPolo-R will provide a sample from a known target with known geological context. Direct investigation of both the regolith and fresh interior fragments is also impossible by any means other than sample return. The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. The limited sampling provided by meteorites does not offer the most primitive material available in near-Earth space. More primitive material, having experienced less alteration on the asteroid, will be more friable and would not survive atmospheric entry in any discernible amount. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority by a number of the leading space agencies.

  6. The Silk Road, Marco Polo, a Bible and its proteome: a detective story.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Lucia; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Saccenti, Riccardo; Gulotta, Davide; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-06-18

    Around the end of XIII century (at the time of young Marco Polo's first trip to China at the court of Khubilai Khan in Khan Baliq) a pocket Bible was delivered by a Franciscan friar to the Mogul Emperor, in the framework of the evangelization program of the Far East. Four centuries later, in 1685, this Bible was rediscovered by the Jesuit Philippe Couplet in the house of a rich Chinese in Nanchin and donated to Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany. This Bible was recently "unearthed" in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence, wrapped up in a precious yellow silk cloth, in a rather ruined state. After two years of restoration, the Bible will return to China in 2012 for a celebration of its >700years of life and of its remarkable return trip on the Silk Road. On account of the thinness of the parchment (barely 80?m thickness, the size of each foil being 16.5×11cm) it was widely held that the pages were produced from foetal lambskins. On tiny fragments of the margins of a foil, after several unsuccessful attempts at digesting the vellum, we were able to obtain a tryptic peptide mixture, which, upon mass spectrometry analysis, yielded the identity of 8 unique proteins, belonging to the genus Bos taurus, thus confirming the origin of the vellum from calfskins rather than from foetal lambskins. Our results prove that it is possible to obtain reliable protein extraction and IDs from ancient parchment documents. PMID:22504796

  7. SR-A/MARCO-mediated ligand delivery enhances intracellular TLR and NLR function, but ligand scavenging from cell surface limits TLR4 response to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Varin, Audrey; Chen, Yunying; Liu, Baoying; Tryggvason, Karl; Gordon, Siamon

    2011-01-27

    Phagocytic and pathogen sensing receptors are responsible for particle uptake and inflammation. It is unclear how these receptors' systems influence each other's function to shape an innate response. The class-A scavenger receptors SR-A (scavenger receptor A) and MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) are 2 well-characterized phagocytic receptors that are unable to initiate inflammatory responses by themselves, yet are implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders. However, the mechanism for such an apparent discrepancy is still unclear. We utilized SR-A(-/-), MARCO(-/-), and SR-A(-/-)-MARCO(-/-) mice, along with microbe-derived, environmental, and synthetic polyanions to assess the inflammatory responses following combinatorial ligation of SR-A/MARCO and selected Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) by their shared ligands. In addition to ligating SR-A and MARCO, these agonists also selectively activated the cell-surface sensor TLR4, endosomal TLR3, and the cytosolic NOD2 and NALP3 (NACHT domain-, leucine-rich repeat-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3). We show that, following recognition of common ligands, SR-A and MARCO attenuate TLR4-mediated responses while enhancing responses by the intracellular TLR3, NOD2, and NALP3. We conclude that SR-A/MARCO-mediated rapid ligand internalization prevented sensing by surface TLRs while increasing ligand availability in intracellular compartments, thus allowing sensing and robust responses by intracellular sensors. PMID:21098741

  8. Local time variation of equatorial thermospheric composition determined by the San Marco 3 Nace. [Neutral atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, G. P.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Curtis, S. A.; Pelz, D. T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the Neutral Atmospheric Composition Experiment (Nace) on the Italian San Marco 3 satellite are analyzed. The analysis provides a comprehensive description of the daily variations in the densities of O, N2, Ar, and He in composition of the lower thermosphere, and also indicates that transport processes (possibly occurring elsewhere in the atmosphere) play an important part in the daily variation of the thermospheric composition at altitudes between 220 and 250 km.

  9. FANTINA: Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA- Payload For Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Biele, J.; Bousquet, P.; Ciarletti, V.; Ho, T. M.; Issler, J. L.; Kofman, W.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Puget, P.; Souyris, J. C.; Ulamec, S.; van Zoest, T.; Zine, S.

    2012-04-01

    The internal structure of small bodies is still poorly known and has never been measured directly. There is no way to determine from ground based observation whether the body is a monolithic piece of rock or a rubble-pile, an aggregate of boulders held together by gravity and how much porosity it contains, both in the form of micro-scale or macro-scale porosity. Knowing this structure is a key point for a better understanding of the asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. It is the main objective of the FANTINA experience proposed Payload for Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission: FANTINA (Marco Polo's Daughter) for Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA is to provide measurement capabilities and science data which are not accessible by remote sensing of the asteroid from the Marco-Polo R spacecraft alone and which complement the analysis of the returned samples. The FANTINA payload is a Lander carrying the ASSERT experiment and a complementary payload to be defined: ASSERT is a bistatic CONSERT/Rosetta-like radar to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of the asteroid in order to characterise its composition and its heterogeneity from decimetric to global scale. The lander is a long-lived bus in the 10-kg class derived from MASCOT/Hayabusa 2. This paper reviews the science rationale of FANTINA in the context of the Marco Polo R mission to 1996FG3. The surface package concept will be reviewed including the radar tomography principles. So a preliminary design and budget will be done.

  10. Telescience with MARCO/HOLOP on board the spacelab D2-mission as a preparation for Columbus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, E.; Geist, W.; Heimann, K.; Heyland, D.; Hibsch, G.; Schmidt, K. D.

    The implementation of the telescience concept and its test in precursor missions is mandatory for experiment operations in the Columbus era with respect to enhancements in science quality and quantity. During the German D2 Spacelab mission, scheduled for spring 1993, a fluid physics experiment (MARCO, MARangoni COnvection in an open boat) will be performed in the telescience mode, using the HOLOP-D2 (HOLographic OPtics laboratory) experiment facility. MARCO will be remotely operated by the experimenter from a USOC (User Support and Operations Center). DLR/MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, located at Cologne, Germany) will play the role of this USOC, being connected to DLR/GSOC (German Space Operations Center, located in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany) via remote data, voice and video lines. Telescience with MARCO/HOLOP is a joint effort between DARA GmbH (Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrt-Angelegenheiten), DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.) and ESA (European Space Agency).

  11. Marco Polo: International Small Solar System Body Exploration Mission in 2010's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime

    Since 2000, Japanese scientists and engineers have investigated new generation primitive body missions in the post-Hayabusa era in 2010's. Receiving the Minorbody Exploration Forum Final Report, ISAS established the nation-wide Small Body Exploration Working Group (SBE-WG) in 2004. After the successful exploration of the S-type NEO Itokawa by Hayabusa in 2005, the Hayabusa-2 concept emerged for a C-type asteroid sample return by the original Hayabusa spacecraft system with minor improvements and modifications. In parallel to that effort, the SBE-WG continued to develop the post-Hayabusa mission concept as "Hayabusa Mk-II," a fully model-changed, advanced spacecraft with the sample return capability from the most primitive bodies of the solar system. It is this Hayabusa Mk-II that has became the foundation of the International small body exploration concept "Marco Polo" since 2006. Jointly proposed to the first call of the ESA Cosmic Vision by scientists from Japan, Europe, and the U.S., the Marco Polo concept was selected as one of the M-class mission candidates for the assessment study phase in the fall of 2007. In 2008, the international joint study team has been created and its mission definitions, system requirements, and target selections are currently under the study. The top-level scientific themes are to decode the solar system formation and evolution in the astrobiology and astromineralogy contexts as one of the most important scientific challenges of 2010's. These themes are sub-divided into several objectives to be achieved by both instruments carried onboard the mother spacecraft (MSC), a large lander, or small hopping rovers and returned samples. The initial mission target candicdates include comet-asteroid transition (CAT) objects, D-type asteroids and C-type binary asteroids in near-Earth orbits. In the baseline scenario, a Soyuz launcher provided by ESA will launch the JAXA-made MSC with sampling and other in-situ science instruments provided by both JAXA and ESA, as well as the large European lander and a few small Japanese rovers as possible options, around 2018. In order to reach the CAT object Wilson-Harrington, MSC employs a cluster of improved ion engines inherited from the Hayabusa technology with the Earth gravity assist in the outbound interplanetary cruise. In 2022, the MSC will arrive the target and conduct global mapping and scientific investigation including sampling site selection in a few moths. Then the lander and rovers will be landed on the target surface to conduct cross-scale science being complementary to the MSC instruments and laboratory studies of returned samples. Toward the end of the stay, touch-and-go sequences for surface and possibly sub-surface sample collections will be attempted by taking advantages of operational experiences in the Hayabusa mission. In 2023, the MSC containing the collected samples inside the Earth return capsule will start the inbound cruise back to the Earth while the lander would continue to investigate in-situ the target surface. The sample delivery to the Earth and initial sample analyses, after the planetary quarantine procedure if necessary, will be expected in 2026.

  12. Behavioral and physiological antipredator responses of the San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew R; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to predatory stimuli typically results in the elevation of circulating glucocorticoid levels and a behavioral response of freezing or escape behavior in many prey species. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid in amphibians and is known to be important in modulating many behaviors and developmental functions. The federally threatened San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana, decreases activity in response to both native and introduced predatory fish, however, experience may further influence these interactions. To better understand the indirect effects of fish predators on this salamander, we examined both the antipredator behavior and water-borne CORT release rates in response to chemical cues (kairomones) from two fish species that varied in temporal risk of predation: (1) a low encounter frequency predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), (2) a high encounter frequency predator (redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus), and (3) a blank water control. Salamanders reduced activity (antipredator response) after exposure to both predator treatments, but not to the blank water control, and the response to M. salmoides was significantly stronger than that to L. auritus. The CORT response (post-stimulus/pre-stimulus release rates) did not differ between the blank water control and L. auritus treatments, and both were significantly less than the CORT response to M. salmoides. Overall, E. nana showed a decreased antipredator response and no CORT response towards the high encounter frequency L. auritus as compared to the low encounter frequency M. salmoides. Eurycea nana may mute antipredator and CORT responses to high temporal frequency predators. There was, however, no correlation between CORT release rates and antipredator behavior, which suggests that the presence of predators may be affecting CORT response and behavior independently. PMID:25446225

  13. CAMAM instrument suite for MarcoPolo-R mission to an asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, Marek; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike; Meyer, Stefan; Wurz, Peter; Thomas, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    CAMAM (Composition And Morphology of Asteroid's Material) is an analytical instrument suite developed for investigation of composition and morphology of asteroidal matter for the MarcoPolo-R sample return mission from a primitive near-Earth asteroid. The instrument combines a microscope-camera system (MCS), a laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS), and a regolith particle trap (PT). PT uses a charged metallic foil to attract mm-sized or smaller regolith particles from a dust cloud that will be lifted up during the sampling phase. A translational mechanism will deliver the samples to the measurement location inside the CAMAM instrument. CAMAM will conduct measurements by complementary methodologies in a symbiotic way and will allow characterisation of regolith samples by optical investigation and mass spectrometry. MCS will identify and characterise sample components, such as chondrules, matrix, refractory inclusions, down to individual micro-metre-sized grains and particles. Surface features larger than a few µm will be characterised by multicolour imagery, imagery of fluorescence induced by UV sample irradiation, and polarisation analysis of light reflected from the surface. The microscope will yield structural details and morphology of a sample including sample shape, size and texture. Investigation of optical spectral properties of the sample surface will also provide an insight to surface mineralogy and help in identification of organic compound deposits. LMS will conduct measurements of the elemental composition of a sample down to a level of ppm, the isotopic distribution of elements, and also will investigate the molecular compounds that are located on the sample surface. CAMAM studies will allow a comprehensive investigation of the interrelationship between grains, their structure, chemical composition, mineralogy, and adsorbed molecules. We will discuss concepts underlying CAMAM instrument operation and demonstrate instrumental performance. References 1) N. Thomas et al., "The microscope for Beagle 2", Planet. Sp. Sci., 52, pp. 853—866, 2004. 2) U. Rohner, J. Whitby, and P. Wurz, "A miniature laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary exploration", Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, pp. 2159—2164, 2003. 3) M. Tulej, M. Iakovleva, I. Leya, and P. Wurz, "A miniature mass analyser for in situ elemental analysis of planetary material - performance studies", Anal. and Bioanal. Chem. 399, pp. 2185—2200, 2011. 4) A. Riedo, A. Bieler, M. Neuland, M. Tulej, and P. Wurz, "Performance evaluation of a miniature laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer designed for in situ investigations in planetary space research", J. Mass. Spectrom., 2013, DOI 10.1002/jms.3104.

  14. The European Sample Return Mission MarcoPolo-R: Understanding The Nature Of Extraterrestrial Primitive Materials And Tracing The Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Cateline; Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Michel, P.; Böhnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Lara, L.; Marty, B.; Koschny, D.; Agnolon, D.; Romstedt, J.; Martin, P.

    2012-10-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a European sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase of ESA's Cosmic Vision M3-class (Medium)program with 3 other mission candidates. The study will last until September 2013, for a selection of one mission at the end of 2013 and a launch in 2022-2024. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, the primitive binary NEA (175706) 1996 FG3. It will scientifically characterize the NEA binary system at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The binary target provides enhanced science return: precise measurements of the mutual orbit and rotation state of both components can be used to probe higher-level harmonics of the gravitational potential, and therefore the internal structure. A unique opportunity is offered to study the dynamical evolution driven by the YORP/Yarkovsky thermal effects. Possible migration of regolith on the primary from poles to equator allows the increasing maturity of asteroidal regolith with time to be expressed as a latitude dependent trend, with the most weathered material at the equator matching what is seen in the secondary. The main goal of MarcoPolo-R is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. It will allow scientists to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes. Laboratory measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority and are developed by a number of the leading space agencies.

  15. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a dynamic adhesive molecule that enhances uptake of carbon nanotubes by CHO-K1 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2012-02-15

    The toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a highly promising nanomaterial, is similar to that of asbestos because both types of particles have a fibrous shape and are biopersistent. Here, we investigated the characteristics of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a membrane receptor expressed on macrophages that recognizes environmental or unopsonized particles, and we assessed whether and how MARCO was involved in cellular uptake of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). MARCO-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells took up polystyrene beads irrespective of the particle size (20 nm–1 μm). In the culture of MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells dendritic structures were observed on the bottom of culture dishes, and the edges of these dendritic structures were continually renewed as the cell body migrated along the dendritic structures. MWCNTs were first tethered to the dendritic structures and then taken up by the cell body. MWCNTs appeared to be taken up via membrane ruffling like macropinocytosis, rather than phagocytosis. The cytotoxic EC{sub 50} value of MWCNTs in MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells was calculated to be 6.1 μg/mL and transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that the toxicity of MWCNTs may be due to the incomplete inclusion of MWCNTs by the membrane structure. -- Highlights: ►Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tethered to MARCO in vitro. ►CNTs were taken up rapidly into the cell body via MARCO by membrane ruffling. ►The incomplete inclusion of CNTs by membranes caused cytotoxicity.

  16. Origin and characteristics of discharge at San Marcos Springs based on hydrologic and geochemical data (2008–10), Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas is a productive and important water resource. Several large springs issuing from the aquifer are major discharge points, popular locations for recreational activities, and habitat for threatened and endangered species. Discharges from Comal and San Marcos Springs, the first and second largest spring complexes in Texas, are used as thresholds in groundwater management strategies for the Edwards aquifer. Comal Springs is generally understood to be supplied by predominantly regional groundwater flow paths; the hydrologic connection of San Marcos Springs with the regional flow system, however, is less understood. During November 2008–December 2010, a hydrologic and geochemical investigation of San Marcos Springs was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System. The primary objective of this study was to define and characterize sources of discharge from San Marcos Springs. During this study, hydrologic conditions transitioned from exceptional drought (the dry period, November 1, 2008 to September 8, 2009) to wetter than normal (the wet period, September 9, 2009 to December 31, 2010), which provided the opportunity to investigate the hydrogeology of San Marcos Springs under a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Water samples were collected from streams, groundwater wells, and springs at and in the vicinity of San Marcos Springs, including periodic (routine) sampling (every 3–7 weeks) and sampling in response to storms. Samples were analyzed for major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and selected stable and radiogenic isotopes (deuterium, oxygen, carbon, strontium). Additionally, selected physicochemical properties were measured continuously at several sites, and hydrologic data were compiled from other USGS efforts (stream and spring discharge). Potential aquifer recharge was evaluated from local streams, and daily recharge or gain/loss estimates were computed for several local streams. Local rainfall and recharge events were compared with physicochemical properties and geochemical variability at San Marcos Springs, with little evidence for dilution by local recharge.

  17. Marco Polo - A Mission to Return a Sample from a Near-Earth Object - Science Requirements and Operational Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Antonella; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Böhnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian; F. Green, Simon; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Jürgen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard; Agnolon, David; Romstedt, Jens

    Marco Polo is a mission to return a sample from a near-Earth object of primitive type (class C or D). It is foreseen as a collaborative effort between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Marco Polo is currently in a Phase-A study (status as of summer 2009). This paper focuses on the scientific requirements provided to the industrial study consortia in Europe as well as the possible mission scenario at the target object in order to achieve the overall mission science objectives. The main scientific reasons for going to a near-Earth object are to understand the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula, to understand how major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating) influence the history of planetesimals, whether primitive class objects contain presolar material, what the organics were in primitive materials, how organics could shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life, and what the role of impacts by NEOs would be in the origin and evolution of life on Earth.

  18. MarcoPolo-R: Near-Earth Asteroid sample return mission selected for the assessment study phase of the ESA program cosmic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Barucci, M. A.; Cheng, A. F.; Böhnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Dotto, E.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Lara, L.-M.; Marty, B.; Koschny, D.; Agnolon, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) MarcoPolo-R proposed to the European Space Agency in December 2010. MarcoPolo-R was selected in February 2011 with three other missions addressing different science objectives for the two-year Assessment Phase of the Medium-Class mission competition of the Cosmic Vision 2 program for launch in 2022. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the binary NEA (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers an efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of a binary target allows several scientific investigations to occur more easily than through a single object, in particular regarding the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a primitive, organic-rich NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a bulk sample to Earth for laboratory analyses. The MarcoPolo-R sample will provide a representative sample from the surface of a known asteroid with known geologic context, and will contribute to the inventory of primitive material that is probably missing from the meteorite collection. The MarcoPolo-R samples will thus contribute to the exploration of the origin of planetary materials and initial stages of habitable planet formation, to the identification and characterization of the organics and volatiles in a primitive asteroid and to the understanding of the unique geomorphology, dynamics and evolution of a binary asteroid that belongs to the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) population.

  19. The Cretaceous sediment-hosted copper deposits of San Marcos (Coahuila, Northeastern Mexico): An approach to ore-forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alonso, Donají; Canet, Carles; González-Partida, Eduardo; Villanueva-Estrada, Ruth Esther; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María; Alfonso, Pura; Caballero-Martínez, Juan Antonio; Lozano-Santa Cruz, Rufino

    2011-04-01

    In the San Marcos ranges of Cuatrociénegas, NE Mexico, several sediment-hosted copper deposits occur within the boundary between the Coahuila Block, a basement high mostly granitic in composition and Late Paleozoic to Triassic in age, and the Mesozoic Sabinas rift basin. This boundary is outlined by the regional-scale synsedimentary San Marcos Fault. At the basin scale, the copper mineralization occurs at the top of a ˜1000 m thick red-bed succession (San Marcos Formation, Berrisian), a few meters below a conformable, transitional contact with micritic limestones (Cupido Formation, Hauterivian to Aptian). It consists of successive decimeter-thick roughly stratiform copper-rich horizons placed just above the red-beds, in a transitional unit of carbonaceous grey-beds grading to micritic limestones. The host rocks are fine- to medium-grained arkoses, with poorly sorted and subangular to subrounded grains. The detrital grains are cemented by quartz and minor calcite; besides, late iron oxide grain-coating cement occurs at the footwall unmineralized red-beds. The source area of the sediments, indicated by their modal composition, is an uplifted basement. The contents of SiO 2 (40.70-87.50 wt.%), Al 2O 3 (5.91-22.00 wt.%), K 2O (3.68-12.50 wt.%), Na 2O (0.03-2.03 wt.%) and CaO (0.09-3.78 wt.%) are within the ranges expected for arkoses. Major oxide ratios indicate that the sedimentary-tectonic setting was a passive margin. The outcropping copper mineralization essentially consists in a supergene assemblage of chrysocolla, malachite and azurite. All that remains of the primary mineralization are micron-sized chalcocite grains shielded by quartz cement. In addition, pyrite subhedral grains occur scattered throughout the copper-mineralized horizons. In these weathered orebodies copper contents range between 4.24 and 7.72 wt.%, silver between 5 and 92 ppm, and cobalt from 8 to 91 ppm. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite crystals from footwall barren veinlets gave temperatures of homogenization between 98 °C and 165 °C, and ice-melting temperatures between -42.5 °C and -26.1 °C. The primary copper mineralization formed during the early diagenesis, contemporary with the active life of the Sabinas Basin. The mineralizing fluids were dense, near neutral, moderately oxidized brines that originally formed from seawater that, driven by gravity, infiltrated to the deepest parts of the basin and dissolved evaporites. As a result, they became hydrothermal fluids of moderate temperature capable of leaching high amounts of copper. The source of this metal could be mafic detrital grains and iron oxides of the underlying Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous red-beds. Copper precipitation took place when the brines passed through the redox boundary marked by the transition from red- to grey-beds. The upward movement of the brines was promoted by a high heat flow that allowed their convective circulation and their ascent along the synsedimentary San Marcos Fault.

  20. Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid and Marco Polo-R Mission Target (175706) 1996 FG3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, L. A. M.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Lawrence, K. J.; Taylor, P. A.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Busch, M. W.; Margot, J. L.; Naidu, S. P.; Magri, C.; Shepard, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    We report Arecibo (2380 MHz), 13-cm) and Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5-cm) delay-Doppler radar observations of binary near-Earth asteroid and Marco Polo-R mission target (175706) 1996 FG3 that were obtained on nine dates November-December, 2011.

  1. The Close-Up Camera of the Marco-Polo-R Asteroid Mission, Science Objectives and Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Souchon, A.; Josset, M.; Hofmann, B.; Leya, I.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Michel, P.; Hoffmann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Dotto, E.; Ferri, F.; Cellino, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Lara, L. M.; Grande, M.; Cockell, C.; Martins, Z.; Neubeck, A.; Korablev, O.; Ohtake, M.; Paar, G.; Muinonen, K.

    2013-09-01

    The CUC (Close-Up Camera) is part of the selected scientific payload for the MarcoPolo-R mission. It is a powerful, miniaturized, low-power, efficient and highly adaptive system of 820 g, composed of three main parts: a flexible structure focus mechanism allows the acquisition of sharp images of any target from 10 cm to infinity; a colour Active Pixel Sensor with 2652 x 1768 x 3 pixels provides RGB colours keeping the spatial resolution; a high-performance integrated electronics system allows a good flexibility for the operations of the CUC. The CUC is designed to characterize at high resolution and in colour the sampling area and provide the geological context of the sample prior to the sampling operations, which is crucial for the subsequent analysis of the sample back to Earth. The aim is to determine physical key properties of the target's surface, such as grain size distribution, textural, mineralogical, structural, and morphological details in geologic materials, influence of space weathering processes. Thanks to its varying focal length, CUC images can also be acquired before and after the sampling operation: - during the descent, to provide information on the unperturbed regolith surface state of a larger area around the sampling site, - during the ascent, to study how the sampling process will have altered the structural properties of the surface. With its ~14° field of view (diagonal), the CUC can also contribute to the local and global characterization phases, in synergy with the other instruments.

  2. Surface processes in microgravity for landing and sampling site selection of asteroid missions-Suggestions for MarcoPolo-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Akos

    2014-10-01

    Surface properties of small asteroids are reviewed in this work focusing on microgravity related processes in order to give constrains for targeting sample acquisition by next missions, especially for MarcoPolo-R proposed by ESA. Based on our current knowledge and the planned capabilities of this mission, good chance exists to get answers for the following basic questions. Formation method of nanophase iron and amorphous ingredients in the regolith could be determined, surface particle size and regolith density estimation would also be gained, and with extrapolation to the rest of the surface, knowledge on transport processes, ages and results of cratering under special gravity-strength regime will be improved. Searching for fresh material on asteroid surface in general requires sophisticated effort, as small craters often do not produce much ejecta in microgravity, but the bright annuli around them could be the result of local surface disturbance, while slopes often exhibit fresh material. To identify these locations high albedo, bluer colour and occasionally the depth of 1 ?m absorption band could be useful as they often change parallel to each other. To identify the best area for sample acquisition addresses a strategic question: while smooth terrains with easy navigation and sample acquisition provide strongly weathered fine grains; steeper terrains give access to less weathered, material more representative for the whole asteroid, but navigation and mechanical sampling rise difficulties there.

  3. Las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado para la materia extraña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constituídas por materia extraña (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del número medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximación, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser más masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, además, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relación período vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresión analítica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, aún con hipótesis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuación de estado de la materia extraña, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deberían ser muy diferentes de las aquí expuestas.

  4. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views oncold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D

    PubMed Central

    Malagón, Filiberto

    2008-01-01

    This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  5. Europa Jupiter System Mission and Marco Polo Mission: Italian partecipation in studies of laser altimeters for Jovian moons and asteroids exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santovito, M. R.; Hussman, H.; Oberst, J.; Lingenauber, K.

    CO.RI.S.T.A. (Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems) is member of international science teams devoted to the studies of laser altimeters to fly on Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) and Marco Polo Mission, currently under study of ESA's Cosmic Vision program as L-class and M-class mission respectively. Both the studies will focus on the assessment of alternative technical approaches that would reduce the mass, size and power requirements. In particular a Single Photon Counting (SPC) device will be studied taking into account the robustness against false detections due to harsh radiation environment in the Jupiter system. Innovative technical aspects which will characterize the studies of laser altimeters in the scenarios of EJSM and MarcoPolo, which will permit us to make major contributions to the science goals of the two missions.

  6. THERMAP: a mid-infrared spectro-imager based on an uncooled micro-bolometer for the Marco Polo R mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brageot, E.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Reynaud, J. L.; Fargant, G.

    2011-10-01

    We report on an on-going feasibility study of a midinfrared (8-18 ?m) spectro-imager for the Marco Polo R mission (THERMAP). Based on the recent development of uncooled micro-bolometer technology, we can now use these detectors for planetary missions. We present our results on using this detector to perform calibrated radiometric images, and a preliminary assessment of its performances for spectroscopic measurements of a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA).

  7. The biogeochemistry of selenium in Sunan grassland, Gansu, Northwest China, casts doubt on the belief that Marco Polo reported selenosis for the first time in history.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shuxun; Zheng, Baoshan

    2008-08-01

    In order to clarify the historic academic problem of whether or not livestock poisoning in ancient Suzhou of Northwest China, recorded by Marco Polo in 1295, was selenosis, this study deals with the biogeochemistry of selenium in Sunan County in the Hexi Corridor, which is part of ancient Suzhou in China. It was found that quite a number of farm animals had suffered from intoxication and died as a result of grazing poisonous grasses, mostly Oxytropis DC, Stellera chamaejasme, and Achnatheru inebrians. Toxic symptoms of livestock grazing on Oxytropis DC are similar to those of selenium toxicity, for instance, hair loss and hoof lesions as described by Marco Polo. Therefore, we thought that toxic grass, probably Oxytropis DC, led to the intoxication of livestock recorded by Marco Polo. Average Se concentrations in two members of this species were 0.112 +/- 0.038 mg/kg for the root of Oxytropis glabra, 0.102 +/- 0.027 mg/kg for the stem and leaf of Oxytropis glabra, and 0.066 +/- 0.009 mg/kg for Oxytropis ochrocephala. The average soil selenium concentration was 0.205 +/- 0.127 mg/kg on grassland producing Oxytropis glabra and 0.152 +/- 0.024 mg/kg on grassland producing Oxytropis ochrocephala. The average Se concentration in other plants was 0.076 mg/kg in the root of Ephedra monosperma Mey, 0.029 mg/kg in the root of Rheum palmatum, 0.031 mg/kg in the root of Stellera chamaejasme, 0.037 mg/kg in Achnatherum inebrians, and 0.067 mg/kg in forage grass (Achnatherum splendens ohwi). Selenium concentrations in soils and plants in Sunan County are far less than the thresholds causing selenium toxicity in livestock. As a result, this study concludes that the livestock poisoning recorded by Marco Polo in 1295 might not have been selenosis. PMID:18351293

  8. DNA Microarray Analysis of Submandibular Glands in IgG4-Related Disease Indicates a Role for MARCO and Other Innate Immune-Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Miho; Moriyama, Masafumi; Maehara, Takashi; Gion, Yuka; Furukawa, Sachiko; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Mikami, Yurie; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka-Koga, Mana; Kawano, Shintaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel systemic disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by severe fibrosis. Although recent studies demonstrated that innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages might promote local fibrosis and IgG4 production, the pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the disease-associated genes, especially innate immune molecules.Gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray in submandibular glands (SMGs) from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 5), chronic sialoadenitis (CS) (n = 3), and controls (n = 3). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in IgG4-RD (n = 18), CS (n = 4), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), and controls (n = 10).Gene expression patterns in the 3 groups were quite different from each other by the pvclust method and principal components analysis. In IgG4-RD, 1028 upregulated genes and 692 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs (P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs in IgG4-RD encoded proteins involved in T/B cell activation and chemotaxis. PCR validated significantly higher expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a pattern-recognition receptor, in IgG4-RD compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the expression pattern of MARCO was similar to that of the M2 macrophage marker CD163.MARCO was identified as a disease-associated molecule in IgG4-RD by DNA microarray. Moreover, M2 macrophages might contribute to the initiation of IgG4-RD via MARCO. PMID:26886650

  9. The Marco Polo space mission: sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object under assessment study in the Cosmic Vision Program of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.

    2008-09-01

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission study to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO). On October 2007, this mission project passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. The aim of Marco Polo is to reach a primitive NEO, to perform a multiple scale characterization of its physical properties, and to bring samples back to the Earth for detailed analysis in laboratory. The NEO population is composed by asteroids and comets that are thought to be the primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. Due to their small sizes, their chemical composition is believed to have kept some memory of the original chemical composition of the solar nebula, contrary to larger planetary bodies who experienced major thermal processes in their interior. They may also carry some important information related to life formation as current exobiological scenarios invoke an exogeneous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth for the origin of terrestrial life. Finally, the hazard caused by these small bodies needs mitigation strategies which efficiency relies on our understanding of their physical properties. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials. This sample return space mission has therefore the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials, essential to undestand the conditions for planet formation and emergency of life. Current mission studies and expected results will be presented and discussed.

  10. Identification of SCARA3, SCARA5 and MARCO of class A scavenger receptor-like family in Pseudosciaena crocea.

    PubMed

    He, Jianyu; Liu, Huihui; Wu, Changwen

    2014-12-01

    The class A scavenger receptors are important pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system in living organisms. According to the whole-genome data of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), three kinds of scavenger receptors, SCARA3, SCARA5 and MARCO were cloned from the spleen, designated severally as TycSA3, TycSA5 and TycMAC. The complete cDNAs open reading frames (ORF) of TycSA3, TycSA5 and TycMAC were 1938 bp, 1677 bp and 1218 bp (GenBank accession no. KJ467772, KJ467773 and KJ467771), encoding 645, 558 and 405 amino acid (aa) residues respectively. The BLASTp analysis strongly suggested that the sequences shared high similarity with known SCARA3, SCARA5 and MARCO. The phylogenetic relationship analysis illustrated that different subtype of SRs formed their own separate branches, TycSA3 and TycSA5 were placed in SCARA3 and SCARA5 branch of Osteichthyes fish respectively with strong bootstrap support. Curiously, the TycMAC was clustered with Alligator sinensis. ClustalW analysis with amino acid sequences revealed that the proportion of identity with other species was 59-71% for TycSA3 and 55-72% for TycSA5, but the scale of TycMAC was considerable lower than those of other two genes (only approximately 38%). The SR family motifs, such as transmembrane helix region, colied coli region and collagens region in the TycSA3, TycSA5 and TycMAC were conserved. There was an optional cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain (from 457 to 557 residues) containing 6 conserved cysteines (C-482, C-495, C-526, C-536, C-546 and C-556) in TycSA5. Likewise, the SRCR domains of TycMAC (from 310 to 405 residues) also contained C-333, C-346, C-374, C-384, C-394 and C-404 cysteines residues. Particularly, there were the major TRAF2-binding consensus motif and two main motifs on internalization of receptor in TycSA3 and TycSA5. The gene structures of different species were analyzed with GeneMaper v2.5, and the number of introns and exons of TycSA3, TycSA5 and TycMAC in DNA sequences were different, for example some corresponding exon regions were divided into several smaller exon portions. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated the highest mRNA expression of TycSA3, TycSA5 and TycMAC all appeared in spleen among eight detected tissues, and the expression of them were up-regulated in spleen after Vibrio alginolyticus injection. All these results demonstrated that class A SRs played a significant role in the defense against pathogenic bacteria infection in innate immune of sciaenidae fish. PMID:25218683

  11. New observations of asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, primary target of the ESA Marco Polo-R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, J.; Mothé-Diniz, T.; Licandro, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.

    2011-06-01

    Context. Near-Earth asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is the primary target of the ESA Marco Polo-R mission, which was selected for the assessment study phase of ESA M3 missions. This is a primitive (C-type), binary asteroid that will allow new research to be performed. The primary is a rapidly rotating (3.6 h) small asteroid (1.4 km diameter) that is almost spherical and has a satellite of ~400 m. Aims: We analyse new ground-based spectroscopic data of 1996 FG3 to help us characterise its surface composition and prepare for the mission. Methods: We obtained a near-infrared spectrum covering the range 0.8-2.5 ?m, using the camera-spectrograph NICS at the 3.6 m telescope TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo), located at "El Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory on La Palma, Spain. We combine our near-infrared spectrum with previously published data, and compare all the available spectra of this asteroid with the spectra of meteorites to constrain the mineralogy of the asteroid. Results: Our spectrum of FG3 differs remarkably from previously published ones. Spectral classification performed using the complete visible and near-infrared range yields more than one result, varying from C to Xk types. However, all the possible spectral types indicate that this asteroid is a primitive object. The comparison with meteorites behaves in the same way, providing several good matches to our new near-infrared spectrum (CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, and L6 and H4 ordinary chondrites), and only one match in the case of the previously published spectra (weakly shocked H4 ordinary chondrite, dark vein). The albedo of the asteroid (~0.04), is typical of a primitive object, and is consistent with the reflectance value at 0.55 ?m of the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. Further observations will be essential to help us characterise more clearly the mineralogy of this asteroid.

  12. The San Marcos Pueblo Archaeological Site: A Review and Update of Ongoing Work by the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poje, M. S. L.; Berry, K.; Brandt, T. W.; Irwin, T. C.; Creighton, A.; MacLennan, K. J.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.

    2014-12-01

    The San Marcos Pueblo, one of the largest and most important cities of the pre-European Southwest, has long been a place of curiosity for archaeologists and geophysicists alike. Despite numerous archaeological investigations, primarily test excavations and surface surveys carried out at San Marcos from the early 1900s to the present, the site retains pottery sherds scattered along the surface from when it was first occupied in the thirteenth century to its abandonment during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Geophysical investigations have identified locations of kivas (ceremonial pits), middens (trash heaps), room blocks and possible metallurgy activity in the area. The site is located south of Santa Fe, NM and to the east of the Cerrillos Hills, a source for lead ore and turquoise. The students of SAGE have studied the San Marcos Pueblo for the past 11 years, and produced a map of the northeastern portion of the Pueblo colloquially called 'El Mapa Grande.' Ground penetrating radar (GPR), magnetics, and electromagnetic (EM) data were acquired on 30mx30m grids and seismic refraction data on various profiles throughout El Mapa Grande. During the 2014 field season new GPR data were acquired on two grids, magnetics data on one, and multiple grids were resurveyed with magnetics and EM to enhance resolution. The most recent GPR data extend coverage of two large anomalies that are part of linear EW-trending structures previously identified and consistent with a possible block wall or midden. Low GPR scatter and circular magnetic lows define several kivas. A target area in the NE of El Mapa Grande was thought to be related to metallurgic activity. Analysis of previous seismic data did not resolve any subsurface features corresponding to a metallurgy operation, but detected the magnetically-chaotic Ancha formation. Comparison with magnetic profile data support the interpretation that this anomaly is caused by a sub-crop of the Ancha Formation.

  13. A new Eimeria sP. from the plumbeous Central American caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (amphibia: gymnophiona) from Volcán Tajumulco, Department of San Marcos, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, I M; Campbell, J A; Duszynski, D W

    2000-04-01

    Fresh fecal samples from 5 caecilians (Dermophis mexicanus) were collected and examined for coccidia in the summer of 1998. The caecilians were collected in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. Two of the 5 (40%) specimens of caecilians contained an Eimeria species that is described here as new. This represents the first coccidia described from a gymnophionian host. Sporulated oocysts are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 19.5 X 17.7 (16-23 x 15-21) microm, micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, and 3 (or more) polar granules are always present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.0 X 7.2 (10-12 x 6-9); a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. PMID:10780555

  14. Stability and Evolution of Orbits Around the Binary Asteroid 175706 (1996 FG3) and Asteroids 162173 (1999 JU3) and 101955 (1999 RQ36): Implications for the MARCO-POLO-R Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Wickhusen, K.; Shi, X.; Damme, F.; Luedicke, F.; Lupovka, V.; Bauer, S.

    2012-05-01

    In support of the Marco-Polo-R mission, we have carried out numerical simulations of spacecraft trajectories searching for stable orbits about the asteroids 175706(1996 FG3), 1999 RQ36 and 1999 JU3 under the influence of solar radiation pressure.

  15. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system: characteristics of a shallow low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Cerro Negro district, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Conrado Permuy; Guido, Diego M.; Jovic, Sebastián M.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Moncada, Daniel; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Hames, Willis

    2016-01-01

    The Cerro Negro district, within the Argentinian Deseado Massif province, has become one of the most significant recent epithermal discoveries, with estimated reserves plus resources of ˜6.7 Moz Au equivalent. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system contains about 70 % of the Au-Ag resources in the district. Mineralization consists of Upper Jurassic (155 Ma) epithermal Au- and Ag-rich veins of low to intermediate sulfidation style, hosted in and genetically related to Jurassic intermediate composition volcanic rocks (159-156 Ma). Veins have a complex infill history, represented by ten stages with clear crosscutting relationships that can be summarized in four main episodes: a low volume, metal-rich initial episode (E1), an extended banded quartz episode with minor mineralization (E2), a barren waning stage episode (E3), and a silver-rich late tectonic-hydrothermal episode (E4). The first three episodes are interpreted to have formed at the same time and probably from fluids of similar composition: a 290-230 °C fluid dominated by meteoric and volcanic waters (-3‰ to -0‰ δ18Owater), with <3 % NaCl equivalent salinity and with a magmatic source of sulfur (-1 to -2 ‰ δ34Swater). Metal was mainly precipitated at the beginning of vein formation (episode 1) due to a combination of boiling at ˜600 to 800 m below the paleowater table, and associated mixing/cooling processes, as evidenced by sulfide-rich bands showing crustiform-colloform quartz, adularia, and chlorite-smectite banding. During episodes 2 and 3, metal contents progressively decrease during continuing boiling conditions, and veins were filled by quartz and calcite during waning stages of the hydrothermal system, and the influx of bicarbonate waters (-6 to -8.5 ‰ δ18Owater). Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by proximal illite, adularia, and silica zone with chlorite and minor epidote, intermediate interlayered illite-smectite and a distal chlorite halo. This assemblage is in agreement with measured fluid inclusion temperatures. A striking aspect of the Marianas-San Marcos vein system is that the high-grade/high-temperature veins are partially covered by breccia and volcaniclastic deposits of acidic composition, and are spatially associated with hot spring-related deposits and an advanced argillic alteration blanket. A telescoped model is therefore proposed for the Marianas-San Marcos area, where deeper veins were uplifted and eroded, and then partially covered by non-explosive, post-mineral rhyolitic domes and reworked volcaniclastic deposits, together with shallow geothermal features. The last tectonic-hydrothermal mineralization episode (E4), interpreted to have formed at lower temperatures, could be related to this late tectonic and hydrothermal activity.

  16. Strategies, Programs and Projects 2008 of the Astrophysical Group "SPACE-Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos, Peru" - Preparing for the IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Victor; Aguilar, M.; Huisacayna, J.

    2008-05-01

    We present a review of our efforts to introduce astronomy as scientific career in Peru, showing how our astronomy outreach programs have been one of the most important keys to reach our national astronomical scientific goals, remarking the crucial role that the celebration of the IYA2009 must play, in order to promote PhD programmes in astronomy in developing countries. We show the importance of the creation of the Seminario Permanente de Astronomía y Ciencias Espaciales (SPACE) in the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, as an academic scientific and cultural center in Peru, to support our 26 years-old "Astronomical Fridays” which are addressed to wide range of public, from schoolchildren to scientists. We also show how important was to rediscover our ancient astronomical cultural past of Incas in order to promote the construction of a Astronomical Center located near Cusco city over 4000 meters above sea level, which includes a tourist-educational observatory, a scientific optical observatory and a solar radio observatory.

  17. Deployment of a lander on the binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, potential target of the european MarcoPolo-R sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardivel, Simon; Michel, Patrick; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    The idea of deploying a lander on the secondary body of the binary primitive asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is investigated. 1996 FG3 is the backup target of the European sample return space mission MarcoPolo-R under assessment study at the European Space Agency in the framework of the M3 Medium-Class mission competition. The launch will take place in 2022-2024, depending on its selection at the end of 2013. A lander is indicated as an optional payload, depending on mass availability on the spacecraft. Obviously, the possible complexity of a lander deployment is also an important parameter to take into account. Here we demonstrate that, considering worst case scenarios and low requirements on the spacecraft GNC and deployment mechanism, the operations are easy to implement and safe for the main spacecraft. The concept of operations is to deploy a light lander from the L2 Lagrange point of the binary system, on a ballistic trajectory that will impact the secondary asteroid. The fundamental principles of this strategy are briefly presented and a detailed model of 1996 FG3 is considered, to which the strategy is applied. We show that the deployment is successful in 99.94% of cases.

  18. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be allowed. Temporary floats or buoys for marking anchors in place will be allowed. Fixed mooring piles or stakes are prohibited. All moorings shall be so...

  19. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be allowed. Temporary floats or buoys for marking anchors in place will be allowed. Fixed mooring piles or stakes are prohibited. All moorings shall be so...

