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Sample records for marco institucional venezolano

  1. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  2. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  3. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  4. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  5. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  6. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  7. The Mark 15 Marco Library and Recent Updating of the Marco Code

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, P.B.

    2001-08-09

    This report discusses two tasks: (1) introduction of the Mark 15-MARCO library within the context of an overview of the methodology of MARCO and (2) assessment of the accuracy of MARCO calculations of the Mark 15 MOC at beginning of cycle.

  8. San Marcos Astronomical Project and Doctoral Prospectus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    The Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM, in Lima, Perú, is the only Peruvian institution working for the peruvian astronomical development as a career since 1970. We are conforming a network with international friend astronomers to invite them as Visiting Lectures to assure the academic level for the future doctoral studies in the UNMSM. The Chancellor of UNMSM has decided that the Astronomical Project is a UNMSM Project, to encourage and advance in this scientific and strategical area, to impulse the modernity of Peru, the major effort will be the building of the San Marcos Astronomical Observatory, with a telescope of 1 meter aperture.

  9. In memory of Marcos Vidal (1974-2016)

    PubMed Central

    Cagan, Ross; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the untimely death of Marcos Vidal, we have lost a good friend and a creative, brilliant colleague who made important contributions to the field of cancer biology through fruit fly research. Marcos began his research into Drosophila at Ross Cagan's laboratory in 2003, first at Washington University in St Louis and later at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. In 2009 Marcos was appointed as Research Group Leader at the Beatson Institute for Cancer Research in Glasgow. PMID:26758990

  10. History of the Italian San Marco equatorial mobile range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, H. N.

    1971-01-01

    Events leading to the development of the San Marco Equatorial Range are presented. Included are background information leading to the cooperative space program between the United States and Italy, conceptual planning, training activities, equipment design and fabrication, and range utilization. The technical support provided the San Marco Program by Scout Project Office, and other NASA installations is described.

  11. 76 FR 72369 - Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  12. The Marcos de Niza Experience: Teaching in a Community Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Julieta Aviles

    1979-01-01

    The author reports on the multicultural, bilingual art program she created for elementary-age children at the Marcos de Niza community center in Phoenix, Arizona. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art education. (SJL)

  13. Reform in Spanish Education: The Institucion Libre de Ensenanza.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valis, Noel M.

    This document examines the development and influence of the Free Institute of Education (Institucion Libre de Ensenanza) and of its founder, Don Francisco Giner de los Rios, in late nineteenth century Spain. Founded in 1876 against a background of repression and reimposition of state-controlled education during the Bourbon Restoration the…

  14. Marco (Medical Record Communications) - System Concept, Design and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, P. H.; Heisler, B. D.; Mela, W. D.; Alpert, J. J.; Goldstein, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    MARCO, an interfacility communication system, has been designed to promote safe relevant health care delivery to the inner city pediatric patient receiving care in a network consisting of Boston City Hospital and its affiliated Neighborhood Health Centers. This application of computer technology to communication of medical information compiled on an individual patient in multiple locations has implications for private group practice as well as other urban networks similar to our own. This paper provides the MARCO system concept, the system design and evaluation of its success after two years of operation.

  15. OHMSETT 'HIGH SEAS' PERFORMANCE TESTING: MARCO CLASS V OIL SKIMMER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A MARCO Class V oil skimmer was tested at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT facility to determine the device's 'high seas' performance characteristics. Performance data was obtained for several simulated offshore wave conditions at various collection speeds. Skim...

  16. MarcoPolo Narrows the Search for Useful Classroom Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the issue of how teachers can conduct more efficient Internet searches in order to find sites that are unbiased, reliable, and accurate. Presents the MarcoPolo Project, a partnership among seven leading educational institutions, as a service that provides teachers with credible content through an easy-to-use Web interface. (NB)

  17. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawaguchi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.; Boehnhardt, H.; Coradini, M.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J.-L.; Koschny, D.; Muinonen, M.; Oberst, J.; Marco Polo Scienc

    2008-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a near-Earth object. In late 2007 this mission was selected by ESA, in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025, for an assessment scheduled to last until mid 2009.

  18. The Philippine Press after Marcos: Restored Freedoms and New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimary, Donald L.

    With the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos from his 20-year rule of the Philippines, the news media regained its freedom and its voice, and now faces a new set of problems: low circulation, questionable ethical standards of reporters and their lack of experience, and ominous indications from the Corazon Aquino government that the administration might…

  19. MarcoPolo-R near earth asteroid sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Benner, L. A. M.; Binzel, R. P.; Bland, P. A.; Böhnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Cerroni, P.; Dotto, E.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Lara, L.-M.; Licandro, J.; Marty, B.; Muinonen, K.; Nathues, A.; Oberst, J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Robert, F.; Saladino, R.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Ulamec, S.; Zolensky, M.

    2012-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) proposed in collaboration with NASA. It will rendezvous with a primitive NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. MarcoPolo-R will return bulk samples (up to 2 kg) from an organic-rich binary asteroid to Earth for laboratory analyses, allowing us to: explore the origin of planetary materials and initial stages of habitable planet formation; identify and characterize the organics and volatiles in a primitive asteroid; understand the unique geomorphology, dynamics and evolution of a binary NEA. This project is based on the previous Marco Polo mission study, which was selected for the Assessment Phase of the first round of Cosmic Vision. Its scientific rationale was highly ranked by ESA committees and it was not selected only because the estimated cost was higher than the allotted amount for an M class mission. The cost of MarcoPolo-R will be reduced to within the ESA medium mission budget by collaboration with APL (John Hopkins University) and JPL in the NASA program for coordination with ESA's Cosmic Vision Call. The baseline target is a binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily than at a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible at a single object. Several launch windows have been identified in the time-span 2020-2024. A number of other possible primitive single targets of high scientific interest have been identified covering a wide range of possible launch dates. The baseline mission scenario of MarcoPolo-R to 1996 FG3 is as follows: a single primary spacecraft provided by ESA, carrying

  20. Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

    2008-09-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  1. MarcoPolo-R: Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert

    2012-07-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected for the assessment study in the framework of ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-25 program. MarcoPolo-R is an European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a primitive carbon-rich NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target is a binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily than at a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible at a single object. Several launch windows have been identified in the time-span 2020-2024. The baseline mission scenario of MarcoPolo-R to 1996 FG3 foresees a single primary spacecraft, carrying the Earth re-entry capsule and sample acquisition and transfer system, launched by a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourou. The scientific payload includes state-of-the-art instruments, e.g. a camera system for high resolution imaging from orbit and on the surface, spectrometers covering visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths, a neutral-particle analyser, a radio science experiment and optional laser altimeter. If resources are available, an optional Lander will be added to perform in-situ characterization close to the sampling site, and internal structure investigations. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes. The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be

  2. Análisis del futuro marco de referencia internacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, G. R.; Arias, E. F.

    La técnica de interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI) se aplica hoy a la astrometría para el cálculo de posiciones precisas de radiofuentes extragalácticas. Por tratarse de objetos lejanos, sus movimientos propios aparentes pueden considerarse nulos; esta propiedad hace que los catálogos de radiofuentes extragalácticas VLBI constituyan la mejor materialización de un sistema de referencia celeste inercial definido cinemáticamente. La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste internacional materializado por las coordenadas ecuatoriales de objetos extragalácticos observados con le técnica VLBI. Para superar la precisión astrométrica actual es necesaria una mejora en la modelización de aquellos fenómenos que pueden introducir desviaciones sistemáticas en el marco de referencia celeste. El objetivo de este trabajo es poner de manifiesto las sistematicidades presentes en los distintos marcos de referencia elaborados con el próposito de materializar el nuevo sistema de referencia celeste de la IAU. Para la comparación de los distintos marcos de referencia se propone un modelo de tres rotaciones diferenciales más un término lineal que procura absorber los efectos sistemáticos presentes en las coordenadas. Se analiza igualmente la estabilidad de la solución cuando se utilizan distintos conjuntos de objetos de definición.

  3. The San Marco 3 neutral atmosphere composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelz, D. T.; Newton, G. P.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Clem, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental instrumentation of the San Marco 3 satellite is described along with the calibration and operation. The instrumentation for the following experiments was included: an air density experiment for measuring the instantaneous drag force, and thus the neutral particle total mass density; a neutral atmosphere composition experiment for measuring the densities of helium, atomic and molecular oxygen, molecular nitrogen and argon; and a neutral atmosphere temperature experiment to determine the gas kinetic temperature by measuring molecular nitrogen density variations in an orificed spherical chamber as a function of angle of attack.

  4. Marco Todeschini - Space Dynamics and Psycho-Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2006-03-01

    This book is dedicated to the theoretical and experimental research carried out in the 20-th century, by Italian engineer and technical physicist Marco Todeschini. It describes the subjects of "space dynamics" and "psycho-biophysics" - two related physical sciences - whose foundations lay in the existence of the ether and of the vortexes that all bodies with mass produce in it. An entirely new cosmology is derived in which all the bodies in the universe - elementary particles, astronomical bodies, and the human being - are strictly related together.

  5. Comparative solar EUV flux for the San Marco ASSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Chakrabarti, S.; Schmidtke, G.; Doll, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Airglow and Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco D/L satellite has measured solar extreme ultraviolet irradiances. The data are currently being released for analysis. As a preliminary step in evaluating this important dataset, modeled solar irradiances from 4 to 105 nm are presented for comparison to the San Marco data. The comparable flux for March-December 1988 is obtained from a revised and extended empirical solar EUV model derived from OSO 1, OSO 3, OSO 4, OSO 6, AEROS A, and AE-E satellite and six rocket flight datasets. Solar rotational features are prominent on several occasions in the model time series. A useful example is the modeled integrated flux between 30-31 nm which includes the Si XI (30.3-nm) and He II (30.4-nm) irradiance. The modeled flux in this 1-nm range shows both an absolute 22 percent increase from beginning to end of mission and a solar rotational variability with a typical peak-to-valley ratio of 14 percent.

  6. A Naturally-Occurring Transcript Variant of MARCO Reveals the SRCR Domain is Critical for Function

    PubMed Central

    Novakowski, Kyle E.; Huynh, Angela; Han, SeongJun; Dorrington, Michael G.; Yin, Charles; Tu, Zhongyuan; Pelka, Peter; Whyte, Peter; Guarné, Alba; Sakamoto, Kaori; Bowdish, Dawn M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a Class A Scavenger Receptor (cA-SR) that recognizes and phagocytoses of a wide variety of pathogens. Most cA-SRs that contain a C-terminal Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR) domain use the proximal collagenous domain to bind ligands. In contrast, for the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO in phagocytosis, adhesion and pro-inflammatory signalling is less clear. The discovery of a naturally-occurring transcript variant lacking the SRCR domain, MARCOII, provided the opportunity to study the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO. We tested whether the SRCR domain is required for ligand binding, promoting downstream signalling, and enhancing cellular adhesion. Unlike cells expressing full-length MARCO, ligand binding was abolished in MARCOII-expressing cells. Furthermore, co-expression of MARCO and MARCOII impaired phagocytic function, indicating that MARCOII acts as a dominant negative variant. Unlike MARCO, expression of MARCOII did not enhance Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling in response to bacterial stimulation. MARCO-expressing cells were more adherent and exhibited a dendritic-like phenotype, while MARCOII-expressing cells were less adherent and did not exhibit changes in morphology. These data suggest the SRCR domain of MARCO is the key domain in modulating ligand binding, enhancing downstream pro-inflammatory signalling, and MARCO-mediated cellular adhesion. PMID:26888252

  7. 75 FR 41983 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class D airspace for San Marcos Municipal Airport, San Marcos, TX (75 FR 22712) Docket No. FAA- 2010-0406. Interested parties were invited to... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation...

  8. Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    The program covers two public school districts, Harlandale and San Marcos, and Southwest Texas State University. This report, however, deals only with the San Marcos Bilingual Education Program, which provides bilingual education for pupils in grades K-5 who have limited English speaking ability. Due to parental requests, 19% monolingual English…

  9. Geochemical and hydrologic data for San Marcos Springs recharge characterization near San Marcos, Texas, November 2008--December 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    During 2008–10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, collected geochemical and hydrologic data in Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties, Texas, to define and characterize the sources of recharge to San Marcos Springs. Precipitation samples were collected for stable isotope analysis at 1 site and water-quality samples were collected at 7 springs, 21 wells, and 9 stream sites in the study area between November 2008 and December 2010. Continuous water-quality monitors were installed in three springs, two wells, and at one stream site. Three continuous stream-gaging stations were installed to measure gage height and a stagedischarge rating was developed at two of the three sites. Depth to water below land surface was continuously measured in two wells.

  10. MarcoPolo-R: Mission and Spacecraft Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacocke, L.; Kemble, S.; Chapuy, M.; Scheer, H.

    2013-09-01

    The MarcoPolo-R mission is a candidate for the European Space Agency's medium-class Cosmic Vision programme, with the aim to obtain a 100 g sample of asteroid surface material and return it safely to the Earth. Astrium is one of two industrial contractors currently studying the mission to Phase A level, and the team has been working on the mission and spacecraft design since January 2012. Asteroids are some of the most primitive bodies in our solar system and are key to understanding the formation of the Earth, Sun and other planetary bodies. A returned sample would allow extensive analyses in the large laboratory-sized instruments here on Earth that are not possible with in-situ instruments. This analysis would also increase our understanding of the composition and structure of asteroids, and aid in plans for asteroid deflection techniques. In addition, the mission would be a valuable precursor for missions such as Mars Sample Return, demonstrating a high speed Earth re-entry and hard landing of an entry capsule. Following extensive mission analysis of both the baseline asteroid target 1996 FG3 and alternatives, a particularly favourable trajectory was found to the asteroid 2008 EV5 resulting in a mission duration of 4.5 to 6 years. In October 2012, the MarcoPolo-R baseline target was changed to 2008 EV5 due to its extremely primitive nature, which may pre-date the Sun. This change has a number of advantages: reduced DeltaV requirements, an orbit with a more benign thermal environment, reduced communications distances, and a reduced complexity propulsion system - all of which simplify the spacecraft design significantly. The single spacecraft would launch between 2022 and 2024 on a Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle from Kourou. Solar electric propulsion is necessary for the outward and return transfers due to the DeltaV requirements, to minimise propellant mass. Once rendezvous with the asteroid is achieved, an observation campaign will begin to characterise the

  11. Archaeological Geophysics at the San Marcos Pueblo, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, K.; Joiner, C. J.; Musa, D.; Allred, I.; Delhaye, R. P.; Zorin, N.; Feucht, D. W.; Johnston, G.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The students and faculty of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) geophysical field course have studied the San Marcos Pueblo (LA 98) since 2004. This activity has provided instruction in near-surface geophysics and research into the application of geophysical techniques to southwestern archaeological problems. Our study site, the San Marcos Pueblo, is a classical and colonial period (1200-1680) pueblo that was once one of the largest communities in the southwest. Previous SAGE publications have discussed the discovery of archaeological features, the underlying geology and hydrological conditions. This study focuses on the interpretation of 'El Mapo Grande', 150 m X 150 m, high-resolution (0.5 m) maps of magnetic and electrical properties and 12 seismic refraction lines. The map covers room block, plaza and midden areas as well as areas where colonial period metallurgical activities were known to have occurred. We acquired magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data in 30 m X 30 m quads producing geophysical maps of each quad (2 or 3 produced each year). Total magnetic field measurements were made with a Geometrics cesium vapor magnetometer, GPR data collected using a Sensors and Software 250 MHz radar were on 0.5 m spaced lines, and EM data were acquired with a Geonics EM-31 on 1 m spaced lines. Seismic data were collected on interconnected lines with 0.5 m receiver and 3 m source interval. El Mapo Grande shows anomalies correlated among the diverse physical properties that were mapped. The edges of strong magnetic anomalies correlate with areas of high GPR scattering possibly associated with rocky floors under room blocks. Areas of high magnetic response are associated with hill-slope erosion channels and plumes of debris in the plaza to the south that are apparently washing down from the metallurgical sites near room blocks. EM data display a good correlation with the magnetic map. Debris channels and plumes are more

  12. Marco Polo : an Italian Mission Scoring a lot of Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pippo, Simonetta; Bracciaferri, Fabio M.

    2002-01-01

    The first astronaut of the European Astronaut Corps of Italian nationality, Roberto Vittori, will fly on a Soyuz capsule at the end of April 2002, opening a new era of space flight. The mission, sponsored by the Italian Space Agency, has been developed in the framework of an ESA- ROSAVIAKOSMOS agreement, reached in order to give European astronauts additional possibilities to fly. It's the first mission of this kind. In addition to that, this is the real first time in which a Soyuz mission is in the hands of two cosmonauts, and one of them is non Russian. On the same flight, in fact, Mark Shuttleworth, the second tourist in the history of space activities, is going to fly, performing also a set of scientific experiments. Marco Polo is also the first mission in which the two Agencies, ASI and ESA, are developing a joint commercialisation program, devoted to attire sponsors for improving research and development activities in the Human Spaceflight area. This will allow the two agencies to improve also the quality of life on Earth. A comprehensive scientific program is also foreseen accompanying Vittori on board, mainly in the field of life science. Experiments devoted to neurophysiology, arms rehabilitation, test of new materials for dressing in space, evaluation of the behaviour of the Nobel Prize Montalcini discovery named NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) will be performed on board. A R&D payload for Blood Pressure Measurements could have in the future commercial spin-off. In addition, a possible institutional sponsorship of the World Health Organization is under discussion. It will be the real first time in which a space mission gets this kind of sponsorship, and this strictly related to the World Health Day this year, devoted in promoting health throughout movement, i.e. "Move for Health". The Italian Space Agency proposed a joint combination of the two slogans, coupling the "Move for Health" message with the Italian "Space for Health" one. This is because of the Marco

  13. SETA-Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, M. Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra; Battistelli, Enrico; Preti, Giampaolo

    2010-05-01

    The Marco Polo NEO sample return M-class mission has been selected for assessment study within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The Marco Polo mission proposes to do a sample return mission to Near Earth Asteroid. With this mission we have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the entire mission. The imaging spectrometer is a key instrument being capable to characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire asteroid and to analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment. SETA is a Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer able to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target in order to characterize the mineral properties of the surface. The spectral sampling is of at least 20 nm and the spatial resolution of the order of meter. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter

  14. Near-Earth Object Exploration and Marco Polo-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Therefore robotic investigations of NEAs, such as ESA's Marco Polo-R sample return mission to 2008 EV5, would allow NASA and its international partners to gain critical operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., close proximity operations, surface sample collection, etc.) under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a potential human destination. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  15. Origin and characteristics of discharge at San Marcos Springs, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Crow, Cassi L.

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas is one of the most productive aquifers in the Nation and is the primary source of water for the rapidly growing San Antonio area. Springs issuing from the Edwards aquifer provide habitat for several threatened and endangered species, serve as locations for recreational activities, and supply downstream users. Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are major discharge points for the Edwards aquifer, and their discharges are used as thresholds in groundwater management strategies. Regional flow paths originating in the western part of the aquifer are generally understood to supply discharge at Comal Springs. In contrast, the hydrologic connection of San Marcos Springs with the regional Edwards aquifer flow system is less understood. During November 2008–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, collected and analyzed hydrologic and geochemical data from springs, groundwater wells, and streams to gain a better understanding of the origin and characteristics of discharge at San Marcos Springs. During the study, climatic and hydrologic conditions transitioned from exceptional drought to wetter than normal. The wide range of hydrologic conditions that occurred during this study—and corresponding changes in surface-water, groundwater and spring discharge, and in physicochemical properties and geochemistry—provides insight into the origin of the water discharging from San Marcos Springs. Three orifices at San Marcos Springs (Deep, Diversion, and Weissmuller Springs) were selected to be representative of larger springs at the spring complex. Key findings include that discharge at San Marcos Springs was dominated by regional recharge sources and groundwater flow paths and that different orifices of San Marcos Springs respond differently to changes in hydrologic conditions; Deep Spring was less responsive to changes in hydrologic conditions than were Diversion Spring and

  16. Role of Lysosomes in Silica-Induced Inflammasome Activation and Inflammation in Absence of MARCO

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Rupa; Hamilton, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    MARCO is the predominant scavenger receptor for recognition and binding of silica particles by alveolar macrophages (AM). Previously, it was shown that mice null for MARCO have a greater inflammatory response to silica, but the mechanism was not described. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between MARCO and NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Silica increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation and release of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, to a greater extent in MARCO−/− AM compared to wild type (WT) AM. Furthermore, in MARCO−/− AM there was greater cathepsin B release from phagolysosomes, Caspase-1 activation, and acid sphingomyelinase activity compared to WT AM, supporting the critical role played by lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) in triggering silica-induced inflammation. The difference in sensitivity to LMP appears to be in cholesterol recycling since increasing cholesterol in AM by treatment with U18666A decreased silica-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and cells lacking MARCO were less able to sequester cholesterol following silica treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MARCO contributes to normal cholesterol uptake in macrophages; therefore, in the absence of MARCO, macrophages are more susceptible to a greater inflammatory response by particulates known to cause NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the effect is due to increased LMP. PMID:25054161

  17. Radar Tomography of Asteroids ASSERT / Marco Polo-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Zine, S.; Barucci, A.; Biele, J.; Ho, T.; Kofman, W. W.; Krause, C.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Prado, J.; Souyris, J.; Ulamec, S.; Assert Team

    2011-12-01

    The internal structure of NEAs remains largely unknown. It is a key point for the understanding of asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. From a science point of view, the internal structure is also a key point for the understanding of asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. For risk management and mitigation, it is required to characterize whether a small asteroid will survive the transit through the atmosphere and also to define a deflection policy. There are some indirect evidences that a rubble pile structure is really common at least for objects larger than a few hundreds of meters in diameter. But a more precise characterisation of the internal structure is required, such as the size and the structure of the main blobs and their distribution within the NEAs main body as well as a statistical characterisation of the surface regolith in term of density and size distribution. Radar tomography is the only way to image the internal structure from decimetric to global scale in order to better understand the nature of the primary object and its posterior alterations. It is also a way to estimate the ratio between micro- and macro-porosity. Bistatic radar tomography is an original technique, developed with the CONSERT Experiment (Rosetta / ESA) to image ant characterize the internal structures of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimeko with a signal transmitted from the Orbiter to the Lander. By regards to a more classical monostatic radar like Marsis (MarsExpress/ESA), this bistatic configuration requires limited resources (mass, power and dataflow) and increases the capacity of deep sounding. So ASSERT (ASteroid Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) is proposed to instrument a MASCOT-type lander e.g. as payload of the ESA Marco Polo R mission (ESA). The first addressed question is a rubble pile or a monolithic body: For a rubble pile, the tomography will allow to estimate the size distribution of the boulders by direct imaging or statistical analysis of the

  18. Genetic Variants in MARCO Are Associated with the Susceptibility to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Hai-Bing; Li, Hao; Yang, Jun-Hai; Yan, Yan; Xie, Lan-Pin; Qi, Ying-Cheng; Li, Jun-Lian; Chen, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to tuberculosis is not only determined by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but also by the genetic component of the host. Macrophage receptor with a collagenous structure (MARCO) is essential components required for toll like receptor-signaling in macrophage response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which may contribute to tuberculosis risk. Principal Findings To specifically investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MARCO gene are associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in Chinese Han population. By selecting tagging SNPs in MARCO gene, 17 tag SNPs were identified and genotyped in 923 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 1033 healthy control subjects using a hospital based case-control association study. Single-point and haplotype analysis revealed an association in intron and exon region of MARCO gene. One SNP (rs17009726) was associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis, where the carriers of the G allele had a 1.65 fold (95% CI = 1.32–2.05, pcorrected = 9.27E–5) increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. Haplotype analysis revealed that haplotype GC containing G allele of 17009726 and haplotype TGCC (rs17795618T/A, rs1371562G/T, rs6761637T/C, rs2011839C/T) were also associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (pcorrected = 0.0001 and 0.029, respectively). Conclusions Our study suggested that genetic variants in MARCO gene were associated with pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility in Chinese Han population, and the findings emphasize the importance of MARCO mediated immune responses in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:21886847

  19. 78 FR 33263 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959...) at San Marcos Municipal Airport and the decommissioning of the Garys Locator Outer Marker (LOM)....