  20. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be allowed. Temporary floats or buoys for marking anchors in place will be allowed. Fixed mooring piles or stakes are prohibited. All moorings shall be so...

  1. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be allowed. Temporary floats or buoys for marking anchors in place will be allowed. Fixed mooring piles or stakes are prohibited. All moorings shall be so...

  2. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be allowed. Temporary floats or buoys for marking anchors in place will be allowed. Fixed mooring piles or stakes are prohibited. All moorings shall be so...

  3. The supplemental instruction program: Student perceptions of the learning environment and impact on student academic achievement in college science at California State University, San Marcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizer, Suzanne Elizabeth

    Higher education in science has been criticized and calls to increase student learning and persistence to degree has been recognized as a national problem by the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, and the National Academy of Sciences. One mode of academic assistance that may directly address this issue is the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in science courses. SI is a specific model of academic assistance designed to help students in historically difficult science classes master course content, thus increasing their academic achievement and retention. This study assessed the SI program at California State University, San Marcos, in supported science courses. Specifically, academic achievement based on final course grades were compared between SI participating and nonparticipating students, multiple affective factors were measured at the beginning and end of the semester, and students' perceptions of the classroom and SI session learning environments recorded. Overall, students who attended five or more SI sessions achieved higher final course grades. Students who chose to participate in SI had higher initial levels of responsibility and anxiety. Additionally, SI participants experienced a reduction in anxiety over the semester whereas nonparticipants experienced an increase in anxiety from beginning to the end of the semester. The learning environment of SI embodies higher levels of constructivist principles of active learning such as cooperation, cohesiveness, innovation, and personalization---with one exception for the physics course, which is a based on problem-based learning. Structural equation modeling of variables indicates that high self-efficacy at the end of the semester is directly related to high final course grades; this is mediated by cohesion in the classroom and the cooperation evidenced in SI sessions. These findings are elaborated by student descriptions of what happened in SI sessions and discussed given the theoretical frameworks of Bandura's concept of self-efficacy and learning environment activities that embody constructivist principles.

  4. Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid and Marco Polo-R Mission Target (175706) 1996 FG3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Lawrence, K. J.; Taylor, P. A.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Busch, M. W.; Margot, J.; Naidu, S. P.; Magri, C.; Shepard, M. K.

    2012-10-01

    We report Arecibo (2380 MHz), 13-cm) and Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5-cm) delay-Doppler radar observations of binary near-Earth asteroid and Marco Polo-R mission target (175706) 1996 FG3 that were obtained on nine dates between November 6-December 17, 2011. The images achieve resolutions as fine as 75 m in range and place hundreds of pixels on the primary. The images provide thorough rotational coverage by the primary and reveal a rounded, slightly elongated object with a visible extent of 0.9 km. If the visible extent is about ½ of the actual extent, which would be true for a sphere, then the equatorial diameter is about 1.8 km. The primary has features along its leading edge that resemble the signature of the pronounced ridge on the equator of binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4. The images sample a wide range of orbital positions by the secondary, resolve it in range and Doppler frequency, show that it is elongated and roughly 500 m in diameter, and suggest that its rotation is synchronous (or nearly so) with the orbital period of 16.1 h estimated by Scheirich and Pravec (2009, Icarus 200, 531-547). We observe a maximum range separation of 2.5 km that, combined with the nearly circular eccentricity found by Scheirich and Pravec from inversion of lightcurves, establishes a lower bound on the semimajor axis. 1996 FG3 has a circular polarization ratio SC/OC = 0.34±0.02 that is comparable to that of 25143 Itokawa (0.28±0.04), suggesting similar degrees of near-surface roughness. The radar data will yield a 3D model of the primary, possibly a coarse-resolution model of the secondary, more precise orbit fitting, and estimates of the system’s mass and bulk density.

  5. Concentrations of Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane in Women Exposed to Woodsmoke in a Cookstove Intervention Study in San Marcos, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Commodore, Adwoa A.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chang, Yan; Hartinger, Stella M.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Gil, Ana I.; Hall, Daniel B.; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Vena, John E.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Naeher, Luke P.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half of the world’s population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. The effect of woodsmoke exposure on oxidative stress was examined by investigating the association between woodsmoke exposure and biomarkers of DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane) among control and intervention stove users. HAP exposure assessment was conducted within the framework of a community-randomized controlled trial of 51 communities in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. The first morning urine voids after 48hr HAP exposure assessment from a subset of 45 control and 39 intervention stove users were analyzed for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane. General linear models and correlation analyses were performed. Urinary oxidative stress biomarkers ranged from 11.2 to 2270.0 μg/g creatinine (median: 132.6 μg/g creatinine) for 8-OHdG and from 0.1 to 4.5 μg/g creatinine (median: 0.8 μg/g creatinine) for 8-isoprostane among all study subjects (n=84). After controlling for the effects of traffic in the community and eating food exposed to fire among all subjects, cooking time was weakly, but positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG (r=0.29, p=0.01, n=80). Subjects’ real-time personal CO exposures were negatively associated with 8-OHdG, particularly the maximum 30-second CO exposure during the sampling period (r=−0.32, p=0.001, n=73). 48hr time integrated personal PM2.5 was negatively, but marginally associated with urinary 8-isoprostane (r=−0.21, p=0.09, n=69) after controlling for the effect of distance of homes to the road. Urinary 8-isoprostane levels reported in the available literature are comparable to results found in the current study. However there were relatively high levels of urinary 8-OHdG compared to data in the available literature for 8-OHdG excretion. Results suggest a sustained systemic oxidative stress among these Peruvian women chronically exposed to wood smoke. PMID:24041735

  6. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  7. Ultraviolet to near-infrared spectroscopy of the potentially hazardous, low delta-V asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3. Backup target of the sample return mission MarcoPolo-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Gourgeot, F.; Brucato, J. R.; Rossi, A.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Primitive near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are important subjects of study for current planetary research. Their investigation can provide crucial information on topics such as the formation of the solar system, the emergence of life, and the mitigation of the risk of asteroid impact. Sample return missions from primitive asteroids have been scheduled or are being studied by space agencies, including the MarcoPolo-R mission selected for the assessment study phase of ESA M3 missions. Aims: We want to improve our knowledge of the surface composition and physical nature of the potentially hazardous, low delta-V asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, backup target of MarcoPolo-R. This intriguing object shows an as-yet unexplained spectral variability. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations of 1996 FG3 using the visible spectrograph DOLORES at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), and the UV-to-NIR X-Shooter instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Results: We find featureless spectra and we classify 1996 FG3 as a primitive Xc-type in the Bus-DeMeo taxonomy. Based on literature comparison, we confirm the spectral variability of this object at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, and find that spectral variations exist also for the visible spectral region. Phase reddening cannot explain such variations. Obtained with the same observational conditions for the whole 0.3-2.2 ?m range, our X-Shooter spectrum allowed a proper comparison with the RELAB meteorite database. A very good fit is obtained with the very primitive C2 Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite (pressed powder), confirming 1996 FG3 as a suitable target for a sample return mission from primitive NEAs. Conclusions: We hypothesize a compacted/cemented surface for 1996 FG3, like that observed by the Hayabusa mission on (25143) Itokawa, with the possible presence of regions showing different degrees of surface roughness. This variegation could be related to the binary nature of 1996 FG3, but to check this hypothesis further observations are necessary. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Chile (programme 088.C-0695), and with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (programme AOT25/TAC13).

  8. Project Marco Polo: Experiences Applying Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trygestad, JoAnn; Nelson, Jasmine

    1993-01-01

    Describes a summer 1992 study tour of Egypt and Greece by 15 teachers, 15 students, and 5 geography administrators. Focuses on the experiences and attitudes of one eighth-grade student. Asserts that her presentations to student and adult groups have encouraged other students to become more interested in travel and other cultures. (CFR)

  9. Seminario Tecnico Regional Sobre Alternativas de Educacion Basica de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, 29 de Septiembre al 3 de Octubre, 1986). Documento Final. (Regional Seminar on Alternatives for Basic Adult Education in the REDALF Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, September 29-October 3, 1986). Final Document.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The final report of a conference concerning adult basic education de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del related to innovative projects in adult education in nine countries. A wide spectrum of issues related to adult basic education, curriculum, methodology, evaluation, and research are analyzed in the context of educational planning. Among the…

  10. Latino Hillbilly: An Interview with Marcos McPeek Villatoro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minick, Jim; McPeek Villatoro, Marcos

    2001-01-01

    Novelist and faculty member McPeek Villatoro, son of a Salvadoran mother and an Appalachian father, discusses his childhood in Tennessee and San Francisco, racism encountered for being Latino or Appalachian, embracing his Latino roots, similarities between Appalachian and rural Central American cultures, the importance of teachers raising…

  11. Travel, Tourism, and Geographic Field Work: Project Marco Polo 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanegran, David A.; St. Peter, Patrice H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a 3-week study tour of Egypt and Greece by 15 geography teachers, 15 students, and 5 administrators during summer 1992. Discusses nine processes that were used to provide structure for the trip's events. Concludes that a geography teacher's task is to evoke in students the spirit of the traveler. (CFR)

  12. Shading and shadowing on Canaletto's Piazza San Marco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijntjes, Maarten W. A.; de Ridder, Huib

    2014-02-01

    Whereas the 17th century painter Canaletto was a master in linear perspective of the architectural elements, he seems to have had considerable difficulty with linear perspective of shadows. A common trick to avoid shadow perspective problems is to set the (solar) illumination direction parallel to the projection screen. We investigated in one painting where Canaletto clearly used this trick, whether he followed this light direction choice consistently through in how he shades the persons. We approached this question with a perceptual experiment where we measured perceived light directions in isolated details of the paintings. Specifically, we controlled whether observers could only see the (cast) shadow, only shading or both. We found different trends in all three conditions. The results indicate that Canaletto probably used different shading than the parallel light direction would predict. We interpret the results as a form or artistic freedom that Canaletto used to shade the persons individually.

  13. Mass Media and the Spiral of Silence: The Philippines from Marcos to Aquino.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Hernando

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the alternative media and their reporting up to the February 1986 revolution in the Philippines. Shows that they broadened the context in which key events could be interpreted, and influenced those segments of the audience that provided new leadership. (MS)

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Binarity in planetary nebula central stars (De Marco+ 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco O.; Passy, J.-C.; Frew, D. J.; Moe, M.; Jacoby, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    The sample presented here consists of 30 central stars of PN which were selected solely based on their low PN surface brightness (radius of the PN is larger than ~25arcsec in most cases) as well as on the faint V magnitudes of their central stars. The observations were acquired during eight nights between 2007 October 30 and November 6 at the 2.1-m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. However, the data from nights 2 and 8 were not photometric. (5 data files).

  15. A passively controlled appendage deployment system for the San Marco D/L spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, W. E.; Frisch, H. P.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical simulation of deployment dynamics of these two axis concepts as well as the evolution of practical designs for the add on deployable inertia boom units is described. With the boom free to swing back in response to Coriolis forces as well as outwards in response to centrifugal forces, the kinematics of motion are complex but admit the possibility of absorbing deployment energy in frictional or other damping devices about the radial axis, where large amplitude motions can occur and where the design envelope allows more available volume. An acceptable range is defined for frictional damping for any given spin rate. Inadequate damping allows boom motions which strike the spacecraft; excessive damping causes the boom to swing out and latch with damaging violence. The acceptable range is a design parameter and must accommodate spin rate tolerance and also the tolerance and repeatability of the damping mechanisms.

  16. 78 FR 48293 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Airport (78 FR 33263) Docket No. FAA-2013-0273. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  17. Self-luminous event photography with the Marco M-4 image converter camera system. [PBX 9404

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, T.O.

    1980-02-01

    The camera system is shown to be applicable to selfluminous events, such as the flasher-gap-enhanced shock waves which are depicted. Successive photographs of the detonation wavefront progressing across disc of high explosive (PBX 9404) are used for the determination of detonation velocity. Time intervals between film exposures for the four individual camera heads are easily measured and may extend from a few nanoseconds to ten milliseconds.

  18. Retracing the steps of Marco Polo: from clinical trials to diffusion of interventions for smokers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R L

    1996-01-01

    We report the results from a series of four controlled trials which evaluate efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation of interventions for smokers, and then discuss diffusion of our program in feasibility studies both nationally in Australia and internationally. In our first study we reported that when general practitioners delivered moderately brief advice to smokers, they have a 36% abstinence rate at three years. In the second study we found that doctors achieve a 12% abstinence at one year after giving minimal advice to patients, and when using a more involved intervention, quit rates of just less than 20% at one year. In the third and fourth studies of utilization of the smoking cessation program we report that reinforcement contact following a 2-hour training workshop increased doctors' use of a smoking cessation program at 6 months compared to no contact. The challenge of translating research findings into practice for the benefit of doctors in Australia as well as in a low-income country such as China, is described in two feasibility studies. Over the past 11 years we have disseminated the program nationally in Australia, and over 4500 doctors have been trained. Diffusion theory provides a useful model which has guided us in our implementation efforts in Australia and is being used to allow us to introduce the smoking cessation intervention for Chinese doctors to use. PMID:8904935

  19. Marco Said I Look like Charcoal: A Puerto Rican's Exploration of Her Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Yarma Velazquez

    2008-01-01

    When race is so self-evident that it becomes "unspoken," it becomes a text that can be arbitrarily read or not read at all. When race is thought of as shades or textures of color that paint the already loaded canvas of our ethnicities, it is the reader who has the power of interpretation, opening the possibility for multiple readings that will…

  20. IR reflectance spectra of pristine Antarctic CM chondrites to characterize Marco Polo-R mission target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.; Alonso-Azcárate, J.; Fornasier, S.; Belskaya, I.; Binzel, R.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    The hydrated groups of carbonaceous chondrites (hereafter CCs) exhibit different degrees of aqueous alteration. Primary minerals were transformed in their parent bodies by the action of the water. Most of the water was probably accreted as ice or bounded in hydrated minerals. Moderate heating associated with residual radioactivity or collisional compaction released that water to soak temporarily the materials forming these asteroids. Evidence for static and dynamic aqueous mineral products has been described [1, 2], at the same time that the different degrees of alteration exhibited for members of the CM group were characterized [3, 4]. We apply here a new IR spectroscopic technique that allows to assess the amount of adsorbed water present in minerals forming carbonaceous chondrites.

  1. The command and telemetry systems of the San Marco D/L spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Ruscio, M.

    The design criteria for the telemetry and command systems of the SMD/L spacecraft are described along with the characteristics and mode of operation of these systems. Particular consideration is given to command formats in the pulse or relay and data modes; and block diagrams of the communication and data handling subsystem, the command decoder, the command demodulator, and the prom controlled PCM encoder are presented.

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: KB Homes, San Marcos, California

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Designed to produce as much energy as it uses, the ZeroHouse incorporates a PV system, R-15 fiberglass batts in walls, and slab-on-grade foundation. The builder ranked fifth in the nation on Builder Magazine’s 2012 Top 100 ranking of U.S. home builders based on number of housing starts, and won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  3. Contextualizacion y "Expresiones Pragmaticas": "Che" como Senal de Marco (Contextualization and "Pragmatic Expressions": "Che" as Deictic Marker).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, Isolda

    The pragmatic expressions of Argentine Spanish (e.g., "bueno, viste, no? mira") are defined as deictic signals. They are deictic because they indicate elements of the communicative situation: transitions between text segments, conversational roles, or the social relationship between participants. They also signal contextual suppositions and help…

  4. Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    Comprised of 27 classrooms from grade levels 1-6, the program was primarily designed to provide bilingual education for pupils with limited English speaking ability. However, due to parental requests, almost 16% monolingual English-speakers were accepted into the program. Of the 717 pupils participating in the program 84.6% were Mexican American.…

  5. Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1974-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    The program is primarily designed to provide bilingual education for pupils, in grades K-6, with limited English-speaking ability. Due to parental requests, approximately 16 percent monolingual English-speakers have been accepted into the program. Of the 529 children enrolled in the program, 89 percent have Spanish surnames. Objectives for the…

  6. Recently discovered overthrusting northeast of Llano uplift along extension of San Marcos platform: new exploration frontier in central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    McMurdie, D.S.; Bryan, J.G.; Gibson, M.; King, T.; Sill, W.

    1986-05-01

    TJB Resources recently completed gravity, magnetotelluric, and seismic geophysical surveys in San Saba and Mills Counties north of the Llano uplift, west of the Ouachita Disturbed belt. Significant results show overthrusting has occurred 60-70 mi west of the Ouachita Disturbed belt. Earliest thrusting could have occurred in the Silurian-Devonian from south or southeast. Faulting reoccurs during Pennsylvanian Ouachita thrusting and again in the Late Cretaceous. The primitive Llano uplift buttressed the allochthonous rocks moving north and west. Magnetotelluric and gravity data indicate the Llano uplift is a separate and distinct isolated remnant or terrain, with numerous igneous intrusions reaching to great depths. Associated with this thrusting is a major tectonic northwest-southeast lineament located parallel to the termination of the Cretaceous rocks, outcropping on the western edge of Mills and Lampasas Counties. This lineament is documented by east-west seismic lines displaying a 0.3-sec displacement and farther southwest a 1.1-sec displacement. Paleozoic fossils were found near the surface trace of the northwest-southwest lineament as observed on the east-west seismic line. This area was previously mapped as Cretaceous. Surface inspection found Paleozoic rocks containing crinoids, spirifers, and rugose corals, with beds dipping to 45/sup 0/, contrasted with the N2/sup 0/ regional dip surrounding the lineament area. Well-log correlations from Marble Falls to Ellenberger range from 350 to 600 ft from east to west near the Llano uplift. The 60 to 70-mi frontal edge of the thrusting provides potential hydrocarbon traps along a north to northeast trend from central Texas to Oklahoma.

  7. La Capacitacion de Docentes en el Marco de la Regionalizacion Educativa (In-Service Teacher Training within Educational Regional Planning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    A paper discusses inservice teacher training in the context of regionalized education, with reference to recent Latin American efforts to regionalize, decentralize, and de-concentrate educational systems in order to provide relavant and adequate regional educational systems and so make equal education possible. Basic concepts in regionalized…

  8. Marco Polo-R Target Asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3: Possible Evidence for an Annual Thermal Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F. E.; Emery, J. P.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    Pre- and post-perihelion spectral measurements (0.8-2.5 µm) of 1996 FG3 show substantially different thermal fluxes. We may be detecting deep absorption and re-radiation of the annual thermal wave rather than just diurnal thermal flux balance.

  9. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) AS A POTENTIAL INDICATOR OF MARINE MARCO BENTHIC ACTIVITY ALONG POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a local hospital CAT scanner. These image data were transferred to a personal computer at our laboratory using specially developed software. Previously, we reported an inverse correlation (r2 = 0.98, P<0.01) between the average sediment x-ray atte...

  10. Pathfinder Lander Rover Recharge System, and MARCO POLO Controls and ACME Regolith Feed System Controls and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Sarah Diem

    2015-01-01

    This project stems from the Exploration, Research, and Technology Directorate (UB) Projects Division, and one of their main initiatives is the "Journey to Mars". Landing on the surface of Mars which is millions of miles away is an incredibly large challenge. The terrain is covered in boulders, deep canyons, volcanic mountains, and spotted with sand dunes. The robotic lander is a kind of spacecraft with multiple purposes. One purpose is to be the protective shell for the Martian rover and absorb the impact from the landing forces; another purpose is to be a place where the rovers can come back to, actively communicate with, and recharge their batteries from. Rovers have been instrumental to the Journey to Mars initiative. They have been performing key research on the terrain of the red planet, trying to unlock the mysteries of the land for over a decade. The rovers that will need charging will not all have the same kind of internal battery either. RASSOR batteries may differ from the PbAC batteries inside Red Rover's chassis. NASA has invested heavily in the exploration of the surface of Mars. A driving force behind further exploration is the need for a more efficient operation of Martian rovers. One way is to reduce the weight as much as possible to reduce power consumption given the same mission parameters. In order to reduce the mass of the rovers, power generation, communication, and sample analysis systems currently onboard Martian rovers can be moved to a stationary lander deck. Positioning these systems from the rover to the Lander deck allows a taskforce of smaller, lighter rovers to perform the same tasks currently performed by or planned for larger rovers. A major task in transferring these systems to a stationary lander deck is ensuring that power can be transferred to the rovers.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry of VdBH 222 stars and field stars (Marco+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, A.; Negueruela, I.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Dorda, R.; Clark, J. S.

    2014-05-01

    We obtained UBVR photometry of VdBH 222 using the ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (EFOSC2) on the NTT on the night of 24 June 2012. The instrument was equipped with CCD#40, which is a Loral/Lesser, thinned, AR-coated, UV-flooded, and MPP chip that is controlled by ESO-FIERA. It covers a field of view of and 4.1'x4.1' and has a pixel scale of 0.12". The JHK images were obtained using the Son OF Isaac (SOFI) near-IR spectrograph and camera on the NTT on 13 July 2008, equipped with a CCD providing a pixel scale of 0.288arcsec and an field of view of 4.92x4.95' (4 data files).

  12. Beyond the Reference Desk: A Study on the Effectiveness of Low-Cost Distance Library Services at California State University San Marcos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivas, Antonia P.; Chan, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Many of our reference interactions are face-to-face at a desk or in our offices. Unfortunately, not all of our students are on campus. Whether a non-traditional student or a traditional undergraduate, more of our patrons are attending online classes or attending satellite campuses with no librarians on site. It's difficult to reach these…

  13. Comparison of the San Marco 3 Nace neutral composition data with the extrapolated Ogo 6 empirical model. [Neutral Atmospheric Composition Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.; Newton, G. P.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the feasibility to extrapolate the data of the Ogo 6 empirical composition model to altitudes which are lower than 450 km. Extrapolated Ogo 6 model densities are, therefore, compared with data obtained in the Neutral Atmospheric Composition Experiment (Nace) carried out during the time from April to November 1971. The results of the investigation support the conclusions of an earlier comparison of Ogo 6 and Nace data conducted by Newton et al. (1973).

  14. 1989 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 26th, Marco Island, FL, July 25-29, 1989, Proceedings. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Agustin, Jr. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on nuclear science are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanics of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, hardness assurance and testing techniques, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena, device radiation effects and hardening, radiation effects on isolation technologies, IC radiation effects and hardening, and single-event phenomena.

  15. The Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer: An Imaging Mid-IR Spectrometer for the Marco Polo NEO Sample Return Cosmic Vision Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S.; Reininger, F.; Green, S. F.; Mortimer, H.

    2009-03-01

    We describe the Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer (ATMS) instrument, a compact imaging mid-IR Fourier transform spectrometer currently being developed at the University of Oxford for NEO remote sensing applications.

  16. Beyond the Reference Desk: A Study on the Effectiveness of Low-Cost Distance Library Services at California State University San Marcos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivas, Antonia P.; Chan, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Many of our reference interactions are face-to-face at a desk or in our offices. Unfortunately, not all of our students are on campus. Whether a non-traditional student or a traditional undergraduate, more of our patrons are attending online classes or attending satellite campuses with no librarians on site. It's difficult to reach these…

  17. Deep structure of the Texas Gulf passive margin and its Ouachita-Precambrian basement: Results of the COCORP San Marcos arch survey

    SciTech Connect

    Culotta, R.; Latham, T.; Oliver, J.; Brown, L.; Kaufman, S. ); Sydow, M. )

    1992-02-01

    This COCORP deep seismic survey provides a comprehensive image of the southeast-Texas part of the Gulf passive margin and its accreted Ouachita arc foundation. Beneath the updip limit of the Cenozoic sediment wedge, a prominent antiformal structure is imaged within the interior zone of the buried late Paleozoic Ouachita orogen. The structure appears to involve Precambrian Grenville basement. The crest of the antiform is coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary Luling-Mexia-Talco fault zone. Some of these faults dip to the northwest, counter to the general regional pattern of down-to-the-basin faulting, and appear to sole into the top of the antiform, suggesting that the Ouachita structure has been reactivated as a hingeline to the subsiding passive margin. The antiform may be tied via this fault system and the Ouachita gravity gradient to the similar Devils River, Waco, and Benton uplifts, interpreted as Precambrian basement-cored massifs. Above the Paleozoic sequence, a possible rift-related graben is imaged near the updip limit of Jurassic salt. Paleoshelf edges of the major Tertiary depositional sequences are marked by expanded sections disrupted by growth faults and shale diapirs. Within the Wilcox Formation, the transect crosses the mouth of the 900-m-deep Yoakum Canyon, a principal pathway of sediment delivery from the Laramide belt to the Gulf. Beneath the Wilcox, the Comanchean (Lower Cretaceous) shelf edge, capped by the Stuart City reef, is imaged as a pronounced topographic break onlapped by several moundy sediment packages. Because this segment of the line parallels strike, the topographic break may be interpreted as a 2,000-m-deep embayment in the Cretaceous shelf-edge, and possibly a major submarine canyon older and deeper than the Yoakum Canyon.

  18. LOS COLEGIOS REGIONALES, OPORTUNIDADES DE ESTUDIO EN INSTITUCIONES DE NIVEL UNIVERSITARIO. (THE REGIONAL COLLEGES, OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDY IN UNIVERSITY LEVEL INSTITUTIONS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BETANCOURT, ETHEL RIOS DE; AND OTHERS

    RECENT LEGISLATION IN PUERTO RICO HAS VALIDATED THE 2-YEAR REGIONAL COLLEGE CONCEPT, AND THE CHARACTER OF THE PROGRAM COMBINING LIBERAL ARTS TRANSFER CURRICULUMS AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION HAS BEEN SET. TO IMPLEMENT THE PLANNING PHASES, THIS STUDY PREDICTS STUDENT ENROLLMENT BY REGION. TWO INDEXES ARE USED TO ESTIMATE STUDENT DEMAND--COLLEGE…

  19. La region en los procesos de planificacion Latinos Americanos. Estructura institucional y bases juridicas. (The Region in the Planning Processes in Latin America: Institutional Structures and Juridical Basis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basaldua, Raul Oscar; Moreno, Oscar Alberto

    1971-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger research project on the decisional structure of regionalized countries, which the authors are conducting at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella with the Arq. Jorge Hardoy. (Editor)

  20. 75 FR 10305 - Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat Conservation Plan for the Incidental Take of Seven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... (Etheostoma fonticola), San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana), San Marcos gambusia (Gambusia georgei), Texas blind salamander (Eurycea rathbuni), Peck's cave amphipod (Stygobromus pecki), Comal Springs...

  1. Archive of post-Hurricane Charley coastal oblique aerial photographs collected during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 04CCH01 from Marco Island to Fort DeSoto, Florida, August 15, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Subino, Janice A.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Miller, Gregory K.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Forde, Arnell S.

    2012-01-01

    To view the survey maps and navigation files, and for more information about these items, see the Navigation page. Figure 1 displays the acquisition geometry. The tables provide detailed information about the assigned location, name, data, and time the photograph was taken along with links to the photo and corresponding 5-min contact sheet. Refer to table 1 and table 2 for details of the northern and southern county photographs, respectively.

  2. Observance of the 20th Anniversary of the Higher Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (San Marcos, Texas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The purposes, accomplishments, and future of the Higher Education Act are considered in hearings of the U.S. House of Representatives. A brief history of the Higher Education Act over the 20 years since its inception in 1965 is traced, and the role of the federal government in higher education is addressed. The centerpiece of the legislation was…

  3. Elevated H(2)O (2) production via overexpression of a chloroplastic Cu/ZnSOD gene of lily (Lilium oriental hybrid 'Marco Polo') triggers ethylene synthesis in transgenic potato.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Mi-Sun; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Hahn, Kyu-Woong; Joung, Hyouk; Jeon, Jae-Heung

    2008-06-01

    Transgenic potato plants (SS2 and SS4) that overexpressed a chloroplastic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase lily gene were utilized as an H(2)O(2)-inducible system in order to study the role of H(2)O(2) as a signaling molecule in the biosynthesis of ethylene. SS2 and SS4 plants grown in vitro under sealed microenvironment (SME) conditions displayed anomalous phenotypes including reduction of stem elongation, radial stem growth, and promotion of root hair formation in the generated root, which were similar to ethylene-induced responses. In addition, SS4 plants showed severe vitrification in developing leaves and elevated ethylene production under SME conditions. After the ethylene action inhibitor AgNO(3), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (ACO) inhibitor CoCl(2), and ACC synthase inhibitor L -aminoethoxyvinylglycine were added to the growth media, the anomalous phenotypes in SS4 plants reverted to their normal phenotype with a concurrent decrease in ethylene production. Northern blot analysis showed that ACO transcripts in SS4 plants were constantly at high levels under normal and SME conditions, indicating that a high level of H(2)O(2) in SS4 plants up-regulates ACO transcripts. Moreover, the direct treatment of H(2)O(2) in potato plants confirmed the elevated expression of the ACO gene. Taken together, these data suggest that the high concentration of H(2)O(2) in transgenic potato plants stimulates ethylene biosynthesis by activating ACO gene expression. PMID:18273621

  4. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Las Oportunidades en las Instituciones Independendientes de Nivel Universitario en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los Programas de Oportunidades Educativas Universitarias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Higher Education Opportunity Programs.

    A guide to the opportunities at private colleges and universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) is presented. The HEOP is designed to meet the special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds through screening, testing, counseling, tutoring, teaching, and financial assistance. Generally, students…

  5. 78 FR 22535 - President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanics AGENCY: White House Initiative on...: Marco A. Davis, Acting Executive Director, White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for... format) should notify Marco A. Davis, Acting Executive Director, White House Initiative on...

  6. Un Marco Abierto: Un Manual de Matematicas y Ciencas Utilizando Inteligencias Multiples Disenado para Estudiantes Bilingues de Educacion General y Especial (An Open Framework: A Math and Science Manual Utilizing Multiple Intelligences Designed for Bilingual Students in General and Special Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    This manual incorporates a Multiple Intelligences perspective into its presentation of themes and lesson ideas for Spanish-English bilingual elementary school students in grades 4-8 and is designed for both gifted and special education uses. Each unit includes practice activities, semantic maps to illustrate and help organize ideas as well as…

  7. List of Participating Institutions: Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-operation and Peace = Liste des establissements participants: Systeme des ecoles associees appliquant un programme d'education pour la cooperation internationale et la paix = Lista de Instituciones Participantes: Plan de Escuelas Asociadas en la Educacion para la Cooperacion Internacional y la Paz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A list of participating institutions at the Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-Operation and Peace, December 31, 1985 is presented. A total of 1,970 institutions in 94 countries participated, including 47 nursery schools, 556 primary schools, 1,123 secondary schools, and 248 teacher training institutions. Addresses of…

  8. Lo que Piensan los Estudiantes y Profesores Sobre la Calidad de la Educacion Superior. Estudio Comparativo en 5 Instituciones de Educacion Superior--dos publicas y tres privadas--en Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (What Students and Faculties Think about the Quality of Higher Education. Comparative Study of 5 Higher Education Institutions--Two Public and Three Private--in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Maria Lorena Hernandez

    This study, written in Spanish, compared attitudes of students (N=302) and faculty (N=28) at five institutions of higher education (two public and three private) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The study explored first, whether respondents believed there are significant quality differences between private and public universities and, second, what…

  9. List of Participating Institutions: Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-operation and Peace = Liste des establissements participants: Systeme des ecoles associees appliquant un programme d'education pour la cooperation internationale et la paix = Lista de Instituciones Participantes: Plan de Escuelas Asociadas en la Educacion para la Cooperacion Internacional y la Paz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A list of participating institutions at the Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-Operation and Peace, December 31, 1985 is presented. A total of 1,970 institutions in 94 countries participated, including 47 nursery schools, 556 primary schools, 1,123 secondary schools, and 248 teacher training institutions. Addresses of…

  10. 76 FR 46837 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis). Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sosorum). San Marco salamander (Eurycea nana). Texas blind salamander (Typhlomolge rathbuni). Fountain...

  11. 75 FR 5802 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... following species: Texas blind salamander (Typhlomolge rathbuni), San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana), Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea ] sosorum), Peck's Cave amphipod (Stygobromus pecki), Comal...

  12. Crisis in the Philippines: A Threat to U.S. Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, A. James

    The special relationship between the United States and the Philippines is chronicled, and the potential threats to that relationship are exposed and evaluated. Special attention is paid to imposition of martial law by Marcos from 1972-1981. The human rights of the Filipino people during martial law, development programs implemented by Marcos…

  13. NCI Relapse/Transplant Meeting 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Co-Chairs include:  Name Institute email Avigan, David Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center davigan@bidmc.harvard.edu Cairo, Mitchell New York Medical College Mitchell_Cairo@NYMC.EDU De Lima, Marcos Case Western Reserve University Marcos.delima@uhhospital

  14. 77 FR 42756 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan for Incidental Take of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... intent (NOI) to prepare an environmental impact statement in the Federal Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR... the endangered fountain darter (Etheostoma fonticola), threatened San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana), endangered San Marcos gambusia (Gambusia georgei), endangered Texas blind salamander (Typhlomolge...

  15. 78 FR 11218 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision on the Edwards Aquifer Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... evaluate alternatives, along with the draft HCP (77 FR 42756). We included public comments and responses... fonticola) Texas blind salamander (Eurycea rathbuni) San Marcos gambusia (Gambusia georgei) Threatened San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana) Non-listed Species Texas cave diving beetle (Haideoporus texanus)...

  16. Alternative activation of macrophages and pulmonary fibrosis are modulated by scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Shubha; Larson-Casey, Jennifer L; Ryan, Alan J; He, Chao; Kobzik, Lester; Carter, A Brent

    2015-08-01

    Alternative activation of alveolar macrophages is linked to fibrosis following exposure to asbestos. The scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), provides innate immune defense against inhaled particles and pathogens; however, a receptor for asbestos has not been identified. We hypothesized that MARCO acts as an initial signaling receptor for asbestos, polarizes macrophages to a profibrotic M2 phenotype, and is required for the development of asbestos-induced fibrosis. Compared with normal subjects, alveolar macrophages isolated from patients with asbestosis express higher amounts of MARCO and have greater profibrotic polarization. Arginase 1 (40-fold) and IL-10 (265-fold) were higher in patients. In vivo, the genetic deletion of MARCO attenuated the profibrotic environment and pulmonary fibrosis in mice exposed to chrysotile. Moreover, alveolar macrophages from MARCO(-/-) mice polarize to an M1 phenotype, whereas wild-type mice have higher Ym1 (>3.0-fold) and nearly 7-fold more active TGF-?1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF). Arg(432) and Arg(434) in domain V of MARCO are required for the polarization of macrophages to a profibrotic phenotype as mutation of these residues reduced FIZZ1 expression (17-fold) compared with cells expressing MARCO. These observations demonstrate that a macrophage membrane protein regulates the fibrotic response to lung injury and suggest a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25953850

  17. NCI Relapse/Transplant Meeting 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Biology Protocol Development Team Co-Chairs: John Dipersio, Mitchell Cairo Prevention Protocol Development Team Co-Chairs: Marcos De Lima, David Avigan Treatment Protocol Development Team Co-Chairs: Jeffrey Miller, David Porter

  18. NCI Relapse/Transplant Meeting 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Co-Chairs: David Avigan, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Marcos De Lima, Case Western Reserve Members Michael Bishop, University of Chicago Nancy Hardy, National Cancer Institute Nicolaus Kröger, University of Hamburg Jeffrey Molldrem, MD Anderson Ca

  19. Cross the Eurasian Continent: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passe, Jeff; D'Arcangelis, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Provides a simulation based on Marco Polo's journey. Demonstrates the hardships of 13th century travel by presenting students with difficult choices under challenging and primitive environmental conditions. Includes suggestions for class activities prior to using the simulation. (LS)

  20. 35. OUTER DRAWBRIDGE, ENTRY TO THE PROTECTIVE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. OUTER DRAWBRIDGE, ENTRY TO THE PROTECTIVE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE RAVELIN AND THE CASTILLO, AS SEEN FROM WITHIN THE CORRIDOR - Castillo de San Marcos, 1 Castillo Drive, Saint Augustine, St. Johns County, FL

  1. Stress Studies at Kennedy Space Center: a Backward and Forward Look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. I.

    1971-01-01

    Possible relationships between occupational and other stresses on ischemic heart disease are explored. Three procedures were used: (1) double master 2-step test, (2) dynamic ECG technique using avionics equipment, and (3) submaximal stress testing with Marco bicycle ergometer.

  2. AAHM 2012: Systems Engineer Leading the Way - Duration: 2 minutes, 19 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Marco Midon, who is visually impaired, is highlighted for NASA's Black History Month. He is the Lead Systems Engineer who oversees the design and implementation of NASA ground stations in the area ...

  3. 77 FR 69890 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... following species within Texas: Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sosorum) Bee Creek Cave harvestman... pecki) Robber Baron Cave meshweaver (Cicurina baronia) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana) Texas blind salamander (Typhlomolge rathbuni) Tooth Cave ground beetle (Rhadine persephone) Tooth Cave...

  4. Abortion in Latin America is a matter of desperation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D

    1990-01-01

    For North Americans, the abortion debate is one of rights: the fetus' right to be born versus the mother's right to control her body. But for Latin American women, debating rights is a luxury that has little to do with the brutal reality of becoming pregnant and knowing it will be impossible to feed yet another child, says Sylvia Marcos. A Mexican psychotherapist who has taught at Harvard University, Marcos works with women in squatters' camps throughout Mexico. "If you want to end abortion in Latin America, you will have to change the whole economic system," said Marcos in an interview. Unfortunately, Marcos said, abortion foes have failed to come up with answers to the poverty that drives Latin American women to have what she estimates are 12 million illegal abortions a year. Women in Latin America, most of them Catholic, are expected to marry young and have many children. Most women choose abortion only after having many children and deciding it would be impossible to feed another, Marcos said. The combination of Catholicism and culture--extolling the virtues of large families--and women's utter lack of means to provide is devastating psychologically and physically, she said. Furthermore, about 1/2 of all Latin American women are raising children alone. "It's so unjust," said Marcos. The 12 million abortions reflect desperation--not an anti-life orientation, she said. "When you are hungry, you do not debate the ethics of when life begins," said Marcos. "If we had enough to eat, then we could care." Women who have abortions continue to call themselves Catholic but often quit going to communion. "Not only do they have a hard time recovering physically from illegal abortions, but they are denied spiritual enjoyment," Marcos said. Trapped in desperate situations, women ignore church teachings about abortion--particularly if they are Indians who still identify strongly with traditions that uphold different ideas about when life begins. Both prochoice and prolife forces in North America, said Marcos, have tended to look at the abortion issue from a North American perspective and have not formed a broader analysis that takes into account the concrete realities of poor women--the majority in Latin America. "It's very American to start with an abstract moral principle," she said. PMID:12178836

  5. Huperzine A.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Huperzine A, an alkaloid isolated from Huperzia serrata, is a putative nootropic agent developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Huperzine A is currently in phase III trials in China for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The mechanism of action of huperzine A is suggested to be facilitated through the slow reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Marco Hi-Tech Joint Venture has exclusive worldwide marketing and distribution rights to huperzine A. Marco Hi-Tech Joint Venture is a corporation principally owned by Hi-Tech Pharmacal and Marco International, a global trading and finance firm formed to import huperzine A from China. Marco Hi-Tech Joint Venture also has rights to synthetic analogues of huperzine A. In July 2003, Savient Pharmaceuticals acquired the exclusive rights from Marco Hi-Tech to market huperzine A in Europe and the US. Clinical trials of huperzine A in elderly patients with age-associated memory loss are underway in the US, and a phase II study funded by an NCI grant is being planned. PMID:14725492

  6. Interferon-? inhibits nonopsonized phagocytosis of macrophages via an mTORC1-c/EBP? pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zengfu; Zhou, Shuping; Sun, Chenming; Lei, Tong; Peng, Jianxia; Li, Weiguo; Ding, Pengbo; Lu, Jun; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection often follows virus infection due to pulmonary interferon-? (IFN-?) production during virus infection, which down-regulates macrophage phagocytosis. The molecular mechanisms for this process are still poorly understood. In the present study, IFN-? treatment significantly inhibited the ability of mouse macrophages to phagocytize nonopsonized chicken red blood cells (cRBCs), bacteria and beads in vitro, while it enhanced IgG- and complement-opsonized phagocytosis. IFN-? treatment decreased the expression of MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) in macrophages. Macrophages showed lower binding to and phagocytic ability of cRBCs when MARCO was blocked with antibody. In addition, IFN-? induced high activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and decreased the expression of c/EBP? (CCAAT enhancer-binding protein ?) in macrophages. Rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of IFN-? on nonopsonized phagocytosis of macrophages and restored c/EBP? and MARCO expression. Biochemical assays showed that c/EBP? directly bound to the MARCO gene promoter. Rapamycin significantly hampered the viral-bacterial synergy and protected influenza-infected mice from subsequent bacterial infection. Thus, IFN-? inhibited the nonopsonized phagocytosis of macrophages through the mTOR-c/EBP?-MARCO pathway. The present study offered evidence indicating that mTOR may be one of the key target molecules for the prevention of secondary bacterial infection caused by primary virus infection. PMID:25277143

  7. Asteroid electrostatic instrumentation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Urbak, E.; Keane, D.; Sawyer, E. C.

    2011-06-01

    Asteroid surface material is expected to become photoelectrically charged, and is likely to be transported through electrostatic levitation. Understanding any movement of the surface material is relevant to proposed space missions to return samples to Earth for detailed isotopic analysis. Motivated by preparations for the Marco Polo sample return mission, we present electrostatic modelling for a real asteroid, Itokawa, for which detailed shape information is available, and verify that charging effects are likely to be significant at the terminator and at the edges of shadow regions for the Marco Polo baseline asteroid, 1999JU3. We also describe the Asteroid Charge Experiment electric field instrumentation intended for Marco Polo. Finally, we find that the differing asteroid and spacecraft potentials on landing could perturb sample collection for the short landing time of 20min that is currently planned.

  8. Promoting Tenth Graders' Reading Comprehension of Academic Texts in the English Class (Promoción de la comprensión de lectura de textos académicos de estudiantes de grado décimo en la clase de inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga Carrillo, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project conducted in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia, with tenth grade students. We decided to develop it because of the students' needs as well as the em phasis of the PEI (Proyecto Educativo Institucional = School Institutional Project), which is based on the requisite of improving reading…

  9. Capacitación de la fuerza laboral

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI es una organización gubernamental que capacita a la próxima generación de investigadores del cáncer en universidades e instituciones de todo el país y proporciona financiación para investigación científica.

  10. Discovering New Dimensions in an Old Task: Higher-Ed Bilingual Professors Learn to Use Lesson Planning for Students' Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales Henao, Enith Viviana; Peña Piragua, Angélica Paola

    2008-01-01

    Professors at the "Institucion Universitaria Colombo Americana" (UNICA) have aimed to deliver lessons for second language learners which integrate content and language, resulting in an "integrated lesson" design. The Center for Applied Linguistics (Washington, DC) recommends the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)…

  11. Achieving Conservation Science that Bridges the Knowledge–Action Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    There are many barriers to using science to inform conservation policy and practice. Conservation scientists wishing to produce management-relevant science must balance this goal with the imperative of demonstrating novelty and rigor in their science. Decision makers seeking to make evidence-based decisions must balance a desire for knowledge with the need to act despite uncertainty. Generating science that will effectively inform management decisions requires that the production of information (the components of knowledge) be salient (relevant and timely), credible (authoritative, believable, and trusted), and legitimate (developed via a process that considers the values and perspectives of all relevant actors) in the eyes of both researchers and decision makers. We perceive 3 key challenges for those hoping to generate conservation science that achieves all 3 of these information characteristics. First, scientific and management audiences can have contrasting perceptions about the salience of research. Second, the pursuit of scientific credibility can come at the cost of salience and legitimacy in the eyes of decision makers, and, third, different actors can have conflicting views about what constitutes legitimate information. We highlight 4 institutional frameworks that can facilitate science that will inform management: boundary organizations (environmental organizations that span the boundary between science and management), research scientists embedded in resource management agencies, formal links between decision makers and scientists at research-focused institutions, and training programs for conservation professionals. Although these are not the only approaches to generating boundary-spanning science, nor are they mutually exclusive, they provide mechanisms for promoting communication, translation, and mediation across the knowledge–action boundary. We believe that despite the challenges, conservation science should strive to be a boundary science, which both advances scientific understanding and contributes to decision making. Logrando que la Ciencia de la Conservación Trasponga la Frontera Conocimiento-Acción Resumen Hay muchas barreras para utilizar ciencia para informar a la política y práctica de la conservación. Los científicos de la conservación que desean producir ciencia relevante para el manejo deben equilibrar esta meta con el imperativo de demostrar novedad y rigor en su ciencia. Los tomadores de decisiones que buscan que sus decisiones se basen en evidencias deben equilibrar el deseo de conocimientos con la necesidad de actuar a pesar de la incertidumbre. La generación de ciencia que informe efectivamente a las decisiones de manejo requiere que la producción de información (los componentes del conocimiento) sea sobresaliente (relevante y oportuna), creíble (autoritativa, verosímil y confiable) y legítima (desarrollada mediante un proceso que considera los valores y perspectivas de todos los actores relevantes) a la vista tanto de investigadores como de tomadores de decisiones. Percibimos tres retos clave para quienes desean generar ciencia de la conservación que logre estas tres características de la información. Primero, las audiencias científicas y de manejo pueden tener percepciones contrastantes sobre la relevancia de la investigación. Segundo, la credibilidad se puede lograr a costa de la relevancia y legitimidad a la vista de los tomadores de decisiones y tercero, los diferentes actores pueden tener percepciones conflictivas sobre los que constituye información legítima. Resaltamos cuatro marcos institucionales que pueden facilitar que la ciencia informe al manejo: organizaciones de frontera (organizaciones ambientales que trasponen la frontera entre la ciencia y el manejo), investigadores científicos insertados en agencias de manejo de recursos, vínculos formales entre tomadores de decisiones y científicos en instituciones enfocadas a la investigación, y programas de capacitación para profesionales de la conservación. Aunque estos no son los únicos métodos para generar ciencia que traspone fronteras, ni son mutuamente excluyentes, proporcionan mecanismos que promueven la comunicación, traslación y mediación para trasponer la frontera conocimiento-acción. Consideramos que no obstante los retos, la ciencia de la conservación debería pugnar por ser una ciencia de frontera, que incrementa el entendimiento científico y contribuye a la toma de decisiones. PMID:23574343

  12. Middle and upper atmosphere results; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission C (Meetings C2 and C3) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M. (editor); Herrero, F. A. (editor); Chakrabarti, S. (editor); Gray, L. J. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers are first presented on atmospheric trace species, with particular attention given to stratospheric trace species and possible improvements to reference atmospheres. The equatorial thermosphere and aeronomy are considered with reference to models and San Marco satellite/ground-based observations. Papers on the coupling of dynamic, radiative, and chemical processes in the middle atmosphere are also presented.

  13. The Oral Histories of Six African American Males in Their Ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the…

  14. Great Explorers to the East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  15. Interactive Technology Brings Algebra to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Paul A.; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl

    1993-01-01

    Partnership for Access to Higher Mathematics uses fiber-optic technology in a partnership program among Southwest Texas State University, the San Marcos School District, the telephone company, and the community to significantly improve the mathematical skills of at-risk students. (MLF)

  16. In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. Headlines Series 288.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnow, Stanley

    This brief issues booklet provides basic information about the emerging democracy in the Philippines, as of 1989. The topics covered include the following: (1) "All in the Family"; (2) "The American Legacy"; (3) "An Enduring Presence"; (4) "Revolution: The Overthrow of President Marcos"; and (5) "Democracy Restored: Cory Aquino Victorious." A list…

  17. An Innovative Interdisciplinary Approach to Providing Internships for College Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The undergraduate Business and Human Development (HD) Departments at California State University San Marcos (CSUSM), are collaborating in an innovative interdisciplinary approach to supporting internships with local businesses in order to provide college seniors with experiences in the area of career development known as the "Senior…

  18. An REU Experience with Micro Assembly Workcell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, William; Asiabanpour, Bahram; Jimenez, Jesus; Um, Dugan

    2010-01-01

    Under an NSF REU center grant REU-0755355 entitled "Micro/Nano Assembly Workcell Via Micro Visual Sensing and Haptic Feedback", Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and Texas State University-San Marcos collaboratively hosted two groups of 10 students from different backgrounds for 10 weeks each in Summer 2008 and 2009 respectively.…

  19. Ancient Media in Literature: Golden Printers and Golden Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooradian, Karlen

    Seal printing is explored as a literary topic in 28 works dating from the third millennium B.C. to A.D. 1613 (from Sumerian times through Shakespeare's). This ancient printing method is mentioned in the literature of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, and Arabians. It occurs in the works of Herodotus, Plutarch, and Marco Polo, as well as Chaucer and…

  20. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  1. The Psychiatric Evaluation and Psychotherapy of the Hispanic Bilingual Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Luis R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This journal issue concerns research projects conducted at the Hispanic Research Center of Fordham University in New York City. In the first article, Luis R. Marcos discusses research on the psychiatric evaluation and psychotherapy of bilingual Hispanic patients, focusing primarily on linguistic factors which affect evaluation and treatment of the…

  2. Anchor Test Type and Population Invariance: An Exploration across Subpopulations and Test Administrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorans, Neil J.; Liu, Jinghua; Hammond, Shelby

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study was built on research spanning three decades. Petersen, Marco, and Stewart (1982) conducted a major empirical investigation of the efficacy of different equating methods. The studies reported in Dorans (1990) examined how different equating methods performed across samples selected in different ways. Recent population…

  3. Doctoral Programs in Developmental Education: Interview with Three Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Marla Kincaid (Adjunct Instructor, Austin Community College M.A., Developmental Education Department of Curriculum and Instruction Texas State University-San Marcos) interviewed the following leaders in the field of Developmental Education: (1) Dr. Olatunde Ogunyemi, Professor in the Department of Educational Leadership at Grambling State…

  4. Motivate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Mary Jo Garcia Biggs never really considered herself much of a technophile. Sure, the assistant professor at Texas State University-San Marcos knew her way around a web page, but for years, she was painfully aware of all of the technologies she didn't know much about. More times than not, the limitations of her knowledge frustrated the heck out of…

  5. Criterion-Referenced Exit Examinations: An Institution's Internal Process for Psychometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieneck, Cristian; Morrison, Eileen; Price, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Texas State University-San Marcos undergraduate healthcare administration program requires all bachelors of health administration (BHA) students to pass a comprehensive examination to demonstrate their knowledge of specific core competencies. This also demonstrates completion of their didactic coursework in order to enter a practical…

  6. Computer Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Marcos Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: After viewing many computer-literacy programs, we believe San Marcos Junior High School has developed a unique program which will truly develop computer literacy. Our hope is to give all students a comprehensive look at computers as they go through their two years here. They will not only learn the…

  7. Coping with Classroom Homophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Marcos "Qboy"

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a version of which first appeared in the February 2007 number of Gay Times, gay rapper Marcos Brito describes his experiences of dealing with a general climate of homophobia at his secondary school in Essex. He argues that positive affirmations of lesbian, gay and bisexual people should be promoted as part of the school curriculum.

  8. Research relative to atmosphere physics and spacecraft applications studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Stuart W.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is reported in several areas of research. Brief descriptions are given in each of the following areas: Spacelab data analysis; San Marco activity; Molecular physics; Stellar energy analysis; Troposphere data analysis; Voyager encounter analysis; Laser activity; Gravity wave study; Venus studies; and Shuttle environmental studies.

  9. Early Childhood in the New China: Suzhou

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education is a…

  10. Molecular Targets Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

              Edmund Price Ju Hee Lim Oyebola Oladeinde Marcos da Cunha     Johns Hopkins Korea   Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNCAMP) Brazil             Ana Sofia De Castro Valdeira Alejandro Rodriguez         Portugal Spain                            

  11. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Photograph of the international team studying gas hydrates in Japan. Front row, kneeling: Jun Yoneda (AIST). Front row, standing, left to right: Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), Jiro Nagao (AIST), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), William Winters (USGS), Junbong Jang (Georgia Tech), Kiyofumi Suzuki (JOGMEC), S...

  12. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS), Kiyofumi Suzuki (JOGMEC), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), William Waite (USGS), and Carlos Santamarina (Geo...

  13. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. In this photo is Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech) is preparing a Direct Shear Cell for testing a core section from the manipulator (background), st...

  14. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Standing, left to right: Jun Yoneda (AIST), Masato Kida (AIST), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), Sheng Dai (Georgia Tech), Efthymios Papadopoulos ...

  15. Another Way of Knowing: Visualizing the Ancient Silk Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2010-01-01

    One way that people learn, remember and communicate is visually. We combine past experiences with new visual information to construct meaning. In this study, elementary teachers introduced their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes using illustrations from two children's picture books, "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo…

  16. Criterion-Referenced Exit Examinations: An Institution's Internal Process for Psychometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieneck, Cristian; Morrison, Eileen; Price, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Texas State University-San Marcos undergraduate healthcare administration program requires all bachelors of health administration (BHA) students to pass a comprehensive examination to demonstrate their knowledge of specific core competencies. This also demonstrates completion of their didactic coursework in order to enter a practical…

  17. NCI Relapse Workshop November 2009

    Cancer.gov

    Committee members Name Institue email Pavletic, Steve (Co-Chair) NCI pavletis@mail.nih.gov Weisdorf, Daniel (Co-Chair) University of Minnesota weisd001@umn.edu De Lima, Marcos MD Anderson Cancer Center mdelima@mdanderson.org Foran, James University of Ala

  18. Constructing Knowledge with Silk Road Visuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2008-01-01

    In this study a group of elementary teachers use illustrations, rather than written text, to introduce their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes. The illustrations are from two picture books; "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo Cesaerani and illustrated by Piero Ventura (1977), and "We're Riding on a Caravan: An Adventure…

  19. Another Way of Knowing: Visualizing the Ancient Silk Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2010-01-01

    One way that people learn, remember and communicate is visually. We combine past experiences with new visual information to construct meaning. In this study, elementary teachers introduced their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes using illustrations from two children's picture books, "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo…

  20. Aula Verde: Art as Experience in Community-Based Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarca, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    After winning a class-action lawsuit against unconstitutional prison conditions in Puerto Rico, Marco Abarca managed to direct part of the fine monies accumulated throughout years of litigation toward an investment that would improve the living conditions in one of the largest and poorest housing projects in Puerto Rico. With the participation of…

  1. The College & Financial Aid Guide for: AB540 Undocumented Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverez, Paz M., Ed.; Chavez, Maria Lucia, Ed.; Soriano, Mayra, Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of California Assembly Bill 540 in 2001, authored by the late Assemblyman, Marco Antonio Firebaugh, more than 5,000 undocumented students in California have had improved financial access to higher education. AB 540 has become a pinnacle in the lives of students, who because of their immigration status, have historically been…

  2. Corrigendum

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The TNF-?/NF-?B signaling pathway has a key role in methamphetamine–induced blood–brain barrier dysfunction Vanessa Coelho-Santos, Ricardo A Leitão, Filipa L Cardoso, Inês Palmela, Manuel Rito, Marcos Barbosa, Maria A Brito, Carlos A Fontes-Ribeiro and Ana P Silva Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 2015; 35: 1260–1271. PMID:26814200

  3. The Role of Macrophage Class A Scavenger Receptors in a Laser-Induced Murine Choroidal Neovascularization Model

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Shayma; Liu, Baoying; Li, Zhiyu; Katamay, Robert; Campos, Mercedes; Wei, Lai; Sen, H. Nida; Ling, Diamond; Martinez Estrada, Fernando; Amaral, Juan; Chan, Chi-Chao; Fariss, Robert; Gordon, Siamon; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a widely used model to mimic many features of CNV resulting from wet AMD. Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD. Class A scavenger receptors, scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) and macrophage receptor with collagenous domain (MARCO), are expressed on macrophages and are associated with macrophage function. The goal of this study is to examine the role of macrophage scavenger receptors in immune cell recruitment and the formation of CNV. Methods. Laser photocoagulation was performed in wild-type and knockout mice with deletion of SR-A (SR-A?/?), MARCO (MARCO?/?), or both SR-A and MARCO double knockout (DKO). Immune cell recruitment at different time points and CNV lesions at 14 days after laser treatment were evaluated through immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Microarray analysis was performed in eyes 1 day after laser injury. Results. Wild-type eyes showed higher chemokine/receptor expression compared with knockout eyes after laser injury. Scavenger receptor deficiency markedly impaired the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to CNV lesions at 1- and 3-days post laser injury, respectively. Significantly reduced CNV volumes were found in the eyes from scavenger receptor knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Conclusions. The deficiency of scavenger receptors impairs the formation of CNV and immune cell recruitment. Our findings suggest a potential role for scavenger receptors in contributing to CNV formation and inflammation in AMD. PMID:23927892

  4. Small Steps, Big Changes: Eight Essential Practices for Transforming Schools through Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confer, Chris; Ramirez, Marco

    2012-01-01

    During the past two decades, Chris Confer and Marco Ramirez have worked to deepen and improve mathematics instruction at schools around the country. Wherever they go, they find the raw ingredients for success already present: "The potential for positive change lies within each school. Abundance is present in the form of capable children, teachers,…

  5. Thermal observations of spacecraft target 1999 JU3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campins, Humberto; Barucci, Antonella; Dotto, Elizabetta; Emery, Joshua; Fernandez, Yanga; Kelley, Michael; Licandro, Javier

    2008-03-01

    We propose a 1.4 hr program to observe, with IRS, the near-Earth asteroid 161273 (1999 JU3), the primary target of two proposed spacecraft missions: the European Space Agency (ESA) MARCO POLO sample return mission and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Hyabusa-2 mission. These observations will provide characterization of the composition and thermophysical properties of this distinctive asteroid.

  6. A spreadsheet that calculates meteor orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbroek, M.

    2004-08-01

    The author has written an MS Excel spreadsheet application called Metorb08.xls which calculates a meteor's orbital elements from its apparent radiant position and initial speed. It can be downloaded from URL http://home.wanadoo.nl/marco.langbroek along with a suite of other meteor-related Excel applications.

  7. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The TNF-?/NF-?B signaling pathway has a key role in methamphetamine-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunctionVanessa Coelho-Santos, Ricardo A Leitão, Filipa L Cardoso, Inês Palmela, Manuel Rito, Marcos Barbosa, Maria A Brito, Carlos A Fontes-Ribeiro and Ana P SilvaJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 2015; 35: 1260-1271. PMID:26814200

  8. Analysis in Outline of Mam, a Mayan Language. Working Paper of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory, No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canger, Una R.

    The primary goal of the present study is an exposition of the structure of Mam, a Mayan language of the Mamean group. Mam is the most widely spoken of the four Mamean languages, and has been roughly estimated to have a quarter million speakers located in the departments of Huehuetenango and San Marcos in Guatemala and in the state of Chiapas in…

  9. Motivate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Mary Jo Garcia Biggs never really considered herself much of a technophile. Sure, the assistant professor at Texas State University-San Marcos knew her way around a web page, but for years, she was painfully aware of all of the technologies she didn't know much about. More times than not, the limitations of her knowledge frustrated the heck out of…

  10. 77 FR 31376 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... published on April 23, 2009 (74 FR 18449), this notice advises the public that, on May 3, 2012, upon request... installation of microwave ovens for the Marcos de Niza project. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donald J. La... project. The exception was granted by HUD on the basis that the relevant manufactured goods...

  11. The Oral Histories of Six African American Males in Their Ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the…

  12. 75 FR 62751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Everglades City, City of Marco Island, City of Naples, Unincorporated Areas of Collier County. At Lee County... north, County Road Unincorporated Areas 858 to the south, of Collier County. Everglades Road to the...

  13. International ties. [international cooperation in the space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of NASA's participation in international activities in space science is given. The Ariel, Alouette, Isis, and San Marco satellite programs are addressed along with sounding rocket and ground based projects. Relations and cooperation with the Soviet Union are also discussed.

  14. Academic Travel: Modes and Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald; Phipps, Alison

    2005-01-01

    The Great Khan's atlas contains also the maps of the promised lands visited in thought but not yet discovered or founded: New Atlantis, Utopia, the City of the Sun, Oceana, Tamoe, New Harmony, New Lanark, Icaria. Kublai asked Marco: "You, who go about exploring and who see signs, can you tell me towards which of these futures the favouring winds…

  15. School Subtracts Math Texts to Add E-Lessons, Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how math teachers at San Marcos High School turned to an online curriculum and in-class assessments to increase student achievement. Setting aside their 7-year-old textbooks, teachers filled the void largely with an online math curriculum, called Agile Mind, that comes equipped with an array of assessment tools. The idea was…

  16. Early Childhood in the New China: Suzhou

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education is a…

  17. Small Steps, Big Changes: Eight Essential Practices for Transforming Schools through Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confer, Chris; Ramirez, Marco

    2012-01-01

    During the past two decades, Chris Confer and Marco Ramirez have worked to deepen and improve mathematics instruction at schools around the country. Wherever they go, they find the raw ingredients for success already present: "The potential for positive change lies within each school. Abundance is present in the form of capable children, teachers,…

  18. From Social Identity to Professional Identity: Issues of Language and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez-Rendon, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This study draws from sociocultural theory to examine how biographical factors interplay with contextual factors to shape the professional identity of a Spanish language teacher candidate. Specifically, it explores the student teaching experience of Marcos, a 30-year-old language teacher candidate from South America. Analysis of the data reveals…

  19. Theory to Practice: Developmental Mathematics Program--A Model for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Mireles, Selina

    2010-01-01

    The Developmental Mathematics Program (DMP) at Texas State University-San Marcos in central Texas has undergone systemic, significant changes over the past ten years. These changes primarily resulted from the alignment to the American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges' (AMATYC) Crossroads in Mathematics: Standards for Introductory…

  20. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  1. Functional Assesment of Symptomatic Snapping Scapula after Scapulothoracic Arthroscopy: A Prospective Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Cerciello, Simone; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Principal investigator and promoter: Giovanni Merolla Co-investigator: Giuseppe Porcellini Investigation performed at Biomechanics Laboratory “Marco Simoncelli”, D. Cervesi Hospital, Cattolica - Italy Plan of clinical investigation (PCI): Version 1.0 of December 10, 2012 Approved by AV/IRST Ethical Committee (Comitato Etico Area Vasta Romagna) Reg. Sperimentazioni 914 Prot. N°: 1785/2013/I.5/46 PMID:24809032

  2. Aula Verde: Art as Experience in Community-Based Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarca, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    After winning a class-action lawsuit against unconstitutional prison conditions in Puerto Rico, Marco Abarca managed to direct part of the fine monies accumulated throughout years of litigation toward an investment that would improve the living conditions in one of the largest and poorest housing projects in Puerto Rico. With the participation of…

  3. Computer Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Marcos Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: After viewing many computer-literacy programs, we believe San Marcos Junior High School has developed a unique program which will truly develop computer literacy. Our hope is to give all students a comprehensive look at computers as they go through their two years here. They will not only learn the…

  4. Academic Travel: Modes and Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald; Phipps, Alison

    2005-01-01

    The Great Khan's atlas contains also the maps of the promised lands visited in thought but not yet discovered or founded: New Atlantis, Utopia, the City of the Sun, Oceana, Tamoe, New Harmony, New Lanark, Icaria. Kublai asked Marco: "You, who go about exploring and who see signs, can you tell me towards which of these futures the favouring winds…

  5. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T...

  6. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T...

  7. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T...

  8. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T...

  9. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T...

  10. Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in a Complex Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Lazaro Moreno; Wedin, Asa

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on results from a baseline study for an intended intervention project in bilingual-intercultural education in the Municipality of San Miguel Ixtahuacan, in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. To a great extent the article deals with issues of bilingual education from the perspective of social justice. It analyses the…

  11. A comparative study of different PGA attenuation and error models: Case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    In order to evaluate the horizontal peak ground acceleration (HPGA) during earthquakes, the author studies the respective efficiency of two existing attenuation models [Mébarki, A., 2003a, Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. November 12-13, (CD-ROM), Mébarki A., 2004. Modèle d'atténuation sismique: prédiction probabiliste des pics d'accélération, RFGC — Revue Française de Génie Civil, Hermès Ed., 8 (9-10), 1071-1086]. A comparative study of their performances is done in the case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan). The reported PGA (Peak Ground Accelerations) values correspond to hypocentral distances ranging from 15 up to 180 km with observed acceleration peaks ranging from (0.04 g) up to (1.16 g). The author considers two kinds of probabilistic distributions for the error model in order to describe the uncertainty and the variability that affect the values of the PGA: a Gamma distribution and a Log-normal distribution. The adopted error models assume that the variability of the PGA is such that its coefficient of variation is equal to 55% [Mébarki, A., 2003a. Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. November 12-13, (CD-ROM), Mébarki, A., 2004. Modèle d'atténuation sismique: prédiction probabiliste des pics d'accélération, RFGC — Revue Française de Génie Civil, Hermès Ed., 8 (9-10), 1071-1086]. The obtained results show that both attenuation models provide adequate values of the PGA when a Gamma distribution is adopted for the error model. The attenuation models efficiency decreases slightly when a Log-normal distribution is adopted for the error model.

  12. Half collision resonance phenomena in molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Maximo Garcia-Sucre ); Raseev, G. ); Ross, S.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The Escuela Latinoamericana de Fisica (ELAF) is a series of meeting s that for 28 years has played an important role in research-level teaching of physics in Latin America. This book contains the proceedings of ELAF 90 which was held at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) in Caracas, Venezuela from July 23 to August 3, 1990, as part of the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of IVIC. In contrast to previous ELAF's that were of general scope, ELAF 90 centered on a particular subject matter: Half Collisional Resonance Phenomena in Molecules, Experimental and Theoretical Approaches. The term Half Collision'' refers to the fragmentation of a molecular system following is excitation by light. The lack of an incident fragmentation of a molecular system following is excitation by light. The lack of an incident particle (other than the photon) in the fragmentation process is what leads to the term. The purpose of this volume is to present current results in the experimental and theoretical study of half collisions and also to include pedagogical papers at an introductory or intermediate level. The contributions are grouped into several sections; light sources; ionization; dissociation-experimental; dissociation-theory; competition between ionization and dissociation; and particle-molecule collisions.

  13. FORMATION OF INTRACYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM OF MYCOBACTERIA RELATED TO CELL DIVISION

    PubMed Central

    Imaeda, Tamotsu; Ogura, Mituo

    1963-01-01

    Imaeda, Tamotsu (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela) and Mitua Ogura. Formation of intracytoplasmic membrane system of mycobacteria related to cell division. J. Bacteriol. 85:150–163. 1963.—Mycobacterium leprae, M. lepraemurium, and a Mycobacterium sp. were observed with an electron microscope. In these bacilli, the three-dimensional structure of the intracytoplasmic membrane system consists of tubular infoldings of the invaginated plasma membrane. The moderately dense substance, presumably representing the cell-wall precursor, is found in the membranous system, especially in the rapid growth phase of mycobacteria. This system always shows an intimate relationship with cell division. A low-density zone, probably corresponding to the low-density substance which coats the cell wall, appears in the connecting regions of the system and in the longitudinal portion of the cell wall. These zones extend centripetally, and the separation of the cell wall occurs after the two zones meet. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the intracytoplasmic membrane system may produce cell-wall material during cell division of mycobacteria. Images PMID:13956365

  14. The Evolution of the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Domain of the Class A Scavenger Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Nicholas V. L.; Whelan, Fiona J.; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.; Golding, G. Brian

    2015-01-01

    The class A scavenger receptor (cA-SR) family is a group of five evolutionarily related innate immune receptors. The cA-SRs are known for their promiscuous ligand binding; as they have been shown to bind bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, as well as different modified forms of low-density lipoprotein. Three of the five family members possess a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain while the remaining two receptors lack the domain. Previous work has suggested that the macrophage-associated receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) shares a recent common ancestor with the non-SRCR-containing receptors; however, the origin of the SRCR domain within the cA-SRs remains unknown. We hypothesize that the SRCR domains of the cA-SRs have a common origin that predates teleost fish. Using the newly available sequence data from sea lamprey and ghost shark genome projects, we have shown that MARCO shares a common ancestor with the SRCR-containing proteins. In addition, we explored the evolutionary relationships within the SRCR domain by reconstructing the ancestral SRCR domains of the cA-SRs. We identified a motif that is highly conserved between the cA-SR SRCR domains and the ancestral SRCR domain that consist of WGTVCDD. We also show that the GRAEVYY motif, a functionally important motif within MARCO, is poorly conserved in the other cA-SRs and in the reconstructed ancestral domain. Further, we identified three sites within MARCO’s SRCR domain, which are under positive selection. Two of these sites lie adjacent to the conserved WGTVCDD motif, and may indicate a potential biological function for these sites. Together, these findings indicate a common origin of the SRCR domain within the cA-SRs; however, different selective pressures between the proteins may have caused MARCOs SRCR domain to evolve to contain different functional motifs when compared to the other SRCR-containing cA-SRs. PMID:26217337

  15. Investigation of the role of gravity waves in the generation of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Francis S.; Coley, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The following areas of interest in this progress report are: (1) the continuation of software development in the examination of F-region gravity-wave power using in-situ data from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-E); (2) the inquiry into the use of the San Marco data for the study of the initiation and growth of bubbles, particularly when the satellite passes through the early evening hours at relatively high altitudes, and the development of bubbles using not only the San Marco data but includes the use of airglow observations made in Hawaii; and (3) the promising development in the observation of distinct well formed waves at about 400 km altitude in the equatorial region. These waves look very much like waves seen over the polar cap that are attributed to internal gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere driving ionization up and down the magnetic field lines. These equatorial waves show no modulation of the total ion concentration.

  16. Women in Physics in Perú

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loayza, María Luisa Cerón; Vásquez, Yezeña Huaypar; Cabrejos, Jorge Aurelio Bravo

    2009-04-01

    The numbers of women receiving undergraduate and master's degrees in physics from San Marcos National University and undergraduate physics degrees from San Luis Gonzaga National University in Perú are reported. The number of undergraduate degrees in physics has increased for women in San Marcos University, but not for women earning master's degrees. Why don't women complete their post-degree studies? Economics and gender stereotypes are factors that women in Perú have to fight each day. Perú does not have a good scholar program in science, so few students are interested in beginning their university careers in science. Improvements in science education are needed for our country to reach its potential.

  17. Gamma ray satellite to be launched from Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H. G.; Senstad, K.

    1972-01-01

    The announcement is presented of the launch of NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite B (SAS-B) on 2 Nov. 1972, to study gamma rays. The launch is to be from the Italian-operated San Marco Equatorial Range in the Indian Ocean for ease in acquiring an equatorial orbit. The spacecraft systems described include: stabilization and control, communication, and spark chamber gamma ray telescope. The results of Uhuru (Explorer 42) are also presented.

  18. CGCI Investigators Reveal Comprehensive Landscape of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Genomes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers from British Columbia Cancer Agency used whole genome sequencing to analyze 40 DLBCL cases and 13 cell lines in order to fill in the gaps of the complex landscape of DLBCL genomes. Their analysis, “Mutational and structural analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using whole genome sequencing,” was published online in Blood on May 22. The authors are Ryan Morin, Marco Marra, and colleagues.  

  19. Cover Caption.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    December Online Cover: Geometric and temperature distribution models of broccoli florets, from "Heat Transfer during Blanching and Hydrocooling of Broccoli Florets" by Rosalina Iribe-Salazar, José Caro-Corrales, Óscar Hernández-Calderón, Jorge Zazueta-Niebla, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Marco Carrazco-Escalante, and Yessica Vázquez-López; p. E2774. PMID:26769103

  20. The exaptive excellence of spandrels as a term and?prototype

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, Lewontin and I borrowed the architectural term “spandrel” (using the pendentives of San Marco in Venice as an example) to designate the class of forms and spaces that arise as necessary byproducts of another decision in design, and not as adaptations for direct utility in themselves. This proposal has generated a large literature featuring two critiques: (i) the terminological claim that the spandrels of San Marco are not true spandrels at all and (ii) the conceptual claim that they are adaptations and not byproducts. The features of the San Marco pendentives that we explicitly defined as spandrel-properties—their necessary number (four) and shape (roughly triangular)—are inevitable architectural byproducts, whatever the structural attributes of the pendentives themselves. The term spandrel may be extended from its particular architectural use for two-dimensional byproducts to the generality of “spaces left over,” a definition that properly includes the San Marco pendentives. Evolutionary biology needs such an explicit term for features arising as byproducts, rather than adaptations, whatever their subsequent exaptive utility. The concept of biological spandrels—including the examples here given of masculinized genitalia in female hyenas, exaptive use of an umbilicus as a brooding chamber by snails, the shoulder hump of the giant Irish deer, and several key features of human mentality—anchors the critique of overreliance upon adaptive scenarios in evolutionary explanation. Causes of historical origin must always be separated from current utilities; their conflation has seriously hampered the evolutionary analysis of form in the history of life. PMID:11038582

  1. Scientist to Expose Students to Wetlands Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Marco Giardino, chief of the Applications Integration Division for NASA Stennis Space Center's Earth Science Applications Directorate, has been chosen by the JASON Project to be one of six host researchers for Disappearing Wetlands, which will run through the 2004-05 school year. In the photo, Giardino (left) interprets satellite imagery on the way to an archeological site near Lake Salvador, La., in November 2002. With him is his local guide, Michael Comardelle.

  2. Faisal Hossain Receives 2012 Charles S. Falkenberg Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    I am utterly thrilled and humbled by this award. This is by far the highest accolade I have or will have ever received in my lifetime for something that has become a mission for me. I thank the AGU, Earth Science Information Partnership (EISP), and the Falkenberg Award review committee for giving me a never-ending source of inspiration. Thanks also go to colleagues who nominated me, namely, Manos Anagnostou, C. K. Shum, Marco Borga, and Mahbub Rahman.

  3. The harmonic oscillator behind all aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2010-12-23

    The group-theoretical structure of the harmonic oscillator appears in many guises. Originally developed by Marcos Moshinsky among several others for applications in nuclear physics, we point out here that the harmonic oscillator structure appears in aberrations of geometric optics, particularly in their classification by rank, symplectic spin and weight. And further, the finite harmonic oscillator appears again in the nonlinear transformations of finite Hamiltonian systems, when applied to the parallel processing of signals.

  4. Erratum: Weiss et al. 2015.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Maureen R; Phillips, Alison C; Kipp, Lindsay E

    2016-02-01

    Physical and Psychosocial Health Outcomes," in Ped Exerc Sci, 27(4), pp. 546-558, http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/pes.2015-0011, Kipp's affiliation was incorrectly listed as the Dept. of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, Lexington, KY. Kipp's correct affiliation is with the Dept. of Health and Human Performance, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX. We apologize for this error. PMID:26887610

  5. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR POSITRON WORKSHOP Roberto S Brusa (Italy) Michael Charlton (UK) Arnab S Ghosh (India) Franco A Gianturco (Italy) Gleb F Gribakin (UK) John Humberston (UK) Helge Knudsen (Denmark) Akos Kover (Hungary) Gaetana Laricchia (UK) Marco AP Lima (Brazil) Allen Mills (USA) Yasuyuki Nagashima (Japan) Clifford M Surko (USA) James Walters (UK) Sandra Ward (USA) LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR POSITRON WORKSHOP Radu I Campeanu (York, Chairman) Jurij W Darewych (York) Allan D Stauffer (York) Cody Storry (York)

  6. Life Sciences in the Ticino: Two Scientists - Two Stories.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Susanne Lauber

    2014-12-01

    Luca Varani, PhD, a group leader in Structural Biology at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona, and Marco Brini, founder and CEO of EnvEve SA, in the Tecnopolo in Manno, describe their life sciences background, their careers and why they percieve their ideal situation being a basic scientist who wants to remain in science, or being an entrepreneur respectively. PMID:26508605

  7. Developing experiment instrument packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herreid, R.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-Support Equipment (GSE) system supports development, calibration, and testing of experiment packages. It is also used for "quick look" processing and in-progress data analysis. User interacts with incoming telemetry data, performs computations, and controls execution of procedures using versatile Experiment Command Interactive Language (ECIL). Program is implemented many ways with minimal modification. It is written in MARCO II and FORTRAN for DEC PDP-11/34 using the RSX-11M operating system.

  8. Ectopic banking of amputated parts: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James P

    2011-11-01

    Since its first clinical description by Marco Godina in 1986, the technique of temporary ectopic banking of amputated parts has been employed in a growing body of reported cases. This installment provides a review of the reported cases in the international literature to date, focusing on our evolving understanding of clinical indications, operative timing, and surgical technical consideration. Two illustrative cases are provided to highlight these concepts. PMID:22036286

  9. SLICE/MARC-O: Description of Services. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Libraries, Oklahoma City.

    Following the discussions of: what is SLICE, what is MARC, what is MARC-O, and what is SLICE/MARC-O are descriptions of the five services offered by SLICE/MARC-O. These services are: (1) cataloging data search and print, (2) MARC record and search and copy, (3) standard S.D.I. current awareness, (4) custom S.D.I. current awareness and (5) SLICE…

  10. CGCI Investigators Reveal Comprehensive Landscape of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Genomes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers from British Columbia Cancer Agency used whole genome sequencing to analyze 40 DLBCL cases and 13 cell lines in order to fill in the gaps of the complex landscape of DLBCL genomes. Their analysis, “Mutational and structural analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using whole genome sequencing,” was published online in Blood on May 22. The authors are Ryan Morin, Marco Marra, and colleagues.

  11. CGCI Investigators Reveal Comprehensive Landscape of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Genomes

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers from British Columbia Cancer Agency used whole genome sequencing to analyze 40 DLBCL cases and 13 cell lines in order to fill in the gaps of the complex landscape of DLBCL genomes. Their analysis, “Mutational and structural analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using whole genome sequencing,” was published online in Blood on May 22. The authors are Ryan Morin, Marco Marra, and colleagues.

  12. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-. cap alpha. line profile observations

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-..cap alpha.. (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya.

  13. Agriculture near Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Very large fields, typical of commercial and irrigated farmland, contrast with patchy upland agriculture in this view of southeastern Brazil (18.5S, 47.5W). A reservoir, just to the northeast of the city of Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, serves as the water source and is fed by the Rios Sao Marcos and the Rio Paranaiba. Near the bottom of the photo is circular feature with a plume of smoke thought to be a mining operation and smelter.

  14. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W., II

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  15. El Sistema de Referencia Celeste convencional de la IAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.

    La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste baricéntrico cuyo plano fundamental y origen de ascensiones rectas estén próximos, respectivamente, al ecuador y equinoccio dinámicos J2000.0. El nuevo sistema de referencia estará materializado por las posiciones J2000.0 de radiofuentes extragalácticas determinadas con la técnica de interferometría de larga línea de base (VLBI). El Working Group on Reference Frames de la IAU (WGRF) decidió adoptar (Grasse, 1995) al sistema de referencia celeste extragaláctico del Servicio Internacional de la Rotación Terrestre (IERS) como futuro sistema de referencia celeste convencional bajo el nombre International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y encomendó su mantenimiento futuro al IERS. El marco de referencia que materializará al ICRS contiene posiciones precisas J2000.0 de más de 600 radiofuentes extragalácticas. Las coordenadas fueron ajustadas en una única solución VLBI en la cual se incluyeron todas las observaciones realizadas hasta octubre de 1995 con la técnica de adquisición de datos VLBI Mark III. Para minimizar los errores sistemáticos que pueden afectar la calidad del marco de referencia se introdujeron mejoras sustanciales en la modelización y en la selección de datos. Un subconjunto de objetos del marco de referencia se utilizó para referir las posiciones estelares determinadas con el satélite astrométrico Hipparcos al ICRS.

  16. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes injure the plasma membrane of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro Kanno, Sanae; Furuyama, Akiko

    2008-10-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging nanotechnology materials which are likely to be mass-produced in the near future. However, prior to mass-production, certain health-related concerns should first be addressed. For example, when inhaled, the thin-fibrous shape and the biopersistent characteristics of CNTs may cause pulmonary diseases, in a manner similar to asbestos. In the present study, mouse macrophages (J774.1) were exposed to highly-purified multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs, 67 nm) or to UICC crocidolite in order to evaluate the toxicity of these nano-size fibers. The cytotoxicity of MWCNTs was found to be higher than that of crocidolite. The toxic effect of MWCNTs was not affected by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, or buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor. cDNA microarray analyses suggested that the cytotoxicity of MWCNTs could not be explained satisfactorily by either an increase or decrease of gene expression, although mRNA levels of some cytokines were slightly increased by MWCNTs. Moreover, MWCNTs did not significantly activate either MAP kinases such as ERK, JNK and p38, nor common apoptosis pathways such as caspase 3 and PARP. Electron microscopic studies indicated that MWCNTs associate with the plasma membrane of macrophages and disrupt the integrity of the membrane. Several proteins were found to adsorb onto MWCNTs when MWCNT-exposed macrophages were gently lysed. One of these proteins was macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO). MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells associated with MWCNTs more rapidly than mock-transfected cells. These results indicate that MWCNTs probably trigger cytotoxic effects in phagocytotic cells by reacting with MARCO on the plasma membrane and rupturing the plasma membrane.

  17. The case of the machinists' mutiny.

    PubMed

    Chew, W B

    1990-01-01

    "You can't be serious!" Mike Trail, the president and fourth-generation owner of Trail Manufacturing, stared at five older men standing in his office. "I'm afraid we are, Mike." Sandy, the most senior of the five, was polite but firm. "We won't switch over to the new equipment." Trail Manufacturing was a small Midwestern company trying to define itself in a new world of competition. Working with engineering chief Marco Duncan, Mike Trail, its young CEO, developed a program to revolutionize the company's manufacturing capability by installing six computerized machining centers. The $4 million automation program was proceeding smoothly, or at least it seemed to be, until the sixth of eight production teams, whose members included the company's most respected machinist, refused to continue participating. Mike canvased his colleagues for suggestions. "We can't let any screw machines remain in operation," Marco insisted. "The problem wasn't just old machines. The problem was--and is--the whole company. We need a clean break with the past." Shop manager Darrell Montgomery didn't necessarily disagree, but he worried about alienating Sandy. "You know what Sandy means to this place," he said. "If it wasn't for him, we never would have survived the startup." Bob Block, the company's CFO, went a step further. He questioned Marco's all-or-nothing vision and counseled compromise. "With half the new cells up, the screw machines are running a lot fewer jobs," he noted. "But they still account for over half our sales and even more of our profits. Maybe these guys are right." Four experts on change examine the crisis at Trail Manufacturing and debate Mike Trail's next step. PMID:10107958

  18. Cell proliferation and modulation of interaction of estrogen receptors with coregulators induced by ER? and ER? agonists.

    PubMed

    Evers, Nynke M; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Wang, Si; Melchers, Diana; Houtman, René; de Haan, Laura H J; Ederveen, Antwan G H; Groten, John P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate modulation of the interaction of the ER? and ER? with coregulators in the ligand responses induced by estrogenic compounds. To this end, selective ER? and ER? agonists were characterized for intrinsic relative potency reflected by EC50 and maximal efficacy towards ER? and ER? mediated response in ER selective reporter gene assays, and subsequently tested for induction of cell proliferation in T47D-ER? cells with variable ER?/ER? ratio, and finally for ligand dependent modulation of the interaction of ER? and ER? with coregulators using the MARCoNI assay, with 154 unique nuclear receptor coregulator peptides derived from 66 different coregulators. Results obtained reveal an important influence of the ER?/ER? ratio and receptor selectivity of the compounds tested on induction of cell proliferation. ER? agonists activate cell proliferation whereas ER? suppresses ER? mediated cell proliferation. The responses in the MARCoNI assay reveal that upon ER? or ER? activation by a specific agonist, the modulation of the interaction of the ERs with coregulators is very similar indicating only a limited number of differences upon ER? or ER? activation by a specific ligand. Differences in the modulation of the interaction of the ERs with coregulators between the different agonists were more pronounced. Based on ligand dependent differences in the modulation of the interaction of the ERs with coregulators, the MARCoNI assay was shown to be able to classify the ER agonists discriminating between different agonists for the same receptor, a characteristic not defined by the ER selective reporter gene or proliferation assays. It is concluded that the ultimate effect of the model compounds on proliferation of estrogen responsive cells depends on the intrinsic relative potency of the agonist towards ER? and ER? and the cellular ER?/ER? ratio whereas differences in the modulation of the interaction of the ER? and ER? with coregulators contribute to the ligand dependent responses induced by estrogenic compounds. PMID:24923734

  19. Concept of Operations for Deploying a Lander on the Secondary Body of Binary Asteroid 1996 FG3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardivel, Simon; Michel, P.; Scheeres, D.

    2012-10-01

    The European Space Agency is currently performing an assessment study of the MarcoPolo-R space mission, in the framework of the M3 class competition of its Cosmic Vision Program. MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive asteroid, whose baseline target is the binary asteroid 1996FG3. The baseline mission, including the sample, is focused on the primary of the binary system. To date, little has yet been considered for the investigation of the secondary, apart from remote observations from the spacecraft. However, MarcoPolo-R may carry an optional lander, and if such a lander could be accommodated it may be relevant to use it for a more detailed investigation of the secondary. This poster presents a strategy for deploying a lander using an unpowered trajectory towards the secondary. This ballistic deployment allows for the design of a light lander with minimum platform overhead and maximum payload. The deployment operations are shown to be very simple and require minimum preparation. The main spacecraft is set on an orbit that reaches a specific point near the binary system L2 Lagrange Point facing the far side of the secondary, about 220 meters from the secondary surface, with a relative speed of about 10cm/s. The lander is then jettisoned using a spring-release mechanism that sets it on an impact trajectory that robustly intersects with the secondary surface. On impact, the lander only needs to dissipate a small amount of kinetic energy in order to ensure that it is energetically and dynamically trapped on the surface. Considering errors on spacecraft GNC and on the spring-release mechanism, and very large uncertainties on the gravity field of the asteroids, the strategy presented here yields a successful landing in more than 99.9% of cases, while ensuring the absolute safety of the spacecraft before, during and after deployment operations.