  20. Solar EUV/UV and equatorial airglow measurements from San Marco-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimdtke, G.; Doll, H.; Wita, C.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of the solar flux measurements performed by the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) aboard the San Marco-5 satellite in March-December 1988 are presented. Emphasis is placed on the in-flight performance of the ASSI, its in-flight calibration, and the planned scheme of the airglow modelling.

  1. Project Marco Polo: Bridging the Gap between Natural and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, Frederick L.; Rea, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Describes Project Marco Polo in which students, teachers, and staff from "National Geographic" and the U.S. Navy traveled to Japan. Reports that they studied Japanese culture, oceanography, and natural science while on the trip. Includes excerpts from field journals kept by the participants, photographs of the trip, and a map. (DK)

  2. Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    The San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program for 1972-73 was evaluated in this report. The program consisted of 684 students in grades K-5 in 4 elementary schools. The majority of these students were Mexican American with only 18% monolingual English speakers. The program's objectives were, first, to provide bilingual…

  3. Monitoring and Assessment of Regional Air Quality in China Using Space Observations (MarcoPolo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald; Ding, Jieying; Mijling, Bas; Bai, Jianhui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project ’MarcoPolo’. The main objective of Marco Polo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. Within the preceeding DRAGON project AMFIC it was concluded that modelling of air quality are hampered by the rapidly changing emission data due to economic growth in China. In addition, air quality policies could not directly be related to changes in emissions. Therefore, within the MarcoPolo project, the focus will be placed on emission estimates from space and the refinement of these emission estimates by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. A wide range of satellite data will be used from various satellite instruments to derive emission estimates for NOx, SO2, PM and biogenic sources. By combining these emission data with known information from the ground, a new emission database for MarcoPolo will be constructed. The improved emission inventory will be input to the regional and local air quality models.

  4. Macrophage Receptor with Collagenous Structure (MARCO) Is Processed by either Macropinocytosis or Endocytosis-Autophagy Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Seishiro; Kanno, Sanae

    2015-01-01

    The Macrophage Receptor with COllagenous structure (MARCO) protein is a plasma membrane receptor for un-opsonized or environmental particles on phagocytic cells. Here, we show that MARCO was internalized either by ruffling of plasma membrane followed by macropinocytosis or by endocytosis followed by fusion with autophagosome in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with GFP-MARCO. The macropinocytic process generated large vesicles when the plasma membrane subsided. The endocytosis/autophagosome (amphisome) generated small fluorescent puncta which were visible in the presence of glutamine, chloroquine, bafilomycin, ammonia, and other amines. The small puncta, but not the large vesicles, co-localized with LC3B and lysosomes. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio increased in the presence of glutamine, ammonia, and chloroquine in various cells. The small puncta trafficked between the peri-nuclear region and the distal ends of cells back and forth at rates of up to 2–3 μm/sec; tubulin, but not actin, regulated the trafficking of the small puncta. Besides phagocytosis MARCO, an adhesive plasma membrane receptor, may play a role in incorporation of various extracellular materials into the cell via both macropinocytic and endocytic pathways. PMID:26545255

  5. The San Marcos River Habitat Conservation Plan: Using HCP's as a Tool for Ecological Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Howard, M. S.; Arsuffi, T. L.

    2005-05-01

    The San Marcos River in San Marcos, Hays County, Texas is a biologically unique system with several listed species found in the headwaters. Flowing from the Edwards Aquifer and the second largest spring system in Texas, the water is clear and thermally constant. The physical and biological character of the habitat within and surrounding the river has been severely degraded by human activity. As a means of dealing with the continued disturbance and finding a balance between human needs and conservation, the San Marcos River Habitat Conservation Plan was written as provided by Section 10(a) of the Endangered Species Act. The plan provides habitat mitigation for the fountain darter (Etheostoma fonticola), Comal Springs riffle beetle, (Heterelmis comalensis), and San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana), while allowing for incidental take resulting from specific restoration and management projects. We used a science-based ecological/experimental approach to address some of the problems and optimize solutions, including restoration of stream banks damaged from overuse, planning for permanent access points and trails, removal of silt deposits caused by extensive flood control structures, wet-pond construction, managing flow, and the control of submerged and emergent non-native vegetation to improve habitat and enhance recreation.

  6. PRIDE and MarcoPolo-R: VLBI applications for Near-Earth Asteroids science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimo, G.; Molera-Calves, G.; Duev, D. A.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Bocanegra Bahamon, T.

    2012-09-01

    The core of the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is the accurate estimation of the state-vector of a spacecraft using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking. In this contribution, we will describe the technique and the technical requirements as well as the multidisciplinary scientific outcome of PRIDE as a part of the ESA mission MarcoPolo-R towards the Near-Earth Asteroids.

  7. Dr. Marco Marra: Pioneer and Visionary in Cancer Genomics Research | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Marco Marra is a highly distinguished genomics and bioinformatics researcher. He is the Director of Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre at the BC Cancer Agency and holds a faculty position at the University of British Columbia. The Centre is a state-of-the-art sequencing facility in Vancouver, Canada, with a major focus on the study of cancers.  Many of their research projects are undertaken in collaborations with other Canadian and international institutions.

  8. INSPIRE and MarCO - Technology Development for the First Deep Space CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    INSPIRE (Interplanetary NanoSpacecraft Pathfinder In a Relevant Environment) and MarCO (Mars Cube One) will open the door for tiny spacecraft to explore the solar system. INSPIRE serves as a trailblazer, designed to demonstrate new technology needed for deep space. MarCO will open the door for NanoSpacecraft to serve in support roles for much larger primary missions - in this case, providing a real-time relay of for the InSight project and will likely be the first CubeSats to reach deep space. Together, these four spacecraft (two for each mission) enable fundamental science objectives to be met with tiny vehicles. Originally designed for a March, 2016 launch with the InSight mission to Mars, the MarCO spacecraft are now complete and in storage. When launched with the InSight lander from Vandenberg Air Force Base, the spacecraft will begin a 6.5 month cruise to Mars. Soon after InSight itself separates from the upper stage of the launch vehicle, the two MarCO CubeSats will deploy and independently fly to Mars to support telecommunications relay for InSight's entry, descent, and landing sequence. These spacecraft will have onboard capability for deep space trajectory correction maneuvers; high-speed direct-to-Earth & DSN-compatible communications; an advanced navigation transponder; a large deployable reflect-array high gain antenna; and a robust software suite. This talk will present an overview of the INSPIRE and MarCO projects, including a concept of operations, details of the spacecraft and subsystem design, and lessons learned from integration and test. Finally, the talk will outline how lessons from these spacecraft are already being utilized in the next generation of interplanetary CubeSats, as well as a brief vision of their applicability for solar system exploration. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  9. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  10. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-García, C.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232Th-series, 238U-series, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg-1) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238U and 234U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210Pb activities. Results were verified by 137Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento - Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234U/overflow="scroll">238U and 238U/overflow="scroll">226Ra in sediments have values between 0.9-1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232Th/overflow="scroll">238U, 228Ra/overflow="scroll">226Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  11. Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  12. Evaluation of acoustic doppler velocity meters to quantify flow from Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gary, Marcus O.; Gary, Robin H.; Asquith, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflows for survival. It is therefore imperative that the Edwards Aquifer Authority have accurate and timely springflow data to guide resource management. Discharge points for Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are submerged in Landa Lake and in Spring Lake, respectively. Flows from the springs currently (2008) are estimated by the U.S Geological Survey in real time as surface-water discharge from conventional stage-discharge ratings at sites downstream from each spring. Recent technological advances and availability of acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) now provide tools to collect data (stream velocity) related to springflow that could increase accuracy of real-time estimates of the springflows. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, did a study during May 2006 through September 2007 to evaluate ADVMs to quantify flow from Comal and San Marcos Springs. The evaluation was based on two monitoring approaches: (1) placement of ADVMs in important spring orifices - spring run 3 and spring 7 at Comal Springs, and diversion spring at San Marcos Springs; and (2) placement of ADVMs at the nearest flowing streams - Comal River new and old channels for Comal Springs, Spring Lake west and east outflow channels and current (2008) San Marcos River streamflow-gaging site for San Marcos Springs. For Comal Springs, ADVM application at spring run 3 and spring 7 was intended to indicate whether the flows of spring run 3 and spring 7 can be related to total springflow. The findings indicate that velocity data from both discharge features, while reflecting changes in flow, do not reliably show a direct relation to measured streamflow and thus to total Comal Springs flow. ADVMs at the Comal

  13. Solar measurements from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of the solar spectral irradiance from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite is the focus for this research grant. A pre-print copy of the paper describing the calibrations of and results from the San Marco ASSI is attached to this report. The calibration of the ASSI included (1) transfer of photometric calibration from a rocket experiment and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME), (2) use of the on-board radioactive calibration sources, (3) validation of the ASSI sensitivity over its field of view, and (4) determining the degradation of the spectrometers. We have determined that the absolute values for the solar irradiance needs adjustment in the current proxy models of the solar UV irradiance, and the amount of solar variability from the proxy models are in reasonable agreement with the ASSI measurements. This research grant also has supported the development of a new solar EUV irradiance proxy model. We expected that the magnetic flux is responsible for most of the heating, via Alfen waves, in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. From examining time series of solar irradiance data and magnetic fields at different levels, we did indeed find that the chromospheric emissions correlate best with the large magnetic field levels.

  14. Calibration of the San Marco airglow-solar spectrometer instrument in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, John; Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Tai, Hongsheng; Doll, Harry G.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1996-02-01

    The San Marco 5 carried the airglow-solar spectrometer instrument (ASSI). This 18-channel spectrometer measured the solar and terrestrial radiation in the wavelength region between 20 and 700 nm for 9 months in 1988. The ASSI extreme ultraviolet (EUV) channels showed significant sensitivity changes during the mission. The sensitivity changes of the EUV channels are quantified by comparing ASSI solar EUV irradiance measurements to the solar EUV irradiance derived from a solar proxy model. A sensitivity change model is developed that shows that exponential curves can adequately describe the sensitivity changes of the ASSI optics and detectors. The November 10 calibration parameters and the sensitivity change model can be used to derive the EUV terrestrial airglow brightness for the time period of the ASSI mission. Analysis of the solar Lyman-(alpha) irradiance measured by the ASSI, the solar mesospheric explorer (SME), and the upper atmosphere research satellite has led to a revised Lyman-(alpha) irradiance for the San Marco mission. For example, the ASSI November 10, 1988, Lyman-(alpha) measurement is 5.3 X 1011 photons cm-2 s-1 versus the reported SME measurement of 3.35 X 1011 photons cm-2 s-1.

  15. Solar measurements from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    1994-04-01

    The analysis of the solar spectral irradiance from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite is the focus for this research grant. A pre-print copy of the paper describing the calibrations of and results from the San Marco ASSI is attached to this report. The calibration of the ASSI included (1) transfer of photometric calibration from a rocket experiment and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME), (2) use of the on-board radioactive calibration sources, (3) validation of the ASSI sensitivity over its field of view, and (4) determining the degradation of the spectrometers. We have determined that the absolute values for the solar irradiance needs adjustment in the current proxy models of the solar UV irradiance, and the amount of solar variability from the proxy models are in reasonable agreement with the ASSI measurements. This research grant also has supported the development of a new solar EUV irradiance proxy model. We expected that the magnetic flux is responsible for most of the heating, via Alfen waves, in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. From examining time series of solar irradiance data and magnetic fields at different levels, we did indeed find that the chromospheric emissions correlate best with the large magnetic field levels.

  16. Uranium in the surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River environment (Chihuahua, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work. PMID:22536148

  17. Equatorial composition in the 137- to 225-km region from the San Marco 3 mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, G. P.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Pelz, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    The neutral atmospheric composition experiment (Nace) carried by the San Marco 3 (SM 3) satellite measured the equatorial atmospheric composition during the reentry period of Nov. 21-28, 1971. The mass density and molecular nitrogen density measured by the Nace are in agreement with values measured by rocket experiments and inferred from satellite experiments. The average total oxygen content measured by Nace is 30% below the value suggested by von Zahn at 150-km altitude. When it is assumed that his value for the molecular oxygen density at 150 km represents averaged rocket results applicable to the equatorial thermosphere, the Nace total oxygen content results in an atomic oxygen concentration comparable to the mean value of Cira (1965). The Nace helium measurements interpreted in terms of an altitude profile have an altitude distribution similar to that of molecular nitrogen below 165 km.

  18. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work. PMID:22536148

  19. Solar EUV irradiance from the San Marco ASSI - A reference spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidtke, Gerhard; Woods, Thomas N.; Worden, John; Rottman, Gary J.; Doll, Harry; Wita, Claus; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1992-01-01

    The only satellite measurement of the solar EUV irradiance during solar cycle 22 has been obtained with the Airglow Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) aboard the San Marco 5 satellite flown in 1988. The ASSI in-flight calibration parameters are established by using the internal capabilities of ASSI and by comparing ASSI results to the results from other space-based experiments on the ASSI calibration rocket and the Solar Mesospheric Explorer (SME). A solar EUV irradiance spectrum derived from ASSI observations on November 10, 1988 is presented as a reference spectrum for moderate solar activity for the aeronomy community. This ASSI spectrum should be considered as a refinement and extension of the solar EUV spectrum published for the same day by Woods and Rottman (1990).

  20. Solar EUV irradiance from the San Marco ASSI - A reference spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, Gerhard; Woods, Thomas N.; Worden, John; Rottman, Gary J.; Doll, Harry; Wita, Claus; Solomon, Stanley C.

    1992-11-01

    The only satellite measurement of the solar EUV irradiance during solar cycle 22 has been obtained with the Airglow Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) aboard the San Marco 5 satellite flown in 1988. The ASSI in-flight calibration parameters are established by using the internal capabilities of ASSI and by comparing ASSI results to the results from other space-based experiments on the ASSI calibration rocket and the Solar Mesospheric Explorer (SME). A solar EUV irradiance spectrum derived from ASSI observations on November 10, 1988 is presented as a reference spectrum for moderate solar activity for the aeronomy community. This ASSI spectrum should be considered as a refinement and extension of the solar EUV spectrum published for the same day by Woods and Rottman (1990).

  1. Lifetime predictions for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and San Marco spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Ward, D. T.; Schmitt, M. W.; Phenneger, M. C.; Vaughn, F. J.; Lupisella, M. L.

    1989-01-01

    Lifetime prediction techniques developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) are described. These techniques were developed to predict the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft orbit, which is decaying due to atmospheric drag, with reentry predicted to occur before the end of 1989. Lifetime predictions were also performed for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was deployed on the 1984 SMM repair mission and is scheduled for retrieval on another Space Transportation System (STS) mission later this year. Concepts used in the lifetime predictions were tested on the San Marco spacecraft, which reentered the Earth's atmosphere on December 6, 1988. Ephemerides predicting the orbit evolution of the San Marco spacecraft until reentry were generated over the final 90 days of the mission when the altitude was less than 380 kilometers. The errors in the predicted ephemerides are due to errors in the prediction of atmospheric density variations over the lifetime of the satellite. To model the time dependence of the atmospheric densities, predictions of the solar flux at the 10.7-centimeter wavelength were used in conjunction with Harris-Priester (HP) atmospheric density tables. Orbital state vectors, together with the spacecraft mass and area, are used as input to the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Propagations proceed in monthly segments, with the nominal atmospheric drag model scaled for each month according to the predicted monthly average value of F10.7. Calibration propagations are performed over a period of known orbital decay to obtain the effective ballistic coefficient. Progagations using plus or minus 2 sigma solar flux predictions are also generated to estimate the despersion in expected reentry dates. Definitive orbits are compared with these predictions as time expases. As updated vectors are received, these are also propagated to reentryto continually update the lifetime predictions.

  2. Planetary protection issues for the MarcoPolo NEO sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romstedt, Jens; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawagushi, Jun; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Pillinger, Judith; Prieur, Daniel; Yano, Hajime; Agnolon, David; Binzel, Richard P.

    The MarcoPolo mission has been selected as an M-class candidate for assessment study within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through a competitive process the final candidate will be selected at the end of the year 2011. The primary goal of this mission is to return samples of material from a Near Earth Object (NEO) to Earth. An automated system will collect material from the top surface layer with a mass of around 100g. The actual sampling sequence is preceded by an intensive mapping and characterisation campaign of the target body by remote sensing instruments on an orbiting spacecraft. The collected material will be transferred to a return capsule that enters Earth's atmosphere and lands. The proposed candidate targets are primitive objects of various spectral classes. In a current process based on scientific evaluation, engineering and programmatic requirements the list of objects will be narrowed down to a short list of prime target bodies. The delivery of alien material to Earth using a spacecraft places this mission in Category V according to COSPAR planetary protection rules. Depending on the target or region of a target the mission is subclassified as "none-restricted" or" restricted" return. The latter implies a severe impact on the complexity of the mission architecture due to much higher technological constraints and sample handling procedures on Earth. Among the NEO population there is a large variety of very different objects. Only a few are assessed on the basis of planetary protection rules. Future small body exploration missions like MarcoPolo require the assessment and categorisation according to the biologic potential of the respective target body. This presentation will assess the proposed mission according to the COSPAR planetary protection rules as adopted by ESA.

  3. European asteroid sample return mission: MarcoPolo-R and its future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M.

    2014-07-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission study to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) carried out at ESA from 2008 in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision (CV) programme, with the objective to answer to the fundamental CV questions ''How does the Solar System work?'' and ''What are the conditions for life and planetary formation?''. The returned material will allow us to study in terrestrial laboratories some of the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes, to explore initial stages of habitable planet formation, to identify and characterize the organics and volatiles in a primitive asteroid. In fact, only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. In addition to addressing these major science goals, the MarcoPolo-R mission study (ESA/SRE (2013)4) also involved innovative European technologies for which ESA technical development programs are still under way. As a result of the several industrial studies, ESA designed a remarkably cost-effective and robust asteroid sample return mission scenario. The spacecraft has been defined making use of low-cost units for most of the sub-systems. The key sample return capabilities, i.e. asteroid navigation, touch and go, sampling mechanism and the re-entry capsule have reached at ESA a validation status to enter implementation phase. In this new era of international effort and interest of sample return with the selected missions of Hayabusa-2 (JAXA) and OSIRIS-Rex (NASA), the development of sample return technology represents in Europe a crucial

  4. Herschel observations of the Marco Polo-R asteroid 175706 (1996 FG3).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Barucci, A.; Gònzalez-Garcìa, B.; Dotto, E.; Küppers, M.

    2012-09-01

    Background: The Marco Polo-R mission has been selected for the assessment study phase of the ESA M3 missions. This ESA-led sample return mission to the binary asteroid 1996 FG3 (launch window between 2020 and 2024) is proposed with a design that allows it to fit within the pre-defined cost cap of a M-class mission. The binary nature of the target will allow more precise measurements of mass, gravity, and density than for a single object, as well as additional insights into the geology and geophysics of the system. The asteroid has been classified by Binzel et al. [1] as a C-type. It is considered to be a typical example of a primitive object [2]. Dynamically, this is an Apollo asteroid with semimajor axis a of 1.054 AU, eccentricity e of 0.35, and and inclination i of 1.98 degrees. Measurements of the albedo derived from thermal infrared observations give a value of pV = 0.042 (+0.035 -0.017), and a combined diameter of D = 1.84 (+0.56 -0.47) km [3]. The Herschel observations : The MACH-11 (Measurements of 11 Asteroids & Comets) Programme observed this binary asteroid in two occasions in November of 2012. The observations performed had a duration of 0.6 hours with the asteroid pair moving rapidly at 6'/hr thus making removal of the background quite straightforward. The observations were performed in two observing blocks; the first block consisted of a 2 repetition blue/red map, the second block consisted of a 2 repetition green/red map, with the intention to observe the target at different phase angles. Our Results : Our measurements will serve to update the known radiometric properties for this binary asteroid through their inclusion into a thermophysical model (TPM) [4] which has been validated against a large database of asteroids including targets of other spacecraft mission e.g. Lutetia [5], Itokawa [6]. Using existing sets of published thermal observations (Spitzer, TNG NICS), combined with our Herschel observations, applied within this thermophysical model

  5. Marcos Zapata's "Last Supper": a feast of European religion and Andean culture.

    PubMed

    Zendt, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In Marcos Zapata's 1753 painting of the Last Supper in Cuzco, Peru, Christian symbolism is filtered through Andean cultural tradition. Zapata was a late member of the Cuzco School of Painting, a group comprised of few European immigrants and handfuls of mestizo and Indian artists. The painters in Cuzco learned mostly from prints of European paintings, and their style tends to blend local culture into the traditional painting of their conquistadors. Imagery was the most successful tool used by the Spaniards in their quest to Christianize the Andean population. By teaching locals to paint Christian subjects, they were able to infuse Christianity into Andean traditions. Zapata's rendering of the Last Supper utilizes this cultural blending while staying true to the Christian symbolism within the subject. Instead of the traditional lamb, Zapata's Last Supper features a platter of cuy, or guinea pig, an Andean delicacy stocked with protein as well as cultural significance. Cuy was traditionally a sacrificial animal at Inca agricultural festivals and in this way it offers poignant parallel to the lamb, as a traditional Christian sacrificial animal. PMID:21568039

  6. Surface Lipoprotein PpiA of Streptococcus mutans Suppresses Scavenger Receptor MARCO-Dependent Phagocytosis by Macrophages ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mukouhara, Tadashi; Arimoto, Takafumi; Cho, Kasei; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Igarashi, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is associated with the initiation and progression of human dental caries and is occasionally isolated from the blood of patients with bacteremia and infective endocarditis. For the pathogen to survive in the infected host, surface lipoproteins of S. mutans are likely to play important roles in interactions with the innate immune system. To clarify the role that a putative lipoprotein, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase (PpiA), of S. mutans plays in the macrophage response, we investigated the response of THP-1-derived macrophages to S. mutans challenge. The deletion of the gene encoding Lgt eliminated PpiA on the cell surface of S. mutans, which implies that PpiA is a lipoprotein that is lipid anchored in the cell membrane by Lgt. Human and murine peritoneal macrophages both showed higher phagocytic activities for the ppiA and lgt mutants than the wild type, which indicates that the presence of PpiA reduces S. mutans phagocytosis. In addition, infection with S. mutans markedly induced mRNAs of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor A (SR-A) in human macrophages. In particular, transcriptional and translational levels of MARCO in human macrophages infected with the ppiA mutant were higher than those in macrophages infected with the wild type. Phagocytosis of S. mutans by human macrophages markedly decreased after treatment with anti-MARCO IgG. These results demonstrate that the S. mutans lipoprotein PpiA contributes to suppression of MARCO-mediated phagocytosis of this bacterium by macrophages. PMID:21986627

  7. Marco Polo: International Small Solar System Body Exploration Mission in 2010's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime

    Since 2000, Japanese scientists and engineers have investigated new generation primitive body missions in the post-Hayabusa era in 2010's. Receiving the Minorbody Exploration Forum Final Report, ISAS established the nation-wide Small Body Exploration Working Group (SBE-WG) in 2004. After the successful exploration of the S-type NEO Itokawa by Hayabusa in 2005, the Hayabusa-2 concept emerged for a C-type asteroid sample return by the original Hayabusa spacecraft system with minor improvements and modifications. In parallel to that effort, the SBE-WG continued to develop the post-Hayabusa mission concept as "Hayabusa Mk-II," a fully model-changed, advanced spacecraft with the sample return capability from the most primitive bodies of the solar system. It is this Hayabusa Mk-II that has became the foundation of the International small body exploration concept "Marco Polo" since 2006. Jointly proposed to the first call of the ESA Cosmic Vision by scientists from Japan, Europe, and the U.S., the Marco Polo concept was selected as one of the M-class mission candidates for the assessment study phase in the fall of 2007. In 2008, the international joint study team has been created and its mission definitions, system requirements, and target selections are currently under the study. The top-level scientific themes are to decode the solar system formation and evolution in the astrobiology and astromineralogy contexts as one of the most important scientific challenges of 2010's. These themes are sub-divided into several objectives to be achieved by both instruments carried onboard the mother spacecraft (MSC), a large lander, or small hopping rovers and returned samples. The initial mission target candicdates include comet-asteroid transition (CAT) objects, D-type asteroids and C-type binary asteroids in near-Earth orbits. In the baseline scenario, a Soyuz launcher provided by ESA will launch the JAXA-made MSC with sampling and other in-situ science instruments provided by

  8. Behavioral and physiological antipredator responses of the San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew R; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to predatory stimuli typically results in the elevation of circulating glucocorticoid levels and a behavioral response of freezing or escape behavior in many prey species. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid in amphibians and is known to be important in modulating many behaviors and developmental functions. The federally threatened San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana, decreases activity in response to both native and introduced predatory fish, however, experience may further influence these interactions. To better understand the indirect effects of fish predators on this salamander, we examined both the antipredator behavior and water-borne CORT release rates in response to chemical cues (kairomones) from two fish species that varied in temporal risk of predation: (1) a low encounter frequency predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), (2) a high encounter frequency predator (redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus), and (3) a blank water control. Salamanders reduced activity (antipredator response) after exposure to both predator treatments, but not to the blank water control, and the response to M. salmoides was significantly stronger than that to L. auritus. The CORT response (post-stimulus/pre-stimulus release rates) did not differ between the blank water control and L. auritus treatments, and both were significantly less than the CORT response to M. salmoides. Overall, E. nana showed a decreased antipredator response and no CORT response towards the high encounter frequency L. auritus as compared to the low encounter frequency M. salmoides. Eurycea nana may mute antipredator and CORT responses to high temporal frequency predators. There was, however, no correlation between CORT release rates and antipredator behavior, which suggests that the presence of predators may be affecting CORT response and behavior independently. PMID:25446225

  9. CAMAM instrument suite for MarcoPolo-R mission to an asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, Marek; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike; Meyer, Stefan; Wurz, Peter; Thomas, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    CAMAM (Composition And Morphology of Asteroid's Material) is an analytical instrument suite developed for investigation of composition and morphology of asteroidal matter for the MarcoPolo-R sample return mission from a primitive near-Earth asteroid. The instrument combines a microscope-camera system (MCS), a laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS), and a regolith particle trap (PT). PT uses a charged metallic foil to attract mm-sized or smaller regolith particles from a dust cloud that will be lifted up during the sampling phase. A translational mechanism will deliver the samples to the measurement location inside the CAMAM instrument. CAMAM will conduct measurements by complementary methodologies in a symbiotic way and will allow characterisation of regolith samples by optical investigation and mass spectrometry. MCS will identify and characterise sample components, such as chondrules, matrix, refractory inclusions, down to individual micro-metre-sized grains and particles. Surface features larger than a few µm will be characterised by multicolour imagery, imagery of fluorescence induced by UV sample irradiation, and polarisation analysis of light reflected from the surface. The microscope will yield structural details and morphology of a sample including sample shape, size and texture. Investigation of optical spectral properties of the sample surface will also provide an insight to surface mineralogy and help in identification of organic compound deposits. LMS will conduct measurements of the elemental composition of a sample down to a level of ppm, the isotopic distribution of elements, and also will investigate the molecular compounds that are located on the sample surface. CAMAM studies will allow a comprehensive investigation of the interrelationship between grains, their structure, chemical composition, mineralogy, and adsorbed molecules. We will discuss concepts underlying CAMAM instrument operation and demonstrate instrumental performance

  10. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a dynamic adhesive molecule that enhances uptake of carbon nanotubes by CHO-K1 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2012-02-15

    The toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a highly promising nanomaterial, is similar to that of asbestos because both types of particles have a fibrous shape and are biopersistent. Here, we investigated the characteristics of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a membrane receptor expressed on macrophages that recognizes environmental or unopsonized particles, and we assessed whether and how MARCO was involved in cellular uptake of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). MARCO-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells took up polystyrene beads irrespective of the particle size (20 nm–1 μm). In the culture of MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells dendritic structures were observed on the bottom of culture dishes, and the edges of these dendritic structures were continually renewed as the cell body migrated along the dendritic structures. MWCNTs were first tethered to the dendritic structures and then taken up by the cell body. MWCNTs appeared to be taken up via membrane ruffling like macropinocytosis, rather than phagocytosis. The cytotoxic EC{sub 50} value of MWCNTs in MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells was calculated to be 6.1 μg/mL and transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that the toxicity of MWCNTs may be due to the incomplete inclusion of MWCNTs by the membrane structure. -- Highlights: ►Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tethered to MARCO in vitro. ►CNTs were taken up rapidly into the cell body via MARCO by membrane ruffling. ►The incomplete inclusion of CNTs by membranes caused cytotoxicity.

  11. Origin and characteristics of discharge at San Marcos Springs based on hydrologic and geochemical data (2008–10), Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas is a productive and important water resource. Several large springs issuing from the aquifer are major discharge points, popular locations for recreational activities, and habitat for threatened and endangered species. Discharges from Comal and San Marcos Springs, the first and second largest spring complexes in Texas, are used as thresholds in groundwater management strategies for the Edwards aquifer. Comal Springs is generally understood to be supplied by predominantly regional groundwater flow paths; the hydrologic connection of San Marcos Springs with the regional flow system, however, is less understood. During November 2008–December 2010, a hydrologic and geochemical investigation of San Marcos Springs was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System. The primary objective of this study was to define and characterize sources of discharge from San Marcos Springs. During this study, hydrologic conditions transitioned from exceptional drought (the dry period, November 1, 2008 to September 8, 2009) to wetter than normal (the wet period, September 9, 2009 to December 31, 2010), which provided the opportunity to investigate the hydrogeology of San Marcos Springs under a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Water samples were collected from streams, groundwater wells, and springs at and in the vicinity of San Marcos Springs, including periodic (routine) sampling (every 3–7 weeks) and sampling in response to storms. Samples were analyzed for major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and selected stable and radiogenic isotopes (deuterium, oxygen, carbon, strontium). Additionally, selected physicochemical properties were measured continuously at several sites, and hydrologic data were compiled from other USGS efforts (stream and spring discharge). Potential aquifer recharge was evaluated from local streams, and daily recharge or gain/loss estimates were computed for several

  12. The analysis of bronze alloys from the equestrian statue of Marco Aurelio by means of a thin sample XRF technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, M.; Cesareo, R.; Marabelli, M.; Guida, G.

    1989-02-01

    The choice of the methods that can be employed in the elemental characterization of archaeological alloys strongly depends on the type, state of conservation and dimensions of the object. The present article describes the analytical approach used for the bronze equestrian statue of Marco Aurelio, for which "in loco" nondestructive analyses could not be performed. The technique is based on the XRF analysis of samples that were previously cored from the statue in small quantities (200 mg), dissolved and deposited on a support in the form of a thin layer. The article also shows some of the results concerned with the analysis of approximately 100 samples; such results were found to be in good agreement with the typical compositions of ancient bronzes.

  13. 20th-Century “medical Marco Polos” in the origins of preventive cardiology and cardiovascular disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Henry

    2012-03-01

    In mid-20th century, several streams of knowledge converged to create the new academic discipline of cardiovascular disease epidemiology and the new practice of preventive cardiology. One stream was modern cardiology, with the ability to diagnose myocardial infarction, to characterize and count its victims, and to report vital statistics on cardiovascular causes of death. Another stream came from burgeoning clinical and laboratory research and greater understanding of the underlying processes of atherosclerosis and hypertension. A third stream came from the observations of intellectually curious "medical Marco Polos," who brought back from travels their tales of unusual population frequencies of heart attacks, along with ideas about sociocultural causes. This led to more formal research about cardiovascular disease risk and causes among populations and about mechanisms in the clinic and laboratory. The broad river of investigation thus formed produced a risk paradigm of the multiple biologic, behavioral, and societal factors in causal pathways to the common cardiovascular diseases. An evidence base was built for sound clinical and public health approaches to prevention. Here, the author tells brief stories about 5 early and particularly observant world travelers and their influence on knowledge and thinking about prevention. PMID:22470931

  14. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views oncold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D

    PubMed Central

    Malagón, Filiberto

    2008-01-01

    This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  15. DNA Microarray Analysis of Submandibular Glands in IgG4-Related Disease Indicates a Role for MARCO and Other Innate Immune-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Miho; Moriyama, Masafumi; Maehara, Takashi; Gion, Yuka; Furukawa, Sachiko; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Mikami, Yurie; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka-Koga, Mana; Kawano, Shintaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel systemic disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by severe fibrosis. Although recent studies demonstrated that innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages might promote local fibrosis and IgG4 production, the pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the disease-associated genes, especially innate immune molecules. Gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray in submandibular glands (SMGs) from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 5), chronic sialoadenitis (CS) (n = 3), and controls (n = 3). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in IgG4-RD (n = 18), CS (n = 4), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), and controls (n = 10). Gene expression patterns in the 3 groups were quite different from each other by the pvclust method and principal components analysis. In IgG4-RD, 1028 upregulated genes and 692 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs (P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs in IgG4-RD encoded proteins involved in T/B cell activation and chemotaxis. PCR validated significantly higher expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a pattern-recognition receptor, in IgG4-RD compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the expression pattern of MARCO was similar to that of the M2 macrophage marker CD163. MARCO was identified as a disease-associated molecule in IgG4-RD by DNA microarray. Moreover, M2 macrophages might contribute to the initiation of IgG4-RD via MARCO. PMID:26886650

  16. DNA Microarray Analysis of Submandibular Glands in IgG4-Related Disease Indicates a Role for MARCO and Other Innate Immune-Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Miho; Moriyama, Masafumi; Maehara, Takashi; Gion, Yuka; Furukawa, Sachiko; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Mikami, Yurie; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka-Koga, Mana; Kawano, Shintaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel systemic disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by severe fibrosis. Although recent studies demonstrated that innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages might promote local fibrosis and IgG4 production, the pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the disease-associated genes, especially innate immune molecules.Gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray in submandibular glands (SMGs) from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 5), chronic sialoadenitis (CS) (n = 3), and controls (n = 3). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in IgG4-RD (n = 18), CS (n = 4), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), and controls (n = 10).Gene expression patterns in the 3 groups were quite different from each other by the pvclust method and principal components analysis. In IgG4-RD, 1028 upregulated genes and 692 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs (P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs in IgG4-RD encoded proteins involved in T/B cell activation and chemotaxis. PCR validated significantly higher expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a pattern-recognition receptor, in IgG4-RD compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the expression pattern of MARCO was similar to that of the M2 macrophage marker CD163.MARCO was identified as a disease-associated molecule in IgG4-RD by DNA microarray. Moreover, M2 macrophages might contribute to the initiation of IgG4-RD via MARCO. PMID:26886650

  17. The San Marcos Pueblo Archaeological Site: A Review and Update of Ongoing Work by the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poje, M. S. L.; Berry, K.; Brandt, T. W.; Irwin, T. C.; Creighton, A.; MacLennan, K. J.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.

    2014-12-01

    The San Marcos Pueblo, one of the largest and most important cities of the pre-European Southwest, has long been a place of curiosity for archaeologists and geophysicists alike. Despite numerous archaeological investigations, primarily test excavations and surface surveys carried out at San Marcos from the early 1900s to the present, the site retains pottery sherds scattered along the surface from when it was first occupied in the thirteenth century to its abandonment during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Geophysical investigations have identified locations of kivas (ceremonial pits), middens (trash heaps), room blocks and possible metallurgy activity in the area. The site is located south of Santa Fe, NM and to the east of the Cerrillos Hills, a source for lead ore and turquoise. The students of SAGE have studied the San Marcos Pueblo for the past 11 years, and produced a map of the northeastern portion of the Pueblo colloquially called 'El Mapa Grande.' Ground penetrating radar (GPR), magnetics, and electromagnetic (EM) data were acquired on 30mx30m grids and seismic refraction data on various profiles throughout El Mapa Grande. During the 2014 field season new GPR data were acquired on two grids, magnetics data on one, and multiple grids were resurveyed with magnetics and EM to enhance resolution. The most recent GPR data extend coverage of two large anomalies that are part of linear EW-trending structures previously identified and consistent with a possible block wall or midden. Low GPR scatter and circular magnetic lows define several kivas. A target area in the NE of El Mapa Grande was thought to be related to metallurgic activity. Analysis of previous seismic data did not resolve any subsurface features corresponding to a metallurgy operation, but detected the magnetically-chaotic Ancha formation. Comparison with magnetic profile data support the interpretation that this anomaly is caused by a sub-crop of the Ancha Formation.

  18. Recognition of hyper-extended rifted margin remnants in the internal zone of the Alpine belt: A tribute to Marco Beltrando

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Geoffroy; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Marco Beltrando was part of the young generation of Alpine geologists who challenged the interpretation of the Western Alps by combining a classical field approach and modern techniques (e.g. 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology). His work provides the foundation to re-interpret some of the classical sections through the Alpine belt and may impact the way of thinking about the nature and structure of internal parts of collisional orogens. This contribution will present the main outcomes of the work of Marco Beltrando and their implications for the understanding of Alpine type orogens. Since his PhD, Marco Beltrando focused most of his work on the study of the internal parts of the Western Alps. He investigated in great details the complex, multiphase structural and metamorphic evolution of the Penninic units in the Western Alps. He concluded that these units went through several cycles of shortening and extension during the Alpine orogeny, with major implications for the Alps but also other orogenic belts. After his PhD, he focused his research on the pre-orogenic evolution of the Alpine belt. He first worked on the Petit St. Bernard area, where he identified relics of the former hyper-extended Tethyan rifted margin. Thanks to his work and his amazing knowledge of the Western Alps, he understood the potential importance of rift-inheritance in controlling the architecture and evolution of the Alpine belt. In parallel to the study of the orogenic evolution, he developed a new methodology to recognize rift-related lithostratigraphic units in highly deformed and metamorphosed parts of the Alps. His innovative work allowed a re-assessment of several areas in the Western Alps and demonstrates the importance of rift inheritance. Recently, he started a new research project on the evolution of the Southern Alps highlighting the importance of heating and cooling cycles resulting from complex successions of rifting events. In spite of his young age, Marco Beltrando was at

  19. A new Eimeria sP. from the plumbeous Central American caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (amphibia: gymnophiona) from Volcán Tajumulco, Department of San Marcos, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, I M; Campbell, J A; Duszynski, D W

    2000-04-01

    Fresh fecal samples from 5 caecilians (Dermophis mexicanus) were collected and examined for coccidia in the summer of 1998. The caecilians were collected in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. Two of the 5 (40%) specimens of caecilians contained an Eimeria species that is described here as new. This represents the first coccidia described from a gymnophionian host. Sporulated oocysts are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 19.5 X 17.7 (16-23 x 15-21) microm, micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, and 3 (or more) polar granules are always present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.0 X 7.2 (10-12 x 6-9); a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. PMID:10780555

  20. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  1. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system: characteristics of a shallow low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Cerro Negro district, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Conrado Permuy; Guido, Diego M.; Jovic, Sebastián M.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Moncada, Daniel; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Hames, Willis

    2016-08-01

    The Cerro Negro district, within the Argentinian Deseado Massif province, has become one of the most significant recent epithermal discoveries, with estimated reserves plus resources of ˜6.7 Moz Au equivalent. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system contains about 70 % of the Au-Ag resources in the district. Mineralization consists of Upper Jurassic (155 Ma) epithermal Au- and Ag-rich veins of low to intermediate sulfidation style, hosted in and genetically related to Jurassic intermediate composition volcanic rocks (159-156 Ma). Veins have a complex infill history, represented by ten stages with clear crosscutting relationships that can be summarized in four main episodes: a low volume, metal-rich initial episode (E1), an extended banded quartz episode with minor mineralization (E2), a barren waning stage episode (E3), and a silver-rich late tectonic-hydrothermal episode (E4). The first three episodes are interpreted to have formed at the same time and probably from fluids of similar composition: a 290-230 °C fluid dominated by meteoric and volcanic waters (-3‰ to -0‰ δ18Owater), with <3 % NaCl equivalent salinity and with a magmatic source of sulfur (-1 to -2 ‰ δ34Swater). Metal was mainly precipitated at the beginning of vein formation (episode 1) due to a combination of boiling at ˜600 to 800 m below the paleowater table, and associated mixing/cooling processes, as evidenced by sulfide-rich bands showing crustiform-colloform quartz, adularia, and chlorite-smectite banding. During episodes 2 and 3, metal contents progressively decrease during continuing boiling conditions, and veins were filled by quartz and calcite during waning stages of the hydrothermal system, and the influx of bicarbonate waters (-6 to -8.5 ‰ δ18Owater). Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by proximal illite, adularia, and silica zone with chlorite and minor epidote, intermediate interlayered illite-smectite and a distal chlorite halo. This assemblage is in agreement with

  2. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system: characteristics of a shallow low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Cerro Negro district, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Conrado Permuy; Guido, Diego M.; Jovic, Sebastián M.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Moncada, Daniel; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Hames, Willis

    2016-01-01

    The Cerro Negro district, within the Argentinian Deseado Massif province, has become one of the most significant recent epithermal discoveries, with estimated reserves plus resources of ˜6.7 Moz Au equivalent. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system contains about 70 % of the Au-Ag resources in the district. Mineralization consists of Upper Jurassic (155 Ma) epithermal Au- and Ag-rich veins of low to intermediate sulfidation style, hosted in and genetically related to Jurassic intermediate composition volcanic rocks (159-156 Ma). Veins have a complex infill history, represented by ten stages with clear crosscutting relationships that can be summarized in four main episodes: a low volume, metal-rich initial episode (E1), an extended banded quartz episode with minor mineralization (E2), a barren waning stage episode (E3), and a silver-rich late tectonic-hydrothermal episode (E4). The first three episodes are interpreted to have formed at the same time and probably from fluids of similar composition: a 290-230 °C fluid dominated by meteoric and volcanic waters (-3‰ to -0‰ δ18Owater), with <3 % NaCl equivalent salinity and with a magmatic source of sulfur (-1 to -2 ‰ δ34Swater). Metal was mainly precipitated at the beginning of vein formation (episode 1) due to a combination of boiling at ˜600 to 800 m below the paleowater table, and associated mixing/cooling processes, as evidenced by sulfide-rich bands showing crustiform-colloform quartz, adularia, and chlorite-smectite banding. During episodes 2 and 3, metal contents progressively decrease during continuing boiling conditions, and veins were filled by quartz and calcite during waning stages of the hydrothermal system, and the influx of bicarbonate waters (-6 to -8.5 ‰ δ18Owater). Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by proximal illite, adularia, and silica zone with chlorite and minor epidote, intermediate interlayered illite-smectite and a distal chlorite halo. This assemblage is in agreement with

  3. Deployment of a lander on the binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, potential target of the european MarcoPolo-R sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardivel, Simon; Michel, Patrick; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    The idea of deploying a lander on the secondary body of the binary primitive asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is investigated. 1996 FG3 is the backup target of the European sample return space mission MarcoPolo-R under assessment study at the European Space Agency in the framework of the M3 Medium-Class mission competition. The launch will take place in 2022-2024, depending on its selection at the end of 2013. A lander is indicated as an optional payload, depending on mass availability on the spacecraft. Obviously, the possible complexity of a lander deployment is also an important parameter to take into account. Here we demonstrate that, considering worst case scenarios and low requirements on the spacecraft GNC and deployment mechanism, the operations are easy to implement and safe for the main spacecraft. The concept of operations is to deploy a light lander from the L2 Lagrange point of the binary system, on a ballistic trajectory that will impact the secondary asteroid. The fundamental principles of this strategy are briefly presented and a detailed model of 1996 FG3 is considered, to which the strategy is applied. We show that the deployment is successful in 99.94% of cases.