  20. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes injure the plasma membrane of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Seishiro; Kanno, Sanae; Furuyama, Akiko

    2008-10-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging nanotechnology materials which are likely to be mass-produced in the near future. However, prior to mass-production, certain health-related concerns should first be addressed. For example, when inhaled, the thin-fibrous shape and the biopersistent characteristics of CNTs may cause pulmonary diseases, in a manner similar to asbestos. In the present study, mouse macrophages (J774.1) were exposed to highly-purified multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs, 67 nm) or to UICC crocidolite in order to evaluate the toxicity of these nano-size fibers. The cytotoxicity of MWCNTs was found to be higher than that of crocidolite. The toxic effect of MWCNTs was not affected by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, or buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor. cDNA microarray analyses suggested that the cytotoxicity of MWCNTs could not be explained satisfactorily by either an increase or decrease of gene expression, although mRNA levels of some cytokines were slightly increased by MWCNTs. Moreover, MWCNTs did not significantly activate either MAP kinases such as ERK, JNK and p38, nor common apoptosis pathways such as caspase 3 and PARP. Electron microscopic studies indicated that MWCNTs associate with the plasma membrane of macrophages and disrupt the integrity of the membrane. Several proteins were found to adsorb onto MWCNTs when MWCNT-exposed macrophages were gently lysed. One of these proteins was macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO). MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells associated with MWCNTs more rapidly than mock-transfected cells. These results indicate that MWCNTs probably trigger cytotoxic effects in phagocytotic cells by reacting with MARCO on the plasma membrane and rupturing the plasma membrane. PMID:18655803

  1. A preliminary analysis of atomic oxygen dayglow using solar EUV measurements from ASSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Cotton, D. M.; Gladstone, G. R.; Tobiska, W. K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms governing the interactions between two of the fundamental components of the solar-terrestrial system - solar ionizing radiation and the earth's upper atmosphere - are investigated. The physical parameters of the EUV emissions resulting from these interactions are characterized so that EUV remote sensing can gainfully be employed as a quantitative diagnostic of the terrestrial atmosphere and plasma environment. This analysis uses the solar flux measurements of the Airglow and Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on board the San Marco D/L satellite. Preliminary modeling results of the altitude and zenith angle distribution of these emissions are presented along with the data.

  2. Environmental statement for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Space Science, launch vehicle and propulsion programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    NASA OSS Launch Vehicle and Propulsion Programs are responsible for the launch of approximately 20 automated science and applications spacecraft per year. These launches are for NASA programs and those of other U. S. government agencies, private organizations, such as the Comsat Corporation, foreign countries, and international organizations. Launches occur from Cape Kennedy, Florida; Vandenberg Air Force Base, California; Wallops Island, Virginia; and the San Marco Platform in the Indian Ocean off Kenya. Spacecraft launched by this program contribute in a variety of ways to the control of and betterment of the environment. Environmental effects caused by the launch vehicles are limited in extent, duration, and intensity and are considered insignificant.

  3. Impact spallation experiments - Fracture patterns and spall velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Polanskey, C.A.; Ahrens, T.J. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1990-09-01

    The spall velocities produced by nine experimental impacts of 1 to 6.5 km/sec into San Marcos gabbro targets, using projectiles of Fe, Al, Pb, and basalt of various sizes, have been measured in conjunction with fragment-velocity high-speed filmings of the events. A detailed comparison is made between measured spall velocities and those predicted by the model of Melosh (1984), with a view to the compatibility of small-scale results and large planetary impacts. Attention is also given to the patterns of internal fracture generated by impact within the targets. 29 refs.

  4. Impact spallation experiments - Fracture patterns and spall velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanskey, Carol A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    The spall velocities produced by nine experimental impacts of 1 to 6.5 km/sec into San Marcos gabbro targets, using projectiles of Fe, Al, Pb, and basalt of various sizes, have been measured in conjunction with fragment-velocity high-speed filmings of the events. A detailed comparison is made between measured spall velocities and those predicted by the model of Melosh (1984), with a view to the compatibility of small-scale results and large planetary impacts. Attention is also given to the patterns of internal fracture generated by impact within the targets.

  5. [Manuel Julián Grajales: propagator of smallpox vaccine in South America. Anatomist and surgeon].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Grajales came to Chile in December 1807, noting that since 1805 smallpox vaccination had been introduced by Fray Pedro Manuel Chaparro, supported by the Councilor Nicholas Matorras. He founded the Vaccination Boards of Valparaiso and Santiago in 1808 and became professor of anatomy and surgery in 1819. In 1823 he received his authorization to practice medicine. He wanted to finish his medical studies at the University of San Marcos in Lima, but the war of Independence made this impossible. He returned to Spain in 1825. In 1848, he became Member of Honor of the Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile. PMID:25679933

  6. Spent filter packaging for long term storage and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Duberville, T.M.; Miller, C.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will discuss filter packaging experience using spent filter transfer casks, a filter shear and the NUKEM macro-encapsulation process. Marco-encapsulation of spent filters in cement has provided sufficient shielding to enable filter containers to be shipped in less expensive IP-2 casks. The lower dose rate and higher density also off-sets disposal rates at Barnwell based on mass. No re-dewatering of encapsulated filter containers is required after a period of long term storage and encapsulation eliminates the possibility of gas generation from filters during storage. Encapsulation can be performed on filters loaded into poly HICs or carbon steel liners. (authors)

  7. Conocimiento de Energía: Principios Esenciales y Conceptos Fundamentales para la Educación de Energía

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    This is the Spanish version of our Energy Literacy guidebook. Esta guía presenta conceptos de energía que, cuando se entienden y se aplican, ayudan a individuos y a comunidades a tomar decisiones sobre la energía con conocimiento de causa. No es un currículo sino que ofrece un marco sobre el cual puede basarse un plan de estudios. La guía se dirige a cualquier persona que participe en la educación de energía.

  8. Austin Chalk boundaries bigger than Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, J.

    1980-11-01

    The Austin Chalk is a carbonate limestone which has major outcropping near Austin, Texas. Around Austin, San Antonio, and San Marcos it finds its major expression in the so-called Balcones Escarpment, a jutting limestone promontory that divides the Texas hill country from the Black Gumbo Farmland to the east, and forms one of the longest, most noticeable geologic features in the state. The Chalk is known to run through the entire Gulf Coast Littoral - Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. A map shows the locations of the major uplifts, downwarps, fault zones, and tectonic belts in the Austin Chalk play.

  9. Representing object oriented specifications and designs with extended data flow notations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buser, Jon Franklin; Ward, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of using extended data flow notations to document object oriented designs and specifications is discussed. Extended data flow notations, for the purposes here, refer to notations that are based on the rules of Yourdon/DeMarco data flow analysis. The extensions include additional notation for representing real-time systems as well as some proposed extensions specific to object oriented development. Some advantages of data flow notations are stated. How data flow diagrams are used to represent software objects are investigated. Some problem areas with regard to using data flow notations for object oriented development are noted. Some initial solutions to these problems are proposed.

  10. Seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. EEZ off California - Data for RV Farnella cruise F7-87-SC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Reid, Jane A.; Conrad, Tracey A.; Dunham, Rachel E.; Clague, David A.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Davis, Alice S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and briefly describe ship-board and laboratory data for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research cruise aboard the RV Farnella that took place December 3-21, 1987 (cruise F7-87-SC). The purpose of the cruise was to survey seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off California. Eight seamounts were studied - Rodriguez, San Marcos, Adam, Hoss, Little Joe, Ben, Flint, and Jasper. A geophysical survey of Jasper Seamount took place, but that seamount was not sampled; whereas Adam and Hoss Seamounts were sampled, but not surveyed with geophysics lines.

  11. APL workers install CRIS on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers from the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) install the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2). From left, are Al Sadilek, Marcos Gonzalez and Cliff Willey. CRIS is one of nine instruments on ACE, which will investigate the origin and evolution of solar phenomenon, the formation of the solar corona, solar flares and the acceleration of the solar wind. ACE was developed for NASA by the APL. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched Aug. 21 aboard a two-stage Delta II 7920-8 rocket from Space Launch Complex 17, Pad A.

  12. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 1: Overall economic impact of technological progress: Its measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Investigations were performed at the national economic level to explore the aggregate effects of technological progress on economic growth. Inadequacies in existing marco-economic yardsticks forced the study to focus on the cost savings effects achieved through technological progress. The central questions discussed in this report cover: (1) role of technological progress in economic growth, (2) factors determining the rate of economic growth due to technological progress; (3) quantitative measurements of relationships between technological progress, its determinants, and subsequent economic growth; and (4) effects of research and development activities of the space program. For Part 2, see N72-32174.

  13. Chili Cookoff 2016: The Largest Ever | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Marco Johnson decided to bring “the big guns” to the 13th annual Protective Services Chili Cookoff—his wife, Jill. The strategy paid off because Johnson’s chili recipe won first place, standing out against some stiff competition. Johnson, a shuttle bus driver for Protective Services, added his own special touches to the recipe developed by his wife; he used Kielbasa as the main ingredient and increased the smoky flavor, hence the name Jill’s Smoky Kielbasa Chili. The recipe also included crispy bacon, hot pepper seasonings, and a variety of diced tomatoes, from roasted to hot.

  14. Phootprint - A Phobos sample return mission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Detlef; Svedhem, Håkan; Rebuffat, Denis

    Introduction ESA is currently studying a mission to return a sample from Phobos, called Phootprint. This study is performed as part of ESA’s Mars Robotic Exploration Programme. Part of the mission goal is to prepare technology needed for a sample return mission from Mars itself; the mission should also have a strong scientific justification, which is described here. 1. Science goal The main science goal of this mission will be to Understand the formation of the Martian moons Phobos and put constraints on the evolution of the solar system. Currently, there are several possibilities for explaining the formation of the Martian moons: (a) co-formation with Mars (b) capture of objects coming close to Mars (c) Impact of a large body onto Mars and formation from the impact ejecta The main science goal of this mission is to find out which of the three scenarios is the most probable one. To do this, samples from Phobos would be returned to Earth and analyzed with extremely high precision in ground-based laboratories. An on-board payload is foreseen to provide information to put the sample into the necessary geological context. 2. Mission Spacecraft and payload will be based on experience gained from previous studies to Martian moons and asteroids. In particular the Marco Polo and MarcoPolo-R asteroid sample return mission studies performed at ESA were used as a starting point. Currently, industrial studies are ongoing. The initial starting assumption was to use a Soyuz launcher. Uunlike the initial Marco Polo and MarcoPolo-R studies to an asteroid, a transfer stage will be needed. Another main difference to an asteroid mission is the fact that the spacecraft actually orbits Mars, not Phobos or Deimos. It is possible to select a spacecraft orbit, which in a Phobos- or Deimos-centred reference system would give an ellipse around the moon. The following model payload is currently foreseen: - Wide Angle Camera, - Narrow Angle Camera, - Close-Up Camera, - Context camera for sampling context, - visible-IR spectrometer - thermal IR spectrometer - and a Radio Science investigation. It is expected that with these instruments the necessary context for the sample can be provided. The paper will focus on the current status of the mission study.

  15. The Origin of Near-Earth Asteroid 1999 JU3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campins, H.; Morbidelli, A.; de León, J.; Tsiganis, K.; Licandro, J.

    2011-10-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 161273 (1999 JU3) is the primary target of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Hyabusa-2 sample return mission. This object is also considered a potential target for two other sample return missions: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's OSIRISREx and the European Space Agency's Marco Polo- R. This asteroid is likely to have originated in the main-belt and in this work. Our initial dynamical considerations indicate that the source of 1999 JU3 is in the inner-belt (a < 2.5 AU). We are in the process of using spectral information and albedo to constrain the source further.

  16. Shock wave properties of anorthosite and gabbro. [to model hypervelocity impact cratering on planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Huyoniot data on San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbro to 11 GPA are presented. Release paths in the stress-density plane and sound velocities are reported as determined from partial velocity data. Electrical interference effects precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the gabbro. Because of the loss of shear strength in the shocked state, the plastic behavior exhibited by anorthosite indicates that calculations of energy partitioning due to impact onto planetary surfaces based on elastic-plastic models may underestimate the amount of internal energy deposited in the impacted surface material.

  17. Shock wave properties of anorthosite and gabbro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Hugoniot data on San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbro to 11 GPA are presented. Release paths in the stress-density plane and sound velocities are reported as determined from particl velocity data. Electrical interference effects precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the gabbro. Because of the loss of shear strength in the shocked state, the plastic behavior exhibited by anorthosite indicates that calculations of energy partitioning due to impact onto planetary surfaces based on elastic-plastic models may underestimate the amount of internal energy deposited in the impacted surface material.

  18. The Scout Launch Vehicle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. R., Jr.; Urash, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Scout Launch Vehicle Program to utilize solid propellant rockets by the DOD and to provide a reliable, low cost vehicle for scientific and applications aircraft is discussed. The program's history is reviewed and a vehicle description is given. The Vandenberg Air Force Base and the San Marco launch sites are described, and capabilities such as payload weight, orbital inclinations, payload volume and mission integration time spans are discussed. Current and future plans for improvement, including larger heat shields and individual rocket motors are also reviewed.

  19. Impact induced damage beneath craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Kaiwen; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    Ackermann et al. (1975) described the subsurface structure of Meteor Crater and identified a fractured rock zone extending to about 1 km deep. The depth of the fractured/damage zone can be used to extract information about the impact cratering process. We impacted rock samples (San Marcos gabbro) in the laboratory and imaged the damage structure using both dicing and tomography methods. We propose a simple model to describe the damage zone depth based on the laboratory measurements. The model agrees well with other methods for the estimation of the projectile size of Meteor Crater and it may be used for estimates of damage around craters of other planets and moons.

  20. Commission 20: Position and Motion of Minor Planets, Comets and Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Fernandez, Julio; Bowell, Edward L. G.; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Bowell, Edward L. G.; Chernetenko, Yulia A.; Chesley, Steven R.; Lazzaro, Daniela; Lemaitre, Anne; Marsden, Brian G.; Muinonen, Karri; Rickman, Hans; Tholen, David J.; Yoshikawa, Makoto

    2007-12-01

    A total of 16 among the new IAU members have asked to join Commission 20; they are: Jerome Berthier, Nicholas J. Cooper, Marco Delbò, Romina P. Di Sisto, Michael W. Evans, Tetsuharu Fuse, Ludmila Hudkova, Yurij N. Krugly, Elena N. Polyakhova, Zhanna Pozhalova, Alessandro Rossi, Qi Rui, Jonathan D. Shanklin, Slawomira E. Szutowicz, Gino Tuccari and Hong-Suh Yim. Moreover, two requests to join the Commission have been received by astronomers that are already IAU members: Peter De Cat and Ricardo A. Gil-Hutton.

  1. Chili Cookoff 2016: The Largest Ever | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Marco Johnson decided to bring “the big guns” to the 13th annual Protective Services Chili Cookoff—his wife, Jill. The strategy paid off because Johnson’s chili recipe won first place, standing out against some stiff competition. Johnson, a shuttle bus driver for Protective Services, added his own special touches to the recipe developed by his wife; he used Kielbasa as the main ingredient and increased the smoky flavor, hence the name Jill’s Smoky Kielbasa Chili. The recipe also included crispy bacon, hot pepper seasonings, and a variety of diced tomatoes, from roasted to hot.

  2. Electromagnetic concentrators with reduced material parameters based on coordinate transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Lan; Ma, Junxian; Wang, Changtao; Cui, Jianhua; Du, Chunlei; Luo, Xiangang

    2008-07-21

    Omni-directional electromagnetic field concentrators have been recently reported by Marco Rahm et al. [Photon. Nanostruct.: Fundam. Appl. 6, 87 (2008)] based on form-invariant coordinate transformations related to its Jacobi transformation matrix. Using transverse-electric wave illumination, we reduced the complex material parameters of the concentrator for future practical implementation. Concentrators with different set of permittivity and permeability tensors are proposed. The electromagnetic concentrating performance and the scattering properties at the inner and outer boundary of these concentrators are theoretically and numerically analyzed. Finally we obtain a set of material tensors for a concentrator that simultaneously has perfect matched interior and exterior interfaces. PMID:18648463

  3. Electron-Phonon Scattering in Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, Sami; Park, Ji-Yong; Yaish, Yuval; Sazonova, Vera; Ustunel, Hande; Braig, Stephan; Arias, Tomas A.; Brouwer, Piet; McEuen, Paul L.

    2004-03-01

    Electron scattering rates in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes are studied using an atomic force microscope as an electrical probe. From scaling of the resistance of the same nanotube with length in the low and high bias regimes, the mean free paths for both regimes are inferred. The observed scattering rates are consistent with calculations for acoustic phonon scattering at low biases and zone boundary/optical phonon scattering at high biases. This presentation is sponsored by DCOMP. This work was supported by the NSF Center for Nanoscale Systems, the Packard Foundation, the MARCO/DARPA FRC-MSD, and the Cornell Center for Materials Research.

  4. Brain activation associated with active and passive lower limb stepping

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lukas; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert; Michels, Lars; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-01-01

    Reports about standardized and repeatable experimental procedures investigating supraspinal activation in patients with gait disorders are scarce in current neuro-imaging literature. Well-designed and executed tasks are important to gain insight into the effects of gait-rehabilitation on sensorimotor centers of the brain. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel imaging paradigm, combining the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible stepping robot (MARCOS) with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure task-related BOLD signal changes and to delineate the supraspinal contribution specific to active and passive stepping. Twenty-four healthy participants underwent fMRI during active and passive, periodic, bilateral, multi-joint, lower limb flexion and extension akin to human gait. Active and passive stepping engaged several cortical and subcortical areas of the sensorimotor network, with higher relative activation of those areas during active movement. Our results indicate that the combination of MARCOS and sparse sampling fMRI is feasible for the detection of lower limb motor related supraspinal activation. Activation of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas suggests motor response inhibition during passive movement in healthy participants. Our results are of relevance for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying gait in the healthy. PMID:25389396

  5. Paleomagnetism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province in the Algarve basin, Portugal: First insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Eric; Fernandes, Susana; Neres, Marta; Carvallo, Claire; Martins, Línia; Madeira, José; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2015-11-01

    We present new rock magnetic and paleomagnetic data of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) lavas cropping out in the Algarve basin (southern Portugal). Our results show that the magnetic mineralogy of the selected samples is primary and dominated by an assemblage of single-domain (SD) to multi-domain (MD) Ti-poor titanomagnetites. All samples carry a characteristic remanent magnetization of normal (positive) magnetic polarity, similarly to other circum-Atlantic CAMP lava sequences. Except for the sites located in the central part of the Algarve basin, site-based mean directions (5 sites, Group A) are comparable to the giant Messejana dyke's directions, suggesting that both lava flows and dyke were emplaced during the same geological interval (~ 200 Ma). However, sites located in the central part of the basin (4 sites; Group B), just east of the São Marcos-Quarteira fault zone, show a systematic discrepancy in the declination values, which is indicative of a significant vertical-axis rotation that we estimated to be ~ 30° clockwise. We suggest that the observed clockwise vertical-axis rotation was produced by a Riedel dextral shear zone of the São Marcos-Quarteira faults acting during the N-S compression that affected the Southern Portuguese margin in the Cenozoic. Our results provide important insights to unravel the complex history of the Algarve basin since the Mesozoic.

  6. Horizontal drilling in the Austin Chalk: Stratigraphic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, C.O. Jr. ); Bobigian, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling has renewed interest in the Austin chalk in south-central Texas. Large fields on opposite sides of the San Marcos arch Giddings to the northeast and Pearsall to the southwest were active with vertical drilling 10 years ago. Giddings' 4,500 Austin wells produced 209 million BO and 934 bcfg of gas through 1988; Pearsall's 1,440 wells produced 57 million BO and 35 bcfg of gas. Most vertical wells were completed, 20% were economic successes, 40% were marginal, 40% were uneconomic due to uneven areal distribution of near-vertical fractures and small faults, which provide reservoirs in otherwise tight chalk. Horizontal drilling, led by Amoco in Giddings and Oryx in Pearsall, enhances the chances of encountering the fractures by drilling perpendicular to the fracture trend. Horizontal drilling requires preselection of the stratigraphic horizon to be penetrated. One must understand the variable Austin stratigraphy to choose the zone with the most brittle character and best matrix porosity, both reduced by increased clay content. Chalk 130 ft thick on the San Marcos arch thickens to 600 to 800 ft in central Giddings field where middle marl separates lower and upper chalk Northeastward only lower chalk is preserved beneath a post-Austin submarine channel. The Austin thickens to 300-500 ft in Pearsall field where middle member ash beds separate lower and upper chalk inhibiting vertical reservoir communication. Locally, on the Pearsall arch, ash is missing, lower chalk thickens, and upper chalk thins.

  7. Investigation on spin-orbit torque induced perpendicular switching through voltage controlled magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Chong; Xu, Meng; Rosales, Marcus; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang

    2015-03-01

    Spin-orbit torques are shown to induce perpendicular magnetic switching in ultrathin ferromagnets (FMs) adjacent to heavy metals (HMs). Here, we demonstrated that the critical current density (Jc) for such perpendicular switching in HM/FM/oxide structures can be dramatically modulated by gate voltage induced reversible oxidation at FM/oxide interfaces. Through controlling perpendicular anisotropy and saturation magnetization (Ms) of FM layer, respectively, we show Ms, rather than anisotropy field as suggested in macrospin model, dominates Jc. Moreover, the measured external field dependent Jc results indicate that the spin-orbit torques have either a bulk or interface origin under different magnetization states. These results not only provide a promising means toward energy-efficient switching, but also offer further insights in understanding the reversal mechanism of the ferromagnetic layer. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  8. The Effect of Size on Ag Nanosphere Toxicity in Macrophage Cell Models and Lung Epithelial Cell Lines Is Dependent on Particle Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Raymond F.; Buckingham, Sarah; Holian, Andrij

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag) nanomaterials are increasingly used in a variety of commercial applications. This study examined the effect of size (20 and 110 nm) and surface stabilization (citrate and PVP coatings) on toxicity, particle uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a variety of macrophage and epithelial cell lines. The results indicated that smaller Ag (20 nm), regardless of coating, were more toxic in both cell types and most active in the THP-1 macrophages. TEM imaging demonstrated that 20 nm Ag nanospheres dissolved more rapidly than 110 nm Ag nanospheres in acidic phagolysosomes consistent with Ag ion mediated toxicity. In addition, there were some significant differences in epithelial cell line in vitro exposure models. The order of the epithelial cell lines’ sensitivity to Ag was LA4 > MLE12 > C10. The macrophage sensitivity to Ag toxicity was C57BL/6 AM > MARCO null AM, which indicated that the MARCO receptor was involved in uptake of the negatively charged Ag particles. These results support the idea that Ag nanosphere toxicity and NLRP3 inflammasome activation are determined by the rate of surface dissolution, which is based on relative surface area. This study highlights the importance of utilizing multiple models for in vitro studies to evaluate nanomaterials. PMID:24758926

  9. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas geologicos de Guayana tienen como base topografica las imagenes de radar de vision lateral (SLAR), con muy control de campo de los a?os 1970's. La correccion de estos desfases esta planificada para el futuro.

  10. El Planetario Móvil de la Municipalidad de la ciudad de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, F. E.; Campos, M.; Goldes, G. V.; Carranza, G. J.; Romero, R.; Juri, H. O.

    Se describen las características y operatoria del nuevo Planetario Móvil. Se trata de un equipamiento de propiedad de la Municipalidad de la Ciudad de Córdoba que es operado por personal y en el predio de la Universidad, en virtud de un convenio suscripto entre ambas instituciones. El planetario consta de una cúpula inflable y de un proyector con programas alternativos que incluyen temas de astronomía, geografía, biología y medio ambiente, entre otros. En la actualidad opera en las instalaciones del Pabellón Argentina de la Ciudad Universitaria y recibe delegaciones escolares de todo el territorio provincial. El Planetario Móvil es parte de un proyecto más amplio de divulgación científica en el cual interactúan la Universidad y el Municipio.

  11. [Health and primary education in the regenerationist ideology at the open educational institution].

    PubMed

    Ballester, R; Perdiguero, E

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work is to reconstruct the discourse of the authors who published about issues establishing links between health and primary education in the Boletin de la Institucion Libre de Ensenanza at the time of the Spanish colonial crisis in 1898. This source has been chosen due to its relevance to Spanish pedagogical renovation. Physical education was taken as a model for analysis for two reasons: firstly, it is the aspect that received the most attention; secondly, it became the engine for change in the renovation programme. In addition, its holistic nature was intended to lead to the new citizen that was needed by the country after the loss of the colonies. PMID:11620570

  12. PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, Y Paul

    2008-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami.Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina. PMID:21687817

  13. PREFACE: DISCRETE 2012 - Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; González Felipe, R.; Joaquim, F. R.; Lavoura, L.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Rebelo, M. N.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE 2012) was held at Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal, from 3-7 December 2012 and was organised by Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP) of Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. This is the sequel to the Symposia that was successfully organised in Valéncia in 2008 and in Rome in 2010. The topics covered included: T, C, P, CP symmetries CPT symmetry, decoherence, Lorentz symmetry breaking Discrete symmetries and models of flavour mixing Baryogenesis, leptogenesis Neutrino physics Electroweak symmetry breaking and physics beyond the Standard Model Accidental symmetries (B, L conservation) Experimental prospects at LHC Dark matter searches Super flavour factories, and other new experimental facilities The Symposium was organised in plenary sessions with a total of 24 invited talks, and parallel sessions with a total of 70 talks, including both invited and selected contributions from the submitted abstracts. The speakers of the plenary sessions were: Ignatios Antoniadis, Abdelhak Djouadi, Rabindra Mohapatra, André Rubbia, Alexei Yu Smirnov, José Bernabéu, Marco Cirelli, Apostolos Pilaftsis, Antonio Di Domenico, Robertus Potting, João Varela, Frank Rathmann, Michele Gallinaro, Dumitru Ghilencea, Neville Harnew, John Walsh, Patrícia Conde Muíño, Juan Aguilar-Saavedra, Nick Mavromatos, Ulrich Nierste, Ferruccio Feruglio, Vasiliki Mitsou, Masanori Yamauchi, and Marcello Giorgi. The Symposium was attended by about 140 participants. Among the social events, there was a social dinner in the historical Associação Comercial de Lisboa, which included a musical performance of 'Fado', the traditional music from Lisbon. The next symposium of the series will be organised by King's College, London University, UK, from 1-5 December 2014. Guest Editors G C Branco, D Emmanuel-Costa, R González Felipe, F R Joaquim, L Lavoura, S Palomares-Ruiz, M N Rebelo, J C Romão, J P Silva and J I Silva-Marcos International Advisory CommitteeLocal Organising Committee Francisco del Águila (Granada)From CFTP Jose Bernabéu (Valencia) Francisco Botella (Valencia)G C Branco Andrzej Buras (Munich)D Emmanuel-Costa Marcos Cerrada (Madrid)R González Felipe Pierluigi Campana (CERN)F R Joaquim Antonio Di Domenico (Rome)L Lavoura John Ellis (CERN)S Palomares-Ruiz Fernando Ferroni (Rome)M N Rebelo Luis Garrido (Barcelona)J C Romão Marcello Giorgi (Pisa)J P Silva Neville Harnew (Oxford)J I Silva-Marcos Maria José Herrero (Madrid) David Hitlin (Caltech)From LIP Gino Isidori (Frascati) Guido Martinelli (Rome)G Barreira Antonio Masiero (Padua)J Varela Nickolaos Mavromatos (London) Vasiliki Mitsou (Valencia) Hitoshi Murayama (Berkeley) Tatsuya Nakada (Lausanne) Antonio Pich (Valencia) Apostolos Pilaftsis (Manchester) Stefan Pokorski (Warsaw) Fabio Zwirner (Padua) Secretariat Dulce Conceição Sandra Oliveira Cláudia Romão discrete2012@cftp.ist.utl.pt http://indico.cern.ch/event/discrete2012 Sponsors CFTP - Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas LIP - Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas IST - Instituto Superior Técnico FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia Group picture The PDF also contains the conference poster and a list of participants.

  14. Particle velocity experiments in anorthosite and gabbro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    Shock wave experiments were conducted in San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbra 10 11 GPa using a 40 mm-borne propellant gun. Particle velocities were measured directly at several points in each target by means of electromagnetic gauges. Hugoniot states were calculated by determining shock-transit time from the gauge records. Sound speeds indicate a loss of shear strength upon sock compression for both rocks, with the strength loss persisting upon release to zero stress om the anorthosite. Stress-density release paths in the anorthosite indicate possible transformation of albite to jadeite + (quartz or coesite), with the amount of material transformed increasing as a function of shock stress. Electrical interferene effects in the gabbro precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the rock.

  15. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  16. Sixth progress report on the cooperative investigation of springs and streamflow in the Tecolote Tunnel area of Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmann, Walter

    1955-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a continuing series of progress reports giving the results of discharge measurements obtained at more than 120 selected sites in the "Tecolote Tunnel Area" of the Santa Ynez Mountains.  The area derives its name from the tunnel now being completed by the Bureau of Reclamation for the purpose of diverting the flood waters of the Santa Ynez River stored in Cachuma Reservoir into urban and agricultural areas in and near the city of Santa barbara.  The observational area for purposes of this investigation extends from Refugio Pass on the west to San Marcos Pass and the Painted Cave area on the east.  The tunnel alignment is rouhly north and south through the center of this area.

  17. An integrated model supporting histological and biometric responses as predictive biomarkers of fish health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    In this work, an experimental system of histological (branchial lesions) biomarkers and biometric data in catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was modeled. The fish were sampled along known pollution areas (S1) and from environmental protect areas (S2) in São Marcos' Bay, Brazil. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin and usual histological techniques were used in the first gill arch right. The lesions were observed by light microscopy. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at reference site (S1). However, in the catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area (S2) was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the biometric data showed significant differences, being highest in fish analyzed in the reference area. This approach revealed spatial differences related with biometric patterns and morphological modifications of catfish.

  18. One- and three-dimensional impact-induced tensional failure in rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Rubin, Allan M.

    1991-01-01

    Planar impact (10 to 25 m/sec) experiments were employed to induce dynamic tensile failure in Bedford limestone for stress durations of 0.5 and 1.3 microsec. Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities of recovered targets demonstrate deficits caused by microcracks at tensile stresses greater than 35 and 60 MPa in 1.3 and 0.5 microsec experiments. Three-dimensional impact experiments on 20 cm-sized blocks of Bedford limestone and San Marcos gabbro demonstrate compressional wave velocity deficits up to 30 percent in the vicinity of the crater. The damage microcrack decreases as r exp -1.56 from the crater, indicating a dependence on the magnitude and duration of the tensile hoop stresses associated with the impact-induced shock wave.

  19. Entropy of Isolated Quantum Systems after a Quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigol, Marcos; Santos, Lea; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2012-02-01

    A diagonal entropy, which depends only on the diagonal elements of the system's density matrix in the energy representation, has been argued to be the proper definition of thermodynamic entropy in out-of-equilibrium quantum systems. We study this quantity after an interaction quench in lattice hardcore bosons and spinless fermions, and after a local chemical potential quench in a system of hard-core bosons in a superlattice potential. The former systems have a chaotic regime, where the diagonal entropy approaches the equilibrium microcanonical entropy, coinciding with the onset of thermalization. The latter system is integrable. We show that its diagonal entropy is additive and different from the entropy of a generalized Gibbs ensemble, which has been introduced to account for the effects of conserved quantities at integrability [1]. [4pt] [1] Lea F. Santos, Anatoli Polkovnikov, and Marcos Rigol, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 040601 (2011).

  20. Comparisons of measured and theoretical thermospheric daily composition variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.; Newton, G. P.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of the diurnal component of the daily variation in the neutral composition data from the San Marco 3 Nace (Neutral Atmospheric Composition Experiment) mass spectrometer at 220, 250, and 280 km, the OGO-6 model data at 450 km, rocket measurements of nitrogen between 140 and 300 km, and the two-constituent theoretical model of Mayr and Volland (1973) gives good agreement for molecular nitrogen and atomic oxygen. The Nace and rocket measurements overlap in altitude, and there is good agreement in the amplitude and phase of the diurnal and semidiurnal components for molecular nitrogen. The helium diurnal amplitude and phase of the theoretical model are in fair agreement with the Nace results, while the amplitude from the OGO-6 model at 450 km is much larger than the model predicts, a result suggesting that the OGO-6 model diurnal amplitude may be overestimated as the result of an incomplete separation of local-time and seasonal effects.

  1. A noteworthy record of Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) coniceps (Ixodida: Argasidae) from Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Cristina; Bianchi, Riccardo; Massa, Antonio Andrea; Severini, Francesco; Di Luca, Marco; Toma, Luciano

    2011-06-01

    The first record of Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) coniceps (Canestrini) was reported for Italy in 1877, inside the interstices of the ancient mosaics at S. Marco Basilica in Venice. Afterwards only few discoveries of the species are reported for Italy; the last record is dated back to 1984, in L'Aquila town (Abruzzo Region). The present study shows the data of a survey carried out as a result of a massive infestation by O. coniceps in an ancient villa in Anzio town (Latium region) recently restored. In the past decades the villa has been fallen into disrepair, becoming an occasional shelter for wild animals mainly pigeons, that colonized the whole building for generations. This case appears worthy of note because it is the first record of this species after more than 25 years in Italy. A total of 136 specimens were collected by three methods: manual, mechanical aspirators and Wilson traps. Wilson trapping indicates positive O. coniceps tropism for CO(2). PMID:21298470

  2. Landing Strategies for Small Bodies Missions. - Philae and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan

    The investigation of small bodies, comets and asteroids, can contribute substantially to our understanding of the formation and history of the Solar System. In situ observations by Landers play a prominent role in this field. The Rosetta Lander - Philae - is currently on its way to comet Churyumov Gerasimenko. It will land in November 2014 and perform numerous experiments with a set of ten scientific instruments. Philae has been designed, to cope with a wide range of possible comet properties. The considerations taken during its development are relevant for future lander missions to small bodies in the Solar System. Various such missions are currently studied (e.g. Marco Polo or Don Quixote) We will address the mission options and compare applicable technologies with the solutions, chosen for Philae.

  3. International Program and Local Organizing Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    International Program Committee Dionisio Bermejo (Spain) Roman Ciurylo (Poland) Elisabeth Dalimier (France) Alexander Devdariani (Russia) Milan S Dimitrijevic (Serbia) Robert Gamache (USA) Marco A Gigosos (Spain) Motoshi Goto (Japan) Magnus Gustafsson (Sweden) Jean-Michel Hartmann (France) Carlos Iglesias (USA) John Kielkopf (USA) John C Lewis (Canada) Valery Lisitsa (Russia) Eugene Oks (USA) Christian G Parigger (USA) Gillian Peach (UK) Adriana Predoi-Cross (Canada) Roland Stamm (Germany) Local Organizing Committee Nikolay G Skvortsov (Chair, St Petersburg State University) Evgenii B Aleksandrov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St Petersburg) Vadim A Alekseev (Scientific Secretary, St Petersburg State University) Sergey F Boureiko (St.Petersburg State University) Yury N Gnedin (Pulkovo Observatory, St Petersburg) Alexander Z Devdariani (Deputy Chair, St Petersburg State University) Alexander P Kouzov (Deputy Chair, St Petersburg State University) Nikolay A Timofeev (St Petersburg State University)

  4. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  5. Evaluation of multi-dimensional flux models for radiative transfer in combustion chambers: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selcuk, N.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, flux methods have been widely employed as alternative, albeit intrinsically less accurate, procedures to the zone or Monte Carlo methods in complete prediction procedures. Flux models of radiation fields take the form of partial differential equations, which can conveniently and economically be solved simultaneously with the equations representing flow and reaction. The flux models are usually tested and evaluated from the point of view of predictive accuracy by comparing their predictions with "exact' values produced using the zone or Monte Carlo models. Evaluations of various multi-dimensional flux-type models, such as De Marco and Lockwood, Discrete-Ordinate, Schuster-Schwarzschild and moment, are reviewed from the points of view of both accuracy and computational economy. Six-flux model of Schuster-Schwarzschild type with angular subdivisions related to the enclosure geometry is recommended for incorporation into existing procedures for complete mathematical modelling of rectangular combustion chambers.

  6. The measurement of mangrove characteristics in southwest Florida using SPOT multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, John R.; Lin, Hongyue; Yang, Xinghe; Ramsey, Elijah, III; Davis, Bruce A.; Thoemke, Chris W.

    1991-01-01

    An intensive in situ sampling program near Marco Island, Florida during 19-23 October 1988 collected information on mangrove type, maximum canopy height, and percent canopy closure. These data were correlated with selected vegetation index information derived from analysis of SPOT multispectral (XS) data obtained on 21 October 1988. The Normalized Difference (ND) vegetation index information was the most highly correlated index with percent canopy closure (r = 0.91). Percent canopy closure information can be used as a surrogate for mangrove density which is of great value when predicting which parts of the mangrove ecosystem are at greatest risk after an oil spill occurs. Such information is very valuable when constructing oil spill Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Maps for tropical regions of the world.

  7. [The unicorn and the unicorn horn among apothecaries and physicians].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Fischer LP; Cossu Ferra Fischer V

    2011-07-01

    In the 4th century A.D. the first unicorn was shown as a little horse with a twisted horn and was completely different from the Oriental one described by Marco Polo. The new unicorn appeared during the 4th century A.D. in Alexandria. This animal enamoured of purity was used as a Christian symbol of purity and sacrifice and adornment of churches like in Lyons in the 13th century. In the 15th & 17th centuries the unicorn was found again in famous tapestries like La Dame B la Licorne as it meant courage, speed and purity. Since the 6th century the powder of unicorn horn was used as a medicine or a drug against poisoning. Depictions of unicorn can be found in chemist's signs, engravings or paintings until the 19th century.

  8. Space robotics--DLR's telerobotic concepts, lightweight arms and articulated hands.

    PubMed

    Hirzinger, G; Brunner, B; Landzettel, K; Sporer, N; Butterfass, J; Schedl, M

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly outlines DLR's experience with real space robot missions (ROTEX and ETS VII). It then discusses forthcoming projects, e.g., free-flying systems in low or geostationary orbit and robot systems around the space station ISS, where the telerobotic system MARCO might represent a common baseline. Finally it describes our efforts in developing a new generation of "mechatronic" ultra-light weight arms with multifingered hands. The third arm generation is operable now (approaching present-day technical limits). In a similar way DLR's four-fingered hand II was a big step towards higher reliability and yet better performance. Artificial robonauts for space are a central goal now for the Europeans as well as for NASA, and the first verification tests of DLR's joint components are supposed to fly already end of 93 on the space station. PMID:12703511

  9. Coupling constant metamorphosis, the Staeckel transform and superintegrability

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Sarah

    2010-12-23

    This paper is dedicated to the memory of Marcos Moshinsky. In this paper, we discuss the important role that coupling constant metamorphosis (CCM) and the Staeckel transform have played in the analysis of superintegrable systems. We explain the relation between the two and in particular show that they coincide when transforming between second-order superintegrable systems. Unlike in the case of second-order superintegrability, the quantum analog of CCM has only been proven for a subclass of systems with integrals of a specific form. We give the proof and as an application show the mapping of a family of superintegrable deformations of the simple harmonic oscillator to an associated family of superintegrable deformations of the Kepler-Coulomb potential.

  10. Identifying Close Binary Central Stars of PN From the Kepler K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, George H.; Long, Joseph; Kronberger, Matthias; De Marco, Orsola; Hillwig, Todd C.

    2016-01-01

    During the Kepler mission, De Marco et al (2015) reported observing 5 PN central stars. Of these, the light curves for 4 central stars exhibited signatures of close binary interactions during their evolution. While suggestive that a large fraction of PN evolve as a binary phenomenon, the sample is far too small to be compelling. We have acquired Kepler K2 data for campaigns 0 and 2 to monitor an additional 6 central stars, and we expect data for another 8-10 targets in campaign 7. We present preliminary results from Kepler K2 campaigns 0 and 2, describe our expectations for campaign 7, and discuss the challenges of using Kepler for these observations.

  11. Space systems technology; Proceedings of the Aerospace Congress and Exposition, Long Beach, CA, October 15-18, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Various papers on space system technology are presented. The topics discussed include: gallium arsenide solar cell vapor phase technology, liquid phase epitaxial GaAs solar cells, the San Marco Mission solar array, autonomous solar arrays for the future, application of viscous and inviscid computation methods for rocket turbopump systems, solar dynamic power for a space station, a two-phase thermal management system for the space station, and the effect of bipropellant thruster contaminant on solar array performance. Also considered are: uprated orbital maneuvering engine, pump-fed satellite delivery stage engine technology, lox/hydrocarbon propellants for space propulsion systems, refurbishment of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor, NASA's approach to flight confidence, diagnostic needs of the Space Shuttle main engine, reusable rocket engine turbopump condition monitoring, Space Shuttle mission extension capability, advanced launch vehicles, and the Space Shuttle main engine overhaul program.

  12. Surface elements and landing strategies for small bodies missions - Philae and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens

    2009-10-01

    The investigation of small bodies, comets and asteroids, can contribute substantially to our understanding of the formation and history of the Solar System. In-situ observations by Landers play a prominent role in this field. The Rosetta Lander - Philae - is currently on its way to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It will land in November 2014 and perform numerous experiments with a suite of 10 scientific instruments. Philae has been designed to cope with a wide range of possible comet properties. The considerations taken during its development are relevant for future Lander missions to small bodies in the Solar System. In addition the paper provides a review of alternative concepts, studied or developed for various missions like Phobos, Hayabusa/Minerva or Géocroiseur/Leonard. Various missions to small bodies in the Solar System, including Landers, are currently studied (e.g., Marco Polo). The paper will address the mission options and compare applicable technologies with the solutions chosen for Philae.