  4. The supplemental instruction program: Student perceptions of the learning environment and impact on student academic achievement in college science at California State University, San Marcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizer, Suzanne Elizabeth

    Higher education in science has been criticized and calls to increase student learning and persistence to degree has been recognized as a national problem by the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, and the National Academy of Sciences. One mode of academic assistance that may directly address this issue is the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in science courses. SI is a specific model of academic assistance designed to help students in historically difficult science classes master course content, thus increasing their academic achievement and retention. This study assessed the SI program at California State University, San Marcos, in supported science courses. Specifically, academic achievement based on final course grades were compared between SI participating and nonparticipating students, multiple affective factors were measured at the beginning and end of the semester, and students' perceptions of the classroom and SI session learning environments recorded. Overall, students who attended five or more SI sessions achieved higher final course grades. Students who chose to participate in SI had higher initial levels of responsibility and anxiety. Additionally, SI participants experienced a reduction in anxiety over the semester whereas nonparticipants experienced an increase in anxiety from beginning to the end of the semester. The learning environment of SI embodies higher levels of constructivist principles of active learning such as cooperation, cohesiveness, innovation, and personalization---with one exception for the physics course, which is a based on problem-based learning. Structural equation modeling of variables indicates that high self-efficacy at the end of the semester is directly related to high final course grades; this is mediated by cohesion in the classroom and the cooperation evidenced in SI sessions. These findings are elaborated by student descriptions of what happened in SI

  5. Diagenetic resetting of Sm-Nd isotope systematics in Wilcox Group sandstones and shales, San Marcos Arch, south-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Awwiller, D.N.; Mack, L.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Preliminary Sm-Nd analyses of sandstones and shales from the Wilcox Group (upper Paleocene-lower Eocene) suggest that the whole-rock Sm-Nd signature is changed by diagenesis. Samples are obtained from the San Marcos arch, south-central Texas, at depths ranging from outcrop to 15,000 ft. Samples from above the depth of intense illitization and feldspar reactions (about 10,000 ft) have whole-rock Nd model ages of about 1,500-1,400 Ma, whereas samples buried deeper than 13,000 ft have Nd model ages of about 1,700-1,500 Ma. The similar depositional age of all samples makes change in provenance an unlikely cause of the variation. Diagenetic modification is the only reasonable explanation for the observed differences. Sm and Nd reservoirs within the shale change considerably with progressive diagenesis. Outcrop samples contain subequal concentrations of Sm and Nd in the acid-soluble and silicate fractions. The acid-soluble reservoir in deeper samples contains progressively less Sm and Nd and higher Sm/Nd ratios. In all samples, the acid-soluble Nd is more radiogenic than the Nd in the corresponding silicate fraction; the difference between the two reservoirs increases with depth. Preferential loss of Nd relative to Sm in the silicate reservoir during diagenetic crystallization of illite and albite is the most likely explanation for the observed trend in Nd model age. These data imply that the earlier assumption that no fractionation takes place in the Sm-Nd system during diagenesis is incorrect.

  6. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  7. Concentrations of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane in women exposed to woodsmoke in a cookstove intervention study in San Marcos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Commodore, Adwoa A; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Chang, Yan; Hartinger, Stella M; Lanata, Claudio F; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Gil, Ana I; Hall, Daniel B; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Vena, John E; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Naeher, Luke P

    2013-10-01

    Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. The effect of woodsmoke exposure on oxidative stress was examined by investigating the association between woodsmoke exposure and biomarkers of DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane) among control and intervention stove users. HAP exposure assessment was conducted within the framework of a community-randomized controlled trial of 51 communities in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. The first morning urine voids after 48h HAP exposure assessment from a subset of 45 control and 39 intervention stove users were analyzed for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane. General linear models and correlation analyses were performed. Urinary oxidative stress biomarkers ranged from 11.2 to 2270.0μg/g creatinine (median: 132.6μg/g creatinine) for 8-OHdG and from 0.1 to 4.5μg/g creatinine (median: 0.8μg/g creatinine) for 8-isoprostane among all study subjects (n=84). After controlling for the effects of traffic in the community and eating food exposed to fire among all subjects, cooking time was weakly, but positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG (r=0.29, p=0.01, n=80). Subjects' real-time personal CO exposures were negatively associated with 8-OHdG, particularly the maximum 30-second CO exposure during the sampling period (r=-0.32, p=0.001, n=73). 48h time integrated personal PM2.5 was negatively, but marginally associated with urinary 8-isoprostane (r=-0.21, p=0.09, n=69) after controlling for the effect of distance of homes to the road. Urinary 8-isoprostane levels reported in the available literature are comparable to results found in the current study. However there were relatively high levels of urinary 8-OHdG compared to data in the available literature for 8-OHdG excretion. Results suggest a sustained systemic oxidative stress among these Peruvian women chronically

  8. Concentrations of Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane in Women Exposed to Woodsmoke in a Cookstove Intervention Study in San Marcos, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Commodore, Adwoa A.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chang, Yan; Hartinger, Stella M.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Gil, Ana I.; Hall, Daniel B.; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Vena, John E.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Naeher, Luke P.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half of the world’s population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. The effect of woodsmoke exposure on oxidative stress was examined by investigating the association between woodsmoke exposure and biomarkers of DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane) among control and intervention stove users. HAP exposure assessment was conducted within the framework of a community-randomized controlled trial of 51 communities in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. The first morning urine voids after 48hr HAP exposure assessment from a subset of 45 control and 39 intervention stove users were analyzed for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane. General linear models and correlation analyses were performed. Urinary oxidative stress biomarkers ranged from 11.2 to 2270.0 μg/g creatinine (median: 132.6 μg/g creatinine) for 8-OHdG and from 0.1 to 4.5 μg/g creatinine (median: 0.8 μg/g creatinine) for 8-isoprostane among all study subjects (n=84). After controlling for the effects of traffic in the community and eating food exposed to fire among all subjects, cooking time was weakly, but positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG (r=0.29, p=0.01, n=80). Subjects’ real-time personal CO exposures were negatively associated with 8-OHdG, particularly the maximum 30-second CO exposure during the sampling period (r=−0.32, p=0.001, n=73). 48hr time integrated personal PM2.5 was negatively, but marginally associated with urinary 8-isoprostane (r=−0.21, p=0.09, n=69) after controlling for the effect of distance of homes to the road. Urinary 8-isoprostane levels reported in the available literature are comparable to results found in the current study. However there were relatively high levels of urinary 8-OHdG compared to data in the available literature for 8-OHdG excretion. Results suggest a sustained systemic oxidative stress among these Peruvian women

  9. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns derived from ground-based MAX-DOAS system in Guangzhou, China and comparison with satellite observations: First results within the EU FP7 project MarcoPolo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosoglou, Theano; Kouremeti, Natalia; Bais, Alkis; Zyrichidou, Irene; Li, Shu; Balis, Dimitris; Huang, Zhonghui

    2016-04-01

    A miniature MAX-DOAS system, Phaethon, has been developed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, for ground-based monitoring of column densities of atmospheric gases. Simultaneous measurements with two Phaethon systems at the city centre of Thessaloniki and at a rural location about 30 km away have shown that Phaethon provides NO2 and HCHO tropospheric column measurements of acceptable accuracy under both low and high air-pollution levels. Currently three systems have been deployed in areas with different pollution patterns to support air quality and satellite validation studies. In the framework of the EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo project, one of the Phaethon systems has been installed since April 2015 in the Guangzhou region in China. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns derived at Guangzhou during the first 10 months of operation are compared with corresponding retrievals from OMI/Aura and GOME-2/Metop-A and /Metop-B satellite sensors. The area is characterized by humid subtropical monsoon climate and cloud-free conditions are rather rare from early March to mid-October. Despite this limitation and the short period of operation of Phaethon in Guangzhou, the agreement between ground-based and satellite observations is generally good for both NO2 and HCHO. It appears that GOME-2 sensors seem to underestimate the tropospheric NO2, possibly due to their large pixel size, whereas the comparison with OMI data is better, especially when a small cloud fraction (< 0.2) is used for cloud screening.

  10. Seminario Tecnico Regional Sobre Alternativas de Educacion Basica de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, 29 de Septiembre al 3 de Octubre, 1986). Documento Final. (Regional Seminar on Alternatives for Basic Adult Education in the REDALF Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, September 29-October 3, 1986). Final Document.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The final report of a conference concerning adult basic education de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del related to innovative projects in adult education in nine countries. A wide spectrum of issues related to adult basic education, curriculum, methodology, evaluation, and research are analyzed in the context of educational planning. Among the…

  11. Shading and shadowing on Canaletto's Piazza San Marco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijntjes, Maarten W. A.; de Ridder, Huib

    2014-02-01

    Whereas the 17th century painter Canaletto was a master in linear perspective of the architectural elements, he seems to have had considerable difficulty with linear perspective of shadows. A common trick to avoid shadow perspective problems is to set the (solar) illumination direction parallel to the projection screen. We investigated in one painting where Canaletto clearly used this trick, whether he followed this light direction choice consistently through in how he shades the persons. We approached this question with a perceptual experiment where we measured perceived light directions in isolated details of the paintings. Specifically, we controlled whether observers could only see the (cast) shadow, only shading or both. We found different trends in all three conditions. The results indicate that Canaletto probably used different shading than the parallel light direction would predict. We interpret the results as a form or artistic freedom that Canaletto used to shade the persons individually.

  12. Latino Hillbilly: An Interview with Marcos McPeek Villatoro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minick, Jim; McPeek Villatoro, Marcos

    2001-01-01

    Novelist and faculty member McPeek Villatoro, son of a Salvadoran mother and an Appalachian father, discusses his childhood in Tennessee and San Francisco, racism encountered for being Latino or Appalachian, embracing his Latino roots, similarities between Appalachian and rural Central American cultures, the importance of teachers raising…

  13. [Leprosy: stigma and prejudice lived by institucionalized patients in Santa Catarina State, Brazil (1940-1960)].

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Miriam Süssking; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Costa, Eliani; Gregório, Vitória Regina Petters; Koerich, Ana Maria Espíndola; Ribas, Dorotéa Löes

    2008-01-01

    This study is a qualitative research with a socio-historic approach whose objective was to know the prejudice and stigma lived by the institutionalized patients/residents with hanseniase. To achieve this goal, three patients were intervewed who lived in a colony hospital during the research period, utilizing the oral history method. Data were collected and were further analysed, utilizing the stigma referencial. The results indicated that after the entry in the institution, these patients got their family bonds broken, lost their rights as citizens, regarding the situation, they took upon a new life, in a new environment. Concluding that, the nosocomial isolation for a long period of time (years of confinement and dismissal), caused the symbolic death of many patients that lived with the hope to cohabit with family and/or society. PMID:19009112

  14. 78 FR 48293 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Airport (78 FR 33263) Docket No. FAA-2013-0273. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: KB Homes, San Marcos, California

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Designed to produce as much energy as it uses, the ZeroHouse incorporates a PV system, R-15 fiberglass batts in walls, and slab-on-grade foundation. The builder ranked fifth in the nation on Builder Magazine’s 2012 Top 100 ranking of U.S. home builders based on number of housing starts, and won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Open clusters in Auriga OB2 (Marco+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, A.; Negueruela, I.

    2016-05-01

    We present tables with coordinates in J2000, near IR photometry and Stromgren photometry for stars in the open cluster Stock 8 and in the two new open clusters: Alicante 11 and Alicante 12 (7 data files).

  17. A passively controlled appendage deployment system for the San Marco D/L spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, W. E.; Frisch, H. P.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical simulation of deployment dynamics of these two axis concepts as well as the evolution of practical designs for the add on deployable inertia boom units is described. With the boom free to swing back in response to Coriolis forces as well as outwards in response to centrifugal forces, the kinematics of motion are complex but admit the possibility of absorbing deployment energy in frictional or other damping devices about the radial axis, where large amplitude motions can occur and where the design envelope allows more available volume. An acceptable range is defined for frictional damping for any given spin rate. Inadequate damping allows boom motions which strike the spacecraft; excessive damping causes the boom to swing out and latch with damaging violence. The acceptable range is a design parameter and must accommodate spin rate tolerance and also the tolerance and repeatability of the damping mechanisms.

  18. Marco Said I Look like Charcoal: A Puerto Rican's Exploration of Her Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Yarma Velazquez

    2008-01-01

    When race is so self-evident that it becomes "unspoken," it becomes a text that can be arbitrarily read or not read at all. When race is thought of as shades or textures of color that paint the already loaded canvas of our ethnicities, it is the reader who has the power of interpretation, opening the possibility for multiple readings that will…

  19. La Capacitacion de Docentes en el Marco de la Regionalizacion Educativa (In-Service Teacher Training within Educational Regional Planning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    A paper discusses inservice teacher training in the context of regionalized education, with reference to recent Latin American efforts to regionalize, decentralize, and de-concentrate educational systems in order to provide relavant and adequate regional educational systems and so make equal education possible. Basic concepts in regionalized…

  20. Pathfinder Lander Rover Recharge System, and MARCO POLO Controls and ACME Regolith Feed System Controls and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Sarah Diem

    2015-01-01

    This project stems from the Exploration, Research, and Technology Directorate (UB) Projects Division, and one of their main initiatives is the "Journey to Mars". Landing on the surface of Mars which is millions of miles away is an incredibly large challenge. The terrain is covered in boulders, deep canyons, volcanic mountains, and spotted with sand dunes. The robotic lander is a kind of spacecraft with multiple purposes. One purpose is to be the protective shell for the Martian rover and absorb the impact from the landing forces; another purpose is to be a place where the rovers can come back to, actively communicate with, and recharge their batteries from. Rovers have been instrumental to the Journey to Mars initiative. They have been performing key research on the terrain of the red planet, trying to unlock the mysteries of the land for over a decade. The rovers that will need charging will not all have the same kind of internal battery either. RASSOR batteries may differ from the PbAC batteries inside Red Rover's chassis. NASA has invested heavily in the exploration of the surface of Mars. A driving force behind further exploration is the need for a more efficient operation of Martian rovers. One way is to reduce the weight as much as possible to reduce power consumption given the same mission parameters. In order to reduce the mass of the rovers, power generation, communication, and sample analysis systems currently onboard Martian rovers can be moved to a stationary lander deck. Positioning these systems from the rover to the Lander deck allows a taskforce of smaller, lighter rovers to perform the same tasks currently performed by or planned for larger rovers. A major task in transferring these systems to a stationary lander deck is ensuring that power can be transferred to the rovers.

  1. Contextualizacion y "Expresiones Pragmaticas": "Che" como Senal de Marco (Contextualization and "Pragmatic Expressions": "Che" as Deictic Marker).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, Isolda

    The pragmatic expressions of Argentine Spanish (e.g., "bueno, viste, no? mira") are defined as deictic signals. They are deictic because they indicate elements of the communicative situation: transitions between text segments, conversational roles, or the social relationship between participants. They also signal contextual suppositions and help…

  2. Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    Comprised of 27 classrooms from grade levels 1-6, the program was primarily designed to provide bilingual education for pupils with limited English speaking ability. However, due to parental requests, almost 16% monolingual English-speakers were accepted into the program. Of the 717 pupils participating in the program 84.6% were Mexican American.…

  3. Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1974-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    The program is primarily designed to provide bilingual education for pupils, in grades K-6, with limited English-speaking ability. Due to parental requests, approximately 16 percent monolingual English-speakers have been accepted into the program. Of the 529 children enrolled in the program, 89 percent have Spanish surnames. Objectives for the…

  4. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) AS A POTENTIAL INDICATOR OF MARINE MARCO BENTHIC ACTIVITY ALONG POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a local hospital CAT scanner. These image data were transferred to a personal computer at our laboratory using specially developed software. Previously, we reported an inverse correlation (r2 = 0.98, P<0.01) between the average sediment x-ray atte...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry of VdBH 222 stars and field stars (Marco+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, A.; Negueruela, I.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Dorda, R.; Clark, J. S.

    2014-05-01

    We obtained UBVR photometry of VdBH 222 using the ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (EFOSC2) on the NTT on the night of 24 June 2012. The instrument was equipped with CCD#40, which is a Loral/Lesser, thinned, AR-coated, UV-flooded, and MPP chip that is controlled by ESO-FIERA. It covers a field of view of and 4.1'x4.1' and has a pixel scale of 0.12". The JHK images were obtained using the Son OF Isaac (SOFI) near-IR spectrograph and camera on the NTT on 13 July 2008, equipped with a CCD providing a pixel scale of 0.288arcsec and an field of view of 4.92x4.95' (4 data files).

  6. LOS COLEGIOS REGIONALES, OPORTUNIDADES DE ESTUDIO EN INSTITUCIONES DE NIVEL UNIVERSITARIO. (THE REGIONAL COLLEGES, OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDY IN UNIVERSITY LEVEL INSTITUTIONS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BETANCOURT, ETHEL RIOS DE; AND OTHERS

    RECENT LEGISLATION IN PUERTO RICO HAS VALIDATED THE 2-YEAR REGIONAL COLLEGE CONCEPT, AND THE CHARACTER OF THE PROGRAM COMBINING LIBERAL ARTS TRANSFER CURRICULUMS AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION HAS BEEN SET. TO IMPLEMENT THE PLANNING PHASES, THIS STUDY PREDICTS STUDENT ENROLLMENT BY REGION. TWO INDEXES ARE USED TO ESTIMATE STUDENT DEMAND--COLLEGE…

  7. La region en los procesos de planificacion Latinos Americanos. Estructura institucional y bases juridicas. (The Region in the Planning Processes in Latin America: Institutional Structures and Juridical Basis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basaldua, Raul Oscar; Moreno, Oscar Alberto

    1971-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger research project on the decisional structure of regionalized countries, which the authors are conducting at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella with the Arq. Jorge Hardoy. (Editor)

  8. Deep structure of the Texas Gulf passive margin and its Ouachita-Precambrian basement: Results of the COCORP San Marcos arch survey

    SciTech Connect

    Culotta, R.; Latham, T.; Oliver, J.; Brown, L.; Kaufman, S. ); Sydow, M. )

    1992-02-01

    This COCORP deep seismic survey provides a comprehensive image of the southeast-Texas part of the Gulf passive margin and its accreted Ouachita arc foundation. Beneath the updip limit of the Cenozoic sediment wedge, a prominent antiformal structure is imaged within the interior zone of the buried late Paleozoic Ouachita orogen. The structure appears to involve Precambrian Grenville basement. The crest of the antiform is coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary Luling-Mexia-Talco fault zone. Some of these faults dip to the northwest, counter to the general regional pattern of down-to-the-basin faulting, and appear to sole into the top of the antiform, suggesting that the Ouachita structure has been reactivated as a hingeline to the subsiding passive margin. The antiform may be tied via this fault system and the Ouachita gravity gradient to the similar Devils River, Waco, and Benton uplifts, interpreted as Precambrian basement-cored massifs. Above the Paleozoic sequence, a possible rift-related graben is imaged near the updip limit of Jurassic salt. Paleoshelf edges of the major Tertiary depositional sequences are marked by expanded sections disrupted by growth faults and shale diapirs. Within the Wilcox Formation, the transect crosses the mouth of the 900-m-deep Yoakum Canyon, a principal pathway of sediment delivery from the Laramide belt to the Gulf. Beneath the Wilcox, the Comanchean (Lower Cretaceous) shelf edge, capped by the Stuart City reef, is imaged as a pronounced topographic break onlapped by several moundy sediment packages. Because this segment of the line parallels strike, the topographic break may be interpreted as a 2,000-m-deep embayment in the Cretaceous shelf-edge, and possibly a major submarine canyon older and deeper than the Yoakum Canyon.

  9. Armónicos vectoriales: Un método potente para el análisis de marcos de referencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, R. G.; Arias, E. F.

    The main interest of the comparison of reference frames is to evidence systematic effects after eliminating the relative orientation between them. In some cases, particularly when the number of objects is short, we model the systematic effects by an algorithm and evaluate the parameters by a least squares adjustment. This method was adopted to compare extragalactic reference frames, the most dense containing about 600 objects. We are implementing the decomposition in vectorial harmonics to analyse the vector field of the position difference of sources common to two frames. This method has been used in other fields of research, but only sparsely in astrometry (Mignard and Morando, 1990).

  10. Beyond synergies. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew B.

    2016-07-01

    The target paper by Santello et al. [1] uses the observation that hand shape during grasping can be described by a small set of basic postures, or "synergies," to describe the possible neural basis of motor control during this complex behavior. In the literature, the term "synergy" has been used with a number of different meanings and is still loosely defined, making it difficult to derive concrete analogs of corresponding neural structure. Here, I will define "synergy" broadly, as a set of parameters bound together by a pattern of correlation. With this definition, it can be argued that behavioral synergies are just one facet of the correlational structuring used by the brain to generate behavior. As pointed out in the target article, the structure found in synergies is driven by the physical constraints of our bodies and our surroundings, combined with the behavioral control imparted by our nervous system. This control itself is based on correlational structure which is likely to be a fundamental property of brain function.

  11. 1989 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 26th, Marco Island, FL, July 25-29, 1989, Proceedings. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Agustin, Jr. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on nuclear science are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanics of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, hardness assurance and testing techniques, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena, device radiation effects and hardening, radiation effects on isolation technologies, IC radiation effects and hardening, and single-event phenomena.

  12. Beyond the Reference Desk: A Study on the Effectiveness of Low-Cost Distance Library Services at California State University San Marcos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivas, Antonia P.; Chan, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Many of our reference interactions are face-to-face at a desk or in our offices. Unfortunately, not all of our students are on campus. Whether a non-traditional student or a traditional undergraduate, more of our patrons are attending online classes or attending satellite campuses with no librarians on site. It's difficult to reach these…

  13. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Las Oportunidades en las Instituciones Independendientes de Nivel Universitario en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los Programas de Oportunidades Educativas Universitarias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Higher Education Opportunity Programs.

    A guide to the opportunities at private colleges and universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) is presented. The HEOP is designed to meet the special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds through screening, testing, counseling, tutoring, teaching, and financial assistance. Generally, students…

  14. Archive of post-Hurricane Charley coastal oblique aerial photographs collected during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 04CCH01 from Marco Island to Fort DeSoto, Florida, August 15, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Subino, Janice A.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Miller, Gregory K.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Forde, Arnell S.

    2012-01-01

    To view the survey maps and navigation files, and for more information about these items, see the Navigation page. Figure 1 displays the acquisition geometry. The tables provide detailed information about the assigned location, name, data, and time the photograph was taken along with links to the photo and corresponding 5-min contact sheet. Refer to table 1 and table 2 for details of the northern and southern county photographs, respectively.

  15. Learning in robotic manipulation: The role of dimensionality reduction in policy search methods. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficuciello, Fanny; Siciliano, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    A question that often arises, among researchers working on artificial hands and robotic manipulation, concerns the real meaning of synergies. Namely, are they a realistic representation of the central nervous system control of manipulation activities at different levels and of the sensory-motor manipulation apparatus of the human being, or do they constitute just a theoretical framework exploiting analytical methods to simplify the representation of grasping and manipulation activities? Apparently, this is not a simple question to answer and, in this regard, many minds from the field of neuroscience and robotics are addressing the issue [1]. The interest of robotics is definitely oriented towards the adoption of synergies to tackle the control problem of devices with high number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) which are required to achieve motor and learning skills comparable to those of humans. The synergy concept is useful for innovative underactuated design of anthropomorphic hands [2], while the resulting dimensionality reduction simplifies the control of biomedical devices such as myoelectric hand prostheses [3]. Synergies might also be useful in conjunction with the learning process [4]. This aspect is less explored since few works on synergy-based learning have been realized in robotics. In learning new tasks through trial-and-error, physical interaction is important. On the other hand, advanced mechanical designs such as tendon-driven actuation, underactuated compliant mechanisms and hyper-redundant/continuum robots might exhibit enhanced capabilities of adapting to changing environments and learning from exploration. In particular, high DoFs and compliance increase the complexity of modelling and control of these devices. An analytical approach to manipulation planning requires a precise model of the object, an accurate description of the task, and an evaluation of the object affordance, which all make the process rather time consuming. The integration of learning into control naturally leads to relaxing the above requirements through the adoption of coordinated motion patterns and sensory-motor synergies as useful tools leading to a problem of reduced dimension. To this purpose, model-based control strategies relying on synergistic models of manipulation activities learned from human experience can be integrated with real-time learning from actions strategies [5]. In [6] a classification of learning strategies for robotics is provided, while the difference between imitation learning and reinforcement learning (RL) is highlighted in [7]. From recent research in the field [8,9], it seems that RL represents the future toward autonomous and intelligent robots since it provides learning capabilities as those of humans, i.e. based on exploration and trial-and-error policies. In this context, suitable policy search methods to be implemented in a synergy-based framework are to be sought in order to reduce the search space dimension while guaranteeing the convergence and efficiency of the learning algorithm.

  16. Integration of robotics and neuroscience beyond the hand: What kind of synergies?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Santello et al. [1] review an impressive amount of work on the control of biological and artificial hands that demonstrates how the concept of synergies can lead to a successful integration of robotics and neuroscience. Is it possible to generalize the same approach to the control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies beyond the hand? The human hand synergies that appear most relevant for robotic hands are those defined at the kinematic level, i.e. postural synergies [2]. Postural synergies capture the geometric relations among the many joints of the hand and allow for a low dimensional characterization and synthesis of the static hand postures involved in grasping and manipulating a large set of objects. However, many other complex motor skills such as walking, reaching, throwing, and catching require controlling multi-articular time-varying trajectories rather than static postures. Dynamic control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies, especially when geometric and inertial parameters are uncertain and the joints are compliant, poses great challenges. What kind of synergies might simplify the dynamic control of motor skills involving upper and lower limbs as well as the whole body?

  17. Working hard to make a simple definition of synergies. Comment on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandro, Cristiano; Oliveira Barroso, Filipe; Tresch, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The paper "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" [1] presents a comprehensive review of the work carried out as part of the EU funded project "The Hand Embodied". The work uses the concept of "synergy" to study the neuromuscular control of the human hand and to design novel robotics systems. The project has been very productive and has made important contributions. We are therefore confident that it will lead to further advancements and experiments in the future.

  18. Are we ready to move beyond the reductionist approach of classical synergy control?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Zago, Myrka

    2016-07-01

    Starting from the classical concepts introduced by Sherrington [1] and considerably elaborated by Bernstein [2], much has been learned about motor synergies in the last several years. The contributions of the group funded by the European project "The Hand Embodied" are remarkable in the field of biological and robotic control of the hand based on synergies, and they are reflected in this enjoyable review [3]. There, Santello et al. adopt Bernstein's definition of motor synergies as multiple elements working together towards a common goal, with the result that multiple degrees of freedom are controlled within a lower-dimensional space than the available number of dimensions.

  19. List of Participating Institutions: Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-operation and Peace = Liste des establissements participants: Systeme des ecoles associees appliquant un programme d'education pour la cooperation internationale et la paix = Lista de Instituciones Participantes: Plan de Escuelas Asociadas en la Educacion para la Cooperacion Internacional y la Paz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A list of participating institutions at the Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-Operation and Peace, December 31, 1985 is presented. A total of 1,970 institutions in 94 countries participated, including 47 nursery schools, 556 primary schools, 1,123 secondary schools, and 248 teacher training institutions. Addresses of…

  20. Manual for ERLE (Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment). Instructions and information for institutions of higher learning concerning used energy-related laboratory equipment grants; Manual para ERLE [Equipo de Laboratorio Relacionado con la Energia]. Instrucciones e informacion para instituciones de educacion superior sobre subvenciones de equipo de laboratorio usado relacionado con la energia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  1. Lo que Piensan los Estudiantes y Profesores Sobre la Calidad de la Educacion Superior. Estudio Comparativo en 5 Instituciones de Educacion Superior--dos publicas y tres privadas--en Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (What Students and Faculties Think about the Quality of Higher Education. Comparative Study of 5 Higher Education Institutions--Two Public and Three Private--in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Maria Lorena Hernandez

    This study, written in Spanish, compared attitudes of students (N=302) and faculty (N=28) at five institutions of higher education (two public and three private) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The study explored first, whether respondents believed there are significant quality differences between private and public universities and, second, what…

  2. Un Marco Abierto: Un Manual de Matematicas y Ciencas Utilizando Inteligencias Multiples Disenado para Estudiantes Bilingues de Educacion General y Especial (An Open Framework: A Math and Science Manual Utilizing Multiple Intelligences Designed for Bilingual Students in General and Special Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    This manual incorporates a Multiple Intelligences perspective into its presentation of themes and lesson ideas for Spanish-English bilingual elementary school students in grades 4-8 and is designed for both gifted and special education uses. Each unit includes practice activities, semantic maps to illustrate and help organize ideas as well as…

  3. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  4. Comment on «Tidal notches in the Mediterranean Sea: A comprehensive analysis» by Fabrizio Antonioli, Valeria Lo Presti, Alessio Rovere, Luigi Ferranti, Marco Anzidei, Stefano Furlani, Giuseppe Mastronuzzi, Paolo E. Orru, Giovanni Scicchitano, Gianmaria Sannino, Cecilia R. Spampinato, Rossella Pagliarulo, Giacomo Deiana, Eleonora de Sabata, Paolo Sansò, Matteo Vacchi and Antonio Vecchio. Quaternary Science Reviews 119 (2015) 66-84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evelpidou, Niki; Pirazzoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The paper of Antonioli et al. (2015) presents observations of 73 sites with erosion notches, which are called tidal notches, which in fact appear to be of various genetic origins, because a combination of several physical chemical and biological processes of formation is considered including, in addition to intertidal bioerosion, also carbonate rock solution, wetting and drying and wave abrasion that would produce different types of notches. Among the erosion notches, some «roof notches», in which the notch lacks a floor, are distinguished. For these isolated roofs, we would tend to ascribe erosion to dissolution by a freshwater spring undercutting a limestone cliff at sea level. Accompanying a rise in sea level, dissolution by freshwater will tend to continuously displace the roof of the notch upwards, while the base of the notch, dissolved, will tend to be missing. For such isolated roof of a solution notch, protruding above the waterline, the term «visor» has been proposed by Evelpidou et al. (2011).

  5. Alternative activation of macrophages and pulmonary fibrosis are modulated by scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Shubha; Larson-Casey, Jennifer L; Ryan, Alan J; He, Chao; Kobzik, Lester; Carter, A Brent

    2015-08-01

    Alternative activation of alveolar macrophages is linked to fibrosis following exposure to asbestos. The scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), provides innate immune defense against inhaled particles and pathogens; however, a receptor for asbestos has not been identified. We hypothesized that MARCO acts as an initial signaling receptor for asbestos, polarizes macrophages to a profibrotic M2 phenotype, and is required for the development of asbestos-induced fibrosis. Compared with normal subjects, alveolar macrophages isolated from patients with asbestosis express higher amounts of MARCO and have greater profibrotic polarization. Arginase 1 (40-fold) and IL-10 (265-fold) were higher in patients. In vivo, the genetic deletion of MARCO attenuated the profibrotic environment and pulmonary fibrosis in mice exposed to chrysotile. Moreover, alveolar macrophages from MARCO(-/-) mice polarize to an M1 phenotype, whereas wild-type mice have higher Ym1 (>3.0-fold) and nearly 7-fold more active TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF). Arg(432) and Arg(434) in domain V of MARCO are required for the polarization of macrophages to a profibrotic phenotype as mutation of these residues reduced FIZZ1 expression (17-fold) compared with cells expressing MARCO. These observations demonstrate that a macrophage membrane protein regulates the fibrotic response to lung injury and suggest a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25953850

  6. Achieving Conservation Science that Bridges the Knowledge–Action Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    both advances scientific understanding and contributes to decision making. Logrando que la Ciencia de la Conservación Trasponga la Frontera Conocimiento-Acción Resumen Hay muchas barreras para utilizar ciencia para informar a la política y práctica de la conservación. Los científicos de la conservación que desean producir ciencia relevante para el manejo deben equilibrar esta meta con el imperativo de demostrar novedad y rigor en su ciencia. Los tomadores de decisiones que buscan que sus decisiones se basen en evidencias deben equilibrar el deseo de conocimientos con la necesidad de actuar a pesar de la incertidumbre. La generación de ciencia que informe efectivamente a las decisiones de manejo requiere que la producción de información (los componentes del conocimiento) sea sobresaliente (relevante y oportuna), creíble (autoritativa, verosímil y confiable) y legítima (desarrollada mediante un proceso que considera los valores y perspectivas de todos los actores relevantes) a la vista tanto de investigadores como de tomadores de decisiones. Percibimos tres retos clave para quienes desean generar ciencia de la conservación que logre estas tres características de la información. Primero, las audiencias científicas y de manejo pueden tener percepciones contrastantes sobre la relevancia de la investigación. Segundo, la credibilidad se puede lograr a costa de la relevancia y legitimidad a la vista de los tomadores de decisiones y tercero, los diferentes actores pueden tener percepciones conflictivas sobre los que constituye información legítima. Resaltamos cuatro marcos institucionales que pueden facilitar que la ciencia informe al manejo: organizaciones de frontera (organizaciones ambientales que trasponen la frontera entre la ciencia y el manejo), investigadores científicos insertados en agencias de manejo de recursos, vínculos formales entre tomadores de decisiones y científicos en instituciones enfocadas a la investigación, y programas de

  7. AAHM 2012: Systems Engineer Leading the Way

    NASA Video Gallery

    Marco Midon, who is visually impaired, is highlighted for NASA's Black History Month. He is the Lead Systems Engineer who oversees the design and implementation of NASA ground stations in the area ...

  8. Stress Studies at Kennedy Space Center: a Backward and Forward Look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. I.

    1971-01-01

    Possible relationships between occupational and other stresses on ischemic heart disease are explored. Three procedures were used: (1) double master 2-step test, (2) dynamic ECG technique using avionics equipment, and (3) submaximal stress testing with Marco bicycle ergometer.

  9. Abortion in Latin America is a matter of desperation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D

    1990-01-01

    For North Americans, the abortion debate is one of rights: the fetus' right to be born versus the mother's right to control her body. But for Latin American women, debating rights is a luxury that has little to do with the brutal reality of becoming pregnant and knowing it will be impossible to feed yet another child, says Sylvia Marcos. A Mexican psychotherapist who has taught at Harvard University, Marcos works with women in squatters' camps throughout Mexico. "If you want to end abortion in Latin America, you will have to change the whole economic system," said Marcos in an interview. Unfortunately, Marcos said, abortion foes have failed to come up with answers to the poverty that drives Latin American women to have what she estimates are 12 million illegal abortions a year. Women in Latin America, most of them Catholic, are expected to marry young and have many children. Most women choose abortion only after having many children and deciding it would be impossible to feed another, Marcos said. The combination of Catholicism and culture--extolling the virtues of large families--and women's utter lack of means to provide is devastating psychologically and physically, she said. Furthermore, about 1/2 of all Latin American women are raising children alone. "It's so unjust," said Marcos. The 12 million abortions reflect desperation--not an anti-life orientation, she said. "When you are hungry, you do not debate the ethics of when life begins," said Marcos. "If we had enough to eat, then we could care." Women who have abortions continue to call themselves Catholic but often quit going to communion. "Not only do they have a hard time recovering physically from illegal abortions, but they are denied spiritual enjoyment," Marcos said. Trapped in desperate situations, women ignore church teachings about abortion--particularly if they are Indians who still identify strongly with traditions that uphold different ideas about when life begins. Both prochoice and prolife

  10. Huperzine A.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Huperzine A, an alkaloid isolated from Huperzia serrata, is a putative nootropic agent developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Huperzine A is currently in phase III trials in China for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The mechanism of action of huperzine A is suggested to be facilitated through the slow reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Marco Hi-Tech Joint Venture has exclusive worldwide marketing and distribution rights to huperzine A. Marco Hi-Tech Joint Venture is a corporation principally owned by Hi-Tech Pharmacal and Marco International, a global trading and finance firm formed to import huperzine A from China. Marco Hi-Tech Joint Venture also has rights to synthetic analogues of huperzine A. In July 2003, Savient Pharmaceuticals acquired the exclusive rights from Marco Hi-Tech to market huperzine A in Europe and the US. Clinical trials of huperzine A in elderly patients with age-associated memory loss are underway in the US, and a phase II study funded by an NCI grant is being planned. PMID:14725492

  11. Interferon-γ inhibits nonopsonized phagocytosis of macrophages via an mTORC1-c/EBPβ pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zengfu; Zhou, Shuping; Sun, Chenming; Lei, Tong; Peng, Jianxia; Li, Weiguo; Ding, Pengbo; Lu, Jun; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection often follows virus infection due to pulmonary interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production during virus infection, which down-regulates macrophage phagocytosis. The molecular mechanisms for this process are still poorly understood. In the present study, IFN-γ treatment significantly inhibited the ability of mouse macrophages to phagocytize nonopsonized chicken red blood cells (cRBCs), bacteria and beads in vitro, while it enhanced IgG- and complement-opsonized phagocytosis. IFN-γ treatment decreased the expression of MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) in macrophages. Macrophages showed lower binding to and phagocytic ability of cRBCs when MARCO was blocked with antibody. In addition, IFN-γ induced high activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and decreased the expression of c/EBPβ (CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β) in macrophages. Rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of IFN-γ on nonopsonized phagocytosis of macrophages and restored c/EBPβ and MARCO expression. Biochemical assays showed that c/EBPβ directly bound to the MARCO gene promoter. Rapamycin significantly hampered the viral-bacterial synergy and protected influenza-infected mice from subsequent bacterial infection. Thus, IFN-γ inhibited the nonopsonized phagocytosis of macrophages through the mTOR-c/EBPβ-MARCO pathway. The present study offered evidence indicating that mTOR may be one of the key target molecules for the prevention of secondary bacterial infection caused by primary virus infection. PMID:25277143

  12. Capacitación de la fuerza laboral

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI es una organización gubernamental que capacita a la próxima generación de investigadores del cáncer en universidades e instituciones de todo el país y proporciona financiación para investigación científica.

  13. Promoting Tenth Graders' Reading Comprehension of Academic Texts in the English Class (Promoción de la comprensión de lectura de textos académicos de estudiantes de grado décimo en la clase de inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga Carrillo, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project conducted in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia, with tenth grade students. We decided to develop it because of the students' needs as well as the em phasis of the PEI (Proyecto Educativo Institucional = School Institutional Project), which is based on the requisite of improving reading…

  14. Workmanship vibration test of the SAS-B spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demas, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The occurrence of a technical problem made it necessary to remove the transmitter from the SAS-B spacecraft. The transmitter was repaired and reinstalled in the spacecraft. After this operation it was necessary to test the mechanical properties of the reassembled spacecraft in a vibration test to be conducted near the spacecraft launching place on the San Marco Range in the Indian Ocean. A vibration system was, therefore, sent to San Marco. The design of the vibration system is discussed, giving attention also to alternative solutions for conducting the required tests.

  15. FORMATION OF INTRACYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM OF MYCOBACTERIA RELATED TO CELL DIVISION

    PubMed Central

    Imaeda, Tamotsu; Ogura, Mituo

    1963-01-01

    Imaeda, Tamotsu (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela) and Mitua Ogura. Formation of intracytoplasmic membrane system of mycobacteria related to cell division. J. Bacteriol. 85:150–163. 1963.—Mycobacterium leprae, M. lepraemurium, and a Mycobacterium sp. were observed with an electron microscope. In these bacilli, the three-dimensional structure of the intracytoplasmic membrane system consists of tubular infoldings of the invaginated plasma membrane. The moderately dense substance, presumably representing the cell-wall precursor, is found in the membranous system, especially in the rapid growth phase of mycobacteria. This system always shows an intimate relationship with cell division. A low-density zone, probably corresponding to the low-density substance which coats the cell wall, appears in the connecting regions of the system and in the longitudinal portion of the cell wall. These zones extend centripetally, and the separation of the cell wall occurs after the two zones meet. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the intracytoplasmic membrane system may produce cell-wall material during cell division of mycobacteria. Images PMID:13956365

  16. The preliminary results of the measurements of environmental levels of 40K and 137Cs in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, J. J.; Rosales, P. A.; Carias, O.