  13. Song of the dunes as a self-synchronized instrument.

    PubMed

    Douady, S; Manning, A; Hersen, P; Elbelrhiti, H; Protière, S; Daerr, A; Kabbachi, B

    2006-07-01

    Since Marco Polo it has been known that some sand dunes have the peculiar ability to emit a loud sound with a well-defined frequency, sometimes for several minutes. The origin of this sustained sound has remained mysterious, partly because of its rarity in nature. It has been recognized that the sound is not due to the air flow around the dunes but to the motion of an avalanche, and not to an acoustic excitation of the grains but to their relative motion. By comparing singing dunes around the world and two controlled experiments, in the laboratory and the field, we prove that the frequency of the sound is the frequency of the relative motion of the sand grains. Sound is produced because moving grains synchronize their motions. The laboratory experiment shows that the dune is not needed for sound emission. A velocity threshold for sound emission is found in both experiments, and an interpretation is proposed. PMID:16907409

  14. Reflectance spectra of primitive chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.

    2013-05-01

    We are studying a wide sample of pristine carbonaceous chondrites from the NASA Antarctic collection in order to get clues on the physico-chemical processes occurred in the parent bodies of these meteorites. We are obtaining laboratory reflectance spectra of different groups of carbonaceous chondrites, but here we focus in CM and CI chondrites. We discuss the main spectral features that can be used to identify primitive carbonaceous asteroids by remote sensing techniques. Two different spectrometers were used covering the entire 0.3 to 30 ?m electromagnetic window. Only a handful of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) exhibit bands or features clearly associated with aqueous alteration. Among them are the target asteroids of Osiris Rex and Marco Polo-R missions.

  15. Song of the Dunes as a Self-Synchronized Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douady, S.; Manning, A.; Hersen, P.; Elbelrhiti, H.; Protière, S.; Daerr, A.; Kabbachi, B.

    2006-07-01

    Since Marco Polo it has been known that some sand dunes have the peculiar ability to emit a loud sound with a well-defined frequency, sometimes for several minutes. The origin of this sustained sound has remained mysterious, partly because of its rarity in nature. It has been recognized that the sound is not due to the air flow around the dunes but to the motion of an avalanche, and not to an acoustic excitation of the grains but to their relative motion. By comparing singing dunes around the world and two controlled experiments, in the laboratory and the field, we prove that the frequency of the sound is the frequency of the relative motion of the sand grains. Sound is produced because moving grains synchronize their motions. The laboratory experiment shows that the dune is not needed for sound emission. A velocity threshold for sound emission is found in both experiments, and an interpretation is proposed.

  16. Particle velocity experiments in anorthosite and gabbro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Shock wave experiments were conducted in San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbra 10 11 GPa using a 40 mm-borne propellant gun. Particle velocities were measured directly at several points in each target by means of electromagnetic gauges. Hugoniot states were calculated by determining shock-transit time from the gauge records. Sound speeds indicate a loss of shear strength upon sock compression for both rocks, with the strength loss persisting upon release to zero stress om the anorthosite. Stress-density release paths in the anorthosite indicate possible transformation of albite to jadeite + (quartz or coesite), with the amount of material transformed increasing as a function of shock stress. Electrical interferene effects in the gabbro precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the rock.

  17. Electronic structure of oxygen functionalized graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbeck, Adam; Gu, Deyang; Kharche, Neerav; Nayak, Saroj

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons whose edges are passivated by oxygen. Using a first-principles density functional approach and the many-body GW method we find that oxygen-passivation results in a rich geometrical environment which in turn determines the electronic and magnetic properties of the ribbon. For planar systems we report magnetic ground states whose electronic structure depends upon the magnetic coupling between edges. For non-planar ribbons we report a nonmagnetic ground state with a band gap that decreases as a function of increasing ribbon width. Our results will be discussed in light of previous experimental and computational studies. Interconnect Focus Center (MARCO program), State of New York, NSF IGERT program, Grant no. 0333314, and computing resources of the Computationial Center for Nanotechnology Innovation (CCNI), RPI

  18. A simulation model of water depth in mangrove basin forests.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, S A

    1990-06-01

    The construction and validation of a model simulating the water depth within mangrove basin forests is described. Rainfall, water table, water depth and tide data collected from a red mangrove basin forest on Marco Island, FL, was used to estimate model parameters. These included the basin spillover height, evapotranspiration-infiltration rate and the functional relationship of water depth change to rainfall, tide and basin spillover. The model was constructed with LOTUS 123 and calibrated from staff gauge water depth records. The model proved accurate and adaptable. Water depths from the model and staff gauge were correlated highly (r = 0.98). Data from an adjacent black mangrove forest featuring complex wet-dry cycling were used to modify the model. After calibration, the model provided an accurate record of water depths at the site (r = 0.89). This model will provide water depths used in a model of Aedes taeniorhynchus population dynamics. PMID:2370528

  19. [Regulating the internet: a comparative analysis of Brazil, Chile, Spain, the US, and France].

    PubMed

    Segurado, Rosemary; Lima, Carolina Silva Mandú de; Ameni, Cauê S

    2015-12-01

    Global governance is of key concern in the current debate over the workings of the world's computer network, and Brazil has played a notable role in this process, especially after approval of the Marco Civil da Internet (law 12.965, april 23, 2014), which defines Brazil's regulatory framework for the internet. Dubbed the internet bill of rights, this law sets out the principles, guarantees, rights, and duties of internet users and providers in Brazil. Based on the fundamental categories of net neutrality, internet users' right to privacy, and copyright discussions from the perspective of intellectual property, the article offers a comparative analysis of regulations in five countries: Brazil, Chile, Spain, the US, and France. PMID:25119248

  20. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  1. An integrated model supporting histological and biometric responses as predictive biomarkers of fish health status

    SciTech Connect

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-06

    In this work, an experimental system of histological (branchial lesions) biomarkers and biometric data in catfish (Sciades herzbergii) was modeled. The fish were sampled along known pollution areas (S1) and from environmental protect areas (S2) in São Marcos' Bay, Brazil. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin and usual histological techniques were used in the first gill arch right. The lesions were observed by light microscopy. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at reference site (S1). However, in the catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area (S2) was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the biometric data showed significant differences, being highest in fish analyzed in the reference area. This approach revealed spatial differences related with biometric patterns and morphological modifications of catfish.

  2. Regiones de formación de la línea de He II λ 1640 en una atmósfera en expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R.; Cidale, L.; Ringuelet, A.

    Se calculan perfiles de la línea del He II λ1640 empleando un modelo de atmósfera en expansión con una estructura cromosférica para determinar la región de formación de la línea. El problema se trata en geometría esférica, fuera de equilibrio termodinámico. La ecuación de transporte radiativo se resuelve rigurosamente en el marco de referencia del fluído para distintas leyes de velocidad, monótonamente crecientes, y diferentes leyes de temperatura. Se buscan relaciones globales entre las características del perfil y los parámetros físicos atribuídos a la atmósfera estelar, con la finalidad de definir una herramienta de diagnóstico de las propiedades del medio.

  3. [The unicorn and the unicorn horn among apothecaries and physicians].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Cossu Ferra Fischer, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    In the 4th century A.D. the first unicorn was shown as a little horse with a twisted horn and was completely different from the Oriental one described by Marco Polo. The new unicorn appeared during the 4th century A.D. in Alexandria. This animal enamoured of purity was used as a Christian symbol of purity and sacrifice and adornment of churches like in Lyons in the 13th century. In the 15th & 17th centuries the unicorn was found again in famous tapestries like La Dame B la Licorne as it meant courage, speed and purity. Since the 6th century the powder of unicorn horn was used as a medicine or a drug against poisoning. Depictions of unicorn can be found in chemist's signs, engravings or paintings until the 19th century. PMID:22073757

  4. Characterization of hourly NOx atmospheric concentrations near the Venice International Airport with additive semi-parametric statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Varin, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    An additive modeling approach is employed to provide a statistical description of hourly variation in concentrations of NOx measured in proximity of the Venice "Marco Polo" International Airport, Italy. Differently from several previous studies on airport emissions based on daily time series, the paper analyzes hourly data because variations of NOx concentrations during the day are informative about the prevailing emission source. The statistical analysis is carried out using a one-year time series. Confounder effects due to seasonality, meteorology and airport traffic volume are accounted for by suitable covariates. Four different model specifications of increasing complexity are considered. The model with the aircraft source expressed as the NOx emitted near the airport is found to have the best predictive quality. Although the aircraft source is statistically significant, the comparison of model-based predictions suggests that the relative impact of aircraft emissions to ambient NOx concentrations is limited and the road traffic is the likely dominant source near the sampling point.

  5. Control of Spin Wave Band Structure and Propagation in Two-Dimensional Magnonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sietsema, Glade; Flatté, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    We have studied the properties of spin waves in two-dimensional magnonic crystals consisting of a magnetic material arranged in a lattice of cylinders and embedded in a second magnetic material. Dispersion curves, linewidths, and spin wave propagation patterns were obtained from the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation using the plane wave expansion method. We have examined how these results are affected by various parameters including the shape of the cylinders, the lattice structure, the material properties, and the spin-orbit interaction. Adjusting these values can open or close band gaps and drastically shift the frequency range of the band structure. The spin wave propagation patterns were found to exhibit high directionality dependent on the excitation frequency and can also be modified with the aforementioned parameters. This work was supported in part by DARPA/MESO and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  6. Inelastic vertical tunneling in graphene-based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Barrera, Sergio; Feenstra, Randall

    2015-03-01

    Lateral momentum conservation of tunneling states in graphene / hexagonal boron nitride / graphene heterostructures causes intriguing resonant behavior and negative differential resistance. We explain this phenomenon in terms of a simple model which includes electrostatic gating, rotational alignment between graphene layers, elastic scattering, and inelastic tunneling effects for both monolayer and bilayer graphene. We highlight recent experimental efforts to observe these effects in fabricated devices and compare with theory to validate our theoretical model. In order to improve future fabrication, we discuss disorder mechanisms, the differences between monolayer and bilayer graphene configurations, and the critical parameters which govern the characteristics of these devices. This work was supported in part by the Center for Low Energy Systems Technology (LEAST), one of the six SRC STARnet Centers, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  7. Acknowledgements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    Ackowledgement logos The organizers of the Young Researchers' Meeting in Rome would like to thank all the scientists who participated in the meetings. We thank the Universities of Roma "Tor Vergata" and "La Sapienza" for hosting the first two editions of the conference, and the Physics and Astronomy Doctoral Schools of "La Sapienza" for sponsoring the 2nd meeting. We are grateful to Prof. Roberto Capuzzo-Dolcetta (Univ. "La Sapienza"), Prof. Enzo Marinari (Univ. "La Sapienza"), Prof. Pasquale Mazzotta (Univ. "Tor Vergata"), Prof. Giancarlo Ruocco (Univ. "La Sapienza"), Sig.ra Fernanda Lupinacci (Univ. "La Sapienza"), Dott. Marco Veneziani (Lessico Intellettuale Europeo-CNR), Dott.sa Rossella Cossu (Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo-CNR) and Dott. Paolo Cabella (University of Rome "Tor Vergata") for logistical and technical support, and useful discussions. Conference photographs

  8. [Industrial nursing. Functions within the basic health unit].

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Antonio Javier Cortés

    2005-02-01

    The Law of Prevention of Risks at Work marked an important point of flexion in the tie sanitary professions the field of the labor health. This work will mark the objective to locate to the Industrial Nursing (a company nursing assistant) in a context near the reality. For it, it will be equipped with legal content, and those articles of the Law of Prevention of Risks at Work will be mentioned and of the Regulations for Prevention Services, that establishes the guidelines of performance of the professionals of the Basic Unit of Health (Industrial Medicina and the company nursing assistant) Also will mention the objectives of the First draft of Law of the Reformation of Normative Marco of the Law of Prevention of Risks at Work, consequence of the alarming data of sinisterness and labor accidental. PMID:15816220

  9. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  10. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  11. Fossil Meteorite Unearthed From Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2006-06-01

    A team of scientists lead by Wolf Maier (University of Quebec, Canada and University of Pretoria, South Africa and soon at University of Western Australia, Perth) and Marco Andreoli (University of the Witwatersrand and South African Nuclear Energy Corp.) and colleagues who also hail from Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States, have announced the discovery of a 25-centimeter-wide chondritic meteorite unearthed from the 145-million-year-old Morokweng impact crater in South Africa. Found within the crater's impact melt sheet about 770 meters (half a mile) down a drilling borehole, the hefty meteorite's existence would seem improbable given its low chance of surviving the high shock pressures and temperatures normally associated with large impact events. Its unusual composition could mean it is a sample from a previously unknown part of the LL chondrite parent body or maybe it is from an entirely different asteroid population than other known meteorites.

  12. Design and testing of a mesoscale actuator device (MAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon; Mitrovic, Milan; Carman, Gregory P.; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2000-06-01

    Three different piezoelectric stacks (PI, NEC, and Marco stack) were characterized in this paper. Their mechanical and electrical properties were first evaluated including Young' modulus, piezoelectric constants, and effective permittivity under mechanical preloads up to 69 MPa (10 ksi) at 2 MV/m. Test result shows that the PI stack generated the highest strain output (2087 μɛ) under a mechanical preload of 55 MPa (8 ksi) at 2 MV/m. As electric field and frequency increased, piezoelectric stack was heated. Heating is mainly caused by power dissipated due to dielectric loss. The power density of the piezoelectric stack was measured under different frequencies, electric fields, and mechanical loads based on a factorial experimental design. Test results indicate that operational frequency influenced the power density more significantly than other parameters.

  13. Statistical panorama of female physics graduate students for 2000-2010 in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón Loayza, María Luisa; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge Aurelio

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of a statistical study on the number of women entering the undergraduate and master's programs of physics at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Peru. From 2006 through 2010, 13 female students entered the master's degree program but no females graduated with the degree. Considering that Peru is a developing country, a career in physics is not considered an attractive professional choice even for male students because it is thought that there are no work centers to practice this profession. We recommend that the causes preventing female physics students from completing their studies and research work be analyzed, and that strategies be planned to help women complete their academic work. We are considering getting help from the Peruvian Physics Society (SOPERFI) in order to draw more attention for our plan.

  14. [Prominent personalities from the tropical dermatology field in Peru].

    PubMed

    Burstein Alva, Zuño

    2014-01-01

    This article pays tribute to three Peruvian medical personalities: José Neyra Ramirez (1929-2012), Abelardo Tejada (1931-2013) and Oscar Romero Rivas (1929-2011), highlighting their valuable contributions to the field of Tropical Dermatology and Health Medicine that benefited public health and Peruvian medical education. The article mentions the formation of a group of young researchers called “The Anacoretas”, including professors Hugo Pesce, Enrique Encinas, Juan Francisco Valegas in Lima; and Enerst Nausk and Victor Manchego in Germany, who, with the support of the Peruvian and German governments promoted and created the first university research center of Tropical Medicine on the Pacific Coast of Latin America called Daniel A. Carrion Tropical Medicine Institute at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima (TMI/UNMSM). PMID:25597737

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Discrete Symmetries and CP Violation: From Experiment to Theory (Oxford Graduate Texts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fösel, A.

    2009-03-01

    Discrete Symmetries and CP Violation: From Experiment to Theory by Marco Sozzi discusses C(harge conjugation), P(arity) and T(ime reversal) discrete symmetries and of course CP symmetry in microscopic (atomic, nuclear and particle) physics. It includes a detailed description of key or representative experiments, and major achievements and recent developments are also mentioned. Though lots of excellent textbooks already exist which cover the basics of discrete symmetries and CP violation in theory and experiment, Sozzi has fully achieved the goal of presenting a book that describes the basics of this subject in detail, from an experimental point of view as well as from theory. He also succeeds in finding links between experiments and theory, leading to a better understanding of the subject. Besides, as an experimentalist, discrete symmetries and CP violation appear to the author as ideal subjects to convey the depth and excitement of experimental `beautiful' physics, which Marco S Sozzi - in my opinion - has managed to do brilliantly. Though mainly addressed to graduate students, the book may also be useful to undergraduates (by skipping some of the more advanced sections and utilizing the brief introduction to some topics in the appendices) and to young researchers looking for a wider modern overview of the issues related to CP symmetry. At the end of each chapter, further reading sections are conveniently provided for the reader to find relevant literature for further studies. Problems to solve at the end of each chapter act as 'little tests'. Unfortunately, their solutions are currently absent: perhaps a publication that includes them is planned in the near future. To conclude, the book succeeds in being a complete and self-consistent text describing in up-to-date detail the investigation of discrete symmetries in sub-atomic physics. It also emphasizes the concepts and ingenuity behind many delicate, careful, and by all means 'beautiful' experiments.

  16. Orbitrap-based mass analyser for in-situ characterization of asteroids: ILMA, Ion Laser Mass Analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briois, C.; Cotti, H.; Thirkell, L.; Space Orbitrap Consortium[K. Aradj, French; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Carrasco, N.; Chalumeau, G.; Chapelon, O.; Colin, F.; Coll, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Kukui, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Pennanech, C.; Szopa, C.; Thissen, R.; Vuitton, V.; Zapf], P.; Makarov, A.

    2014-07-01

    Since about a decade the boundaries between comets and carbonaceous asteroids are fading [1,2]. No doubt that the Rosetta mission should bring a new wealth of data on the composition of comets. But as promising as it may look, the mass resolving power of the mass spectrometers onboard (so far the best on a space mission) will only be able to partially account for the diversity of chemical structures present. ILMA (Ion-Laser Mass Analyser) is a new generation high mass resolution LDI-MS (Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometer) instrument concept using the Orbitrap technique, which has been developed in the frame of the two Marco Polo & Marco Polo-R proposals to the ESA Cosmic Vision program. Flagged by ESA as an instrument concept of interest for the mission in 2012, it has been under study for a few years in the frame of a Research and Technology (R&T) development programme between 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) [3,4], partly funded by the French Space Agency (CNES). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercialises Orbitrap-based laboratory instruments. The R&T activities are currently concentrating on the core elements of the Orbitrap analyser that are required to reach a sufficient maturity level for allowing design studies of future space instruments. A prototype is under development at LPC2E and a mass resolution (m/Δm FWHM) of 100,000 as been obtained at m/z = 150 for a background pressure of 10^{-8} mbar. ILMA would be a key instrument to measure the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of objects such as carbonaceous asteroids, comets, or other bodies devoid of atmosphere such as the surface of an icy satellite, the Moon, or Mercury.

  17. Depositional systems distribution of the lower Oligocene Vicksburg Formation, TX

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.; Galloway, W.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The lower Oligocene Vicksburg Formation of Texas is situated between the upper Eocene Jackson Group and the upper Oligocene Frio Formation. The paleogeography of the Texas Gulf coastal plain during the early Oligocene is typical of a progradational passive continental margin. However, a detailed regional depositional systems analysis of stratigraphic units, such as the Vicksburg, within a mature petroleum basin can yield results beneficial in both exploration and development. Stratigraphic plays are determined from the distribution of depositional systems, and reservoir characteristics are heavily influenced by conditions of sedimentation. Two primary depocenters (and exploration fairways) of the Texas Vicksburg were the Houston Embayment and the Rio Grande Embayment; they were separated by a deep-rooted structural nose in central Texas: the San Marcos arch. Within the embayments, deltaic depositional systems merged along strike with barrier/strand plain systems. Updip, fluvial systems traversed coastal plain units. On the seaward edge of the paralic systems, sand and mud deposits prograded across, and built up over, the relict Jackson shelf and shelf margin. Contemporaneous growth faulting controlled deltaic depositional patterns in the Rio Grande Embayment and, to a lesser degree, in the Houston Embayment. A barrier/strand plain system within an interdeltaic coastal bight extended across the northern flank of the San Marcos arch. Several minor wave-dominated delta complexes were interspersed within this regional setting. The southern flank of the arch was influenced by the fluvial systems of the Rio Grande Embayment that established another wave-dominated delta. Deposition of the Vicksburg progradational paralic sediments was initiated seaward of the Jackson coastal position. A brief, minor transgression interrupted the progradational pattern during middle Vicksburg deposition.

  18. Mélanges and olistostromes in the Puerto Plata area (northern Dominican Republic) as a record of subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North-American plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernaiz Huerta, P. P.; Pérez-Valera, F.; Abad, M.; Monthel, J.; Diaz de Neira, A.

    2012-09-01

    The Cordillera Septentrional records the oblique subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North American plates during Late Cretaceous to early Palaeogene times. The Puerto Plata basement complex of this range is considered to represent a fragment of the frontal part of the Great Arc of the Caribbean in Hispaniola that originated during thrusting of the Caribbean plate onto the North American shelf. This paper describes and interprets mélange-type formations spatially related to this basement complex and its associated sedimentary cover, the Imbert Fm. Such formations include the San Marcos olistostromic Fm and a unit of Serpentinic Breccias located at the base and interbedded in the lower section of the former. Both units are Eocene in age, have been mainly deposited by syntectonic subaqueous mass-transport processes and typically host a varied mixture of blocks of known and unknown origin, including high-P metamorphic rocks (knockers). Cartoon models of palaeotectonic reconstructions depicting the final stages of subduction and the onset of collisional process in Early and Middle Eocene times respectively, are proposed in order to show the original relationships among all geological units involved in the study area. The Serpentinic Breccias are interpreted as being the result of extensive sedimentary recycling of peridotite and serpentinite massive bodies or subduction related mélanges when exposed at the surface by return flow during early exhumation stages of the accretionary complex, coevally with the end of island-arc volcanism. This process is inferred to be the triggering mechanism for the feeding of originally deep-sited knockers, probably in combination with strike-slip tectonics and associated mud diapirism The slightly younger San Marcos Fm records the collision event and main exhumation stage, while displaying the typical features present in olistostromes and other mass-wasting, gravitationally-driven deposits recognized in extensive areas of forearc and accretionary complexes involved in arc-continent collisional processes.

  19. Observations of the Generation of Eastward Equatorial Electric Fields Near Dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Pfaff, R. F.; Klenzing, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report and discuss interesting observations of the variability of electric fields and ionospheric densities near sunrise in the equatorial ionosphere made by instruments onboard the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite over six consecutive orbits. Electric field measurements were made by the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI), and ionospheric plasma densities were measured by Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP). The data were obtained on 17 June 2008, a period of solar minimum conditions. Deep depletions in the equatorial plasma density were observed just before sunrise on three orbits, for which one of these depletions was accompanied by a very large eastward electric field associated with the density depletion, as previously described by de La Beaujardière et al. (2009), Su et al. (2009) and Burke et al. (2009). The origin of this large eastward field (positive upward/meridional drift), which occurred when that component of the field is usually small and westward, is thought to be due to a large-scale Rayleigh-Taylor process. On three subsequent orbits, however, a distinctly different, second type of relationship between the electric field and plasma density near dawn was observed. Enhancements of the eastward electric field were also detected, one of them peaking around 3 mV per meter, but they were found to the east (later local time) of pre-dawn density perturbations. These observations represent sunrise enhancements of vertical drifts accompanied by eastward drifts such as those observed by the San Marco satellite (Aggson et al., 1995). Like the San Marco measurements, the enhancements occurred during winter solstice and low solar flux conditions in the Pacific longitude sector. While the evening equatorial ionosphere is believed to present the most dramatic examples of variability, our observations exemplify that the dawn sector can be highly variable as well.

  20. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    Armani Paolo (Università di Trento) Benhar Omar (INFN Roma) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonanno Luca (Università di Ferrara) Catara Francesco (Università di Catania) Cò Giampaolo (Università di Lecce) Colonna Maria (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN Catania) Colonna Nicola (INFN Bari) Conti Francesco (Università di Pavia) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Cristoforetti Marco (Technische Universität München, Germania) Cuofano Carmine (Università di Ferrara) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) Drago Alessandro (Università di Ferrara) Faccioli Pietro (Università di Trento) Farina Nicola (INFN Roma) Finelli Paolo (Università di Bologna) Fiorentini Giovanni (Università di Ferrara) Fortunato Lorenzo (Università di Padova) Gambacurta Danilo (Università di Catania) Gandolfi Stefano (Università di Trento) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (INFN Pisa) Giusti Carlotta (INFN Pavia) Illarionov Alexei (SISSA Trieste) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Leidemann Winfried (Università di Trento) Lenzi Silvia (Università di Padova) Lipparini Enrico (Università di Trento) Lissia Marcello (Università di Cagliari) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Maieron Chiara (Università di Lecce) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Millo Raffaele (Università di Trento) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pastore Alessandro (Univeristy of Jyväskylä, Finlandia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pisent Gualtiero (Università di Padova) Prete Gianfranco (INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) Quarati Piero (Politecnico di Torino) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Salmè Giovanni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Traini Marco (Università di Trento) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Vitturi Andrea (Università di Padova) Viviani Michele (INFN Pisa)

  1. Wireless data communication alternatives for small public safety agencies: how one community cost-effectively solved its expanding field data requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canning, Ryan M.; Lefebvre, Eric

    2005-06-01

    A growing number of Public Safety agencies have begun leveraging wireless data communication technology to improve tactical response capabilities as well as overall productivity. For years police departments subscribed to CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) services to provide officers with basic dispatch data and criminal database access. Now as cellular carriers have deactivated CDPD and shifted to 2.5G and 3G data services such as 1xRTT, GPRS and EDGE, police departments are scrambling to fill the void. Not surprisingly, the extraordinary investments cellular carriers made to upgrade their infrastructures have been transferred to the customer, with monthly fees running as high as $80 a month per user. It's no wonder public safety agencies have been reluctant to adopt these services. Lost in the fray are those smaller police departments which account for nearly 90% of the nation's total. This group has increasingly sought out alternative data communication solutions that are not predicated on budget-busting monthly access fees. One such example is the Marco Island Police Department (MIPD) in Southwestern Florida that received a Federal grant to augment its existing voice communications with data. After evaluating several different technologies and vendors, MIPD chose a 900 MHz ad hoc mesh network solution based on its ability to provide reliable, high-speed and secure IP-based data communications over extensive distances. This paper will discuss technical details of Marco Island's mobile mesh network implementation; including: coverage area with 900 MHz spread spectrum radios, strategic repeater tower placement, interference, throughput performance, and the necessity for application-persistence software.

  2. Improving Children’s Menus in Community Restaurants: Best Food for Families, Infants, and Toddlers (Best Food FITS) Intervention, South Central Texas, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, BJ; Fisher, Deborah Torrey; Biediger-Friedman, Lesli

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 32% of US children are overweight or obese. Restaurant and fast food meals contribute 18% of daily calories for children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years. Changing children’s menus may improve their diets. This case study describes Best Food for Families, Infants, and Toddlers (Best Food FITS), a community-based intervention designed to address childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to improve San Marcos children’s access to healthy diets through partnerships with local restaurants, removing sugar-sweetened beverages, decreasing the number of energy-dense entrées, and increasing fruit and vegetable offerings on restaurant menus. Community Context San Marcos, Texas, the fastest growing US city, has more restaurants and fewer grocery stores than other Texas cities. San Marcos’s population is diverse; 37.8% of residents and 70.3% of children are Hispanic. Overweight and obesity rates among school children exceed 50%; 40.3% of children live below the poverty level. Methods This project received funding from the Texas Department of State Health Services Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Prevention Program to develop Best Food FITS. The case study consisted of developing a brand, engaging community stakeholders, reviewing existing children’s menus in local restaurants, administering owner–manager surveys, collaborating with restaurants to improve menus, and assessing the process and outcomes of the intervention. Outcome Best Food FITS regularly participated in citywide health events and funded the construction of a teaching kitchen in a new community building where regular nutrition classes are held. Sixteen independent restaurants and 1 chain restaurant implemented new menus. Interpretation Improving menus in restaurants can be a simple step toward changing children’s food habits. The approach taken in this case study can be adapted to other communities. Minimal funding would be needed to facilitate development of promotional items to support brand recognition. PMID:25539127

  3. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: Seagoing Oceanography for Middle School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, D.; Foley, S.; Knox, R. A.; Mauricio, P.

    2007-12-01

    Now in its fourth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with National Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Naval Research (ONR), National Science Foundation (NSF), San Diego County Office of Education (SDCOE), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum encourages active inquiry with intellectually stimulating problem-solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as role- models. Recent science test scores with IFRR students have shown significant increases in classes where this curriculum has been implemented as compared to other classes where the traditional curriculum has been used. IFRR has provided students in the San Diego area with a unique opportunity for learning about oceanographic research, which could inspire students to become oceanographers or at least scientifically literate citizens - a benefit for a country that depends increasingly on technically proficient personnel, and a benefit for society at large.

  4. THERMAP: a mid-infrared spectro-imager based on an uncooled micro-bolometer for space missions to small bodies of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brageot, E.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Fargant, G.

    2012-04-01

    We report on the feasibility study of a mid-infrared (8-18 ?m) spectro-imager called THERMAP, based on an uncooled microbolometer detector array. Due to the recent technological developments of these detectors, which have undergone significant improvements in the last decade, we wanted to test their capabilities for the Marco Polo R ESA Cosmic Vision mission. In this study, we demonstrate that the new generation of uncooled microbolometer detectors has all the imaging and spectroscopic capabilities to fulfill the scientific objectives of this mission. To test the imaging capabilities of the detector, we built an experiment based on a 640x480 ULIS microbolometer array, a germanium lense and a black body. Using this experiment, we show that calibrated radiometric images can be obtained down to at least 258 K (lower limit of our experiment), and that two calibration points are sufficient to determine the absolute scene temperature with an accuracy better than 1 K. Extrapolation to lower temperature should allow to measure the temperature down to 180 K with an accuracy of ~5 K. Adding flux attenuating neutral density mid-infrared filters (transmittance : 50%, 10%, 1%) to our experiment, we were able to evaluate the spectroscopic performances of the detector. Our results show that we can perform spectroscopic measurements with a spectral resolution of R~100 at 350 K, the typical surface temperature of a Near Earth Asteroid at 1 AU from the Sun. The mid-infrared spectro-imager THERMAP, based on the above detector, is therefore well suited to the Marco Polo R mission.

  5. THERMAP: a mid-infrared spectro-imager based on an uncooled micro-bolometer for space missions to small bodies of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brageot, E.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Fargant, G.; Licandro, J.; Helbert, J.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the feasibility study of a mid-infrared (8-18 µm) spectro-imager called THERMAP, based on an uncooled micro-bolometer detector array. Due to the recent technological development of these detectors, which have undergone significant improvements in the last decade, we wanted to test their performances for the Marco Polo R ESA Cosmic Vision mission. In this study, we demonstrate that the new generation of uncooled micro-bolometer detectors has all the imaging and spectroscopic capabilities to fulfill the scientific objectives of this mission. In order to test the imaging capabilities of the detector, we set up an experiment based on a 640x480 ULIS micro-bolometer array, a germanium objective and a black body. Using the results of this experiment, we show that calibrated radiometric images can be obtained down to at least 255 K (lower limit of our experiment), and that two calibration points are sufficient to determine the absolute scene temperature with an accuracy better than 1.5 K. Adding flux attenuating neutral density mid-infrared filters (transmittance: 50%, 10%, 1%) to our experiment, we were able to evaluate the spectroscopic performances of the detector. Our results show that we can perform spectroscopic measurements in the wavelength range 8-16 µm with a spectral resolution of R~40-80 for a scene temperature <300 K, the typical surface temperature of a Near Earth Asteroid at 1 AU from the Sun. The mid-infrared spectro-imager THERMAP, based on the above detector, is therefore well suited for the Marco Polo R mission.

  6. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-07-01

    Alba Paolo (Università di Torino) Becattini Francesco (Università di Firenze) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonaccorso Angela (INFN Pisa) Colonna Maria (INFN-LNS Catania) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) De Angelis Giacomo (INFN-LNL Legnaro) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Gattobigio Mario (INLN, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, France) Gensini Paolo (INFN Lecce) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (Università del Salento) Giusti Carlotta (Università di Pavia) Greco Vincenzo (Università di Catania) Grossi Eduardo (Università di Firenze) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Lavagno Andrea (Politecnico di Torino) Logoteta Domenico (Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Lombardo Maria Paola (INFN-LNF Frascati) Lo Meo Sergio (ENEA Bologna) Mannarelli Massimo (INFN-LNGS Assergi) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pirrone Sara (INFN Catania) Puglisi Armando (Università di Catania) Radici Marco (INFN Pavia) Rinaldi Matteo (Università di Perugia) Roggero Alessandro (Università di Trento) Rolando Valentina (Università di Ferrara) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Ruggieri Marco (Università di Catania) Salmè Gianni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Scopetta Sergio (Università di Perugia) Taiuti Mauro (Università di Genova) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Viviani Michele (INFN Pisa) Vorabbi Matteo (Università di Pavia)

  7. Abundant members of Scavenger receptors family and their identification, characterization and expression against Vibrio alginolyticus infection in juvenile Larimichthys crocea.

    PubMed

    He, Jianyu; Liu, Huihui; Yang, Jingwen; Dong, Xiangli; Wu, Changwen

    2016-03-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) are crucial pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to defense pathogen infection in fish innate immunity. In this paper, some members in SRs family of Larimichthys crocea were identified, including eight genes in the class A, B, D and F families. (G + C) % of all SRs members held 51% ? 59%, and these genes were no obvious codon bias by analyzing the distribution of A-, T-, G- and C-ended codons. The order of Enc for all SRs members by sequencing was LycCD68 > LycSCARA5 > LycSCARB1 > LycCD163 > LycMARCO > LycSREC1 > LycSCARA3 > LycSREC2. Moreover, different lengths and numbers of exons and introns led to the diverse mRNAs and respective functional domains or motifs, for example, an optional cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain in LycMARCO and LycSCARA5, an epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF-like domain in LycSREC1 and LycSREC2. The sub-cellular localization demonstrated SRs members mainly located in plasma membrane or extracellular matrix. Further, all of the SRs members in L. crocea were almost low expressed in heart, gill and intestine, whereas high in spleen and liver. After stimulation by Vibrio alginolyticus, the class A and F families were induced significantly, but the class B and D families expressed less even none after pathogenic infection. All the findings would pave the way to understand not only the evolution of the SR-mediated immune response, but also the complexity of fish immunity. PMID:26876357

  8. Combination of gene expression patterns in whole blood discriminate between tuberculosis infection states

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic factors are involved in susceptibility or protection to tuberculosis (TB). Apart from gene polymorphisms and mutations, changes in levels of gene expression, induced by non-genetic factors, may also determine whether individuals progress to active TB. Methods We analysed the expression level of 45 genes in a total of 47 individuals (23 healthy household contacts and 24 new smear-positive pulmonary TB patients) in Addis Ababa using a dual colour multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (dcRT-MLPA) technique to assess gene expression profiles that may be used to distinguish TB cases and their contacts and also latently infected (LTBI) and uninfected household contacts. Results The gene expression level of BLR1, Bcl2, IL4d2, IL7R, FCGR1A, MARCO, MMP9, CCL19, and LTF had significant discriminatory power between sputum smear-positive TB cases and household contacts, with AUCs of 0.84, 0.81, 0.79, 0.79, 0.78, 0.76, 0.75, 0.75 and 0.68 respectively. The combination of Bcl2, BLR1, FCGR1A, IL4d2 and MARCO identified 91.66% of active TB cases and 95.65% of household contacts without active TB. The expression of CCL19, TGFB1, and Foxp3 showed significant difference between LTBI and uninfected contacts, with AUCs of 0.85, 0.82, and 0.75, respectively, whereas the combination of BPI, CCL19, FoxP3, FPR1 and TGFB1 identified 90.9% of QFT- and 91.6% of QFT+ household contacts. Conclusions Expression of single and especially combinations of host genes can accurately differentiate between active TB cases and healthy individuals as well as between LTBI and uninfected contacts. PMID:24885723

  9. STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

    2013-05-01

    From 1997 on, when the first "Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismicidad Historica" took place, a big interest awoke in Venezuela to organize the available information related to historic earthquakes. At that moment only existed one published historic earthquake catalogue, that from Centeno Grau published the first time in 1949. That catalogue had no references about the sources of information. Other catalogues existed but they were internal reports for the petroleum companies and therefore difficult to access. In 2000 Grases et al reedited the Centeno-Grau catalogue, it ended up in a new, very complete catalogue with all the sources well referenced and updated. The next step to organize historic seismicity data was, from 2004 to 2008, the creation of the STSHV (Sistema de teleinformacion de Sismologia Historica Venezolana, http://sismicidad.hacer.ula.ve ). The idea was to bring together all information about destructive historic earthquakes in Venezuela in one place in the internet so it could be accessed easily by a widespread public. There are two ways to access the system. The first one, selecting an earthquake or a list of earthquakes, and the second one, selecting an information source or a list of sources. For each earthquake there is a summary of general information and additional materials: a list with the source parameters published by different authors, a list with intensities assessed by different authors, a list of information sources, a short text summarizing the historic situation at the time of the earthquake and a list of pictures if available. There are searching facilities for the seismic events and dynamic maps can be created. The information sources are classified in: books, handwritten documents, transcription of handwritten documents, documents published in books, journals and congress memories, newspapers, seismologic catalogues and electronic sources. There are facilities to find specific documents or lists of documents with common characteristics. For each document general information is displayed together with an extract of the information relating to the earthquake. If the complete document was available and no problem with the publishers rights a pdf copy of the document was included. We found this system extremely useful for studying historic earthquakes, as one can access immediately previous research works about an earthquake and it allows to check easily the historic information and so to validate the intensity data. So far, the intensity data have not been completed for earthquakes after 2000. This information would be important for improving calibration of intensity - magnitude calibrations of historic events, and is a work in progress. On the other hand, it is important to mention that "El Catálogo Sismológico Venezolano del siglo XX" (The Seismological Venezuelan Catalog), published in 2012, updates seismic information up to 2007, and that the STSHV was one of its primary sources of information.

  10. Accounting for the Impact of Conservation on Human Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Milner-Gulland, EJ; Mcgregor, JA; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, JM; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D

    2014-01-01

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. Consideración del Impacto de la Conservación sobre el Bienestar Humano Resumen Los conservacionistas cada vez más se comprometen con el concepto del bienestar humano para mejorar el diseño y la evaluación de sus intervenciones. Desde la convención de la influyente Comisión Sarkozy en 2009, los investigadores del desarrollo han estado refinando las conceptualizaciones y los marcos de trabajo para entender y medir el bienestar humano y están comenzando a convergir con un entendimiento común de cuál es la mejor forma de hacer esto. En la conservación el término bienestar humano tiene un uso amplio, pero existe la necesidad de la orientación en su operación para medir los impactos de las intervenciones de la conservación sobre la gente. Presentamos un marco de trabajo para entender el bienestar humano que podría ser útil particularmente en la conservación. El marco de trabajo incluye tres condiciones: cumplir con las necesidades, perseguir objetivos y experimentar una calidad satisfactoria de vida. Resumimos algunas de las complejidades involucradas en la evaluación de los efectos del bienestar de las intervenciones de la conservación con el entendimiento de que el bienestar varía entre la gente, en el tiempo y con las prioridades del evaluador. Los retos clave para la investigación de los impactos del bienestar de las intervenciones de la conservación incluyen la necesidad de crear una colección de estudios de caso para trazar lecciones generalizables: hacer uso del potencial de la tecnología moderna para apoyar la investigación del bienestar; y contextualizar espacial y temporalmente las evaluaciones de los impactos de la conservación sobre el bienestar dentro del marco más amplio del cambio social. Existen caminos que atraviesan la confusión que rodea al término bienestar, y los marcos de trabajo existentes, como el del acercamiento de Bienestar en Países en Desarrollo, pueden ayudar a los conservacionistas a negociar los obstáculos de la operación del concepto. Los conservacionistas tienen la oportunidad de beneficiarse del frenesí reciente de investigación en el campo del desarrollo para así realizar evaluaciones más matizadas y relevantes localmente de los efectos de sus intervenciones sobre el bienestar humano. PMID:24641551

  11. Sky Observation with the Use of the Software Stellarium for Teaching Astronomy in Classes of Youth and Adult Education. (Spanish Title: Observación del Cielo con la Utilización del Software Stellarium en Las Clases de Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos.) Observação do Céu Aliada À Utilização do Software Stellarium no Ensino de Astronomia em Turmas de Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a project developed through a partnership between the Astronomy Club of Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) and Jaime de Souza Queiroz College, both located in the town of Itaocara, in the Northwest Fluminense, to disseminate Astronomy in adult education (Education for Youth and Adult). Given the interdisciplinary nature of Astronomy, we have developed this work to motivate the learning of this science by students in adult education, who attend the subjects Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Initially, we conducted a research in the school to assess the prior knowledge of Astronomy class of adult education, noting that there is little knowledge of basic concepts of the discipline. With these data, we were able to elaborate several activities that would enable a greater involvement of students with this science, performing in the school a work of improvement of scientific literacy, whose activities will be presented in this article. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados de un proyecto realizado por el Club de Astronomía de Itaocara "Marcos Pontes" (CAIMP), conjuntamente con el Colegio Estatal" Jaime de Souza Queiroz", ambos de la ciudad de Itaocara (Noroeste Fluminense - RJ, Brasil), para la difusión de la Astronomía entre los estudiantes, tanto adultos como adolescentes. Teniendo en cuenta la naturaleza interdisciplinaria de la Astronomía, se determinó motivar el estudio de esta ciencia en los estudiantes adultos de nivel secundario matriculados en las asignaturas de Química, Física y Biología. Como primer paso, se investigó el grado de conocimiento sobre astronomía del estudiante. Este estudio inicial mostró niveles de conocimiento muy bajos de los conceptos básicos de esta ciencia, muchos de los cuales deberían haber sido asimilados dentro del plan curricular del curso de Física. Este estudio previo permitió determinar las actividades adecuadas para promover un mayor envolvimiento de los estudiantes en las ciencias, o sea, elaborar y desarrollar un plan de alfabetización científica. Se describe en detalle este plan, las actividades realizadas y los resultados obtenidos hasta el presente. O objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar um projeto desenvolvido através de parceria entre o Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) e o Colégio Estadual Jaime Queiroz de Souza, ambos localizados na cidade de Itaocara, no Noroeste Fluminense, no sentido de divulgar junto às turmas de EJA (Ensino de Jovens e Adultos) a disciplina Astronomia. Conhecendo o caráter interdisciplinar da Astronomia, desenvolvemos este trabalho para motivar o aprendizado de Ciências junto a alunos de EJA do Ensino Médio que cursam as disciplinas Química, Física e Biologia. Inicialmente, realizamos na escola pesquisa sobre o conhecimento prévio de Astronomia da turma de EJA, observando que é escasso o conhecimento de conceitos básicos do tema, muitos dos quais deveriam ser assimilados através do conteúdo da disciplina Física. Com esses dados, foi possível elaborar várias atividades que possibilitassem um maior envolvimento dos estudantes com a Ciência, realizando dentro da escola um trabalho de alfabetização científica, cujas atividades serão apresentadas neste artigo.

  12. Micro-facies analyses of late Holocene sediments from the Ein Gedi site (Dead Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, I.; Brauer, A.; Schwab, M. J.; Frank, U.; Dulski, P.