    1992-02-01

    The study of the beta-particle radioactivity in air and 90Sr in rainwater collected at Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, IVIC, that began in 1959 in conjunction with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was discontinued in 1963. But after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in the USSR, work on the radioactive contamination in Venezuela has been renewed. Initially the measurement of 134Cs and 137Cs in imported foodstuffs, such as milk powders and meats were undertaken, and these have now been extended to measurements of environmental levels of 40K and 137Cs in soils, sea sediments and foodstuffs. The data present herein are the only readily available data on radioactive contamination in the environment in Venezuela since 1963. The measurements were performed with a simple Nal(Tl) detector and two single channel analyzers as well as with a 25% efficient hyper-pure germanium semiconductor coupled to a multichannel analyzer system. Finally, these results can be used as baseline values (environmental background) in case of a nuclear accident in the region, as well as to screen imported foodstuff which is suspected to be contaminated.

  17. Interactive Technology Brings Algebra to All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Paul A.; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl

    1993-01-01

    Partnership for Access to Higher Mathematics uses fiber-optic technology in a partnership program among Southwest Texas State University, the San Marcos School District, the telephone company, and the community to significantly improve the mathematical skills of at-risk students. (MLF)

  18. The German scientific balloon and sounding rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, A. F.; Otterbein, M.

    1987-08-01

    Sounding rocket projects in astronomy, aeronomy, magnetospheric research, material sciences, and life sciences under microgravity are described. Balloon projects in astronomy and aeronomy are presented. Satellite projects including AMPTE, SOHO, Cluster, San Marco-D, HELIOS, Giotto, Ulysses, CRAF, ISOPHOT, Rosat, and the Gamma Ray Observatory are mentioned.

  19. Small Steps, Big Changes: Eight Essential Practices for Transforming Schools through Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confer, Chris; Ramirez, Marco

    2012-01-01

    During the past two decades, Chris Confer and Marco Ramirez have worked to deepen and improve mathematics instruction at schools around the country. Wherever they go, they find the raw ingredients for success already present: "The potential for positive change lies within each school. Abundance is present in the form of capable children, teachers,…

  20. A Model History Course: History Practicum--Researching, Writing, and Publishing Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, E. J., II

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Southwest Texas State University course "History Practicum: Researching, Writing, and Publishing Local History" that stresses computer proficiency, teamwork, and active learning. Students create and publish a guidebook for a town, city, or historic site in central Texas. Discusses the publication process of "San Marcos: A Guide to a…

  1. Doctoral Programs in Developmental Education: Interview with Three Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Marla Kincaid (Adjunct Instructor, Austin Community College M.A., Developmental Education Department of Curriculum and Instruction Texas State University-San Marcos) interviewed the following leaders in the field of Developmental Education: (1) Dr. Olatunde Ogunyemi, Professor in the Department of Educational Leadership at Grambling State…

  2. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 240 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... E. Daniels.) 3. DeMarco, J., D. J. Keller, J. Leckman, and J. L. Newton. Municipal-scale incinerator design and operation. Public Health Service Publication No. 2012. Washington, U.S. Government Printing..., 1965; Pub. L. 91-512, 91st Cong., H.R. 11833, Oct. 26, 1970. Washington, U.S. Government...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 240 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... E. Daniels.) 3. DeMarco, J., D. J. Keller, J. Leckman, and J. L. Newton. Municipal-scale incinerator design and operation. Public Health Service Publication No. 2012. Washington, U.S. Government Printing..., 1965; Pub. L. 91-512, 91st Cong., H.R. 11833, Oct. 26, 1970. Washington, U.S. Government...

  4. Functional Assesment of Symptomatic Snapping Scapula after Scapulothoracic Arthroscopy: A Prospective Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Cerciello, Simone; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Principal investigator and promoter: Giovanni Merolla Co-investigator: Giuseppe Porcellini Investigation performed at Biomechanics Laboratory “Marco Simoncelli”, D. Cervesi Hospital, Cattolica - Italy Plan of clinical investigation (PCI): Version 1.0 of December 10, 2012 Approved by AV/IRST Ethical Committee (Comitato Etico Area Vasta Romagna) Reg. Sperimentazioni 914 Prot. N°: 1785/2013/I.5/46 PMID:24809032

  5. Access to Vocational Guidance for People at Risk of Social Exclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Pamela M., Ed.; Fojcik, Vavrinec; Greco, Silvana; Hulkko, Johanna; Kelly, Eimer; Kostka, Miroslav; McGill, Paul; Machackova, D.; Maiello, Marco; Makela, Eija; Sinorova, Lenka; Troska, Robert; Ward, Mary

    This document contains 7 papers that evolved from 44 case studies of access to vocational guidance for people at risk of social exclusion in 5 European countries. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Pamela Clayton); "Access to Vocational Guidance in Italy" (Silvana Greco, Marco Maiello); "Access to Vocational Guidance in Ireland"…

  6. Computer Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Marcos Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: After viewing many computer-literacy programs, we believe San Marcos Junior High School has developed a unique program which will truly develop computer literacy. Our hope is to give all students a comprehensive look at computers as they go through their two years here. They will not only learn the…

  7. Criterion-Referenced Exit Examinations: An Institution's Internal Process for Psychometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieneck, Cristian; Morrison, Eileen; Price, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Texas State University-San Marcos undergraduate healthcare administration program requires all bachelors of health administration (BHA) students to pass a comprehensive examination to demonstrate their knowledge of specific core competencies. This also demonstrates completion of their didactic coursework in order to enter a practical…

  8. Middle and upper atmosphere results; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission C (Meetings C2 and C3) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M. (Editor); Herrero, F. A. (Editor); Chakrabarti, S. (Editor); Gray, L. J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers are first presented on atmospheric trace species, with particular attention given to stratospheric trace species and possible improvements to reference atmospheres. The equatorial thermosphere and aeronomy are considered with reference to models and San Marco satellite/ground-based observations. Papers on the coupling of dynamic, radiative, and chemical processes in the middle atmosphere are also presented.

  9. Analysis in Outline of Mam, a Mayan Language. Working Paper of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory, No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canger, Una R.

    The primary goal of the present study is an exposition of the structure of Mam, a Mayan language of the Mamean group. Mam is the most widely spoken of the four Mamean languages, and has been roughly estimated to have a quarter million speakers located in the departments of Huehuetenango and San Marcos in Guatemala and in the state of Chiapas in…

  10. Aula Verde: Art as Experience in Community-Based Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarca, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    After winning a class-action lawsuit against unconstitutional prison conditions in Puerto Rico, Marco Abarca managed to direct part of the fine monies accumulated throughout years of litigation toward an investment that would improve the living conditions in one of the largest and poorest housing projects in Puerto Rico. With the participation of…

  11. An REU Experience with Micro Assembly Workcell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, William; Asiabanpour, Bahram; Jimenez, Jesus; Um, Dugan

    2010-01-01

    Under an NSF REU center grant REU-0755355 entitled "Micro/Nano Assembly Workcell Via Micro Visual Sensing and Haptic Feedback", Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and Texas State University-San Marcos collaboratively hosted two groups of 10 students from different backgrounds for 10 weeks each in Summer 2008 and 2009 respectively.…

  12. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These three journal issues contain the following articles: "Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School" (Azusa Uchihara); "A Successful Keypal Project Using Varied Technologies" (Jean L. Pacheco); "Promoting a Language-Proficient Society: What You Can Do" (Kathleen M. Marcos and Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Journal Reflections of a First-Year Teacher" (Sarah…

  13. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 240 - Recommended Bibliography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1. The Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended; Title II of Pub. L. 89-272, 89th Cong., S. 306, Oct. 20, 1965; Pub. L. 91-512, 91st Cong., H.R. 11833, Oct. 26, 1970. Washington, U.S. Government Printing.... E. Daniels.) 3. DeMarco, J., D. J. Keller, J. Leckman, and J. L. Newton. Municipal-scale...

  14. Filipinos in America: Target Constituency for the "New Society".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Linda

    The increasing number of Filipino immigrants to America has coincided with the martial law era in the Philippines. Consequently, this exodus has become a significant political issue for the government of Ferdinand Marcos. Since the Filipino government wishes to retain positive influence and goodwill with those who choose to settle elsewhere, it…

  15. 75 FR 69160 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Richie James Drake Richman Eliot Marshall Richter Andrea Virginia Rigazzi Alain R. Ritter John D. Roden... Beattie Daniel Becker Kaja K. Bednarz Andrew James Beirnes Denise Bell William Anthony Bergandi Marco Lee... Machlin Rachel Shirley Maduro Jaime Eduardo Maggard James Douglas Magnoni Olivia Malik Akhtar...

  16. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward... drawn across the seaward extremity of Doctors Pass Jetties. (f) Lines drawn across Wiggins, Big Hickory, New, and Big Carlos Passes parallel to the general trend of the seaward highwater shoreland. (g)...

  17. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward... drawn across the seaward extremity of Doctors Pass Jetties. (f) Lines drawn across Wiggins, Big Hickory, New, and Big Carlos Passes parallel to the general trend of the seaward highwater shoreland. (g)...

  18. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward... drawn across the seaward extremity of Doctors Pass Jetties. (f) Lines drawn across Wiggins, Big Hickory, New, and Big Carlos Passes parallel to the general trend of the seaward highwater shoreland. (g)...

  19. Crisis in the Philippines: A Threat to U.S. Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, A. James

    The special relationship between the United States and the Philippines is chronicled, and the potential threats to that relationship are exposed and evaluated. Special attention is paid to imposition of martial law by Marcos from 1972-1981. The human rights of the Filipino people during martial law, development programs implemented by Marcos…

  20. K-12 Foreign Language Education. The ERIC Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The "ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme. This issue focuses on foreign language education in grades K-12. Articles include: "Second Language Learning: Everyone Can Benefit" (Kathleen M. Marcos); "Foreign Language Education in the United States: Trends and Challenges" (Renate A.…

  1. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  2. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T...

  3. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T...

  4. 78 FR 2287 - Daimler Buses North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 62260). ] At the request of New York State Department of Labor, the Department reviewed the... America Corp, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Noramtec, First Choice Staffing, Staff Works, and Mr..., First Choice Staffing, Staff Works, and Mr. Santo LaMarco from Wurth Revcar Fasteners, Inc.,...

  5. Great Explorers to the East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  6. Theory to Practice: Developmental Mathematics Program--A Model for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Mireles, Selina

    2010-01-01

    The Developmental Mathematics Program (DMP) at Texas State University-San Marcos in central Texas has undergone systemic, significant changes over the past ten years. These changes primarily resulted from the alignment to the American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges' (AMATYC) Crossroads in Mathematics: Standards for Introductory…

  7. The Oral Histories of Six African American Males in Their Ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the…

  8. In Search of the Middle School Teacher: Navigating Research, Reality, and Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Rong-Ji; Daniels, Erika; Chaplin, Mae S.; Ochanji, Moses; Stowell, Laurie P.; McDaniel, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Level Program at California State University San Marcos is the only middle level teacher credential program in the state of California. The program is based on a set of goals and philosophy of middle grades education, recognizing the developmental needs of young adolescents in Grades 5 through 9, and the socially equitable experience of…

  9. A Decade of Reform in Geographic Education: Inventory and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Robert S., Ed.; Peterson, James F., Ed.

    This book emerged from a "Summit in Geographic Education" at Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos, Texas, May 1993. This volume is comprised mainly of the papers prepared for the Summit. The book is divided into four sections: (1) "A View from the Summit"; (2) "The Reform Movement in School Geography"; (3) "Higher Education's Role in the…

  10. From Social Identity to Professional Identity: Issues of Language and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez-Rendon, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This study draws from sociocultural theory to examine how biographical factors interplay with contextual factors to shape the professional identity of a Spanish language teacher candidate. Specifically, it explores the student teaching experience of Marcos, a 30-year-old language teacher candidate from South America. Analysis of the data reveals…

  11. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  12. Early Childhood in the New China: Suzhou

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education is a…

  13. 77 FR 31376 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... installation of microwave ovens for the Marcos de Niza project. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donald J. La... published on April 23, 2009 (74 FR 18449), this notice advises the public that, on May 3, 2012, upon request... ovens) are not produced in the U.S. in sufficient and reasonably available quantities or of...

  14. International ties. [international cooperation in the space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of NASA's participation in international activities in space science is given. The Ariel, Alouette, Isis, and San Marco satellite programs are addressed along with sounding rocket and ground based projects. Relations and cooperation with the Soviet Union are also discussed.

  15. Research relative to atmosphere physics and spacecraft applications studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Stuart W.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is reported in several areas of research. Brief descriptions are given in each of the following areas: Spacelab data analysis; San Marco activity; Molecular physics; Stellar energy analysis; Troposphere data analysis; Voyager encounter analysis; Laser activity; Gravity wave study; Venus studies; and Shuttle environmental studies.

  16. Constructing Knowledge with Silk Road Visuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2008-01-01

    In this study a group of elementary teachers use illustrations, rather than written text, to introduce their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes. The illustrations are from two picture books; "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo Cesaerani and illustrated by Piero Ventura (1977), and "We're Riding on a Caravan: An Adventure…

  17. Bakke, DeFunis, and Minority Admissions. The Quest for Equal Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindler, Allan P.

    The public policy and legal issues surrounding preferential admissions of minorities in higher education and the politics and human drama of the controversy are reviewed and analyzed in this book. Focus is on the court cases of Marco DeFunis against the University of Washington law school and Allan Bakke against the University of California…

  18. Motivate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Mary Jo Garcia Biggs never really considered herself much of a technophile. Sure, the assistant professor at Texas State University-San Marcos knew her way around a web page, but for years, she was painfully aware of all of the technologies she didn't know much about. More times than not, the limitations of her knowledge frustrated the heck out of…

  19. 50 CFR 17.43 - Special rules-amphibians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-amphibians. 17.43 Section 17.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—amphibians. (a) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana). (1) All provisions of § 17.31 apply...

  20. 50 CFR 17.43 - Special rules-amphibians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special rules-amphibians. 17.43 Section 17.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—amphibians. (a) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana). (1) All provisions of § 17.31 apply...

  1. 50 CFR 17.43 - Special rules-amphibians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special rules-amphibians. 17.43 Section 17.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—amphibians. (a) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana). (1) All provisions of § 17.31 apply...

  2. 50 CFR 17.43 - Special rules-amphibians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special rules-amphibians. 17.43 Section 17.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—amphibians. (a) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana). (1) All provisions of § 17.31 apply...

  3. 50 CFR 17.43 - Special rules-amphibians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special rules-amphibians. 17.43 Section 17.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—amphibians. (a) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana). (1) All provisions of § 17.31 apply...

  4. Academic Travel: Modes and Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald; Phipps, Alison

    2005-01-01

    The Great Khan's atlas contains also the maps of the promised lands visited in thought but not yet discovered or founded: New Atlantis, Utopia, the City of the Sun, Oceana, Tamoe, New Harmony, New Lanark, Icaria. Kublai asked Marco: "You, who go about exploring and who see signs, can you tell me towards which of these futures the favouring winds…

  5. An Innovative Interdisciplinary Approach to Providing Internships for College Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The undergraduate Business and Human Development (HD) Departments at California State University San Marcos (CSUSM), are collaborating in an innovative interdisciplinary approach to supporting internships with local businesses in order to provide college seniors with experiences in the area of career development known as the "Senior…

  6. 75 FR 11563 - Jovencio L. Raneses, M.D.; Denial of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Carino, M.D., 72 FR 71955, 71956 (2007). Accordingly, his application for a new DEA registration must be... residence in San Marcos, California. GX B. Since that time, neither Respondent, nor anyone purporting to... practitioner, at the registered location of 1666 Garnet Avenue, 708, San Diego, California. GX E, at 1. On...

  7. The College & Financial Aid Guide for: AB540 Undocumented Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliverez, Paz M., Ed.; Chavez, Maria Lucia, Ed.; Soriano, Mayra, Ed.; Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of California Assembly Bill 540 in 2001, authored by the late Assemblyman, Marco Antonio Firebaugh, more than 5,000 undocumented students in California have had improved financial access to higher education. AB 540 has become a pinnacle in the lives of students, who because of their immigration status, have historically been…

  8. Another Way of Knowing: Visualizing the Ancient Silk Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner

    2010-01-01

    One way that people learn, remember and communicate is visually. We combine past experiences with new visual information to construct meaning. In this study, elementary teachers introduced their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes using illustrations from two children's picture books, "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo…

  9. Ionized Gaseous Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, José; Henney, William; Martos, Marco; Peña, Miriam

    2001-06-01

    Conference was held in Mexico City on 2000 November 21-24. Proceedings will be edited by José Franco, William Henney, Marco Martos, and Miriam Peña and will be published in Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (Serie de Conferencias).

  10. Coping with Classroom Homophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Marcos "Qboy"

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a version of which first appeared in the February 2007 number of Gay Times, gay rapper Marcos Brito describes his experiences of dealing with a general climate of homophobia at his secondary school in Essex. He argues that positive affirmations of lesbian, gay and bisexual people should be promoted as part of the school curriculum.

  11. [Promising networks, fruitful inquiry].

    PubMed

    Frenk, Silvestre

    2014-01-01

    This supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social includes 10 original contributions, and also six current themes, all of them related to childhood obesity. It is the result of an institutional program that it has been identified as Redes de Investigación Institucional, and it has been promoted and developed by the Coordinación de Investigación of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. PMID:24866301

  12. A comparative study of different PGA attenuation and error models: Case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    In order to evaluate the horizontal peak ground acceleration (HPGA) during earthquakes, the author studies the respective efficiency of two existing attenuation models [Mébarki, A., 2003a, Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. November 12-13, (CD-ROM), Mébarki A., 2004. Modèle d'atténuation sismique: prédiction probabiliste des pics d'accélération, RFGC — Revue Française de Génie Civil, Hermès Ed., 8 (9-10), 1071-1086]. A comparative study of their performances is done in the case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan). The reported PGA (Peak Ground Accelerations) values correspond to hypocentral distances ranging from 15 up to 180 km with observed acceleration peaks ranging from (0.04 g) up to (1.16 g). The author considers two kinds of probabilistic distributions for the error model in order to describe the uncertainty and the variability that affect the values of the PGA: a Gamma distribution and a Log-normal distribution. The adopted error models assume that the variability of the PGA is such that its coefficient of variation is equal to 55% [Mébarki, A., 2003a. Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela

  13. Philippines.

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    The Philippines is an archipelago of 7100 islands and islets, 11 of which compose about 95% of the total area and population. The majority of the Filipinos are descendants of Indonesians and Malays. Approximately 90% of the population are Christian with the majority of the remaining 10% being Moslems. In the 1960s, the annual population growth rate was roughly 3%, but it fell to 2.4% in the late 1970s and was still 2.4% in 1985. In 1970, President Marcos implemented an official family planning policy to reduce the high growth rate and thereby stimulate economic development. A population commission coordinates family planning efforts. Both the Spanish (1521-1898) and the United States (1898-1946) have ruled the Philippines with a brief occupation by the Japanese (1942-1945). The US assisted in the reconstruction of the economy following World War II and continues to maintain and operate military bases. Further, from 1946-1986, the Philippines has received $3.7 billion in economic and military assistance from the US. The government operated under a constitutional democracy from 1946-1972, but in 1972 President Marcos declared martial law. In 1981, martial law ended and Marcos called for a presidential election. After winning the election, he called for an amendment of the 1972 constitution making him, rather than the prime minister, the head of government. Even though martial law ended in 1981, the Marcos government retained its wide powers to arrest and detain anyone. In February 1986, popular support backed by a peaceful civilian-military uprising brought Corazon Aquino to the Presidency. In the mid 1980s a severe economic recession hit the Philippines with the real GNP growth rate ranging from -5.3%-0%. The Philippines have diplomatic relations with the south east Asian nations, many East Bloc nations, the US, China, Cuba, and the Soviet Union. PMID:12178014

  14. The exaptive excellence of spandrels as a term and prototype

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, Lewontin and I borrowed the architectural term “spandrel” (using the pendentives of San Marco in Venice as an example) to designate the class of forms and spaces that arise as necessary byproducts of another decision in design, and not as adaptations for direct utility in themselves. This proposal has generated a large literature featuring two critiques: (i) the terminological claim that the spandrels of San Marco are not true spandrels at all and (ii) the conceptual claim that they are adaptations and not byproducts. The features of the San Marco pendentives that we explicitly defined as spandrel-properties—their necessary number (four) and shape (roughly triangular)—are inevitable architectural byproducts, whatever the structural attributes of the pendentives themselves. The term spandrel may be extended from its particular architectural use for two-dimensional byproducts to the generality of “spaces left over,” a definition that properly includes the San Marco pendentives. Evolutionary biology needs such an explicit term for features arising as byproducts, rather than adaptations, whatever their subsequent exaptive utility. The concept of biological spandrels—including the examples here given of masculinized genitalia in female hyenas, exaptive use of an umbilicus as a brooding chamber by snails, the shoulder hump of the giant Irish deer, and several key features of human mentality—anchors the critique of overreliance upon adaptive scenarios in evolutionary explanation. Causes of historical origin must always be separated from current utilities; their conflation has seriously hampered the evolutionary analysis of form in the history of life. PMID:11038582

  15. Scientist to Expose Students to Wetlands Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Marco Giardino, chief of the Applications Integration Division for NASA Stennis Space Center's Earth Science Applications Directorate, has been chosen by the JASON Project to be one of six host researchers for Disappearing Wetlands, which will run through the 2004-05 school year. In the photo, Giardino (left) interprets satellite imagery on the way to an archeological site near Lake Salvador, La., in November 2002. With him is his local guide, Michael Comardelle.

  16. Determinación de la orientación global SAO-Hipparcos mediante una expansión en armónicos vectoriales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, R. G.; Vucetich, H.; Orellana, R.; Arias, E. F.

    En base a las diferencias de posición y movimientos propios de 101352 estrellas con posición SAO observadas por HIPPARCOS y utilizando la naturaleza vectorial de esas diferencias, determinamos 6 parámetros de orientación global (3 de rotación y 3 de desplazamiento axial), para los sistemas de referencia asociados a los marcos mencionados, mediante una descomposición en serie de armónicos vectoriales ortogonales.

  17. CGCI Investigators Reveal Comprehensive Landscape of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Genomes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers from British Columbia Cancer Agency used whole genome sequencing to analyze 40 DLBCL cases and 13 cell lines in order to fill in the gaps of the complex landscape of DLBCL genomes. Their analysis, “Mutational and structural analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using whole genome sequencing,” was published online in Blood on May 22. The authors are Ryan Morin, Marco Marra, and colleagues.  

  18. Gamma ray satellite to be launched from Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaway, H. G.; Senstad, K.

    1972-01-01

    The announcement is presented of the launch of NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite B (SAS-B) on 2 Nov. 1972, to study gamma rays. The launch is to be from the Italian-operated San Marco Equatorial Range in the Indian Ocean for ease in acquiring an equatorial orbit. The spacecraft systems described include: stabilization and control, communication, and spark chamber gamma ray telescope. The results of Uhuru (Explorer 42) are also presented.

  19. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  20. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-. cap alpha. line profile observations

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-..cap alpha.. (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya.

  1. Faisal Hossain Receives 2012 Charles S. Falkenberg Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    I am utterly thrilled and humbled by this award. This is by far the highest accolade I have or will have ever received in my lifetime for something that has become a mission for me. I thank the AGU, Earth Science Information Partnership (EISP), and the Falkenberg Award review committee for giving me a never-ending source of inspiration. Thanks also go to colleagues who nominated me, namely, Manos Anagnostou, C. K. Shum, Marco Borga, and Mahbub Rahman.

  2. Life Sciences in the Ticino: Two Scientists - Two Stories.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Susanne Lauber

    2014-12-01

    Luca Varani, PhD, a group leader in Structural Biology at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona, and Marco Brini, founder and CEO of EnvEve SA, in the Tecnopolo in Manno, describe their life sciences background, their careers and why they percieve their ideal situation being a basic scientist who wants to remain in science, or being an entrepreneur respectively. PMID:26508605

  3. SLICE/MARC-O: Description of Services. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Libraries, Oklahoma City.

    Following the discussions of: what is SLICE, what is MARC, what is MARC-O, and what is SLICE/MARC-O are descriptions of the five services offered by SLICE/MARC-O. These services are: (1) cataloging data search and print, (2) MARC record and search and copy, (3) standard S.D.I. current awareness, (4) custom S.D.I. current awareness and (5) SLICE…

  4. GM-CSF modulates pulmonary resistance to influenza A infection

    PubMed Central

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Murthy, Aditi; Davis, Jeremy; Florence, Jon Matthew; Kurdowska, Anna; Krupa, Agnieszka; Tichelaar, Jay W.; White, Mitchell R.; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Kobzik, Lester; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Chroneos, Zissis C.

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar type II epithelial or other pulmonary cells secrete GM-CSF that regulates surfactant catabolism and mucosal host defense through its capacity to modulate the maturation and activation of alveolar macrophages. GM-CSF enhances expression of scavenger receptors MARCO and SR-A. The alveolar macrophage SP-R210 receptor binds the surfactant collectin SP-A mediating clearance of respiratory pathogens. The current study determined the effects of epithelial-derived GM-CSF in host resistance to influenza A pneumonia. The results demonstrate that GM-CSF enhanced resistance to infection with 1.9 × 104 ffc of the mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) H1N1 strain, as indicated by significant differences in mortality and mean survival of GM-CSF-deficient (GM−/−) mice compared to GM−/− mice in which GM-CSF is expressed at increased levels. Protective effects of GM-CSF were observed both in mice with constitutive and inducible GM-CSF expression under the control of the pulmonary-specific SFTPC or SCGB1A1 promoters, respectively. Mice that continuously secrete high levels of GM-CSF developed desquamative interstitial pneumonia that impaired long-term recovery from influenza. Conditional expression of optimal GM-CSF levels at the time of infection, however, resulted in alveolar macrophage proliferation and focal lymphocytic inflammation of distal airways. GM-CSF enhanced alveolar macrophage activity as indicated by increased expression of SP-R210 and CD11c. Infection of mice lacking the GM-CSF-regulated SR-A and MARCO receptors revealed that MARCO decreases resistance to influenza in association with increased levels of SP-R210 in MARCO−/− alveolar macrophages. In conclusion, GM-CSF enhances early host resistance to influenza. Targeting of MARCO may reinforce GM-CSF-mediated host defense against pathogenic influenza. PMID:21925209

  5. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W., II

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  6. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  7. La contribución de los Centros Colaboradores de la OMS/OPS en los avances de la promoción de la salud en América Latina.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Hiram V; Mantilla Uribe, Blanca P; Contreras Rengifo, Adolfo; Westphal, Marcia F; Mendes, Rosilda

    2016-09-01

    Los "Centros Colaboradores" de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) son instituciones designadas para prestar apoyo estratégico en el desarrollo de los objetivos y la ejecución de las actividades de la OMS, y para generar capacidad institucional en países y regiones. En las Américas existen ocho Centros Colaboradores directamente relacionados a la promoción de la salud. Cuatro centros se ubican en Norteamérica y los otros cuatro en América Latina. El propósito de este artículo es describir los Centros Colaboradores de la Región de América Latina. Los centros han sido importantes en el desarrollo de la agenda de promoción de la salud de la región, la consolidación de la estrategia de entornos saludables y el fortalecimiento de las redes académicas y profesionales de promoción de la salud. PMID:25795656

  8. El Sistema de Referencia Celeste convencional de la IAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.

    La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste baricéntrico cuyo plano fundamental y origen de ascensiones rectas estén próximos, respectivamente, al ecuador y equinoccio dinámicos J2000.0. El nuevo sistema de referencia estará materializado por las posiciones J2000.0 de radiofuentes extragalácticas determinadas con la técnica de interferometría de larga línea de base (VLBI). El Working Group on Reference Frames de la IAU (WGRF) decidió adoptar (Grasse, 1995) al sistema de referencia celeste extragaláctico del Servicio Internacional de la Rotación Terrestre (IERS) como futuro sistema de referencia celeste convencional bajo el nombre International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y encomendó su mantenimiento futuro al IERS. El marco de referencia que materializará al ICRS contiene posiciones precisas J2000.0 de más de 600 radiofuentes extragalácticas. Las coordenadas fueron ajustadas en una única solución VLBI en la cual se incluyeron todas las observaciones realizadas hasta octubre de 1995 con la técnica de adquisición de datos VLBI Mark III. Para minimizar los errores sistemáticos que pueden afectar la calidad del marco de referencia se introdujeron mejoras sustanciales en la modelización y en la selección de datos. Un subconjunto de objetos del marco de referencia se utilizó para referir las posiciones estelares determinadas con el satélite astrométrico Hipparcos al ICRS.

  9. Concept of Operations for Deploying a Lander on the Secondary Body of Binary Asteroid 1996 FG3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardivel, Simon; Michel, P.; Scheeres, D.

    2012-10-01

    The European Space Agency is currently performing an assessment study of the MarcoPolo-R space mission, in the framework of the M3 class competition of its Cosmic Vision Program. MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive asteroid, whose baseline target is the binary asteroid 1996FG3. The baseline mission, including the sample, is focused on the primary of the binary system. To date, little has yet been considered for the investigation of the secondary, apart from remote observations from the spacecraft. However, MarcoPolo-R may carry an optional lander, and if such a lander could be accommodated it may be relevant to use it for a more detailed investigation of the secondary. This poster presents a strategy for deploying a lander using an unpowered trajectory towards the secondary. This ballistic deployment allows for the design of a light lander with minimum platform overhead and maximum payload. The deployment operations are shown to be very simple and require minimum preparation. The main spacecraft is set on an orbit that reaches a specific point near the binary system L2 Lagrange Point facing the far side of the secondary, about 220 meters from the secondary surface, with a relative speed of about 10cm/s. The lander is then jettisoned using a spring-release mechanism that sets it on an impact trajectory that robustly intersects with the secondary surface. On impact, the lander only needs to dissipate a small amount of kinetic energy in order to ensure that it is energetically and dynamically trapped on the surface. Considering errors on spacecraft GNC and on the spring-release mechanism, and very large uncertainties on the gravity field of the asteroids, the strategy presented here yields a successful landing in more than 99.9% of cases, while ensuring the absolute safety of the spacecraft before, during and after deployment operations.

  10. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes injure the plasma membrane of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro Kanno, Sanae; Furuyama, Akiko

    2008-10-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging nanotechnology materials which are likely to be mass-produced in the near future. However, prior to mass-production, certain health-related concerns should first be addressed. For example, when inhaled, the thin-fibrous shape and the biopersistent characteristics of CNTs may cause pulmonary diseases, in a manner similar to asbestos. In the present study, mouse macrophages (J774.1) were exposed to highly-purified multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs, 67 nm) or to UICC crocidolite in order to evaluate the toxicity of these nano-size fibers. The cytotoxicity of MWCNTs was found to be higher than that of crocidolite. The toxic effect of MWCNTs was not affected by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, or buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor. cDNA microarray analyses suggested that the cytotoxicity of MWCNTs could not be explained satisfactorily by either an increase or decrease of gene expression, although mRNA levels of some cytokines were slightly increased by MWCNTs. Moreover, MWCNTs did not significantly activate either MAP kinases such as ERK, JNK and p38, nor common apoptosis pathways such as caspase 3 and PARP. Electron microscopic studies indicated that MWCNTs associate with the plasma membrane of macrophages and disrupt the integrity of the membrane. Several proteins were found to adsorb onto MWCNTs when MWCNT-exposed macrophages were gently lysed. One of these proteins was macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO). MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells associated with MWCNTs more rapidly than mock-transfected cells. These results indicate that MWCNTs probably trigger cytotoxic effects in phagocytotic cells by reacting with MARCO on the plasma membrane and rupturing the plasma membrane.

  11. Highly birefringent crystal for Raman transitions with phase modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Nieves; Abediyeh, Vahide; Hamzeloui, Saeed; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Gomez, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    We present a system to excite Raman transitions with minimum phase noise. The system uses a phase modulator to generate the phase locked beams required for the transition. We use a long calcite crystal to filter out one of the sidebands, avoiding the cancellation that appears at high detunings for phase modulation. The measured phase noise is limited by the quality of the microwave synthesizer. We use the calcite crystal a second time to produce a co-propagating Raman pair with perpendicular polarizations to drive velocity insensitive Raman transitions. Support from CONACYT and Fundacion Marcos Moshinsky.

  12. The Evolution of the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Domain of the Class A Scavenger Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Nicholas V. L.; Whelan, Fiona J.; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.; Golding, G. Brian

    2015-01-01

    The class A scavenger receptor (cA-SR) family is a group of five evolutionarily related innate immune receptors. The cA-SRs are known for their promiscuous ligand binding; as they have been shown to bind bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, as well as different modified forms of low-density lipoprotein. Three of the five family members possess a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain while the remaining two receptors lack the domain. Previous work has suggested that the macrophage-associated receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) shares a recent common ancestor with the non-SRCR-containing receptors; however, the origin of the SRCR domain within the cA-SRs remains unknown. We hypothesize that the SRCR domains of the cA-SRs have a common origin that predates teleost fish. Using the newly available sequence data from sea lamprey and ghost shark genome projects, we have shown that MARCO shares a common ancestor with the SRCR-containing proteins. In addition, we explored the evolutionary relationships within the SRCR domain by reconstructing the ancestral SRCR domains of the cA-SRs. We identified a motif that is highly conserved between the cA-SR SRCR domains and the ancestral SRCR domain that consist of WGTVCDD. We also show that the GRAEVYY motif, a functionally important motif within MARCO, is poorly conserved in the other cA-SRs and in the reconstructed ancestral domain. Further, we identified three sites within MARCO’s SRCR domain, which are under positive selection. Two of these sites lie adjacent to the conserved WGTVCDD motif, and may indicate a potential biological function for these sites. Together, these findings indicate a common origin of the SRCR domain within the cA-SRs; however, different selective pressures between the proteins may have caused MARCOs SRCR domain to evolve to contain different functional motifs when compared to the other SRCR-containing cA-SRs. PMID:26217337

  13. Aula Verde: art as experience in community-based environmental education.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    After winning a class-action lawsuit against unconstitutional prison conditions in Puerto Rico, Marco Abarca managed to direct part of the fine monies accumulated throughout years of litigation toward an investment that would improve the living conditions in one of the largest and poorest housing projects in Puerto Rico. With the participation of parolees and probationers, he began to transform a mosquito-infested badland into a natural haven. Then, with the help of science educators, the group designed a workshop for elementary school children on urban ecology. As the participants organized, what developed was a community-based, self-employed enterprise known as Aula Verde. PMID:20391620

  14. APL workers install CRIS on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers from the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) install the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2). From left, are Al Sadilek, Marcos Gonzalez and Cliff Willey. CRIS is one of nine instruments on ACE, which will investigate the origin and evolution of solar phenomenon, the formation of the solar corona, solar flares and the acceleration of the solar wind. ACE was developed for NASA by the APL. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched Aug. 21 aboard a two-stage Delta II 7920-8 rocket from Space Launch Complex 17, Pad A.

  15. Phootprint - A Phobos sample return mission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Detlef; Svedhem, Håkan; Rebuffat, Denis

    Introduction ESA is currently studying a mission to return a sample from Phobos, called Phootprint. This study is performed as part of ESA’s Mars Robotic Exploration Programme. Part of the mission goal is to prepare technology needed for a sample return mission from Mars itself; the mission should also have a strong scientific justification, which is described here. 1. Science goal The main science goal of this mission will be to Understand the formation of the Martian moons Phobos and put constraints on the evolution of the solar system. Currently, there are several possibilities for explaining the formation of the Martian moons: (a) co-formation with Mars (b) capture of objects coming close to Mars (c) Impact of a large body onto Mars and formation from the impact ejecta The main science goal of this mission is to find out which of the three scenarios is the most probable one. To do this, samples from Phobos would be returned to Earth and analyzed with extremely high precision in ground-based laboratories. An on-board payload is foreseen to provide information to put the sample into the necessary geological context. 2. Mission Spacecraft and payload will be based on experience gained from previous studies to Martian moons and asteroids. In particular the Marco Polo and MarcoPolo-R asteroid sample return mission studies performed at ESA were used as a starting point. Currently, industrial studies are ongoing. The initial starting assumption was to use a Soyuz launcher. Uunlike the initial Marco Polo and MarcoPolo-R studies to an asteroid, a transfer stage will be needed. Another main difference to an asteroid mission is the fact that the spacecraft actually orbits Mars, not Phobos or Deimos. It is possible to select a spacecraft orbit, which in a Phobos- or Deimos-centred reference system would give an ellipse around the moon. The following model payload is currently foreseen: - Wide Angle Camera, - Narrow Angle Camera, - Close-Up Camera, - Context camera for

  16. Impact spallation experiments - Fracture patterns and spall velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanskey, Carol A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    The spall velocities produced by nine experimental impacts of 1 to 6.5 km/sec into San Marcos gabbro targets, using projectiles of Fe, Al, Pb, and basalt of various sizes, have been measured in conjunction with fragment-velocity high-speed filmings of the events. A detailed comparison is made between measured spall velocities and those predicted by the model of Melosh (1984), with a view to the compatibility of small-scale results and large planetary impacts. Attention is also given to the patterns of internal fracture generated by impact within the targets.

  17. Shock wave properties of anorthosite and gabbro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Hugoniot data on San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbro to 11 GPA are presented. Release paths in the stress-density plane and sound velocities are reported as determined from particl velocity data. Electrical interference effects precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the gabbro. Because of the loss of shear strength in the shocked state, the plastic behavior exhibited by anorthosite indicates that calculations of energy partitioning due to impact onto planetary surfaces based on elastic-plastic models may underestimate the amount of internal energy deposited in the impacted surface material.

  18. Shock wave properties of anorthosite and gabbro. [to model hypervelocity impact cratering on planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Huyoniot data on San Gabriel anorthosite and San Marcos gabbro to 11 GPA are presented. Release paths in the stress-density plane and sound velocities are reported as determined from partial velocity data. Electrical interference effects precluded the determination of accurate release paths for the gabbro. Because of the loss of shear strength in the shocked state, the plastic behavior exhibited by anorthosite indicates that calculations of energy partitioning due to impact onto planetary surfaces based on elastic-plastic models may underestimate the amount of internal energy deposited in the impacted surface material.

  19. Impact spallation experiments - Fracture patterns and spall velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Polanskey, C.A.; Ahrens, T.J. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1990-09-01

    The spall velocities produced by nine experimental impacts of 1 to 6.5 km/sec into San Marcos gabbro targets, using projectiles of Fe, Al, Pb, and basalt of various sizes, have been measured in conjunction with fragment-velocity high-speed filmings of the events. A detailed comparison is made between measured spall velocities and those predicted by the model of Melosh (1984), with a view to the compatibility of small-scale results and large planetary impacts. Attention is also given to the patterns of internal fracture generated by impact within the targets. 29 refs.

  20. Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 1: Overall economic impact of technological progress: Its measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Investigations were performed at the national economic level to explore the aggregate effects of technological progress on economic growth. Inadequacies in existing marco-economic yardsticks forced the study to focus on the cost savings effects achieved through technological progress. The central questions discussed in this report cover: (1) role of technological progress in economic growth, (2) factors determining the rate of economic growth due to technological progress; (3) quantitative measurements of relationships between technological progress, its determinants, and subsequent economic growth; and (4) effects of research and development activities of the space program. For Part 2, see N72-32174.

  1. Local dynamics for fibred holomorphic transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, Mario

    2007-12-01

    Fibred holomorphic dynamics are skew-product transformations F(θ, z) = (θ + α, fθ(z)) over an irrational rotation, such that fθ is holomorphic for every θ. In this paper we study such a dynamics in a neighbourhood of an invariant curve. We obtain some results analogous to the results in the non-fibred case. In particular, we prove a fibred version of the folklore result stating that Lyapounov stability is equivalent to linearization around a fixed point. We also obtain a fibred version of the Pérez-Marco continua.

  2. Conocimiento de Energía: Principios Esenciales y Conceptos Fundamentales para la Educación de Energía

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    This is the Spanish version of our Energy Literacy guidebook. Esta guía presenta conceptos de energía que, cuando se entienden y se aplican, ayudan a individuos y a comunidades a tomar decisiones sobre la energía con conocimiento de causa. No es un currículo sino que ofrece un marco sobre el cual puede basarse un plan de estudios. La guía se dirige a cualquier persona que participe en la educación de energía.

  3. Seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. EEZ off California - Data for RV Farnella cruise F7-87-SC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Reid, Jane A.; Conrad, Tracey A.; Dunham, Rachel E.; Clague, David A.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Davis, Alice S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and briefly describe ship-board and laboratory data for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research cruise aboard the RV Farnella that took place December 3-21, 1987 (cruise F7-87-SC). The purpose of the cruise was to survey seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off California. Eight seamounts were studied - Rodriguez, San Marcos, Adam, Hoss, Little Joe, Ben, Flint, and Jasper. A geophysical survey of Jasper Seamount took place, but that seamount was not sampled; whereas Adam and Hoss Seamounts were sampled, but not surveyed with geophysics lines.

  4. Spent filter packaging for long term storage and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Duberville, T.M.; Miller, C.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will discuss filter packaging experience using spent filter transfer casks, a filter shear and the NUKEM macro-encapsulation process. Marco-encapsulation of spent filters in cement has provided sufficient shielding to enable filter containers to be shipped in less expensive IP-2 casks. The lower dose rate and higher density also off-sets disposal rates at Barnwell based on mass. No re-dewatering of encapsulated filter containers is required after a period of long term storage and encapsulation eliminates the possibility of gas generation from filters during storage. Encapsulation can be performed on filters loaded into poly HICs or carbon steel liners. (authors)

  5. Infraspinatus Strength Assessment and Ultrasound Evaluation of Posterior Capsulotenodesis after Arthroscopic Hill-Sachs Remplissage in Traumatic Anterior Glenohumeral Instability: A Retrospective Controlled Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Principal investigator and promoter: Giovanni Merolla Co-investigator: Giuseppe Porcellini Investigation performed at the Biomechanics Laboratory “Marco Simoncelli”, D. Cervesi Hospital, Cattolica - Italy Plan of clinical investigation (PCI): Version 1.0 of June 12, 2012 Approved by AV/IRST Ethical Committee (Comitato Etico Area Vasta Romagna) and authorized by AUSL RN (“Determina AUSL Rimini numero 326 del 29/03/2013: Remplissage U.O Chirurgia della Spalla – Valutazione clinica ed ultrasonografica dell’infraspinato dopo capsulo-tenodesi artroscopica (remplissage) nell’instabilità anteriore traumatica di spalla con lesione di Bankart e difetto omerale di Hill-Sachs”) PMID:24809031

  6. Representing object oriented specifications and designs with extended data flow notations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buser, Jon Franklin; Ward, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of using extended data flow notations to document object oriented designs and specifications is discussed. Extended data flow notations, for the purposes here, refer to notations that are based on the rules of Yourdon/DeMarco data flow analysis. The extensions include additional notation for representing real-time systems as well as some proposed extensions specific to object oriented development. Some advantages of data flow notations are stated. How data flow diagrams are used to represent software objects are investigated. Some problem areas with regard to using data flow notations for object oriented development are noted. Some initial solutions to these problems are proposed.