    2012-04-01

    Late Holocene Dead Sea sediments of the Ein Gedi profile at the western Dead Sea shore provide high-resolution information about small-scale climatic variations in the Levant. Earlier investigations by Migowski et al. (2004, 2006) demonstrated the high potential of the Ein Gedi site for reconstructing the paleoenvironment of this climate-sensitive region, but also the need for high-resolution analyses. In the study presented here, a multi-proxy approach of micro-facies analyses from thin sections, µXRF element scanning and further magnetic susceptibility measurements allowed detailed analyses of a 2.75m long section from the DSEn composite profile spanning the time from approximately 2 to 4 ka BP. The analysed DSEn sequence of the Dead Sea margin is characterised by a continuous succession of evaporitic varves, composed of alternating detrital and aragonite and/or gypsum layers with intercalated earthquake-induced mixed layers (Marco et al., 1996). In the lower part of the investigated interval a sand deposit is associated to lake-level decline around 3.3 ka BP (Bookman (Ken-Tor) et al., 2004) in the Late Bronze Age. The aim of this study is to establish a detailed high-resolution time series of extreme events and decadal-scale variations in the eastern Mediterranean climate system. Using this data set will further enable determining the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and solar irradiation changes on that region. Another objective will be to synchronise the DSEn interval with the new ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) cores from the northern deep basin in order to compare sedimentation processes at the Dead Sea shore with those from the deep basin. Bookman (Ken-Tor), R., Enzel, Y., Agnon, A., Stein, M., 2004. Late Holocene lake levels of the Dead Sea. Geological Society of America Bulletin, May/June, 555-571. Marco, S., Stein, M., Agnon, A., 1996. Long-term earthquake clustering: A 50,000-year paleoseismic record in the Dead Sea Graben. Journal of Geophysical Research 101, 6179-6191. Migowski, C., Agnon, A., Bookman, R., Negendank, J.F.W., Stein, M., 2004. Recurrence pattern of Holocene earthquakes along the Dead Sea transform revealed by varve-counting and radiocarbon dating of lacustrine sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 222, 301-314. Migowski, C., Stein, M., Prasad, S., Negendank, J.F.W., 2006. Holocene climate variability and cultural evolution in the Near East. Quaternary Research 66(3), 421-431.

  13. A Genetic Cluster of Martian Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Apostolos

    2013-10-01

    Trojan asteroids lead 60 degrees ahead (L4) or trail 60 degrees behind (L5) a planet's position along its orbit. The Trojans of Jupiter and Neptune are thought to be primordial remnants from the solar system's early evolution (Shoemaker et al., 1989; Sheppard et al., 2006). Mars is the only terrestrial planet known to host stable Trojans (Scholl et al., 2005) with ~50 km-sized objects expected to exist (Tabachnik and Evans, 1999). I identified 6 additional candidate Martian Trojans within the Minor Planet Center database, including three with multi-opposition orbits. 100 dynamical clones for each of the three asteroids were integrated for 100 Myr under a force model that included the Yarkovsky effect. All clones persisted as L5 Trojans of Mars, implying that their residence time is longer still. This is further supported by recent Gyr numerical integrations (de la Fuente Marcos and de la Fuente Marcos, 2013). The number of stable Martian Trojans is thus raised to 7, 6 of which are at L5. To investigate this asymmetry, I apply a clustering test to their orbits and compare them with the Trojan population of Jupiter. I find that, while Jupiter Trojans are spread throughout the domain where long-term stability is expected, L5 martian Trojans are far more concentrated. The implication is that these objects may be genetically related to each other and to the largest member of the group, 5261 Eureka. If so, it represents the closest such group to the Earth's orbit, still recognizable due to the absence of planetary close encounters which quickly scatter NEO families (Schunova et al., 2012). I explore the origin and nature of this `Eureka cluster', including the thesis that its members are products of the collisional fragmentation and/or rotational fission of Trojan progenitors. I constrain the cluster's age under these scenarios and argue that collisions may be responsible for the observed paucity of km-sized objects. Finally, I discuss how the hypothesis of a genetic association may be further scrutinized by new models and observations. Astronomical Research at Armagh Observatory is funded by the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL).

  14. PREFACE: DISCRETE 2010: Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Domenico, Antonio; Bini, Cesare; Bloise, Caterina; Bossi, Fabio; Faccini, Riccardo; Gauzzi, Paolo; Isidori, Gino; Lipari, Paolo; Ludovici, Lucio; Silvestrini, Luca

    2011-12-01

    The Symposium DISCRETE2010 on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries was held at the Sapienza Universitàa di Roma, Italy from 6-11 December 2010. This second edition, after the successful one in Valencia in 2008, covered all theoretical and experimental progress in the field, and aimed at a thorough discussion on the latest developments. The topics covered included: T, C, P, CP symmetries; accidental symmetries (B, L conservation); CPT symmetry, decoherence, Lorentz symmetry breaking; neutrino mass and mixing; cosmology and astroparticles, dark matter searches; experimental prospects at LHC, Super flavor factories, and new facilities. The Symposium was organized in plenary sessions with a total of 23 invited talks, and parallel sessions with a total of 80 talks including both invited and selected contributions from the submitted abstracts. The speakers of the plenary sessions were: Achille Stocchi, Andreas Weiler, Kevin Pitts, Tim Gershon, Marco Sozzi, Neal Weiner, Vasiliki Mitsou, Bernard Sadoulet, Gianfranco Bertone, J. Eric Grove, Mauro Mezzetto, Alexei Yu Smirnov, Oliviero Cremonesi, Antonio Riotto, Reno Mandolesi, Brett Altschul, Jose Bernabeu, Lawrence Hall, Marco Grassi, Yannis K. Semertzidis, Riccardo Barbieri, Gigi Rolandi, Luciano Maiani. The Symposium venue was the CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) headquarter building, close to the Sapienza University. At the end of the Symposium a special open session, devoted to a wider audience, was held at the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross, in the historical center of Rome. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants, about half coming from Italy, and the rest mainly from other European countries and United States. Among the social events was a concert at the Aula Magna of the Sapienza University, and a social dinner in the historical Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi on the Quirinale Hill. The next symposium of the series will be organised by IST, Universidade Tàecnica de Lisboa, Portugal, from 3 to 7 December 2012. Roma, November 2011 The Editors Antonio Di Domenico Cesare Bini Caterina Bloise Fabio Bossi Riccardo Faccini Paolo Gauzzi Gino Isidori Paolo Lipari Lucio Ludovici Luca Silvestrini The PDF file also contains committee, secretariat, sponsor and participant lists, plus the conference poster and photograph.

  15. Using Geophysics to Define Hydrostratigraphic Units in the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Blome, C. D.; Clark, A. K.; Kress, W.; Smith, D. V.

    2007-05-01

    Airborne and ground geophysical surveys conducted in Uvalde, Medina, and northern Bexar counties, Texas, can be used to define and characterize hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Airborne magnetic surveys have defined numerous Cretaceous intrusive stocks and laccoliths, mainly in Uvalde County, that influence local hydrology and perhaps regional ground-water flow paths. Depositional environments in the aquifers can be classified as shallow water platforms (San Marcos Platform, Edwards Group), shoal and reef facies (Devils River Trend, Devils River Formation), and deeper water basins (Maverick Basin, West Nueces, McKnight, and Salmon Peak Formations). Detailed airborne and ground electromagnetic surveys have been conducted over the Edwards aquifer catchment zone (exposed Trinity aquifer rocks), recharge zone (exposed Edwards aquifer rocks), and artesian zone (confined Edwards) in the Seco Creek area (northeast Uvalde and Medina Counties; Devils River Trend). These geophysical survey data have been used to divide the Edwards exposed within the Balcones fault zone into upper and lower hydrostratigraphic units. Although both units are high electrical resistivity, the upper unit has slightly lower resistivity than the lower unit. The Georgetown Formation, at the top of the Edwards Group has a moderate resistivity. The formations that comprise the upper confining units to the Edwards aquifer rocks have varying resistivities. The Eagleford and Del Rio Groups (mainly clays) have very low resistivities and are excellent electrical marker beds in the Seco Creek area. The Buda Limestone is characterized by high resistivities. Moderate resistivities characterize the Austin Group rocks (mainly chalk). The older Trinity aquifer, underlying the Edwards aquifer rocks, is characterized by less limestone (electrically resistive or low conductivity units) and greater quantities of mudstones (electrically conductive or low resistivity units). In the western area (Devils River Trend and Maverick Basin) of the Trinity aquifer system there are well-defined collapse units and features that are marked by moderate resistivities bracketed by resistive limestone and conductive mudstone of the Glen Rose Limestone. In the central part of the aquifer (San Marcos Platform) the Trinity's lithologies are divided into upper and lower units with further subdivisions into hydrostratigraphic units. These hydrostratigraphic units are well mapped by an airborne electromagnetic survey in Bexar County. Electrical properties of the Edwards aquifer also vary across the fresh-saline water interface where ground and borehole electrical surveys have been conducted. The saline- saturated Edwards is predictably more conductive than the fresh-water saturated rocks. Similar fresh-saline water interfaces exist within the upper confining units of the Edwards aquifer (Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer) and the Trinity aquifer rocks.

  16. Stratigraphic reconstruction of two debris avalanche deposits at Colima Volcano (Mexico): Insights into pre-failure conditions and climate influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, M.; Capra, L.; Sulpizio, R.; Norini, G.

    2011-10-01

    Throughout its history, Colima Volcano has experienced numerous partial edifice collapses with associated emplacement of debris avalanche deposits of contrasting volume, morphology and texture. A detailed stratigraphic study in the south-eastern sector of the volcano allowed the recognition of two debris avalanche deposits, named San Marcos (> 28,000 cal yr BP, V = ~ 1.3 km 3) and Tonila (15,000-16,000 cal yr BP, V = ~ 1 km 3 ). This work sheds light on the pre-failure conditions of the volcano based primarily on a detailed textural study of debris avalanche deposits and their associated pyroclastic and volcaniclastic successions. Furthermore, we show how the climate at the time of the Tonila collapse influenced the failure mechanisms. The > 28,000 cal yr BP San Marcos collapse was promoted by edifice steep flanks and ongoing tectonic and volcanotectonic deformation, and was followed by a magmatic eruption that emplaced pyroclastic flow deposits. In contrast, the Tonila failure occurred just after the Last Glacial Maximum (22,000-18,000 cal BP) and, in addition to the typical debris avalanche textural characteristics (angular to sub-angular clasts, coarse matrix, jigsaw fit) it shows a hybrid facies characterized by debris avalanche blocks embedded in a finer, homogenous and partially cemented matrix, a texture more characteristic of debris flow deposits. The Tonila debris avalanche is directly overlain by a 7-m thick hydromagmatic pyroclastic succession. Massive debris flow deposits, often more than 10 m thick and containing large amounts of tree trunk logs, represent the top unit in the succession. Fluvial deposits also occur throughout all successions; these represent periods of highly localized stream reworking. All these lines of evidence point to the presence of water in the edifice prior to the Tonila failure, suggesting it may have been a weakening factor. The Tonila failure appears to represent an anomalous event related to the particular climatic conditions at the time of the collapse. The presence of extensive water at the onset of deglaciation modified the mobility of the debris avalanche, and led to the formation of a thick sequence of debris flows. The possibility that such a combination of events can occur, and that their probability is likely to increase during the rainy season, should be taken into consideration when evaluating hazards associated with future collapses at Colima volcano.

  17. The Generation of Active Oxygen Species Differs in Tobacco and Grapevine Mesophyll Protoplasts1

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, Anastasia K.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    1999-01-01

    Our previous results have shown that oxidative stress may reduce the regeneration potential of protoplasts, but only protoplasts that are able to supply extracellularly H2O2 can actually divide (C.I. Siminis, A.K. Kanellis, K.A. Roubelakis-Angelakis [1993] Physiol Plant 87: 263–270; C.I. Siminis, A.K. Kanellis, K.A. Roubelakis-Angelakis [1994] Plant Physiol 1105: 1375–1383; A. de Marco, K.A. Roubelakis-Angelakis [1996a] Plant Physiol 110: 137–145; A. de Marco, K.A. Roubelakis-Angelakis [1996b] J Plant Physiol 149: 109–114). In the present study we have attempted to break down the oxidative burst response into the individual active oxygen species (AOS) superoxide (O2·?) and H2O2, and into individual AOS-generating systems during the isolation of regenerating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and non-regenerating grape (Vitis vinifera L.) mesophyll protoplasts. Wounding leaf tissue or applying purified cellulase did not elicit AOS production. However, the application of non-purified cellulase during maceration induced a burst of O2·? and H2O2 accumulation in tobacco leaf, while in grape significantly lower levels of both AOS accumulated. AOS were also generated when protoplasts isolated with purified cellulase were treated with non-purified cellulase. The response was rapid: after 5 min, AOS began to accumulate in the culture medium, with significant quantitative differences between the two species. In tobacco protoplasts and plasma membrane vesicles, two different AOS synthase activities were revealed, one that showed specificity to NADPH and sensitivity to diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and was responsible for O2·? production, and a second NAD(P)H activity that was sensitive to KCN and NaN3, contributing to the production of both AOS. The first activity probably corresponds to a mammalian-like NADPH oxidase and the second to a NAD(P)H oxidase-peroxidase. In grape, only one AOS-generating activity was detected, which corresponded to a NAD(P)H oxidase-peroxidase responsible for the generation of both AOS. PMID:10482675

  18. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    PubMed

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and abortion. Health minister Flavier has indicated that illegal abortion has become very common, and control of abortion is through family planning. The Protestant president will oppose abortion at ICDP. PMID:12345705

  19. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: A STEM Partnership Between Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Office of Naval Research and Middle School Science Students Bringing Next Generation Science Standards into the Classroom through Ocean Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, D.; Appelgate, B., Jr.; Mauricio, P.

    2014-12-01

    Now in its tenth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with Next Generation Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO),Office of Naval Research (ONR), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With a generous grant from ONR, students are able to tour the SIO Ships and spend a day at sea doing real oceanographic data collection and labs. Through real-time and near-realtime broadcasts and webcasts, students are able to share data with scientists and gain an appreciation for the value of Biogeochemical research in the field as it relates to their classroom studies. Interaction with scientists and researchers as well as crew members gives students insights into not only possible career paths, but the vital importance of cutting edge oceanographic research on our society. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, Skype, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum models the Next Generation Science Standards encouraging active inquiry and critical thinking with intellectually stimulating problem- solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as role-models. IFRR has provided students in the San Diego area with a unique opportunity for learning about oceanographic research, which could inspire students to become oceanographers or at least scientifically literate citizens, a benefit for our society at large.

  20. Low-angle slumps in lacustrine environments: the Shoshone (Tecopa basin, California) example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Pedro; Gibert, Luis; García Tortosa, Francisco J.; Owen, Geraint; Moretti, Massimo; Scott, Gary

    2015-04-01

    In lacustrine environments, the presence of seismically-induced slump sheets on gentle slopes seems to be very widespread (Alsop and Marco, 2013; García-Tortosa et al., 2011; Gibert et al., 2005). A low-angle slump is extraordinarily well exposed in middle Pleistocene lacustrine deposits of the Tecopa Basin (California, United States), next to the village of Shoshone. Good lateral continuity of stratigraphical sections allowed a detailed description of the slump sheet and a reliable interpretation taking into account main morphological features, data coming from the facies analysis of the involved beds and on the regional tectonic activity. The slump sheet, ~ 2 m thick, is constituted by four units with different rheological characteristics. This heterogeneous composition is the key controlling factor which produces a large variety of soft-sediment deformational structures of different scale (folds, thrusts, breccias, fluidization structures). An earthquake related to regional faults might cause liquefaction and fluidization, and the initiation of the gravitational movement. When slump translation ceases, at the toe of the slump, then contractional strain propagates upslope and internal deformation occurs in the slump sheet. The top bed of the slump sheet, ~1 m of sands, developed decametric-scale folds while underlying sediments migrates laterally from the synform hinges to the core of the anticlines. Different velocity gradients in the downslope direction generate several superposed layer-parallel shear with two main detachments and many secondary internal ones. This new example in the Tecopa Basin, confirms that slumps are a good record of seismicity in low-angle sedimentary environments. Alsop, G.I. & Marco, S. (2013): Seismogenic slump folds formed by gravity-driven tectonics down a negligible subaqueous slope. Tectonophysics, 605: 48-69. García-Tortosa, F.J., Alfaro, P., Gibert, L. & Scott, G (2011): Seismically induced slump on an extremely gentle slope (<1°) of the Pleistocene Tecopa paleolake (California). Geology, 39: 1055-1058. doi:10.1130/G32218.1 Gibert, L., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Alfaro, P., Scott, G. & López Garrido, A.C. (2005): Seismic-induced slump in Early Pleistocene deltaic deposits of the Baza Basin (SE Spain). Sedimentary Geology, 179: 279-294. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2005.06.003.

  1. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: a Partnership between SIO, ONR and Middle School Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, D.; Appelgate, T. B.; Foley, S.; Knox, R. A.; Mauricio, P.

    2010-12-01

    Now in its seventh year, “In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle” (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with National Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), National Science Foundation (NSF),Office of Naval Research (ONR), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With a generous grant from ONR, students are able to tour the SIO ships and spend a day at sea doing real oceanographic data collection and labs. Through real-time and near-realtime broadcasts and webcasts, students are able to share data with scientists and gain an appreciation for the value of biogeochemical research in the field as it relates to their classroom studies. The primary impact on these students is an appreciation of ocean science as it relates to their lives. Interaction with scientists and researchers as well as crew members gives students insights into not only possible career paths, but the vital importance of cutting edge oceanographic research on our society. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, Skype, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum encourages active inquiry with intellectually stimulating problem- solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as role-models. Over the last seven years science test scores with IFRR students have shown significant increases in classes where this curriculum has been implemented as compared to other classes where the traditional curriculum has been used. IFRR has provided students in the San Diego area with a unique opportunity for learning about oceanographic research, which could inspire students to become oceanographers or at least scientifically literate citizens, a benefit for a country that depends increasingly on technically proficient personnel, and a benefit for society at large.

  2. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si existen diferencias graduales crecientes o decrecientes, que nos da un indicativo del desplazamiento de la corteza terrestre al rededor del volcan.

  3. Biblioteca Virtual de Salud Enfermería Regional: Trayectoria de Construcción, Fuentes de Información, Estrategias y Próximos Pasos.

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Francisco C. F.; Malvárez, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Resumen La BVS Enfermeria constituye un nuevo paradigma en enfermería una vez que o modelo representa una expansión de la cooperación técnica y ha como objetivos centrales promover la ampliación del acceso la información sobre enfermería la través del acceso universal equitativo y construir un patrimonio informacional en enfermería, ayudando la mejorar la formación y práctica de enfermería a actuar con compromiso ético-social en el área de educación, investigación y atención a la salud. Como resultado del proceso de sensibilización, verifica-se la construcción de Bibliotecas Virtuales de Enfermería en varios países (Brasil, Argentina, Bolívia y Uruguay). La expectativa es que las BVS’s nacionais convergen a un gran portal que se está construyendo en una colaboración con BIREME/OPS/OMS, de la Asesoría Regional de Enfermería de la OPS-Washington y de Ministerio de Salud del Brasil, así como instituciones líderes en la producción del conocimiento en enfermería Iberoamérica. PMID:24199093

  4. BLAST Observations of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas Evan; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Truch, M. D. P.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-born Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a 1.8 m mirror that uses focal plane arrays of bolometer detectors at 250, 350 and 500 microns to study the evolutionary history and processes associated with star formation. The most recent long duration balloon flight from Antarctica collected 250 hours of data during a circumpolar flight in December 2006. A large number of observations were conducted including deep and wide surveys to characterize submillimeter galaxies, a galactic plane survey in the Vela region, and a number of pointed observations toward nearby galaxies NGC1097, NGC1291, NGC1365, NGC1512, NGC1566, and NGC1808. In this talk we will focus on these galaxies and combine the BLAST data with Spitzer-MIPS data to uniquely determine dust properties such as temperature and emissivity. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5 12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  5. Experiencias y repercusión de una formación en ética de investigación

    PubMed Central

    Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como propósito describir los logros y repercusiones de la capacitación en ética de la investigación que brinda el Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, sirviendo de estímulo, motivación y orientación a profesionales que requieren conocer y aplicar las normas y el raciocinio conducente a la deliberación de los problemas en esta disciplina. Asimismo, describe cómo este conocimiento genera un efecto multiplicador en aspectos tales como la participación en un comité de ética de la investigación (CEI), organización de cursos y creación y desarrollo de líneas de investigación, que repercuten en publicaciones realizadas con estudiantes de posgrado. Relata además los contenidos y estrategias didácticas que pueden ser empleados en cursos de ética y bioética para estudiantes de estomatología y concluye mencionando la aplicación práctica de esta capacitación en los ámbitos docente, institucional y de investigación. PMID:24482556

  6. Alejarse como proceso social: niños y ancianos «abandonados» en Ayacucho1

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    En investigaciones previas sobre el acogimiento familiar y la adopción en Ayacucho, se ha podido descubrir cómo los ayacuchanos adquieren y producen relaciones sociales. Mientras negocian creativamente los discursos y espacios construidos simultáneamente por instituciones, comunidades, y estructuras sociales, van adquiriendo nuevas formas de relacionarse. Este artículo discute el proceso opuesto: el deshacerse de relaciones de parentesco, y el proceso social del abandono o alejamiento. Cuando se aleja a una persona de su familia o su comunidad, los que se quedan en ella llegan a entenderse como ciertos tipos de personas. En los estudios de caso discutidos aquí, recopilados a través de una detallada y cuidadosa observación participante y de entrevistas etnográficas grabadas entre 2001 y 2007, se puede ver cómo, después de un alejamiento social, los individuos que alejan se reinterpretan como sujetos que se encuentran superándose o volviéndose modernos, o bien sacrificándose. PMID:25177044

  7. Results on three predictions for July 2012 federal elections in Mexico based on past regularities.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Saldaña, H

    2013-01-01

    The Presidential Election in Mexico of July 2012 has been the third time that PREP, Previous Electoral Results Program works. PREP gives voting outcomes based in electoral certificates of each polling station that arrive to capture centers. In previous ones, some statistical regularities had been observed, three of them were selected to make predictions and were published in arXiv:1207.0078 [physics.soc-ph]. Using the database made public in July 2012, two of the predictions were completely fulfilled, while, the third one was measured and confirmed using the database obtained upon request to the electoral authorities. The first two predictions confirmed by actual measures are: (ii) The Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI, is a sprinter and has a better performance in polling stations arriving late to capture centers during the process. (iii) Distribution of vote of this party is well described by a smooth function named a Daisy model. A Gamma distribution, but compatible with a Daisy model, fits the distribution as well. The third prediction confirms that errare humanum est, since the error distributions of all the self-consistency variables appeared as a central power law with lateral lobes as in 2000 and 2006 electoral processes. The three measured regularities appeared no matter the political environment. PMID:24386103

  8. Results on Three Predictions for July 2012 Federal Elections in Mexico Based on Past Regularities

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Presidential Election in Mexico of July 2012 has been the third time that PREP, Previous Electoral Results Program works. PREP gives voting outcomes based in electoral certificates of each polling station that arrive to capture centers. In previous ones, some statistical regularities had been observed, three of them were selected to make predictions and were published in arXiv:1207.0078 [physics.soc-ph]. Using the database made public in July 2012, two of the predictions were completely fulfilled, while, the third one was measured and confirmed using the database obtained upon request to the electoral authorities. The first two predictions confirmed by actual measures are: (ii) The Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI, is a sprinter and has a better performance in polling stations arriving late to capture centers during the process. (iii) Distribution of vote of this party is well described by a smooth function named a Daisy model. A Gamma distribution, but compatible with a Daisy model, fits the distribution as well. The third prediction confirms that errare humanum est, since the error distributions of all the self-consistency variables appeared as a central power law with lateral lobes as in 2000 and 2006 electoral processes. The three measured regularities appeared no matter the political environment. PMID:24386103

  9. REFORZANDO LAS CAPACIDADES EN INVESTIGACIÓN EN INFORMÁTICA PARA LA SALUD GLOBAL EN LA REGIÓN ANDINA A TRAVÉS DE LA COLABORACIÓN INTERNACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; García, Patricia J.; Castillo, Greta M.; Blas, Magaly M.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN Para mejorar la salud global y bienestar de una población se requiere de recursos humanos capacitados, no solo en el campo de la medicina y salud, sino también en el campo de la informática. Desafortunadamente, los programas de entrenamiento e investigación en informática biomédica en países en desarrollo son escasos y poco documentados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar los resultados del primer Taller Internacional de Expertos en Informática para la región andina que se llevó a cabo en marzo de 2010 en Lima y que incluye la descripción de nueve casos de estudio procedentes de instituciones de América Latina. En el taller participaron 23 expertos latinoamericanos, quienes discutieron la necesidad de entrenamiento e investigación multidisciplinaria en informática biomédica en áreas prioritarias para América Latina. Además, se estableció la Red QUIPU debido a la necesidad de ampliar y consolidar una red de investigación y entrenamiento a nivel regional y global. PMID:21152740

  10. EL PROGRAMA CITI: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA LA CAPACITACIÓN EN ÉTICA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul

    2011-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina PMID:21687817

  11. BIOÉTICA EN NICARAGUA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálezy, Armando Ulloa; Monge, Melba de la Cruz Barrantes

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo describe la situación de la bioética en Nicaragua, caracterizando las circunstancias y el contexto de las actividades de educación médica y las unidades prestadoras de servicios de salud. El desarrollo de un nuevo modelo de atención integral en salud, la implementación de políticas de salud que garanticen a la población el mayor acceso y gratuidad a los servicios, y los cambios acontecidos en los cuidados médicos, debidos en parte al reconocimiento creciente de una mayor autonomía de los pacientes y al uso creciente de nuevas tecnologías médicas, hace que se presenten algunas limitantes y dilemas en las unidades asistenciales y entre el personal de salud. La bioética en Nicaragua tiene un desarrollo incipiente: no está institucionalizada ni se han previsto los mecanismos formales que permitan resolver los problemas éticamente complejos, por lo tanto, constituye un gran reto por parte de las instituciones educativas y rectoras de la salud. PMID:20352016

  12. A atuação do Observatório Nacional registrada nos relatórios ministeriais 1889 a 1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, T.

    2003-08-01

    O período republicano até 1930 foi marcante na história do Observatório Nacional. Diversas reformas levaram a instituição a três ministérios diferentes e mudaram a ênfase do seu trabalho. A tão aguardada mudança para uma nova sede, em São Cristóvão, em 1920, não foi suficiente para que a instituição acompanhasse o ritmo tomado pela astronomia no mundo e se firmasse como ambiente de pesquisa. Uma análise simplificada poderia caracterizar um período de produção científica insignificante, dado o distanciamento da instituição dos novos rumos da astrofísica e da rápida inovação dos instrumentos, além do pequeno volume de publicações. Era uma época em que ainda não existiam os mecanismos formais de apoio e avaliação da atividade científica. Esse trabalho procura identificar a real atividade do Observatório no conteúdo dos Relatórios Ministeriais que, ao final de cada ano, apresentava as atividades, sucessos e problemas enfrentados pela instituição. Questões como instrumental e recursos humanos necessários; entraves burocráticos e financeiros; e articulações com outros observatórios se complementaram entre si ao longo desses anos para definir o perfil institucional e alguns aspectos fundamentais para a construção da astronomia no país. É possível concluir que a ênfase em serviços geográficos e de meteorologia, ao lado da inadequação dos instrumentos e do local, quase fizeram desaparecer a pesquisa em astronomia. Porém, vale destacar a sobrevivência de alguns trabalhos, como, por exemplo, variação de latitude e observação de estrelas duplas que mantiveram importante intercâmbio com outros grupos de pesquisa, demonstrando o constante esforço dos astrônomos e das diretorias em defesa da atividade científica.

  13. Evaluation of satellite sulphur dioxide estimates from OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetopA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Theys, Nicolas; Brenot, Hugues; van Gent, Jeroen; Valks, Pieter; Hedelt, Pascal; Lichtenberg, Günter; Richter, Andreas; Krotkov, Nickolay; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    The EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo, project focuses on deriving emission estimates from space and their refinement by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. Satellite observations of suphur dioxide, SO2, over the greater China area are analyzed using novel techniques [Fioletov et al., 2011; 2013] in order to enhance the observational signal and provide a robust SO2 dataset for the region. Observations from the SCIAMACHY/Envisat, GOME2/MetopA and OMI/Aura missions are assessed in this work and their relative strengths and shortcomings discussed at length. Rigorous screening is applied to and presented for each data source, including a full length spatiotemporal statistical analysis. Furthermore, identification of point sources such as power plants and urban agglomerations, as well as the definition of their relative contribution to the general SO2 levels, form the basis of this investigation.

  14. Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of a Distinct Lineage of Sunfish in the Cuatro Ciénegas Valley of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Coghill, Lyndon M.; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Chaves-Campos, Johel; García de Leon, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, an aquatic oasis located in the Mexican Chihuahuan Desert, exhibits the highest level of endemism in North America and is a Mexican National Protected Area. However, little is known about the evolutionary distinctiveness of several vertebrate species present in the Cuatro Ciénegas valley. We conducted a phylogeographic study using mitochondrial haplotypes from the centrarchid fish Lepomis megalotis to determine if the populations found within the valley were evolutionarily distinct from populations outside the valley. We also examined if there was evidence of unique haplotypes of this sunfish within the valley. Genetic divergence of L. megalotis suggests populations within the valley are evolutionarily unique when compared to L. megalotis outside the valley. Significant mitochondrial sequence divergence was also discovered between L. megalotis populations on either side of the Sierra de San Marcos that bisects the valley. Our results reinforce previous studies that suggest the organisms occupying aquatic habitats not only within Cuatro Ciénegas but also in each of the two lobes of the valley generally deserve independent consideration during management decisions. PMID:24130826

  15. Asbestos between science and myth. A 6,000-year story.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos was used in making pottery in Eastern Finland from around 4000 B.C. In the ancient era and in the Middle Ages, magic properties were frequently attributed to this mineral. In the first century A.D., the Latin encyclopaedist Pliny the Elder reported in his Historia Naturalis that asbestos protects against all poisonings, particularly that of magicians. Moreover, asbestos was often found in places of worship, in Rome as well as in Athens and in Jerusalem. In the Middle Ages asbestos was identified with some animals, such as the salamander and certain white rodents. With such appearance, the mineral  had a huge success in Western as well as in Eastern literature and the fine arts. Marco Polo (1254-1324) in the Milione tried to deny that asbestos was a salamander. Despite its noxious effects, asbestos continues to be used in much of the world. In the 21st century it seems to be maintaining its quality as a magic stone. PMID:25744309

  16. Absence of Nkx2-3 Homeodomain Transcription Factor Induces the Formation of LYVE-1–Positive Endothelial Cysts without Lymphatic Commitment in the Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Kellermayer, Zoltán; Lábadi, Árpád; Czömpöly, Tamás; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Balogh, Péter

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to peripheral lymph nodes possessing lymphatic and blood vasculature, the spleen in both humans and rodents is largely devoid of functioning lymphatic capillaries. Here it is reported that in mice lacking homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2-3, the spleen contains an extensive network of lymphocyte-filled sacs lined by cells expressing LYVE-1 antigen, a marker associated with lymphatic endothelium cells (LECs). Real-time quantitative PCR analyses of Nkx2-3 mutant spleen revealed a substantial increase of LYVE-1 and podoplanin mRNA levels, without the parallel increase of mRNA for VEGFR-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor Type 3) and Prox1 (Prospero homeobobox protein 1), two markers specific for LECs. Although these structures express VEGFR-2/flk-1, they lack Prox1 protein, indicating their non-LEC endothelial origin. The LYVE-1+ structures are bordered with ER-TR7+ fibroblastic reticular cells with small clusters of macrophages expressing MARCO and sialoadhesin. Short-term cell-tracing studies using labeled lymphocytes indicate that these LYVE-1+ cysts are largely excluded from the systemic circulation. Cells expressing LYVE-1 glycoprotein as putative precursors for such structures are detectable in the spleen of late-stage embryos, and the formation of LYVE-1+ structures is independent from the activity of lymphotoxin ?-receptor. Thus the splenic vascular defects in Nkx2-3 deficiency include the generation of LYVE-1+ cysts, comprised of endothelial cells without being committed along the LEC lineage. PMID:21705651

  17. Embedding Quantum Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Candia, Roberto; Mejia, Bernabé; Castillo, Hernan; Simon Pedernales, Julen; Casanova, Jorge; Solano, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    We introduce the concept of embedding quantum simulator, a paradigm allowing efficient computation of dynamical quantities requiring full quantum tomography in a standard quantum simulator (one-to-one quantum simulator). The concept consists in the suitable encoding of a simulated quantum dynamics in the enlarged Hilbert space of an embedding quantum simulator. In this manner, non-trivial quantities are mapped onto physical observables, overcoming the necessity of full tomography, and reducing drastically the experimental requirements. As examples, we discuss how to evaluate entanglement monotones and time correlation functions, each in a suitable embedding quantum simulator. Finally, we expect that the proposed embedding framework paves the way for a general theory of enhanced one-to-one quantum simulators. This work is supported by Spanish MINECO FIS2012-36673-C03-02; UPV/EHU UFI 11/55; UPV/EHU PhD fellowship; Basque Government IT472-10; SOLID, CCQED, PROMISCE, SCALEQIT EU projects; and Marco Polo PUCP grant.

  18. Recovery of Salmonella from biofilms in a headwater spring ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, James P; Mendoza, Joseph A; Forstner, Michael R J; Hahn, Dittmar

    2011-09-01

    Salmonellae are pathogenic bacteria often detected in waters impacted by human or animal wastes. In order to assess the fate of salmonellae in supposedly pristine environments, water and natural biofilm samples along with snails (Tarebia granifera) and crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were collected before and up to 7 days following four precipitation events from sites within the headwater springs of Spring Lake, San Marcos, TX. The samples were analyzed for the presence of salmonellae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after semi-selective enrichment. Salmonellae were detected in one water sample directly after precipitation only, while detection in ten biofilm and two crayfish samples was not related to precipitation. Salmonellae were not detected in snails. Characterization of isolates by rep-PCR revealed shared profiles in water and biofilm samples, biofilm and crayfish samples, and biofilm samples collected 23 days apart. These results suggest that salmonellae are infrequently washed into this aquatic ecosystem during precipitation runoff and can potentially take up residency in biofilms which can help facilitate subsequent long-term persistence and eventual transfer through the food chain. PMID:21976193

  19. Archaeometallurgy in Messina: Iron Slug From A Dig at Blog P, Laboratory Analyses and Interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caterina, Ingoglia; Maurizio, Triscari; Giuseppe, Sabatino

    The archaeological site in Via La Farina, Block P, in Messina, is unique in many ways, due also to the high quantity of samples of iron slag. The slag was examined to identify the production centres of such materials, and, after characterization, was compared to similar material, exclusively for product typology, from different archaeological sites in the province of Messina, situated in the Peloritani Mountains (Messina city, S. Marco d'Alunzio, Milazzo, Francavilla di Sicilia, Novara di Sicilia as well as the archaeological site of Halaesa, near Tusa). Mineralogical characterization of the phases carried out by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Rietveld data elaboration, morphological study of slag findings and a semi-quantitative analysis by scanning electronic microscope (SEM+EDX) were performed. A chemical investigation was carried out by electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), to determine major element,. Minor and trace elements were determined by LA-ICP-MS. All the examined slag is related to iron metallurgy, and, in the case of Via La Farina, there is firm archaeological evidence pinpointing to smelting activity.

  20. Thermoelectric performance in ultra-thin transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramaratne, Darshana; Zahid, Ferdows; Lake, Roger

    2014-03-01

    The thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, is calculated for one to four monolayers of MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2. The maximum ZT in this family of materials occurs in bilayer MoSe2. Its ZT value of 2.39 is a factor of 8 increase compared to that of the bulk at room temperature. The values for the power factors and ZT change non-monotonically as the film thicknesses are increased from a single monolayer up to four layers. In contrast to Bi2Te3, the peak value of ZT occurs at a thickness greater than a single monolayer for all 4 materials. The shape of the distribution of the valence band and the conduction band density of modes explains the enhanced thermoelectric performance that occurs for film thicknesses above a single monolayer. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations are used in a Landauer approach to calculate the thermoelectric transport coefficients. NSF and SRC-NRI project 2204.001 (NSF-1124733), FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA. This work used the XSEDE which is supported by the NSF grant number OCI-1053575.

  1. Fermi velocity renormalization in misoriented graphene on hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Mahesh; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Ge, Supeng; Yin, Gen; Lake, Roger

    2014-03-01

    The electronic structure, Fermi velocity, and bandgap are calculated for graphene on BN as a function of misorientation angle. The Fermi velocity of Bernal stacked graphene on BN increases to 1.6 v0 where v0 is the velocity of single-layer graphene. For misorientation angles ranging from 5 to 27 degrees, the Fermi velocities of the Dirac electrons in graphene are relatively insensitive to the angle with values ranging between 0.85 and 0.9 v0. In addition, the bandgap at the Dirac point for rotated graphene on BN decreases by an order of magnitude compared to that of perfectly registered graphene on h-BN. This suggests a reduction in the interlayer coupling between the graphene and BN layers due to the rotation. Calculations are performed using density functional theory. This work is supported by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA, and a U.S. Dept. of Education GAANN Fellowship.This work used the resources at XSEDE (NSF Grant no: OCI-1053575) and Purdue University.

  2. THERMAP: a mid-infrared spectro-imager for space missions to small bodies in the inner solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groussin, O.; Licandro, J.; Helbert, J.; Reynaud, J. L.; Levacher, P.; Reyes García-Talavera, M.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Blanc, P. E.; Brageot, E.; Davidsson, B.; Delbó, M.; Deleuze, M.; Delsanti, A.; Diaz Garcia, J. J.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrand, D.; Green, S. F.; Jorda, L.; Joven Álvarez, E.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lamy, P.; Lellouch, E.; Le Merrer, J.; Marty, B.; Mas, G.; Rossin, C.; Rozitis, B.; Sunshine, J.; Vernazza, P.; Vives, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present THERMAP, a mid-infrared spectro-imager for space missions to small bodies in the inner solar system, developed in the framework of the MarcoPolo-R asteroid sample return mission. THERMAP is very well suited to characterize the surface thermal environment of a NEO and to map its surface composition. The instrument has two channels, one for imaging and one for spectroscopy: it is both a thermal camera with full 2D imaging capabilities and a slit spectrometer. THERMAP takes advantage of the recent technological developments of uncooled microbolometer arrays, sensitive in the mid-infrared spectral range. THERMAP can acquire thermal images (8-18 μm) of the surface and perform absolute temperature measurements with a precision better than 3.5 K above 200 K. THERMAP can acquire mid-infrared spectra (8-16 μm) of the surface with a spectral resolution Δλ of 0.3 μm. For surface temperatures above 350 K, spectra have a signal-to-noise ratio >60 in the spectral range 9-13 μm where most emission features occur.

  3. Impact-induced tensional failure in rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Rubin, Allan M.

    1993-01-01

    Planar impact experiments were employed to induce dynamic tensile failure in Bedford limestone. Rock disks were impacted with aluminum and polymethyl methacralate flyer plates at velocities of 10 to 25 m/s. This resulted in tensile stresses in the range of 11 to 160 MPa. Tensile stress durations of 0.5 and 1.3 microsec induced microcrack growth which in many experiments were insufficient to cause complete spalling of the samples. Velocity reduction, and by inference microcrack production, occurred in samples subjected to stresses above 35 MPa in the 1.3-microsec PMMA experiments and 60 MPa in the 0.5-microsec aluminum experiments. Apparent fracture toughnesses of 2.4 and 2.5 MPa m exp 1/2 are computed for the 1.3- and 0.5-microsec experiments. Three-dimensional impact experiments were conducted on 20 cm-sized blocks of Bedford limestone and San Marcos gabbro. Compressional wave velocity deficits up to 50-60 percent were observed in the vicinity of the crater. The damage decreases as about r exp -1.5 from the crater, indicating a dependence on the magnitude and duration of the tensile pulse.

  4. Women in media in the Philippines: from stereotype to liberation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, D G

    1987-01-01

    The success of women in the Philippine print and electronic media is contrasted with the negative image in which they are presented in mass media such as television, radio, comics, tabloids and magazines. Philippine women began entering journalism early in the century, becoming established in the female oriented press by the 1960s. As the repression of the Marcos regime intensified, women journalists excelled in writing vanguard pieces, using allusion, allegory, indirection or metaphor, interviewing prisoners, founding alternative newspapers and even initiating the successful boycott of the 3 major crony papers when Aquino was killed. The participation of women in television journalism is parallel, but more limited due to the nature of the medium. Women's cultural role as multi-track organizers of family, finance and work is credited for this success. Dozens of names with titles and paper names are cited, as well as tabulated in an appendix. In contrast, women's image in the popular publications and electronic media is that of sex object, victim, ideal submissive wife-mother, or gracious lady shows little evidence of improving. This deleterious, backward and inaccurate image is likely due to all-male ownership, management and profit motive of these popular, vernacular mass media. PMID:12281075

  5. Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) for the Shipboard Nontactical ADP Program (SNAP). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.D.; Hammons, C.E.; Hume, R.; Christian, J.; Handler B.H.; Phillips, J.

    1986-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a prototype computer aided instruction package for the Navy Management Systems Support Office. This report discusses the background of the project and the progress to date including a description of the software design, problems encountered, solutions found, and recommendations. The objective of this project is to provide a prototype that will enhance training and can be used as a shipboard refresher and retraining tool. The prototype system will be installed onboard ships where Navy personnel will have ready access to the training. The subsequent testing and evaluation of the prototype could provide the basis for a Navy-wide effort to implement computer aided instruction. The work to date has followed a rigorous structured analysis methodology based on the Yourdon/DeMarco techniques. A set of data flow diagrams and a data dictionary are included in the appendices. The problems encountered revolve around requirements to use existing hardware, software, and programmer capabilities for development, implementation, and maintenance of the instructional software. Solutions have been developed which will allow the software to exist in the given environment and still provide advanced features not available in commercial courses.

  6. Interfacial Structure in Co2MnSi/GaAs(001) Spin Injection Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sahil; Christie, Kevin; Geppert, Chad; Stecklein, Gordon; Wienkes, Lee; Shi, Fengyuan; Rath, Ashutosh; Schultz, Brian; Mryasov, Oleg; Butler, William; Voyles, Paul; Crowell, Paul; Palmstrom, Christopher; Cspin Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We report on the role of the interface formation and structure of molecular beam epitaxially grown Co2MnSi/GaAs(001) heterostructures with measured spin accumulations of approximately 60% at 30K in GaAs. In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to study morphology and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the evolution of core level emission peaks as a function of film thickness for thin epitaxial Co2MnSi films. Alternate monolayers of Co and MnSi were deposited to form an epitaxial template layer upon which codeposition of Co, Mn, and Si was used to grow thicker single crystal films. By combining the in-situ XPS elemental layer-by-layer peak evolutions and STM results with ex-situ high angular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), x-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry and first-principles calculations, consistent models of the growth and interface formation have been developed and will be presented. This work was supported by C-SPIN, one of the six centers of STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA; and by the NSF MRSEC program.

  7. Radar techniques to study interiors of the small bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofman, W. W.; Herique, A.

    2014-12-01

    The idea to use the radio waves to study the interiors of comets or asteroids appeared in the late eighties. The CONSERT experiment was accepted for the ROSETTA mission and it will provide information about the deep interior of the comet (Kofman et al, 1998, 2007). The CONSERT instrument is an original concept of the bistatic radar based on the propagation throughout the nucleus while the classical radars are based on the reflection. In this experiment, an electromagnetic signal is transmitted between the lander, located on the comet surface, and the orbiter. The transmitted signal will be measured as a function of time and as a function of the relative position of the orbiter and the lander for a number of orbits. Any signal that has propagated through the medium contains information concerning this medium. The CONSERT will start to operate in November 2014, we will show during this conference some preliminary results. On the CONSERT experiment example and on the Assert radar proposed for Marco-Polo mission (Herique, Agu 2011, IAA 2011) we discuss the main advantages and difficulties of the techniques using radio waves to study the interior of asteroids and comets. The capacity of radar technique to do the tomography of the interior of the asteroids and comets is emphasized.

  8. Satellite observations of zonal electric fields near sunrise in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Herrero, F. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Laakso, H.; Maynard, N. C.; Moses, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    We report here on a number of examples of anomalous enhancements of eastward electric fields near sunrise in the equatorial ionospheric F-region. These examples were selected from the data base of the equatorial satellite, San Marco D (1988), which measured ionospheric electric fields during a period of solar minimum. The eastward electric fields reported correspond to vertical plasma drifts. The examples studied here are similar in signature and polarity to the pre-reversal electric field enhancements seen near sunset from ground-based radar systems. The morphology of these sunrise events, which are observed on about 14% of the morning-side satellite passes, are studied as a function of local zonal velocity, magnetic activity, geographic longitude and altitude. The nine events studied occur at locations where the zonal plasma flow is generally measured to be eastward, but reducing as a function of local time and at satellite longitudes where the magnetic declination has the opposite polarity as the declination of the sunrise terminator.

  9. Spall velocity measurements from laboratory impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanskey, Carol A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Spall velocities were measured for a series of impacts into San Marcos gabbro. Impact velocities ranged from 1 to 6.5 km/sec. Projectiles varied in material and size with a maximum mass of 4g for a lead bullet to a minimum of 0.04 g for an aluminum sphere. The spall velocities were calculated both from measurements taken from films of the events and from estimates based on range measurements of the spall fragments. The maximum spall velocity observed was 27 m/sec, or 0.5 percent of the impact velocity. The measured spall velocities were within the range predicted by the Melosh (1984) spallation model for the given experimental parameters. The compatability between the Melosh model for large planetary impacts and the results of these small scale experiments is considered in detail. The targets were also bisected to observe the internal fractures. A series of fractures were observed whose location coincided with the boundary of the theoretical near surface zone predicted by Melosh. Above this boundary the target material should receive reduced levels of compressive stress as compared to the more highly shocked region below.

  10. Astronomía en la cultura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    La Astronomía en la Cultura es el estudio interdisciplinario a nivel global de la astronomía prehistórica, antigua y tradicional, en el marco de su contexto cultural. Esta disciplina abarca cualquier tipo de estudios o líneas de investigación en que se relacione a la astronomía con las ciencias humanas o sociales. En ella se incluyen tanto fuentes escritas, relatos orales como fuentes arqueológicas, abarcando entre otros, los siguientes temas: calendarios, observación práctica, cultos y mitos, representación simbólica de eventos, conceptos y objetos astronómicos, orientación astronómica de tumbas, templos, santuarios y centros urbanos, cosmología tradicional y la aplicación ceremonial de tradiciones astronómicas, la propia historia de la astronomía y la etnoastronomía (Krupp, 1989) (Iwaniszewski, 1994). En nuestro trabajo abordamos la historia y situación actual de esta disciplina, sus métodos y sus relaciones con otras áreas de investigación.

  11. Measuring enthalpy of sublimation of volatiles by means of micro-thermogravimetry for the study of water and organic in planetary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirri, F.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Zampetti, E.; Biondi, D.; Boccaccini, A.; Pantalei, S.; Zinzi, A.

    In this work, we present a new experimental set up to infer the enthalpy of sublimation for a known specie of dicarboxylic acid, i.e. adipic acid. This type of acids, with various concentrations are present in different environments (e.g. marine, rural, urban). The experiment is performed in the framework of the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyser) project, an instrument currently under study for the ESA Cosmic Vision proposed mission MarcoPolo-R. The enthalpy of sublimation of adipic acid was measured by means of micro-thermogravimetric analysis (mu -TGA), a widely used technique to investigate condensation/sublimation and absorption/desorption processes of volatile compounds. The measurements were performed with a 10 MHz temperature controlled piezoelectric crystal microbalance (PCM), placed in a vacuum chamber (10-6 mbar). The obtained enthalpy of sublimation is (123±16) kJ× mol-1, a value in good agreement with literature within 10%. This result (connected to the deposition rate curve, from 30 o to 75 oC), demonstrates the capability of our device to perform this kind of measurements.

  12. Host Transcriptional Profiles and Immunopathologic Response following Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Min-Kyoung; Park, Hongtae; Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Lee, Su-Hyung; Kim, Dae-Yong; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    Paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease is a chronic granulomatous enteropathy in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. In the present study, we examined the host response to MAP infection in spleens of mice in order to investigate the host immunopathology accompanying host-pathogen interaction. Transcriptional profiles of the MAP-infected mice at 3 and 6 weeks p.i. showed severe histopathological changes, whereas those at 12 weeks p.i. displayed reduced lesion severity in the spleen and liver. MAP-infected mice at 3 and 6 weeks p.i. showed up-regulation of interferon-related genes, scavenger receptor, and complement components, suggesting an initial innate immune reaction, such as macrophage activation, bactericidal activity, and macrophage invasion of MAP. Concurrently, MAP-infected mice at 3 and 6 weeks p.i. were also suggested to express M2 macrophage phenotype with up-regulation of Mrc1, and Marco and down-regulation of MHC class II, Ccr7, and Irf5, and canonical pathways related to the T cell response including ICOS-ICOSL signaling in T helper cells, calcium-induced T lymphocyte apoptosis, and CD28 signaling in T helper cell. These results provide information which furthers the understanding of the immunopathologic response to MAP infection in mice, thereby providing insights valuable for research into the pathogenesis for MAP infection. PMID:26439498

  13. Ultra-low-energy analog straintronics using multiferroic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kuntal

    2014-03-01

    Multiferroic devices, i.e., a magnetostrictive nanomagnet strain-coupled with a piezoelectric layer, are promising as binary switches for ultra-low-energy digital computing in beyond Moore's law era [Roy, K. Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 173110 (2013), Roy, K. et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 063108 (2011), Phys. Rev. B 83, 224412 (2011), Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group) 3, 3038 (2013), J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023914 (2012)]. We show here that such multiferroic devices, apart from performing digital computation, can be also utilized for analog computing purposes, e.g., voltage amplification, filter etc. The analog computing capability is conceived by considering that magnetization's mean orientation shifts gradually although nanomagnet's potential minima changes abruptly. Using tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) measurement, a continuous output voltage while varying the input voltage can be produced. Stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation in the presence of room-temperature (300 K) thermal fluctuations is solved to demonstrate the analog computing capability of such multiferroic devices. This work was supported in part by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  14. Climatic and geologic controls on the piezometry of the Querença-Silves karst aquifer, Algarve (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Maria C.; Costa, Luis; Monteiro, José P.

    2016-01-01

    Karst aquifers in semi-arid regions, like Querença-Silves (Portugal), are particularly vulnerable to climate variability. For the first time in this region, the temporal structure of a groundwater-level time series (1985-2010) was explored using the continuous wavelet transform. The investigation focused on a set of four piezometers, two at each side of the S. Marcos-Quarteira fault, to demonstrate how each of the two sectors of the aquifer respond to climate-induced patterns. Singular spectral analysis applied to an extended set of piezometers enabled identification of several quasi-periodic modes of variability, with periods of 6.5, 4.3, 3.2 and 2.6 years, which can be explained by low-frequency climate patterns. The geologic forcing accounts for ~15 % of the differential variability between the eastern and western sectors of the aquifer. The western sector displays spatially homogenous piezometric variations, large memory effects and low-pass filtering characteristics, which are consistent with relatively large and uniform values of water storage capacity and transmissivity properties. In this sector, the 6.5-year mode of variability accounts for ~70 % of the total variance of the groundwater levels. The eastern sector shows larger spatial and temporal heterogeneity, is more reactive to short-term variations, and is less influenced by the low-frequency components related to climate patterns.

  15. Digital Watersheds and Water Observations Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.; Whiteaker, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    A digital watershed requires both a description of the physical environment through which water flows and a description of the flow of the water itself. Geographic information systems are appropriate for describing the physical environment. The Arc Hydro geographic data models for surface and groundwater systems are one way by which the physical environment of a watershed can be described in a GIS, and OGC web feature services provide a mechanism for accessing such data through the internet.. The CUAHSI Observations data model is useful for describing time series of water observations measured at point locations, such as streamflow, water quality, groundwater levels and climate data. CUAHSI WaterML web services provide access to such time series data through the internet. The combination of web feature services and WaterML web services provides both geographic and observational data services for digital watersheds. This paper will present an example application of such services using the San Marcos river basin and its underlying Edwards Aquifer in Texas as an example.

  16. Salinity variations and chemical compositions of waters in the Frio Formation, Texas Gulf Coast. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Garrett, C.M. Jr.; Posey, J.S.; Han, J.H.; Jirik, L.A.

    1981-11-01

    Waters produced from sandstone reservoirs of the deep Frio Formation exhibit spatial variations in chemical composition that roughly coincide with the major tectonic elements (Houston and Rio Grande Embayments, San Marcos Arch) and corresponding depositional systems (Houston and Norias deltas, Greta-Carancahua barrier/strandplain system) that were respectively active along the upper, lower, and middle Texas Coast during Frio deposition. Within an area, salinities are usually depth dependent, and primary trends closely correspond to pore pressure gradients and thermal gradients. Where data are available (mainly in Brazoria County) the increases in TDS and calcium with depth coincide with the zone of albitization, smectite-illite transition, and calcite decrease in shales. Waters have fairly uniform salinities when produced from the same sandstone reservoir within a fault block or adjacent fault blocks with minor displacement. In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent sandstones separated by faults with large displacement usually yield waters with substantially different salinities owing to the markedly different thermal and pressure gradients across the faults that act as barriers to fluid movement.

  17. a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Coastal Protection of Two Archaeological Sites in Lybia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, I.; Ombrelli, M.; Telaroli, P.; Calesso, W.; Badin, C.; Senigaglia, M.; Urrutia, C.; Sterponi, L.

    2015-04-01

    The present study is part of the preliminary investigation to design a coastal protection for the archaeological sites of Sabratha and Leptis Magna and the hydraulic re-arrangement of the final stretch of the Wadi Lebda which runs across the archaeological area of Leptis Magna. This study is a part of the project "Safeguarding the Sabratha and Leptis Magna archaeological sites. Preventing flooding of Leptis Magna from the Wadi Lebda", started in 2009 and commissioned by MARCO POLO STORICA LTD - Scotland. The planning of interventions has required an accurate morphological reconstruction of the interested areas. In this regard, given the wide investigation area, the aerial and land survey operations logistic difficulties and tight timeframe, the use of multi-beam technology and satellite images was particularly useful. The Digital Terrain Model has been coupled with detailed bathymetric surveys of the coastal area, undertaken mostly by multi-beam techniques, and by investigations of the ground characteristics, which were integrated in the information system prepared as design support.

  18. Dynamic depositional and early diagenetic processes in a deep-water shelf setting, upper cretaceous Austin Chalk, North Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, S.D.; Nance, H.S.

    1994-12-31

    The Austin Chalk of north Texas was deposited on a deep-water shelf north of the Sea Marcos Platform during a worldwide Coniacian and Santonian sea-level highstand. Transgressive (lowermost lower Austin Chalk), highstand (uppermost lower Austin Chalk), and regressive (middle and upper Austin Chalk) phases of cyclic chalk and marl sedimentation are recognized in excavations and tunnels created in Ellis County for the Superconducting Super Collider provide new evidence of sediment transport during Austin Chalk deposition. During transgression, bottom currents syndepositionally reworked nannoplankton oozes, incising channels as much as 120 ft across and 8 ft deep. Weakly burrowed channel fills having preservation of fine lamination document rapid infilling. Channel fills are composed of pyritized and carbonized wood and Inoceramus lag deposits, pellets, echinoderm fragments, and globigerinid grainstones, and coccolith ooze. During maximum highstand, bottom reworking was suppressed. Detrital content of highstand marls is low (>20 percent); organic content is high (1.4 to 3.5 percent). Coccolith preservation is excellent because of minimal diagenetic alteration. Regression is marked by resumed channel cutting and storm-bed winnowing in the middle and upper Austin Chalk. Suppressed resistivity log response and recessive weathering characteristics of the middle Austin Chalk are not primarily related to depositional environment but rather to increased input of volcanic ash during the accumulation of this interval. Early stabilization of ash produced clay-coated microfabrics in sediments that are otherwise similar to the transgressive deposits.

  19. Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Radoff, K.A.; Thompson, Lisa M.; Bly, KC; Romero, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Background Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. Results three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. Conclusions TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. PMID:22762787

  20. A pilot study characterizing real time exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide from cookstove related woodsmoke in rural Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commodore, Adwoa A.; Hartinger, Stella M.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Gil, Ana I.; Hall, Daniel B.; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Naeher, Luke P.

    2013-11-01

    Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. We aimed to use PM2.5 and CO measurements to characterize exposure to cookstove generated woodsmoke in real time among control (n = 10) and intervention (n = 9) households in San Marcos, Cajamarca Region, Peru. Real time personal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM2.5), and personal and kitchen carbon monoxide (CO) samples were taken. Control households used a number of stoves including open fire and chimney stoves while intervention households used study-promoted chimney stoves. Measurements were categorized into lunch (9 am-1 pm) and dinner (3 pm-7 pm) periods, where applicable, to adjust for a wide range of sampling periods (2.8-13.1 h). During the 4-h time periods, mean personal PM2.5 exposures were correlated with personal CO exposures during lunch (r = 0.67 p = 0.024 n = 11) and dinner (r = 0.72 p = 0.0011 n = 17) in all study households. Personal PM2.5 exposures and kitchen CO concentrations were also correlated during lunch (r = 0.76 p = 0.018 n = 9) and dinner (r = 0.60 p = 0.018 n = 15). CO may be a useful indicator of PM during 4-h time scales measured in real time, particularly during high woodsmoke exposures, particularly during residential biomass cooking.

  1. Spin Relaxation Theory in Amorphous Silicon and Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Nicholas; Flatté, Michael E.

    2014-03-01

    Research into spintronic devices using amorphous inorganic semiconductors has seen little attention despite the surge of interest in amorphous organic spintronics. In many ways the two materials are similar - for instance hopping transport is observed in both for certain regimes. Amorphous semiconductors such as silicon and germanium offer advantages such as the ability to greatly reduce and control hyperfine field effects by the process of hydrogenation, and considerably higher mobilities. We present a theory of spin relaxation in amorphous semiconductors based on the theory of a continuous-time random walk, and obtain analytic results in several regimes. We also calculate the spin relaxation with a Monte Carlo simulation. We find that the spin-orbit coupling is the primary limit to long spin lifetimes in amorphous silicon and germanium. The theory we introduce is very general and can also be applied to amorphous organic semiconductors. We compare our results for amorphous inorganic and amorphous organic materials. This work was supported in part by C- SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  2. Efficient spin injection in Co2MnxFe1-xSi/GaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Kevin; Geppert, Chad; Wienkes, Lee; Patel, Sahil; Palmstrøm, Chris; Crowell, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Several Heusler alloys that are well lattice-matched to the InyGa1-yAs family of semiconductors are also candidates for half-metallic ferromagnets. We investigate here their potential for generating near unity spin polarizations in a semiconductor channel. We report on all-electrical measurements of the spin transport properties of epitaxial Co2Mn1-xFexSi / n-GaAs heterostructures. The FM/ n-GaAs interface is degenerately doped to form a narrow Schottky barrier as in previous work on Fe-based devices. The heterostructures were patterned into lateral spin-valve devices, and spin accumulation has been detected at temperatures up to 200 K using both spin-valve and Hanle techniques over a contact separation of 10 ?m. In Co2MnSi devices, a spin splitting of the chemical potential on the order of the Fermi energy (over 2 mV) is observed at 30 K. This is the largest spin accumulation observed to date in a FM/III-V system. We observe a change in sign of the spin accumulation at high Fe concentrations. The connection of this sign inversion to either the bulk of the ferromagnet or interfacial band structure is being investigated. This work was supported by STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA, and NSF DMR-1104951, and the NSF MRSEC program.

  3. Transport of arginine and ornithine into isolated mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Soetens, O; Crabeel, M; El Moualij, B; Duyckaerts, C; Sluse, F

    1998-12-01

    In this work we have characterised the transport of L-arginine and L-ornithine into mitochondria isolated from a wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and an isogenic arg11 knock-out mutant. The Arg11 protein (Arg11p) is a mitochondrial carrier required for arginine biosynthesis [Crabeel, M., Soetens, O., De Rijcke, M., Pratiwi, R. & Pankiewicz, R. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 25011-25019]. Reconstitution experiments have confirmed that it is an L-ornithine carrier also transporting L-arginine and L-lysine by order of decreasing affinity, but not L-histidine [Palmieri, L., De Marco, V., Iacobazzi, V., Palmieri, F., Runswick, M. & Walker, J. (1997) FEBS Lett. 410, 447-451]. Evidence is presented here that the mitochondrial inner membrane contains an L-arginine and L-ornithine transporting system distinct from Arg11p, in keeping with the arginine leaky phenotype of arg11 knock-out mutants. The newly characterised carrier, which we propose to name Bac1p (basic amino acid carrier), behaves as an antiporter catalysing the electroneutral exchange of the basic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine, L-ornithine and L-histidine and displays the highest affinity for L-arginine (Km of 30 microM). L-Arginine uptake has a pH optimum in the range of 7.5-9 and is inhibited by several sulphydryl reagents, by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and by cations. PMID:9874237

  4. Conference Committees: Conference Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    International Programm Committee (IPC) Harald Ade NCSU Sadao Aoki University Tsukuba David Attwood Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/CXRO Christian David Paul Scherrer Institut Peter Fischer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Adam Hitchcock McMaster University Chris Jacobsen SUNY, Stony Brook Denis Joyeux Lab Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique Yasushi Kagoshima University of Hyogo Hiroshi Kihara Kansai Medical University Janos Kirz SUNY Stony Brook Maya Kiskinova ELETTRA Ian McNulty Argonne National Lab/APS Alan Michette Kings College London Graeme Morrison Kings College London Keith Nugent University of Melbourne Zhu Peiping BSRF Institute of High Energy Physics Francois Polack Soleil Christoph Quitmann Paul Scherrer Institut Günther Schmahl University Göttingen Gerd Schneider Bessy Hyun-Joon Shin Pohang Accelerator Lab Jean Susini ESRF Mau-Tsu Tang NSRRC Tony Warwick Lawrence Berkeley Lab/ALS Local Organizing Committee Christoph Quitmann Chair, Scientific Program Charlotte Heer Secretary Christian David Scientific Program Frithjof Nolting Scientific Program Franz Pfeiffer Scientific Program Marco Stampanoni Scientific Program Robert Rudolph Sponsoring, Financials Alfred Waser Industry Exhibition Robert Keller Public Relation Markus Knecht Computing and WWW Annick Cavedon Proceedings and Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Margrit Eichler Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Kathy Eikenberry Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Marlies Locher Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program

  5. The BMW analytic aerodynamic drag method for the Vinti satellite theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. S.; Mistretta, G. D.; Bonavito, N. L.

    1972-01-01

    In order to retain separability in the Vinti theory of earth satellite motion when a non conservative force such as air drag is considered, a set of variational equations for the orbital elements are introduced, and expressed as functions of the transverse, radial, and normal components of the nonconservative forces acting on the system. In particular, the atmospheric density profile is written as a fitted exponential function of the eccentric anomaly, which reproduces tabular values of static model atmospheric densities at all altitudes to within ninety-eight percent and simultaneously reduces the variational equations to indefinite integrals with closed form evaluations, whose limits are in terms of the eccentric anomaly. The values of the limits for any arbitrary time interval are obtained from the Vinti program. Results of the BMW (Bonavito, Mistretta, Watson) theory for the case of the intense air drag satellites San Marco-2 and Air Force Cannonball are given. These results indicate that the satellite ephemerides produced by the BMW theory in conjunction with the Vinti program are of very high accuracy. In addition, since the program is entirely analytic, several months of ephemerides can be obtained within a few seconds of computer time.

  6. Zero field conductance singularity in two terminal ferromagnet-topological insulator device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaopeng; Semenov, Yuriy G.; Kim, Ki Wook

    2014-03-01

    Spin-momentum interlocking of surface electronic states on 3D topological insulator (TI) grants the unique opportunity to generate electric current directed according to the spin polarization of injected electrons instead of the applied electric field. Such asymmetry in momentum distribution of injected electrons takes place in the vicinity of ferromagnetic contact but vanishes on the length of few mean free passes. We propose to use this property in two terminal devices consisting of two parallel ferromagnetic contacts deposited on the surface of 3D TI. When the injected spin polarization leads to electron momentum pointing towards the other electrode, it facilitate the direct transmission, resulting in a lower resistance; in contrast with a reversed bias, the spin-determined momentum points away from the other electrode, because of which the electrons could gain the right momentum only after multiple scatterings to approach the second electrode, thus resulting in a higher resistance. We stress that this asymmetry in the resistance keeps up to arbitrarily small applied voltage since it does not need the formation of space charge region that is essential in conventional diodes. The rectification ratio near zero voltage are estimated and potential application are discussed. This work was supported, in part, by the US Army Research Office and FAME (one of six centers of STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA).

  7. Diffuse-Flow Conceptualization and Simulation of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio Region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical ground-water-flow model (hereinafter, the conduit-flow Edwards aquifer model) of the karstic Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas was developed for a previous study on the basis of a conceptualization emphasizing conduit development and conduit flow, and included simulating conduits as one-cell-wide, continuously connected features. Uncertainties regarding the degree to which conduits pervade the Edwards aquifer and influence ground-water flow, as well as other uncertainties inherent in simulating conduits, raised the question of whether a model based on the conduit-flow conceptualization was the optimum model for the Edwards aquifer. Accordingly, a model with an alternative hydraulic conductivity distribution without conduits was developed in a study conducted during 2004-05 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System. The hydraulic conductivity distribution for the modified Edwards aquifer model (hereinafter, the diffuse-flow Edwards aquifer model), based primarily on a conceptualization in which flow in the aquifer predominantly is through a network of numerous small fractures and openings, includes 38 zones, with hydraulic conductivities ranging from 3 to 50,000 feet per day. Revision of model input data for the diffuse-flow Edwards aquifer model was limited to changes in the simulated hydraulic conductivity distribution. The root-mean-square error for 144 target wells for the calibrated steady-state simulation for the diffuse-flow Edwards aquifer model is 20.9 feet. This error represents about 3 percent of the total head difference across the model area. The simulated springflows for Comal and San Marcos Springs for the calibrated steady-state simulation were within 2.4 and 15 percent of the median springflows for the two springs, respectively. The transient calibration period for the diffuse-flow Edwards aquifer model was 1947-2000, with 648 monthly stress periods, the same as for the conduit-flow Edwards aquifer model. The root-mean-square error for a period of drought (May-November 1956) for the calibrated transient simulation for 171 target wells is 33.4 feet, which represents about 5 percent of the total head difference across the model area. The root-mean-square error for a period of above-normal rainfall (November 1974-July 1975) for the calibrated transient simulation for 169 target wells is 25.8 feet, which represents about 4 percent of the total head difference across the model area. The root-mean-square error ranged from 6.3 to 30.4 feet in 12 target wells with long-term water-level measurements for varying periods during 1947-2000 for the calibrated transient simulation for the diffuse-flow Edwards aquifer model, and these errors represent 5.0 to 31.3 percent of the range in water-level fluctuations of each of those wells. The root-mean-square errors for the five major springs in the San Antonio segment of the aquifer for the calibrated transient simulation, as a percentage of the range of discharge fluctuations measured at the springs, varied from 7.2 percent for San Marcos Springs and 8.1 percent for Comal Springs to 28.8 percent for Leona Springs. The root-mean-square errors for hydraulic heads for the conduit-flow Edwards aquifer model are 27, 76, and 30 percent greater than those for the diffuse-flow Edwards aquifer model for the steady-state, drought, and above-normal rainfall synoptic time periods, respectively. The goodness-of-fit between measured and simulated springflows is similar for Comal, San Marcos, and Leona Springs for the diffuse-flow Edwards aquifer model and the conduit-flow Edwards aquifer model. The root-mean-square errors for Comal and Leona Springs were 15.6 and 21.3 percent less, respectively, whereas the root-mean-square error for San Marcos Springs was 3.3 percent greater for the diffuse-flow Edwards aquifer model compared to the conduit-flow Edwards aquifer model. The root-mean-square errors for San Antonio and San Pedro Springs were

  8. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 in macrophages controls prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Zsuzsanna; Li, Mailin; Csizmadia, Eva; Döme, Balazs; Johansson, Martin; Persson, Jenny Liao; Seth, Pankaj; Otterbein, Leo; Wegiel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune cells strongly influence cancer growth and progression via multiple mechanisms including regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we investigated whether expression of the metabolic gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in tumor microenvironment imparts significant effects on prostate cancer progression. We showed that HO-1 is expressed in MARCO-positive macrophages in prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts and human prostate cancers. We demonstrated that macrophage specific (LyzM-Cre) conditional deletion of HO-1 suppressed growth of PC3 xenografts in vivo and delayed progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in TRAMP mice. However, initiation and progression of cancer xenografts in the presence of macrophages lacking HO-1 resulted in loss of E-cadherin, a known marker of poor prognosis as well as EMT. Application of CO, a product of HO-1 catalysis, increased levels of E-cadherin in the adherens junctions between cancer cells. We further showed that HO-1-driven expression of E-cadherin in cancer cells cultured in the presence of macrophages is dependent on mitochondrial activity of cancer cells. In summary, these data suggest that HO-1-derived CO from tumor-associated macrophages influences, in part, E-cadherin expression and thus tumor initiation and progression. PMID:26418896

  10. Fish biomarkers for environmental monitoring: An integrated model supporting enzyme activity and histopathological lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo

    2014-10-01

    We present a mathematical model describing the association between glutathione-S-transferase activity and brachial lesions in the catfish, Sciades herzbergii (Ariidae) from a polluted port. The catfish were sampled from a port known to be contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds and from a natural reserve in São Marcos Bay, Brazil. Two biomarkers, hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and histopathological lesions, in gills tissue were measured. The values for GST activity were modeled with the occurrence of branchial lesions by fitting a third order polynomial. Results from the mathematical model indicate that GST activity has a strong polynomial relationship with the occurrence of branchial lesions in both the wet and the dry seasons, but only at the polluted port site. The model developed in this study indicates that branchial and hepatic lesions are initiated when GST activity reaches 2.15 μmol min-1 mg protein-1. Beyond this limit, GST activity decreased to very low levels and irreversible histopathological lesions occurred. This mathematical model provides a realistic approach to analyze predictive biomarkers of environmental health status.

  11. Angle dependent phonon spectra and thermal properties of misoriented bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Mahesh; Ramnani, Pankaj; Ge, Supeng; Mulchandani, Ashok; Lake, Roger

    2015-03-01

    The Raman spectra of misoriented bilayer graphene (MBG) show angle dependent signatures of the misorientation angle (?) in the low frequency breathing modes. We investigate these low frequency modes using molecular dynamics including temperature dependent phonon anharmonicity. The calculated vibrational and thermal properties are compared against our experimental data. Our theoretical investigations reveal that the layer breathing mode (LBM) frequencies at 100 +/- 10 cm-1 for angles 6° <= ? <= 30° are consistent with the observed frequencies of ZO modes in the Raman spectrum. For the smaller ? (or larger L), the reduced BZ leads to the zone-folding of the phonon spectrum at the zone center, and leads to broadened optical phonons width in the vibrational density of states. Finally, increasing ? in the MBG leads to a reduction in the lattice specific heat capacity. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No: 1307671, and FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA, and a U.S. Dept. of Education GAANN Fellowship.

  12. Sample Return Missions from Minor Bodies: Achievements, Future Plan and Observational Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, J. R.; Rotundi, A.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta

    2009-09-01

    We are entering in a new era of space exploration signed by sample return missions. Since the Apollo and Luna Program, the study of extraterrestrial samples in laboratory is gathering an increased interest of the scientific community so that nowadays exploration program of the Solar System is characterized by swelling sample return missions. Beside lunar samples, the NASA Stardust mission was the first successful space mission that on 15 January 2006 brought to Earth solid extraterrestrial samples collected from comet 81P/Wild 2 coma. Grains were collected during cometary fly-by into aerogel and once on Earth have been extracted for laboratory analyses. In the coming two decades many space missions on going or under study will harvest samples from minor bodies. Measurements required for detailed analysis that cannot be performed from a robotic spacecraft, will be carried out on Earth laboratories with the highest analytical accuracy attainable so far. An intriguing objective for the next sample return missions is to understand the nature of organic compounds. Organic compounds found in Stardust grains even if processed to large extend during aerogel capturing are here reported. Major objectives of Marco Polo mission are reported. Various ground-based observational programs within the framework of general characterizations of families and classes, cometary-asteroid transition objects and NEOs with cometary albedo are discussed and linked to sample return mission.

  13. The Origin of Asteroid 162173 (1999 JU3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campins, Humberto; de León, Julia; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Licandro, Javier; Gayon-Markt, Julie; Delbo, Marco; Michel, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Near-Earth asteroid (162173) 1999 JU3 (henceforth JU3) is a potentially hazardous asteroid and the target of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Hayabusa-2 sample return mission. JU3 is also a backup target for two other sample return missions: NASA's OSIRIS-REx and the European Space Agency's Marco Polo-R. We use dynamical information to identify an inner-belt, low-inclination origin through the ?6 resonance, more specifically, the region with 2.15 AU < a < 2.5 AU and i < 8°. The geometric albedo of JU3 is 0.07 ± 0.01, and this inner-belt region contains four well-defined low-albedo asteroid families (Clarissa, Erigone, Polana, and Sulamitis), plus a recently identified background population of low-albedo asteroids outside these families. Only two of these five groups, the background and the Polana family, deliver JU3-sized asteroids to the ?6 resonance, and the background delivers significantly more JU3-sized asteroids. The available spectral evidence is also diagnostic; the visible and near-infrared spectra of JU3 indicate it is a C-type asteroid, which is compatible with members of the background, but not with the Polana family because it contains primarily B-type asteroids. Hence, this background population of low-albedo asteroids is the most likely source of JU3.

  14. Thermophysical properties of near-Earth asteroid (341843) 2008 EV5 from WISE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Lionni, L.; Delbo, M.; Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.; Licandro, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We derive the thermal inertia of 2008 EV5, the baseline target for the Marco Polo-R mission proposal, and infer information about the size of the particles on its surface. Methods: Values of thermal inertia were obtained by fitting an asteroid thermophysical model to NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared data. Grain size was derived from the constrained thermal inertia and a model of heat conductivity that accounts for different values of the packing fraction (a measure of the degree of compaction of the regolith particles). Results: We obtain an effective diameter D = 370 ± 6 m, geometric visible albedo pV = 0.13 ± 0.05 (assuming H = 20.0 ± 0.4), and thermal inertia ? = 450 ± 60 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1 at the 1? level of significance for its retrograde spin-pole solution. The regolith particles radius is r = 6.6+1.3-1.3 mm for low degrees of compaction and r = 12.5+2.7-2.6 mm for the highest packing densities. Table of observed fluxes is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A45

  15. The ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, L.; Belli, F.; Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; De Pascale, M. P.; Di Fino, L.; Furano, G.; Modena, I.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Reali, E.; Rinaldi, A.; Ruggieri, D.; Sparvoli, R.; Zaconte, V.; Sannita, W. G.; Carozzo, S.; Licoccia, S.; Romagnoli, P.; Traversa, E.; Cotronei, V.; Vazquez, M.; Miller, J.; Salnitskii, V. P.; Shevchenko, O. I.; Petrov, V. P.; Trukhanov, K. A.; Galper, A.; Khodarovich, A.; Korotkov, M. G.; Popov, A.; Vavilov, N.; Avdeev, S.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, W.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, N.; Mazzenga, G.; Ricci, M.; Spillantini, P.; Castellini, G.; Vittori, R.; Carlson, P.; Fuglesang, C.; Schardt, D.

    2004-01-01

    The ALTEA project investigates the risks of functional brain damage induced by particle radiation in space. A modular facility (the ALTEA facility) is being implemented and will be operated in the International Space Station (ISS) to record electrophysiological and behavioral descriptors of brain function and to monitor their time dynamics and correlation with particles and space environment. The focus of the program will be on abnormal visual perceptions (often reported as "light flashes" by astronauts) and the impact on retinal and brain visual structures of particle in microgravity conditions. The facility will be made available to the international scientific community for human neurophysiological, electrophysiological and psychophysics experiments, studies on particle fluxes, and dosimetry. A precursor of ALTEA (the `Alteino' project) helps set the experimental baseline for the ALTEA experiments, while providing novel information on the radiation environment onboard the ISS and on the brain electrophysiology of the astronauts during orbital flights. Alteino was flown to the ISS on the Soyuz TM34 as part of mission Marco Polo. Controlled ground experiments using mice and accelerator beams complete the experimental strategy of ALTEA. We present here the status of progress of the ALTEA project and preliminary results of the Alteino study on brain dynamics, particle fluxes and abnormal visual perceptions.

  16. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration and Metamorphism in the Survival of Presolar Silicate Grains in Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M.; Blum, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Relatively small amounts (typically between 2 and 200 ppm) of presolar grains have been preserved in the matrices of chondritic meteorites. The measured abundances of the different types of grains are highly variable from one chondrite to another, but are higher in unequilibrated chondrites that have experienced little or no aqueous alteration and/or metamorphic heating than in processed meteorites. A general overview of the abundances measured in presolar grains (particularly the recently identified presolar silicates) contained in primitive chondrites is presented. Here we will focus on the most primitive chondrite groups, as typically the highest measured abundances of presolar grains occur in primitive chondrites that have experienced little thermal metamorphism. Looking at the most aqueously altered chondrite groups, we find a clear pattern of decreasing abundance of presolar silicate grains with increasing levels of aqueous alteration. We conclude that measured abundances of presolar grains in altered chondrites are strongly biased by their peculiar histories. Scales quantifying the intensity of aqueous alteration and shock metamorphism in chondrites could correlate with the content of presolar silicates. To do this it would be required to infer the degree of destruction or homogenization of presolar grains in the matrices of primitive meteorites. To get an unbiased picture of the relative abundance of presolar grains in the different regions of the protoplanetary disk where first meteorites consolidated, future dedicated studies of primitive meteorites, IDPs, and collected materials from sample-return missions (like e.g. the planned Marco Polo) are urgently required.

  17. The ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Narici, L; Belli, F; Bidoli, V; Casolino, M; De Pascale, M P; Di Fino, L; Furano, G; Modena, I; Morselli, A; Picozza, P; Reali, E; Rinaldi, A; Ruggieri, D; Sparvoli, R; Zaconte, V; Sannita, W G; Carozzo, S; Licoccia, S; Romagnoli, P; Traversa, E; Cotronei, V; Vazquez, M; Miller, J; Salnitskii, V P; Shevchenko, O I; Petrov, V P; Trukhanov, K A; Galper, A; Khodarovich, A; Korotkov, M G; Popov, A; Vavilov, N; Avdeev, S; Boezio, M; Bonvicini, W; Vacchi, A; Zampa, N; Mazzenga, G; Ricci, M; Spillantini, P; Castellini, G; Vittori, R; Carlson, P; Fuglesang, C; Schardt, D

    2004-01-01

    The ALTEA project investigates the risks of functional brain damage induced by particle radiation in space. A modular facility (the ALTEA facility) is being implemented and will be operated in the International Space Station (ISS) to record electrophysiological and behavioral descriptors of brain function and to monitor their time dynamics and correlation with particles and space environment. The focus of the program will be on abnormal visual perceptions (often reported as "light flashes" by astronauts) and the impact on retinal and brain visual structures of particle in microgravity conditions. The facility will be made available to the international scientific community for human neurophysiological, electrophysiological and psychophysics experiments, studies on particle fluxes, and dosimetry. A precursor of ALTEA (the 'Alteino' project) helps set the experimental baseline for the ALTEA experiments, while providing novel information on the radiation environment onboard the ISS and on the brain electrophysiology of the astronauts during orbital flights. Alteino was flown to the ISS on the Soyuz TM34 as part of mission Marco Polo. Controlled ground experiments using mice and accelerator beams complete the experimental strategy of ALTEA. We present here the status of progress of the ALTEA project and preliminary results of the Alteino study on brain dynamics, particle fluxes and abnormal visual perceptions. PMID:15803627

  18. Effects of cor15a-IPT gene expression on leaf senescence in transgenic Petunia x hybrida and Dendranthema x grandiflorum.

    PubMed

    Khodakovskaya, Mariya; Li, Yi; Li, Jisheng; Vanková, Radomíra; Malbeck, Jirí; McAvoy, Richard

    2005-04-01

    To prevent leaf senescence of young transplants or excised shoots during storage under dark and cold conditions, the cytokinin biosynthetic gene isopentenyl transferase (ipt) was placed under the control of a cold-inducible promoter cor15a from Arabidopsis thaliana and introduced into Petunia x hybrida 'Marco Polo Odyssey' and Dendranthema x grandiflorum (chrysanthemum) 'Iridon'. Transgenic cor15a-ipt petunia and chrysanthemum plants and excised leaves remained green and healthy during prolonged dark storage (4 weeks at 25 degrees C) after an initial exposure to a brief cold-induction period (4 degrees C for 72 h). However, cor15a-ipt chrysanthemum plants and excised leaves that were not exposed to a cold-induction period, senesced under the same dark storage conditions. Regardless of cold-induction treatment, leaves and plants of non-transformed plants senesced under prolonged dark storage. Analysis of ipt expression indicated a marked increase in gene expression in intact transgenic plants as well as in isolated transgenic leaves exposed to a short cold-induction treatment prior to dark storage. These changes correlated with elevated concentrations of cytokinins in transgenic leaves after cold treatment. Cor15a-ipt transgenic plants showed a normal phenotype when grown at 25 degrees C. PMID:15723824

  19. The Origin of Asteroid 162173 (1999 JU3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comfort, Christine; Campins, H.; de Leon, J.; Morbidelli, A.; Licandro, J.; Gayon-Markt, J.; Delbo, M.; Michel, P.

    2013-10-01

    Near-Earth asteroid (162173) 1999 JU3 (henceforth JU3) is a potentially hazardous asteroid and the target of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Hayabusa-2 sample return mission. JU3 is also a backup target for two other sample return missions: NASA’s OSIRIS-REx and the European Space Agency’s Marco Polo-R. We use dynamical information to identify an inner-belt, low-inclination origin through the ?6 resonance, more specifically the region with 2.15 AU < a < 2.5 AU and i < 8 degrees. The geometric albedo of JU3 is 0.07 ± 0.01, and this inner-belt region contains four well- defined low-albedo asteroid families (Clarissa, Erigone, Polana and Sulamitis), plus a recently identified background population of low-albedo asteroids outside these families. Only two of these five groups, the background and the Polana family, deliver JU3-sized asteroids to the ?6 resonance, and the background delivers significantly more JU3-sized asteroids. The available spectral evidence is also diagnostic; the visible and near-infrared spectra of JU3 indicate it is a C-type asteroid, which is compatible with members of the background, but not with the Polana family because it contains primarily of B-type asteroids. Hence, this background population of low-albedo asteroids is the most likely source of JU3.

  20. In Brief: Proposed European space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    New candidates for possible future scientific missions were selected by the European Space Agency's Space Science Advisory Committee at its 17-18 October meeting. Among the eight candidates are four solar system missions. The Laplace mission would perform coordinated observations of Europa, the Jovian satellites, Jupiter's magnetosphere, and its atmosphere and interior. Tandem is a mission that would explore two Saturn satellites-Titan and Enceladus-in situ and from orbit to investigate their origins, interiors, and evolution as well as their astrobiological potential. Cross-Scale, with 12 spacecraft, would make simultaneous measurements of plasma on different scales at shocks, reconnection sites, and turbulent regions in near-Earth space. Marco Polo would characterize a near-Earth object at multiple scales and return with a sample. Among other missions, Plato, a photometry mission, would detect and characterize transiting exoplanets, while Spica, a next-generation infrared observatory, would address planetary formation questions. Ultimately, two missions will be proposed for implementation, with launches planned for 2017 and 2018.

  1. The Physical Properties of Near-Earth Asteroids Associated With Meteoroid Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael; Campins, Humberto; Fernandez, Yan; Jenniskens, Peter; Reach, William; Vaubaillon, Jeremie

    2008-03-01

    The recent Near-Earth asteroid surveys have discovered a number of bodies now identified as parents of our meteor showers. We propose a 7.5 hr Spitzer program to study the physical properties and meteoroid streams of 4 near-Earth asteroids. We will assess the size, albedo, surface composition, and thermal inertia of all 4 targets with 7-14 micron IRS spectra. We also propose MIPS 24 micron maps to measure each targets' meteoroid stream and assess their recent cometary activity. We expect that NEAs associated with meteor showers are all primitive in nature, i.e., they are derived from primitive main belt asteroids, or extinct Jupiter-family comets. We will compare the physical parameters of our targets to NEAs not associated with meteor showers, and to primitive asteroids, in the Spitzer archive. It is important to study NEAs in order to: 1) determine the sources of the current NEA population, 2) characterize the sources of meteorites, meteor showers, and interplanetary dust particles accumulated by the Earth, 3) characterize the properties of Earth impact hazards, and 4) find interesting targets of future robotic and human space exploration missions (e.g., Marco Polo and OSIRIS, two proposed sample return missions). Meteor showers also have a wide public appeal and Spitzer observations of these objects are likely to attract much attention whenever a new call for meteor shower observations is issued to the public.

  2. Elemental characterization, sources and wind dependence of PM1 near Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Zannoni, Daniele; Visin, Flavia; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, PM1 elemental composition and relative sources have been investigated near Venice (Eastern Po Valley, Italy). Considering the lack of information on PM1 composition in this area and the general poor knowledge of emission profiles, this study can give useful information to better understand the source profile and the dispersion of finer particles. A sampling campaign was carried out in two sampling sites located inside the "Marco Polo" international airport of Venice. Elemental composition on PM1 samples was characterized by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Five sources were identified and quantified by using the positive matrix factorization receptor model: heavy oil combustion, road traffic, airplane tire-wear, glassmaking and mixed combustions. The role of local atmospheric circulation was investigated by studying the source contributions as a function of wind velocity. Days characterized by low dispersion (lower wind speed and higher wind calm with respect to full period rose) showed a higher contribution for all sources, and a glassmaking contribution increase linked to wind blowing from South, where the artistic glass district of Venice is located.

  3. ALTEA/Alteino: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, L.; For

    ALTEA project is based on the development of a facility to be used in the experimental studies in the International Space Station (ISS), on particle flux, human electrophysiology and psychophysics, dosimetry. Aim of the project is to define and measure descriptors for the elctrophysiological brain functioning and to follow their dynamics and the correlations with space environments. A specific focus will be posed on the abnormal visual perceptions (such as the reported perception of phosphenes ("light flashes") in orbit) and the impact of particle in microgravity conditions. Other experiments could proficiently use the features of this facility. A precursor of ALTEA, project `Alteino' is helping in preparing the experimental baseline for the ALTEA experiments, while providing novel information on the radiation environment in the ISS and on the dynamics of the astronauts' electrophysiology during orbital flights. Alteino have flown in the ISS with mission Marco Polo, on the Soyuz TM34. We present here the results from the Alteino investigation on brain dynamics correlated with particle fluxes and anomalous phosphene perceptions. Preliminary electrophysiological works on the effects of transient heavy ion radiation of the eye/cortex, as obtained in in vivo on mice (ALTEA -MICE) are being conducted. Detailed accounts of particle fluences as measured by Alteino's telescope "SilEye3" and of ALTEA -MICE are given elsewhere in this conference.

  4. Charge measurements for an asteroid sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfaden, A.; Aplin, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.

    2013-09-01

    Photoelectric charging of asteroid regolith material influences particle motion and escape. Differing spacecraft and asteroid charges may also affect sample return on missions such as Marco Polo-R. To study this, bespoke 2D particle-in-cell code simulating the behaviour of photoelectrons trapped near a photoemitting surface (photosheath) has been written and implemented. The spacecraft- photosheath system reaches equilibrium in 1 ms, which is rapid compared to the descent timescale. Equilibria reached in simulations are therefore assumed representative of the dynamic spacecraft environment. Predicted potentials at different heightsand with different solar zenith angle are presented, so that an instrument to measure the potential difference across the spacecraft can be defined. The distorting effect of the spacecraft significantly modifies the potential difference and displacement currents during the terminal descent, by introducing an equipotential body, creating a shadow, and photoemitting itself. By considering the distortion from different parts of the spacecraft, optimal locations for a set of electrodes to measure the potential difference are suggested. Potential differences of about 100 mV are expected to be generated across the electrodes, which should be representative of the electrical environment. The results demonstrate that a simple set of electrodes can measure the asteroid's surface electric field during sample collection.

  5. Galahad: medium class asteroid sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew; Rivkin, Andrew; Adler, Mark

    The Galahad asteroid sample return mission proposal to the NASA New Frontiers solicitation met all of the objectives for the Asteroid Rover/Sample Return mission as defined in that announcement. Galahad is in many ways similar to the Marco Polo and the OSIRIS-Rex proposals. All three missions plan bulk sample returns from primitive, C or B class Near Earth asteroids. Galahad in particular will rendezvous with and orbit the binary C-asteroid 1996 FG3, making extensive orbital measurements. It will then land and collect over 60 g of well-documented samples with geologic context for return to Earth. The samples are expected to provide abundant materials from the early solar system, including chondrules and CAIs, as well as a primitive assemblage of organics, presolar grains and probably hydrated minerals. Analyses of these samples will yield new understanding of the early solar system, planetary accretion, and the nature and origins of prebiotic organic material. We will discuss scientific and technical approaches to characterization of, landing on, and sample collection from small primitive bodies.

  6. Diagenetic Alteration on Magnetic Properties of Core MD06-3040 from East China Sea Inner Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Zheng, H.; Kissel, C.; Laj, C.

    2008-12-01

    Reductive diagenesis on magnetic minerals has been increasingly documented in coastal and continental shelf sediments, which is mostly characterized by a sharp decrease of all magnetic parameters at shallow depth and sometimes by two steplike decreases depending on the stability of magnetic minerals and chemical environment of the sediments. Magnetic results of Core MD06-3040, taken from East China Sea (ECS) inner continental shelf during IMAGESXIV Marco Polo 2 cruise on the R. V. Marion Dufresne (IPEV), presents two steplike decreases due to post depositional reductive diagenesis. The first occurs at a depth of 1.5-3.5 m and is characterized by reduction of both ferrimagnetic (magnetite) and antiferromagnetic (goethite/hematite) mineral components. The second occurs at 8.45-9 m and is characterized by a loss of fine-grained ferrimagnetic material. The steplike decline of magnetic parameters provides a mechanism for the relative stability of the magnetic minerals, suggesting that fine-grained ferrimagnetic mineral may be more resistant to the process of reductive diagenesis than coarse magnetic grains and antiferromagnetic material in this area, which is different from previous studies.

  7. Therapeutic Inflammatory Monocyte Modulation Using Immune-Modifying Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Getts, Daniel R.; Terry, Rachael L.; Getts, Meghann Teague; Deffrasnes, Celine; Müller, Marcus; van Vreden, Caryn; Ashhurst, Thomas M.; Chami, Belal; McCarthy, Derrick; Wu, Huiling; Ma, Jin; Martin, Aaron; Shae, Lonnie D.; Witting, Paul; Kansas, Geoffrey S.; Kühn, Joachim; Hafezi, Wali; Campbell, Iain L.; Reilly, David; Say, Jana; Brown, Louise; White, Melanie Y.; Cordwell, Stuart J.; Chadban, Steven J.; Thorp, Edward B.; Bao, Shisan; Miller, Stephen D.; King, Nicholas J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory monocyte-derived effector cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. However, no treatment option exists that is capable of modulating these cells specifically. We show that infused negatively charged, immune-modifying microparticles (IMPs), derived from polystyrene, microdiamonds, or biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, were taken up by inflammatory monocytes, in an opsonin-independent fashion, via the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO). Subsequently, these monocytes no longer trafficked to sites of inflammation; rather, IMP infusion caused their sequestration in the spleen through apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms and, ultimately, caspase-3–mediated apoptosis. Administration of IMPs in mouse models of myocardial infarction, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis, thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, and lethal flavivirus encephalitis markedly reduced monocyte accumulation at inflammatory foci, reduced disease symptoms, and promoted tissue repair. Together, these data highlight the intricate interplay between scavenger receptors, the spleen, and inflammatory monocyte function and support the translation of IMPs for therapeutic use in diseases caused or potentiated by inflammatory monocytes. PMID:24431111

  8. Consensus Recommendations to Accelerate Clinical Trials for Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Kalamarides, Michel; Hunter-Schaedle, Kim; Blakeley, Jaishri; Allen, Jeffrey; Babovic-Vuskanovic, Dusica; Belzberg, Allan; Bollag, Gideon; Chen, Ruihong; DiTomaso, Emmanuelle; Golfinos, John; Harris, Gordon; Jacob, Abraham; Kalpana, Ganjam; Karajannis, Matthias; Korf, Bruce; Kurzrock, Razelle; Law, Meng; McClatchey, Andrea; Packer, Roger; Roehm, Pamela; Rubenstein, Allan; Slattery, William; Tonsgard, James H.; Welling, D. Bradley; Widemann, Brigitte; Yohay, Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associated primarily with bilateral schwannomas seen on the superior vestibular branches of the eighth cranial nerves. Significant morbidity can result from surgical treatment of these tumors. Meningiomas, ependymomas, and other benign central nervous system tumors are also common in NF2. The lack of effective treatments for NF2 marks an unmet medical need. Experimental Design Here, we provide recommendations from a workshop, cochaired by Drs. D. Gareth Evans and Marco Giovannini, of 36 international researchers, physicians, representatives of the biotechnology industry, and patient advocates on how to accelerate progress toward NF2 clinical trials. Results Workshop participants reached a consensus that, based on current knowledge, the time is right to plan and implement NF2 clinical trials. Obstacles impeding NF2 clinical trials and how to address them were discussed, as well as the candidate therapeutic pipeline for NF2. Conclusions Both phase 0 and phase II NF2 trials are near-term options for NF2 clinical trials. The number of NF2 patients in the population remains limited, and successful recruitment will require ongoing collaboration efforts between NF2 clinics. PMID:19671848

  9. Substrate effect on the band gap of semiconducting atomic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbeck, Adam J.; Nayak, Saroj K.

    2014-03-01

    The electronic structure of free-standing and supported semiconducting atomic wires is investigated using a combination of first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). The band gaps predicted from DFT for SiH2 and GeH2 atomic wires are unaffected by the presence of the substrate, whereas the gaps calculated using MBPT under the GW approximation are reduced by about 1eV when the wires are supported. The reduction in the band gap is attributed to a change in the electronic correlation energy, which can be understood as a screened Coulomb interaction. These results highlight the importance of the role played by the substrate in manipulating the electronic and optical properties of quantum confined Si and Ge systems. Work supported by the Interconnect Focus Center (MARCO program), State of New York, NSF IGERT Program, Grant no. 0333314, NSF Petascale Simulations and Analysis (PetaApps) program, Grant No. 0749140, and computing resources of the CCNI at RPI.

  10. Optimizing learning of a locomotor task: amplifying errors as needed.

    PubMed

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; López-Olóriz, Jorge; Jaeger, Lukas; Riener, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Research on motor learning has emphasized that errors drive motor adaptation. Thereby, several researchers have proposed robotic training strategies that amplify movement errors rather than decrease them. In this study, the effect of different robotic training strategies that amplify errors on learning a complex locomotor task was investigated. The experiment was conducted with a one degree-of freedom robotic stepper (MARCOS). Subjects were requested to actively coordinate their legs in a desired gait-like pattern in order to track a Lissajous figure presented on a visual display. Learning with three different training strategies was evaluated: (i) No perturbation: the robot follows the subjects' movement without applying any perturbation, (ii) Error amplification: existing errors were amplified with repulsive forces proportional to errors, (iii) Noise disturbance: errors were evoked with a randomly-varying force disturbance. Results showed that training without perturbations was especially suitable for a subset of initially less-skilled subjects, while error amplification seemed to benefit more skilled subjects. Training with error amplification, however, limited transfer of learning. Random disturbing forces benefited learning and promoted transfer in all subjects, probably because it increased attention. These results suggest that learning a locomotor task can be optimized when errors are randomly evoked or amplified based on subjects' initial skill level. PMID:25571191

  11. An autopsy case of pneumococcal Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome with possible functional asplenia/hyposplenia

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Yukiko; Chiba, Takashi; Ohtani, Maki; Ishizawa, Shin; Nishida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    We report an autopsy case of rapid progressive Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) associated with Streptococcus pneumonia infection in a previously healthy man. Although he once visited a hospital about 6 hours before death, the both physical and serological examination did not show any sign of overwhelming infection. Autopsy showed massive adrenal hemorrhage without inflammation, and showed proliferation of gram positive cocci and microthrombosis in the vessels of many organs. The pathological change of respiratory tract was extremely minimal. Size and weight of the spleen possible decreased than normal. However, histological examination showed that obscuration of germinal center and decreasing the immunological cells of mantle and marginal zone. Immunohisitochemically, marked decreasing the marginal zone macrophages, which are positive for specific intercellular adhesion molecule grabbing nonintegrin receptor-1 (SIGN-R1) and macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), were decreased comparing with age-matched control case. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using each DNA, extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimen (FFPE) samples of lung, adrenal gland, heart, spleen, and kidney showed positive the ply gene and the lytA gene specific for Streptococcus pneumonia. Present case showed possible acquired atrophy of spleen, especially decreasing marginal zone macrophage may correlate with rapid progression of sepsis of Streptococcus pneumonia with massive adrenal hemorrhage. In addition, present case showed the usefulness of PCR using FFPE for the postmortem diagnosis of WFS. PMID:26261663

  12. Consensus Recommendations for Current Treatments and Accelerating Clinical Trials for Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Blakeley, Jaishri O; Evans, D. Gareth; Adler, John; Brackmann, Derald; Chen, Ruihong; Ferner, Rosalie E.; Hanemann, C. Oliver; Harris, Gordon; Huson, Susan M.; Jacob, Abraham; Kalamarides, Michel; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Korf, Bruce R.; Mautner, Victor-Felix; McClatchey, Andrea I.; Miao, Harry; Plotkin, Scott R.; Slattery, William; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Welling, D. Bradley; Wen, Patrick Y.; Widemann, Brigitte; Hunter-Schaedle, Kim; Giovannini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a tumor suppressor syndrome characterized by bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) which often result in deafness despite aggressive management. Meningiomas, ependymomas and other cranial nerve and peripheral schwannomas are also commonly found in NF2 and collectively lead to major neurologic morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, the overall survival rate in patients with NF2 is estimated to be 38% at 20 years from diagnosis. Hence, there is a desperate need for new, effective therapies. Recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of NF2 related tumors has aided in the identification of potential therapeutic targets and emerging clinical therapies. In June 2010, representatives of the international NF2 research and clinical community convened under the leadership of Drs. D. Gareth Evans (University of Manchester) and Marco Giovannini (House Research Institute) to review the state of NF2 treatment and clinical trials. This manuscript summarizes the expert opinions about current treatments for NF2 associated tumors and recommendations for advancing therapies emerging from that meeting. The development of effective therapies for NF2 associated tumors has the potential for significant clinical advancement not only for patients with NF2 but for thousands of neuro-oncology patients afflicted with these tumors. PMID:22140088

  13. 1998 astronaut candidates tour CCAS facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (Group 17) pose in front of the Project Mercury monument at Launch Complex 14 during a tour of the station's facilities. This 13-foot-high astronomical symbol for the planet Mercury was constructed by General Dynamics, the Atlas airframe contractor, and dedicated in 1964 in honor of those who flew in the Mercury 7 capsule. The class is at Kennedy Space Center taking part in training activities, including a flight awareness program, as well as touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, and the crew quarters. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  14. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On their tour of KSC, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) stop at the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Processing Facility for a close up look at a main shuttle engine. The class is taking part in training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, the crew headquarters, as well as the SSME Processing Facility. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  15. 1998 astronaut candidates tour CCAS facilities copy form; photos beginning with 99PD are only availa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (Group 17) pose in front of what remains of the launch tower at Launch Complex 34 during a tour of the station's facilities. During the Apollo Program, Launch Complex 34 was the site of the first Saturn I and Saturn IB launches, as well as the tragic fire in which the Apollo I astronauts lost their lives. The class is at Kennedy Space Center taking part in training activities, including a flight awareness program, as well as touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, and the crew quarters. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  16. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) learn about the use of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Processing Facility. At left is one of the main shuttle engines. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, the crew headquarters, as well as the SSME Processing Facility. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  17. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) gather in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Processing (SSMEP) Facility. In the foreground is one of the main shuttle engines. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  18. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, some of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) line up for a photo while standing under the engines of the Saturn V rocket on display. The U.S. candidates include Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and international candidates Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters.

  19. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On a raised platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) look at the aft fuselage of the orbiter Atlantis. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  20. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, some of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) line up for a photo during a tour of facilities at KSC. The U.S. candidates include Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and international candidates Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF and the crew headquarters.

  1. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (Group 17) watch as candidate Sunita L. Williams practices using firefighting equipment during fire training. The class is at KSC for training activities, including a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, and the crew quarters. The other U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  2. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) look at the aft of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) (right). The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, the crew headquarters, as well as the SSME Processing Facility. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  3. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (Group 17) watch as candidate Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.) practices using firefighting equipment during fire training. The class is at KSC for training activities, including a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, and the crew quarters. The other U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  4. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (Group 17) watch as candidate Clayton C. Anderson practices using firefighting equipment during fire training. The class is at KSC for training activities, including a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, and the crew quarters. The other U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  5. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) get a close-up view of the tiles, part of the thermal protection system, on the underside of the orbiter Atlantis overhead. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  6. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (Group 17) watch as candidate Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.) practices using firefighting equipment during fire training. The class is at KSC for training activities, including a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, and the crew quarters. The other U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  7. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) learn about the thermal protection system on the orbiters, such as Atlantis overhead. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  8. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (Group 17) watch as candidate Alan G. Poindexter practices using firefighting equipment during fire training. The class is at KSC for training activities, including a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, and the crew quarters. The other U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  9. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) are shown future components of the International Space Station, such as the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module at right. The class is taking part in training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, the crew headquarters, as well as the SSPF. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  10. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (Group 17) take part in fire training. The class is taking part in training activities, including a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, and the crew quarters. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  11. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, some of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) take a close look at the Saturn V rocket on display. The U.S. candidates include Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and international candidates Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters.

  12. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) take a close look at displays in the Apollo/Saturn V Center at KSC. The U.S. candidates include Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and international candidates Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters.

  13. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility, 1998 astronaut candidates (ASCAN) Barbara R. Morgan, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.) and Bjarni V. Tryggvason look at the hardware exhibits, such as the engine actuator on the table. Tryggvason is with the Canadian Space Agency. The 1998 ASCAN class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters. Other U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the other international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, and Marcos Pontes.

  14. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of the Kennedy Space Center, members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (Group 17) watch a demonstration as part of fire training. The class is taking part in training activities, including a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, SSME Processing Facility, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, and the crew quarters. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  15. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, Ron Woods (left) shows members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) an Apollo-style space suit and how it differs from the current suits. The class is taking part in training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center, the crew headquarters, as well as the SSME Processing Facility. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  16. 1998 astronaut candidates tour KSC facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3, Larry Osheim (right), who is with United Space Alliance, shows members of the 1998 astronaut candidate class (group 17) a sample of Felt Reusable Surface Insulation (FRSI) blankets used on the orbiters. The class is at KSC for training activities, including fire training and a flight awareness program, plus touring the OPF, SSME Processing Facility, VAB, SSPF, launch pads, SLF, Apollo/Saturn V Center and the crew headquarters. The U.S. candidates in the '98 class are Clayton C. Anderson, Lee J. Archambault, Tracy E. Caldwell (Ph.D.), Gregory E. Chamitoff (Ph.D.), Timothy J. Creamer, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michael J. Foreman, Michael E. Fossum, Kenneth T. Ham, Patricia C. Hilliard (M.D.), Gregory C. Johnson, Gregory H. Johnson, Stanley G. Love (Ph.D.), Leland D. Melvin, Barbara R. Morgan, William A. Oefelein, John D. Olivas (Ph.D.), Nicholas J.M. Patrick (Ph.D.), Alan G. Poindexter, Garrett E. Reisman (Ph.D.), Steven R. Swanson, Douglas H. Wheelock, Sunita L. Williams, Neil W. Woodward III, George D. Zamka; and the international candidates are Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli, Hans Schlegel, Roberto Vittori, Bjarni V. Tryggvason, and Marcos Pontes.

  17. Hydrochemical Investigation of Groundwaters of The Cuatro CiÉnegas Bolson, Coahuila, MÉxico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Alejandra; Johannessona, Kevin H.; Kilroy, Kathryn C.; Barron, Luis E.

    Water samples were collected from a series of springs, pools, and canals within the Cuatro Ciénegas Bolson, Coahuila, México and analyzed for stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. The ?oxigen-18 values of these waters ranged from a low of -8.2 up to -5.7 , with a mean (+/- standard deviation) of -6.5 +/- 0.82 , whereas ?deuterium ranged from -52 to -43 , with a mean (+/- standard deviation) of - 46.6 +/- 3.2 . The majority of the water samples plot sub-parallel and beneath the local meteoric water line, with those sample collected furthest from spring-line exhibiting the most enriched ?oxigen-18 values. The stable isotope data indicate isotopic enrichment of groundwaters by evaporation following discharge and subsequent surface flow. The isotope data suggests that a considerable fraction of Cuatro Ciénegas groundwaters originate via local recharge. Those springs that issue from the western base of the Sierra de San Marcos mountain range are chiefly recharged within these mountains, whereas groundwaters discharging from Laguna Anteojo in the northern part of the bolson are more likely recharged within the higher San de la Madera mountain range. A preliminary water balance estimate, however, that interbas in flow must also contributes to the considerable groundwater discharge within the bolson.

  18. Three-body recombination of fermionic atoms in the ultracold limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suno, H.; Esry, B. D.; Greene, Chris H.

    2002-05-01

    While ultracold three-body recombination of bosons has been theoretically studied(B.D. Esry, C.H. Greene, and J.P. Burke, Jr., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 1751 (1999); E. Nielsen and J.H. Macek, ibid. 83, 1566 (1999); P.F. Bedaque, E. Braaten, and H.-W. Hammer, ibid. 85,908 (2000). because of its importance for Bose-Einstein condensates, similar studies have not been carried out for ultracold recombination of fermions. We will present the first such studies, examining the behavior of the recombination rate as a function of the p-wave scattering length(J.L. Bohn, Phys. Rev. A, 61) 053409 (2000). and comparing it with what is known about boson recombination. Implications for the many ongoing degenerate Fermi gas experiments(B. DeMarco and D.S. Jin, Science 285), 1703 (1999); K.M. O'Hara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2092 (2000); A.G. Truscott et al., Science 291, 2750 (2001). will also be discussed.

  19. Transcriptome analysis highlights the conserved difference between embryonic and postnatal-derived alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gibbings, Sophie L; Goyal, Rajni; Desch, A Nicole; Leach, Sonia M; Prabagar, Miglena; Atif, Shaikh M; Bratton, Donna L; Janssen, William; Jakubzick, Claudia V

    2015-09-10

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) reside on the luminal surfaces of the airways and alveoli where they maintain host defense and promote alveolar homeostasis by ingesting inhaled particulates and regulating inflammatory responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that AMs populate the lungs during embryogenesis and self-renew throughout life with minimal replacement by circulating monocytes, except under extreme conditions of depletion or radiation injury. Here we demonstrate that on a global scale, environment appears to dictate AM development and function. Indeed, transcriptome analysis of embryonic host-derived and postnatal donor-derived AMs coexisting within the same mouse demonstrated >98% correlation and overall functional analyses were similar. However, we also identified several genes whose expression was dictated by origin rather than environment. The most differentially expressed gene not altered by environment was Marco, a gene recently demonstrated to have enhancer activity in embryonic-derived but not postnatal-derived tissue macrophages. Overall, we show that under homeostatic conditions, the environment largely dictates the programming and function of AMs, whereas the expression of a small number of genes remains linked to the origin of the cell. PMID:26232173

  20. Cryogenic near-field microscope working at LN temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yan; Zhu, Xing; Fei, Teng; Xu, Shifa; Zhou, Hetian; Gan, Zizhao; Song, Feijun

    1999-09-01

    We have constructed a versatile low temperature scanning near-field optical microscope with the capability of near- field spectroscopy, operating at liquid nitrogen (LN) temperature. The compact low temperature scanning head was built on one piece of Marco with a unique linear nano-motor as the coarse approach. A tuning fork mechanism was adopted to detect and regulate the fiber tip-sample separation. The x-y scan can be performed either by the single tube scanner on triple tube scanner, depending on the application. A double shield dewar was used where the outer chamber was filled with LN. The core chamber was evacuated before cooling and then filled with cooled nitrogen gas, hence the working temperature can be controlled at around 80 K. A special designed coaxial double lens was used to introduce the illumination beam through a 200-micron fiber; the detected optical signal was transmitted via a fiber tip to a PMT or an APD. The performance test shows the stability of the new design. The resolution of shear force imaging and optical image of standard sample are shown.

  1. Vida de leprosa: the testimony of a woman living with Hansen's disease in the Peruvian Amazon, 1947.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos; de la Puente, José Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This is the narrative of a patient made before, during and after being incarcerated in an agricultural colony in the Peruvian Amazon. In a vivid style, it narrates the decay of the body, the stigma and the compulsive segregation, as well as the hope for a better life. It is the perspective of a patient, something that is difficult to find when researching the history of health. The original publication was possible thanks to the German physician Maxime H. Kuczynski-Godard and thanks to the Institute of Social Medicine of the University of San Marcos that was directed by the professor of hygiene Carlos Enrique Paz-Soldán. We have used this publication for this transcription. Kuczynski-Godard was a German medical doctor that arrived in Peru in the mid 1930s and organized valuable activities in the Peruvian jungle as a part of an effort, which eventually failed, of the Peruvian State to colonize, or really to "civilize" the Amazon. PMID:14650423

  2. Analysis of a pollution problem of ambient noise and bases for a municipality inspection in the center of Talquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Erika; Orozco, Martha; Palafox, Lourdes

    2002-11-01

    The city of Tlaquepaque is delimited at the north by Guadalajara city, at the west side by Zapopan, at the south side by Tlajomulco and El Salto, and in its east side by Tonala. Our purpose in this study is to create the first noise map of Tlaquepaque, being the study area between the streets: Avenida Ninos Heroes, Revolucion, Florida, and Marcos Montero. We take 53 points of which 77.3% are above 65 dBA, the Leq average of the points was 69.7 dBA, having as a minium 44.8 dBA and as a maximum 108.6 dBA. Nowadays Tlaquepaque does not have any noise map, so we are trying to identify its more complex areas. The high dB levels found in the study show us how high the noise in the street is, and this is reflected by several citizen complaints about noise received by the municipality. Because of this it is necessary to have an ambient noise diagnostic program, and do the necessary modifications to the current inspection and monitoring system. The preliminary results of this first noise map show a really serious problem with ambient noise caused by vehicular traffic, bad urbanization, and the existence of commercial centers that raise the ambient noise.

  3. ArF Excimer Emission from Microhollow Cathode Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenhui; El-Habachi, Ahmed; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    1999-10-01

    Microhollow cathode discharges (MHCD) in Ar and Xe have been shown to emit excimer radiation at 128 nm and 172 nm, respectively, with an efficiency (in case of Xe) of approximately 8range towards longer wavelengths we have studied MHCD in argon fluoride mixtures (1to generate stable dc discharges in flowing gas at pressures ranging from 100 Torr to atmospheric pressure. The discharge voltage was approximately 500 V, the discharge current in these experiments was 10 mA. Whereas the spectrum at 300 Torr was dominated by atomic lines, at 700 Torr only excimer radiation peaking at 193 nm is observed in the spectral range from 120 nm to 300 nm. Absolute measurements of ArF excimer emission provided a value of approximately 3efficiency, or a total optical power of the excimer radiation of 150 mW. The peak power at 193 nm is 17 mW/nm. This is higher by a factor of 2 to 3, compared to xenon excimer emitters, due to the small FWHM of the 193nm ArF line (4 nm) compared to that of the Xe excimer line (24 nm). [1] Karl H. Schenbach, Ahmed El-Habachi, Wenhui Shi, and Marco Ciocca, Plasma Source Science and Technology 6, 468 (1997). [2] Ahmed El-Habachi and Karl H. Schoenbach, Appl.Phys.Lett. 73, 885 (1998). This work was funded by the DOE, Advanced Energy Division, and by the National Science Foundation.

  4. Dramatic declines in neotropical salamander populations are an important part of the global amphibian crisis

    PubMed Central

    Rovito, Sean M.; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Vásquez-Almazán, Carlos R.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Wake, David B.

    2009-01-01

    We document major declines of many species of salamanders at several sites in Central America and Mexico, with emphasis on the San Marcos region of Guatemala, one of the best studied and most diverse salamander communities in the Neotropics. Profound declines of several formerly abundant species, including 2 apparent extinctions, are revealed. Terrestrial microhabitat specialists at mid- to high elevations have declined more than microhabitat generalists. These terrestrial microhabitat specialists have largely disappeared from multiple sites in western Guatemala, including in well-protected areas, suggesting that the phenomenon cannot be explained solely by localized habitat destruction. Major declines in southern Mexican plethodontid salamanders occurred in the late 1970s to early 1980s, concurrent with or preceding many reported frog declines. The species in decline comprise several major evolutionary lineages of tropical salamanders, underscoring that significant portions of the phylogenetic diversity of Neotropical salamanders are at risk. Our results highlight the urgent need to document and understand Neotropical salamander declines as part of the larger effort to conserve global amphibian diversity. PMID:19204286

  5. Tables of thermospheric temperature, density and composition derived from satellite and ground based measurements. Volume 1: Ap=4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    The tables contain the neutral temperature, neutral densities for N2, O2, O, Ar, He and H, mean molecular weight, and total mass density as predicted by the Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter empirical thermosphere model for selected altitudes, latitudes, local times, days and other geophysical conditions. The model is based on a least squares fit to density data from mass spectrometers on five satellites and temperature data from four incoherent scatter stations, providing coverage for most of solar sunspot cycle 20. Included in the model data base are longitudinally average N3, He, and O densities from the OGO-6 mass spectrometer longitudinally average N2, He, O and Ar densities from the AEROS-A (NATE) mass spectrometer the N2, He, O, and Ar densities from the San Marco 3 mass spectrometer the N2 densities from the AE-B mass spectrometer and the N2, He, O, and Ar densities from the AE-C (OSS, NACE, NATE) mass spectrometers. The O2 and H densities are inferred using ion mass spectrometer data from AE-C (BIMS). Neutral exospheric temperature data are included from Arecibo, St. Santin, Millstone Hill and Jicamarca.

  6. Middle-atmosphere positive ion measurements during solar eclipses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Solar effects on middle-atmosphere electrical parameters, as demonstrated by eclipse-associated responses of conductivity, ion mobility, and charge density, are considered for the total solar eclipses at Red Lake, Ontario, Canada on February 26, 1979 and at San Marco range, Kenya, on February 16, 1980. Negative-conductivity measurements for the Canadian eclipse and probe-current measurements for the Kenyan eclipse demonstrate a rapid loss of free electrons below 80 km at totality. During the Kenyan eclipse, positive-ion responses were different for each of two distinct ion mobility groups. Between 45 and 60 km, eclipse-related positive-ion responses are associated with the low-mobility ions. It is shown that these ions are lost at totality and that an excess buildup occurs following totality. Above 70 km, positive-ion loss at totality is associated with the more mobile ions and only low-mobility positive ions are measured in this region. The buildup in total ion density following totality is thought to result from a reduction in ion loss associated with weak-electron recovery in the region.

  7. Avalanches of Singing Sand in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    The song of dunes is a natural phenomenon that has arisen travellers' curiosity for a long time, from Marco Polo to R.A. Bagnold. Scientific observations in the XXth century have shown that the sound is emitted during a shear flow of these particular grains, the free surface of the flow having coherent vibrations like a loud speaker. The sound emission is also submitted to a threshold effect with many parameters like humidity, flow speed, surface of the grains. The sound has been reproduced in laboratory avalanche experiments close to the natural phenomenon on field, but set in a channel with a hard bottom and a few centimeters of sand flowing, which contradicts explanations of the sound that involve a sand dune under the avalanche flow. Flow rates measurements also show the presence of a plug region in the flow above the sheared band, with the same characteristic length as the coherence zones of the sound. Finally we show experimentally that the Froude number, once modified to take into account the height of this plug band, is the parameter that sets the amplitude of the sound, and produces a threshold that depends on the grain type.

  8. Detection of salmonellae in different turtle species within a headwater spring ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, James P; Hahn, Dittmar; Rose, Francis L; Forstner, Michael R J

    2008-04-01

    Sediments and water from the slough arm of Spring Lake, the headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, USA, as well as swabs from biofilms on carapaces and from the cloacae of 18 common musk turtles (Sternotherus odoratus), 21 red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), nine Texas river cooters (Pseudemys texana), one snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina), and three Guadalupe spiny soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera guadalupensis), caught at the same site, were analyzed for salmonellae by culture and molecular techniques. Although enrichment cultures from sediment and water samples were negative for salmonellae in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analyses, this technique detected salmonellae in the enrichments from both carapaces and cloacae of 11 musk turtles (61%), eight red-eared sliders (38%), and the snapping turtle. Salmonellae could also be detected in the enrichments from the carapaces of two additional red-eared sliders and two Texas river cooters; the remaining samples were negative. Further characterization of isolates obtained from the enrichment cultures of seven selected individuals that represented all turtle species with salmonellae confirmed the presence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, with serovars Rubislaw, Newport, Gaminara, and Thompson identified. These results demonstrate the presence of different strains of potentially human pathogenic salmonellae naturally occurring on several turtle species with different life histories even within supposedly pristine environments. PMID:18436690

  9. Stochastic mean-field theory: Method and application to the disordered Bose-Hubbard model at finite temperature and speckle disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Bissbort, Ulf; Hofstetter, Walter

    2010-06-15

    We discuss the stochastic mean-field theory (SMFT) method, which is a new approach for describing disordered Bose systems in the thermodynamic limit including localization and dimensional effects. We explicate the method in detail and apply it to the disordered Bose-Hubbard model at finite temperature, with on-site box disorder, as well as experimentally relevant unbounded speckle disorder. We find that disorder-induced condensation and re-entrant behavior at constant filling are only possible at low temperatures, beyond the reach of current experiments [M. Pasienski, D. McKay, M. White, and B. DeMarco, e-print arXiv:0908.1182]. Including off-diagonal hopping disorder as well, we investigate its effect on the phase diagram in addition to pure on-site disorder. To make connection to present experiments on a quantitative level, we also combine SMFT with an LDA approach and obtain the condensate fraction in the presence of an external trapping potential.

  10. Herschel observations of near-Earth objects: Encounters with the spacecraft and with the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Müller, T.; Altieri, B.; Kiss, C.; Kùppers, M.; Barucci, M.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Gonzalez-Garcia, B.; Dotto, E.; Yoshikawa, M.; Carry, B.; Kidger, M.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Vavrek, R.; Teyssier, D.; Marston, A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel MACH-11 (Measurements of 11 Asteroids & Comets with Herschel) Programme has as its prime goal to observe those asteroids & comets which have been or will be visited by spacecraft or those which are being studied with a similar goal in mind. The following near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) form part of the list of targets making up this program and will be addressed in this analysis: - 1999 JU_3 (Hayabusa 2 mission target) - 1999 RQ_{36} (OSIRIS-REx mission target) - 1996 FG_3 (Marco-Polo R backup mission target) - (99942) Apophis (Study target) An additional NEA (not part of the MACH-11 program) will also be reviewed, namely 2005 YU_{55}. Each target was observed using the PACS Photometer of the Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al 2010). The extracted fluxes from each observation campaign were fed into a thermophysical model which has been validated against a large database of asteroids including targets of other spacecraft missions. In all cases, radiometric properties of each target have been derived and will be presented, with their impact on already published data being analysed & discussed.

  11. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  12. Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) - An asteroid lander package for the Hayabusa-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Caroline; Richter, Lutz; Dietze, Claudia; Ho, Tra-Mi; Lange, Michael; Sproewitz, Tom; Wagenbach, Susanne; Kroemer, Olaf; Witte, Lars; Braukhane, Andy

    2010-05-01

    The Hayabusa-2 mission is currently being studied by JAXA/JSPEC as a sample return mission to the C-type near-Earth asteroid 1999JU3. Hayabusa-2, with launch planned for 2014, would be the immediate successor to the currently flying Hayabusa mission. Originally in the context of the proposed ESA Cosmic Vision M-class mission Marco Polo, but then following an invitation by JAXA/JSPEC, the Institute of Space Systems of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) led a proposal for a separate lander package 'Mascot' (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) to be carried on the mission. A feasibility study was subsequently carried out that, upon consultation with the planetary science community, assessed different concepts for the lander that converged to a package with 3 kg of P/L, for a total mass of 10-15 kg. Presently, 'Mascot' enters the preliminary design phase while an Announcement of Opportunity for its payload complement is being prepared. The presentation will outline the current baseline design, with special consideration of how the highly demanding constraints that are being imposed on the system due to the general mission scenario, the asteroid environment and the tight budgetary limitations are being fulfilled in such a rather modest design, still offering an excellent science potential.

  13. Baseline design of a Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) for the Hayabusa-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Caroline; Richter, Lutz; Ho, Tra Mi; Witte, Lars

    The Hayabusa-2 mission is currently being studied by JAXA/JSPEC as a sample return mis-sion to the C-type near-Earth asteroid 1999JU3. Hayabusa-2, with launch planned for 2014, would be the immediate successor to the currently flying Hayabusa mission. Originally in the context of the proposed ESA Cosmic Vision M-class mission Marco Polo, but then following an invitation by JAXA/JSPEC, the Institute of Space Systems of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) led a proposal for a separate lander package MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) to be carried on the mission. A feasibility study was subsequently carried out that, upon consultation with the planetary science community, assessed different concepts for the lander that converged to a package with 3 kg of P/L, for a total mass of 10-15 kg. Presently, MASCOT is in the preliminary design phase and an Announcement of Opportunity for its payload complement is being prepared. This paper is intended to give an overview over the current system baseline design and dedicated subsystems, such as mobility. The focus will be on the highly demanding constraints that are being imposed on the system due to the general mission scenario, the asteroid environment and the tight budgetary limitations and the means by which these constraints are being fulfilled, while still offering an excellent science potential.

  14. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  15. Spin Circuit Representation for Spin Pumping Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kuntal; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-03-01

    There has been enormous progress in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics in recent years with the discovery of many new materials and phenomena and it remains a formidable challenge to integrate these phenomena into functional devices and evaluate their potential. To facilitate this process a modular approach has been proposed whereby different phenomena are represented by spin circuit components. Unlike ordinary circuit components, these spin circuit components are characterized by 4-component voltages and currents (one for charge and three for spin). In this talk we will (1) present a spin circuit representation for spin pumping phenomena, (2) combine it with a spin circuit representation for the spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces established results obtained earlier by other means, and finally (3) use it to propose a possible method for enhancing the spin pumping efficiency by an order of magnitude through the addition of a spin sink layer. This work was supported by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  16. Density versus spin-density functional in DFT+U and DFT+DMFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyowon; Millis, Andrew; Marianetti, Chris

    2015-03-01

    The construction of multi-variable effective action theories such as DFT+U and DFT+DMFT requires the choice of a local subspace of correlated orbitals and an additional variable being either the charge density or spin density. This talk examines the differences between using charge-only and spin-dependent exchange-correlation functionals with the aim of providing guidance for constructing more sophisticated beyond-density functional theories. The widely used spin-dependent approximations to the exchange-correlation functional are found to lead to a large and in some cases unphysical effective exchange coupling within the correlated subspace. Additionally, the differences between Wannier and Projector based definitions of the correlated orbitals are examined, and only small differences are found provided that the orbitals are orthonormal and strongly localized. These results are documented in the context of the rare earth nickelates. This work is supported under the Grant DOE-ER-046169 and under the FAME grant, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  17. Spin Circuit Model for Spin Orbit Torques in 2D Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokmin

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the unique coupling between charge and spin in topological insulators has been explored through various types of electrical measurements, which could have interesting applications. In this talk, we present a spin circuit model for spin orbit torques in topological insulator surface states and other 2D channels. We show with a simple example that results from the circuit model agree well with those obtained from nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) based quantum transport simulation. Some predictions of our model have already received experimental support and we hope this model can provide a unifying framework that can be used to critically evaluate experimental results, to explore new types of devices as well as to answer fundamental questions regarding these materials. The model for spin-orbit torques described here can be incorporated into a broader spin-circuit approach which, we believe, provides a natural platform for multi-physics, multi-component spintronic devices. This work was supported by FAME, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  18. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin ferromagnetic films adjacent to high-k oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Meng; Bi, Chong; Rosales, Marcus; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in thin ferromagnetic films has attracted a great deal of attention due to interesting physics and promising application in spintronic devices. The strength of PMA is often found to be strongly influenced by the adjacent heavy metal layer and oxide layer. A strong interest has emerged recently to control the PMA of these ultra-thin films by electric fields. Here we report the fabrication and characterization of perpendicularly magnetized 3d transitional metal films next to high-k oxides such as HfO2 and ZrO2. We have investigated structural, magnetic and transport properties of these films. The PMA strongly depends on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layers and the interfacial oxidation level of the bilayers. We will also discuss electric field controlled magnetic properties in these systems. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  19. Voltage-controlled magnetic tunnel junctions with Gd2O3 barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Stanford, Charles; Gamble, Matthew; Bi, Chong; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang

    2015-03-01

    It is of great importance to investigate magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with high-k barriers, with the premise that a large voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) can be achieved due to the increased charge transfer effect. Gd2O3 has a dielectric constant of 22, which is substantially larger than that of MgO (~ 9). It is critical to achieve crystalline barrier with cubic phase in order to obtain symmetry-conserved tunneling as in MgO-based MTJs. We have demonstrated that Cubic Gd2O3 can be grown on amorphous CoFeB by reactive sputtering under proper conditions. In exchanged-biased MTJs with in-plane anisotropy, tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) up to 12% has been obtained. The sharp switching at near zero field and exchange-bias field higher than 800 Oe indicate the magnetic properties of the CoFeB in these junctions are nearly as good as in MgO-based MTJs. MTJs with interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) has been created with TMR ~ 10%. A very interesting VCMA effect in these Gd2O3-based MTJs has been observed and will be discussed. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  20. Detecting spin accumulation in FM/ n-GaAs heterostructures using ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changjiang; Geppert, Chad; Christie, Kevin; Stecklein, Gordon; Patel, Sahil; Palmstrøm, Chris; Crowell, Paul

    2015-03-01

    A distinguishing feature of spin accumulation in ferromagnet (FM)/semiconductor heterostructures is precession. This is the basis for detection techniques such as the Hanle effect, but these approaches become less effective as the spin lifetime in the semiconductor decreases. We report here on a technique in which the source magnetization is forced to precess at the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, allowing for the detection of spin accumulation even when the spin lifetime is short (less than 100 psec). The samples used in the experiments are MBE-grown FM/(001) n-GaAs heterostructures, in which the FM are the Heusler alloys Co2MnSi and Co2FeSi. These samples show non-local spin valve and Hanle signals in conventional electrical spin injection/detection measurements at low temperatures. Using the FMR technique, we detect the spin accumulation from 30 K to room temperature as a sharp resonance peak. The frequency dependence of the magnitude of the resonance peak allows for a measurement of the spin lifetime. Spin lifetimes as short as 40 psec are measured at room temperature in channels doped at 3x1016cm-3. This work was supported by the NSF under DMR-1104951, the NSF MRSEC program and C-SPIN, a SRC STARNET center sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.