  7. Commission 20: Position and Motion of Minor Planets, Comets and Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Fernandez, Julio; Bowell, Edward L. G.; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Bowell, Edward L. G.; Chernetenko, Yulia A.; Chesley, Steven R.; Lazzaro, Daniela; Lemaitre, Anne; Marsden, Brian G.; Muinonen, Karri; Rickman, Hans; Tholen, David J.; Yoshikawa, Makoto

    2007-12-01

    A total of 16 among the new IAU members have asked to join Commission 20; they are: Jerome Berthier, Nicholas J. Cooper, Marco Delbò, Romina P. Di Sisto, Michael W. Evans, Tetsuharu Fuse, Ludmila Hudkova, Yurij N. Krugly, Elena N. Polyakhova, Zhanna Pozhalova, Alessandro Rossi, Qi Rui, Jonathan D. Shanklin, Slawomira E. Szutowicz, Gino Tuccari and Hong-Suh Yim. Moreover, two requests to join the Commission have been received by astronomers that are already IAU members: Peter De Cat and Ricardo A. Gil-Hutton.

  8. The Scout Launch Vehicle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. R., Jr.; Urash, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Scout Launch Vehicle Program to utilize solid propellant rockets by the DOD and to provide a reliable, low cost vehicle for scientific and applications aircraft is discussed. The program's history is reviewed and a vehicle description is given. The Vandenberg Air Force Base and the San Marco launch sites are described, and capabilities such as payload weight, orbital inclinations, payload volume and mission integration time spans are discussed. Current and future plans for improvement, including larger heat shields and individual rocket motors are also reviewed.

  9. Chili Cookoff 2016: The Largest Ever | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Marco Johnson decided to bring “the big guns” to the 13th annual Protective Services Chili Cookoff—his wife, Jill. The strategy paid off because Johnson’s chili recipe won first place, standing out against some stiff competition. Johnson, a shuttle bus driver for Protective Services, added his own special touches to the recipe developed by his wife; he used Kielbasa as the main ingredient and increased the smoky flavor, hence the name Jill’s Smoky Kielbasa Chili. The recipe also included crispy bacon, hot pepper seasonings, and a variety of diced tomatoes, from roasted to hot.

  10. Austin Chalk boundaries bigger than Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, J.

    1980-11-01

    The Austin Chalk is a carbonate limestone which has major outcropping near Austin, Texas. Around Austin, San Antonio, and San Marcos it finds its major expression in the so-called Balcones Escarpment, a jutting limestone promontory that divides the Texas hill country from the Black Gumbo Farmland to the east, and forms one of the longest, most noticeable geologic features in the state. The Chalk is known to run through the entire Gulf Coast Littoral - Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. A map shows the locations of the major uplifts, downwarps, fault zones, and tectonic belts in the Austin Chalk play.

  11. A first look at the ASSI ultraviolet results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Tobiska, W. K.; Schmidtke, G.; Doll, H.; Gerard, J.-C.

    1993-01-01

    The Airglow and Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco D satellite has obtained near-simultaneous measurements of solar irradiances and airglow emissions in the 200-7000 A spectral region. The satellite was placed in an equatorial, elliptical orbit on 25 March 1988, which permitted observations of airglow emissions in the 280-600-km altitude range at various local times. The instrument complement on the satellite provides an opportunity both for self-consistent examination of the excitation mechanisms of various airglow features and for constraining model parameters. An overview of the data obtained by ASSI is presented along with preliminary modeling results of the UV airglow.

  12. Solar EUV irradiance derived from a sounding rocket experiment on November 10, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.

    1990-05-01

    Results are presented on the solar EUV irradiance measurements in the range 30-100 nm obtained in a sounding rocket experiment launched from the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on November 10, 1988. The observed solar EUV irradiance was found to be about 20 percent less than the solar EUV flux from a proxy model based on the daily 10.7-cm solar flux and its 81-day mean and the AE-E solar EUV data taken in the 1970s. The November 10 measurement of the solar EUV flux provides a good calibration reference spectrum for the solar EUV instruments on the San Marco satellite.

  13. Solar EUV irradiance derived from a sounding rocket experiment on November 10, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the solar EUV irradiance measurements in the range 30-100 nm obtained in a sounding rocket experiment launched from the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on November 10, 1988. The observed solar EUV irradiance was found to be about 20 percent less than the solar EUV flux from a proxy model based on the daily 10.7-cm solar flux and its 81-day mean and the AE-E solar EUV data taken in the 1970s. The November 10 measurement of the solar EUV flux provides a good calibration reference spectrum for the solar EUV instruments on the San Marco satellite.

  14. Environmental statement for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Space Science, launch vehicle and propulsion programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    NASA OSS Launch Vehicle and Propulsion Programs are responsible for the launch of approximately 20 automated science and applications spacecraft per year. These launches are for NASA programs and those of other U. S. government agencies, private organizations, such as the Comsat Corporation, foreign countries, and international organizations. Launches occur from Cape Kennedy, Florida; Vandenberg Air Force Base, California; Wallops Island, Virginia; and the San Marco Platform in the Indian Ocean off Kenya. Spacecraft launched by this program contribute in a variety of ways to the control of and betterment of the environment. Environmental effects caused by the launch vehicles are limited in extent, duration, and intensity and are considered insignificant.

  15. MicroRNA-155 Is Required for Clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the Nasopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Verschoor, Chris P.; Dorrington, Michael G.; Novakowski, Kyle E.; Kaiser, Julie; Radford, Katherine; Nair, Parameswaran; Anipindi, Varun; Kaushic, Charu; Surette, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of death and an economic burden worldwide. S. pneumoniae is an intermittent colonizer of the human upper respiratory tract, and the ability to control asymptomatic colonization determines the likelihood of developing invasive disease. Recognition of S. pneumoniae by resident macrophages via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and the presence of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-secreting CD4+ T cells are required for macrophage recruitment and bacterial clearance. Despite the fact that the primary cellular effectors needed for bacterial clearance have been identified, much of the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that the small, noncoding RNA microRNA-155 (mir-155) is critical for the effective clearance of S. pneumoniae. Our studies show that mir-155-deficient mice maintain the ability to prevent acute invasive pneumococcal infection but have significantly higher bacterial burdens following colonization, independently of macrophage recognition by TLR-2, MARCO expression, or bactericidal capacity. The observed defects in bacterial clearance parallel reduced IL-17A and gamma interferon CD4+ T-cell responses in vivo, lower IL-17A mRNA levels in the nasopharynx, and a reduced capacity to induce Th17 cell polarization. Given that knockout mice are also limited in the capacity to generate high-titer S. pneumoniae-specific antibodies, we conclude that mir-155 is a critical mediator of the cellular effectors needed to clear primary and secondary S. pneumoniae colonizations. PMID:25156727

  16. A regulatory role for macrophage class A scavenger receptors in TLR4-mediated LPS responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunying; Wermeling, Fredrik; Sundqvist, Johanna; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Tryggvason, Karl; Pikkarainen, Timo; Karlsson, Mikael C I

    2010-05-01

    Recognition of microbial components by TLR, key sensors of infection, leads to induction of inflammatory responses. We found that, in vivo, TLR4 engagement by LPS induces up-regulation of the class A scavenger receptors (SR) macrophage receptor with a collagenous structure (MARCO) and SR-A, which occurs, at least in the case of MARCO, via both MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. When challenging mice with a low dose of LPS followed by a high dose, class A SR-deficient mice showed a higher survival rate than WT mice. This was paired with increased production of IL-10 and anti-LPS Ab, as well as increased activation status of marginal zone B cells. However, the receptors were not crucial for survival when challenging mice i.p. with Neisseria meningitidis or Listeria monocytogenes, but they were found to contribute to microbial capture and clearance. This indicates physiological significance for the up-regulation of class A SR during early stages of bacterial infection. Thus, we believe that we have revealed a mechanism where SR regulate the activation status of the immune system and are involved in balancing a proper immune response to infection. This regulation could also be important in maintaining tolerance since these receptors have been shown to be involved in regulation of self-reactivity. PMID:20162551

  17. Horizontal drilling in the Austin Chalk: Stratigraphic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, C.O. Jr. ); Bobigian, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling has renewed interest in the Austin chalk in south-central Texas. Large fields on opposite sides of the San Marcos arch Giddings to the northeast and Pearsall to the southwest were active with vertical drilling 10 years ago. Giddings' 4,500 Austin wells produced 209 million BO and 934 bcfg of gas through 1988; Pearsall's 1,440 wells produced 57 million BO and 35 bcfg of gas. Most vertical wells were completed, 20% were economic successes, 40% were marginal, 40% were uneconomic due to uneven areal distribution of near-vertical fractures and small faults, which provide reservoirs in otherwise tight chalk. Horizontal drilling, led by Amoco in Giddings and Oryx in Pearsall, enhances the chances of encountering the fractures by drilling perpendicular to the fracture trend. Horizontal drilling requires preselection of the stratigraphic horizon to be penetrated. One must understand the variable Austin stratigraphy to choose the zone with the most brittle character and best matrix porosity, both reduced by increased clay content. Chalk 130 ft thick on the San Marcos arch thickens to 600 to 800 ft in central Giddings field where middle marl separates lower and upper chalk Northeastward only lower chalk is preserved beneath a post-Austin submarine channel. The Austin thickens to 300-500 ft in Pearsall field where middle member ash beds separate lower and upper chalk inhibiting vertical reservoir communication. Locally, on the Pearsall arch, ash is missing, lower chalk thickens, and upper chalk thins.

  18. The Effect of Size on Ag Nanosphere Toxicity in Macrophage Cell Models and Lung Epithelial Cell Lines Is Dependent on Particle Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Raymond F.; Buckingham, Sarah; Holian, Andrij

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag) nanomaterials are increasingly used in a variety of commercial applications. This study examined the effect of size (20 and 110 nm) and surface stabilization (citrate and PVP coatings) on toxicity, particle uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a variety of macrophage and epithelial cell lines. The results indicated that smaller Ag (20 nm), regardless of coating, were more toxic in both cell types and most active in the THP-1 macrophages. TEM imaging demonstrated that 20 nm Ag nanospheres dissolved more rapidly than 110 nm Ag nanospheres in acidic phagolysosomes consistent with Ag ion mediated toxicity. In addition, there were some significant differences in epithelial cell line in vitro exposure models. The order of the epithelial cell lines’ sensitivity to Ag was LA4 > MLE12 > C10. The macrophage sensitivity to Ag toxicity was C57BL/6 AM > MARCO null AM, which indicated that the MARCO receptor was involved in uptake of the negatively charged Ag particles. These results support the idea that Ag nanosphere toxicity and NLRP3 inflammasome activation are determined by the rate of surface dissolution, which is based on relative surface area. This study highlights the importance of utilizing multiple models for in vitro studies to evaluate nanomaterials. PMID:24758926

  19. The roots of modern oncology: from discovery of new antitumor anthracyclines to their clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cassinelli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In May 1960, the Farmitalia CEO Dr. Bertini and the director of the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan Prof. Bucalossi (talent scout and city's Mayor) signed a research agreement for the discovery and development up to clinical trials of new natural antitumor agents. This agreement can be considered as a pioneering and fruitful example of a translational discovery program with relevant transatlantic connections. Owing to an eclectic Streptomyces, found near Castel del Monte (Apulia), and to the skilled and motivated participants of both institutions, a new natural antitumor drug, daunomycin, was ready for clinical trials within 3 years. Patent interference by the Farmitalia French partner was overcome by the good quality of the Italian drug and by the cooperation between Prof. Di Marco, director of the Istituto Ricerche Farmitalia Research Laboratories for Microbiology and Chemotherapy, and Prof. Karnofsky, head of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute of New York, leading to the first transatlantic clinical trials. The search for daunomycin's sister anthracyclines led to the discovery and development of adriamycin, one of the best drugs born in Milan. This was the second act prologue of the history of Italian antitumor discovery and clinical oncology, which started in July 1969 when Prof. Di Marco sent Prof. Bonadonna the first vials of adriamycin (doxorubicin) to be tested in clinical trials. This article reviews the Milan scene in the 1960s, a city admired and noted for the outstanding scientific achievements of its private and public institutions in drugs and industrial product discovery. PMID:27103205

  20. Investigation on spin-orbit torque induced perpendicular switching through voltage controlled magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Chong; Xu, Meng; Rosales, Marcus; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang

    2015-03-01

    Spin-orbit torques are shown to induce perpendicular magnetic switching in ultrathin ferromagnets (FMs) adjacent to heavy metals (HMs). Here, we demonstrated that the critical current density (Jc) for such perpendicular switching in HM/FM/oxide structures can be dramatically modulated by gate voltage induced reversible oxidation at FM/oxide interfaces. Through controlling perpendicular anisotropy and saturation magnetization (Ms) of FM layer, respectively, we show Ms, rather than anisotropy field as suggested in macrospin model, dominates Jc. Moreover, the measured external field dependent Jc results indicate that the spin-orbit torques have either a bulk or interface origin under different magnetization states. These results not only provide a promising means toward energy-efficient switching, but also offer further insights in understanding the reversal mechanism of the ferromagnetic layer. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  1. Paleomagnetism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province in the Algarve basin, Portugal: First insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Eric; Fernandes, Susana; Neres, Marta; Carvallo, Claire; Martins, Línia; Madeira, José; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2015-11-01

    We present new rock magnetic and paleomagnetic data of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) lavas cropping out in the Algarve basin (southern Portugal). Our results show that the magnetic mineralogy of the selected samples is primary and dominated by an assemblage of single-domain (SD) to multi-domain (MD) Ti-poor titanomagnetites. All samples carry a characteristic remanent magnetization of normal (positive) magnetic polarity, similarly to other circum-Atlantic CAMP lava sequences. Except for the sites located in the central part of the Algarve basin, site-based mean directions (5 sites, Group A) are comparable to the giant Messejana dyke's directions, suggesting that both lava flows and dyke were emplaced during the same geological interval (~ 200 Ma). However, sites located in the central part of the basin (4 sites; Group B), just east of the São Marcos-Quarteira fault zone, show a systematic discrepancy in the declination values, which is indicative of a significant vertical-axis rotation that we estimated to be ~ 30° clockwise. We suggest that the observed clockwise vertical-axis rotation was produced by a Riedel dextral shear zone of the São Marcos-Quarteira faults acting during the N-S compression that affected the Southern Portuguese margin in the Cenozoic. Our results provide important insights to unravel the complex history of the Algarve basin since the Mesozoic.

  2. Reprogramming Tumor-Associated Macrophages by Antibody Targeting Inhibits Cancer Progression and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Georgoudaki, Anna-Maria; Prokopec, Kajsa E; Boura, Vanessa F; Hellqvist, Eva; Sohn, Silke; Östling, Jeanette; Dahan, Rony; Harris, Robert A; Rantalainen, Mattias; Klevebring, Daniel; Sund, Malin; Brage, Suzanne Egyhazi; Fuxe, Jonas; Rolny, Charlotte; Li, Fubin; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Karlsson, Mikael C I

    2016-05-31

    Tumors are composed of multiple cell types besides the tumor cells themselves, including innate immune cells such as macrophages. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells present in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, they contribute to immunosuppression, enabling the establishment and persistence of solid tumors as well as metastatic dissemination. We have found that the pattern recognition scavenger receptor MARCO defines a subtype of suppressive TAMs and is linked to clinical outcome. An anti-MARCO monoclonal antibody was developed, which induces anti-tumor activity in breast and colon carcinoma, as well as in melanoma models through reprogramming TAM populations to a pro-inflammatory phenotype and increasing tumor immunogenicity. This anti-tumor activity is dependent on the inhibitory Fc-receptor, FcγRIIB, and also enhances the efficacy of checkpoint therapy. These results demonstrate that immunotherapies using antibodies designed to modify myeloid cells of the TME represent a promising mode of cancer treatment. PMID:27210762

  3. [Health and primary education in the regenerationist ideology at the open educational institution].

    PubMed

    Ballester, R; Perdiguero, E

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work is to reconstruct the discourse of the authors who published about issues establishing links between health and primary education in the Boletin de la Institucion Libre de Ensenanza at the time of the Spanish colonial crisis in 1898. This source has been chosen due to its relevance to Spanish pedagogical renovation. Physical education was taken as a model for analysis for two reasons: firstly, it is the aspect that received the most attention; secondly, it became the engine for change in the renovation programme. In addition, its holistic nature was intended to lead to the new citizen that was needed by the country after the loss of the colonies. PMID:11620570

  4. El Planetario Móvil de la Municipalidad de la ciudad de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, F. E.; Campos, M.; Goldes, G. V.; Carranza, G. J.; Romero, R.; Juri, H. O.

    Se describen las características y operatoria del nuevo Planetario Móvil. Se trata de un equipamiento de propiedad de la Municipalidad de la Ciudad de Córdoba que es operado por personal y en el predio de la Universidad, en virtud de un convenio suscripto entre ambas instituciones. El planetario consta de una cúpula inflable y de un proyector con programas alternativos que incluyen temas de astronomía, geografía, biología y medio ambiente, entre otros. En la actualidad opera en las instalaciones del Pabellón Argentina de la Ciudad Universitaria y recibe delegaciones escolares de todo el territorio provincial. El Planetario Móvil es parte de un proyecto más amplio de divulgación científica en el cual interactúan la Universidad y el Municipio.

  5. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    En el presente suplemento de la revista Nutrición Hospitalaria se resumen las conferencias presentadas en las Terceras Jornadas UCMASEN (Universidad Complutense de Madrid - Asociación de Estudios Nutricionales), bajo el título "Nutrición como estrategia en la mejora y promoción de la salud", que se celebraron durante los días 3 y 4 de febrero de 2016 en la Facultad de Farmacia de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Estas Jornadas han sido una actividad promovida por el grupo de investigación UCM-VALORNUT y han contado con el apoyo institucional de la Fundación Española de la Nutrición (FEN). PMID:27571854

  6. STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

    2013-05-01

    . For each document general information is displayed together with an extract of the information relating to the earthquake. If the complete document was available and no problem with the publishers rights a pdf copy of the document was included. We found this system extremely useful for studying historic earthquakes, as one can access immediately previous research works about an earthquake and it allows to check easily the historic information and so to validate the intensity data. So far, the intensity data have not been completed for earthquakes after 2000. This information would be important for improving calibration of intensity - magnitude calibrations of historic events, and is a work in progress. On the other hand, it is important to mention that "El Catálogo Sismológico Venezolano del siglo XX" (The Seismological Venezuelan Catalog), published in 2012, updates seismic information up to 2007, and that the STSHV was one of its primary sources of information.

  7. Poetry and the brain: Cajal's conjectures on the psychology of writers.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros Constantinos; Vivas, Ana B

    2009-01-01

    In 1902, Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934), the father of modern neuroscience and a 1906 Nobel laureate, contributed a preface to a book of poems by his fellow countryman, Spanish poet and dramatist Marcos Zapata (1844-1914). In that uncustomary-for his neuroscience followers-essay, Cajal unfolds his ideas on the literary genres of drama and comedy in relation to the workings of the human mind and sentiments. The same text was reissued almost half a century later in Spain and in Argentina under the title The Psychology of Artists. We present an English version of Cajal's essay, which may be of interest to both humanists and biologists, and which further denotes the celebrated neuroanatomist's attempt at understanding the mystery of the human mind. PMID:19168946

  8. Impact of point defects on III-nitride tunnel devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramaratne, Darshana; Lyons, John; van de Walle, Chris G.

    Heterostructures using GaN and InGaN are being pursued in designs of tunnel field-effect-transistors (TFETs) to enable low-power switching devices. Point defects and impurities in these heterostructures can adversely affect the performance of these devices through Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) and Trap-Assisted-Tunneling (TAT) processes. Using first-principles calculations based on a hybrid functional, we calculate the thermodynamic and charge-state switching levels as well as nonradiative recombination rates of point defects and impurities in GaN and InGaN. Gallium vacancies and their complexes, in particular, are found to be potentially detrimental centers. We then investigate how these defects can contribute to SRH and TAT processes in a nitride TFET device. This work was supported by the Center for Low Energy Systems Technology (LEAST), one of the six SRC STARnet Centers, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  9. Some properties of an infinite family of deformations of the harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    2010-12-01

    In memory of Marcos Moshinsky, who promoted the algebraic study of the harmonic oscillator, some results recently obtained on an infinite family of deformations of such a system are reviewed. This set, which was introduced by Tremblay, Turbiner, and Winternitz, consists in some Hamiltonians Hk on the plane, depending on a positive real parameter k. Two algebraic extensions of Hk are described. The first one, based on the elements of the dihedral group D2k and a Dunkl operator formalism, provides a convenient tool to prove the superintegrability of Hk for odd integer k. The second one, employing two pairs of fermionic operators, leads to a supersymmetric extension of Hk of the same kind as the familiar Freedman and Mende super-Calogero model. Some connection between both extensions is also outlined.

  10. Some properties of an infinite family of deformations of the harmonic oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Quesne, Christiane

    2010-12-23

    In memory of Marcos Moshinsky, who promoted the algebraic study of the harmonic oscillator, some results recently obtained on an infinite family of deformations of such a system are reviewed. This set, which was introduced by Tremblay, Turbiner, and Winternitz, consists in some Hamiltonians H{sub k} on the plane, depending on a positive real parameter k. Two algebraic extensions of H{sub k} are described. The first one, based on the elements of the dihedral group D{sub 2k} and a Dunkl operator formalism, provides a convenient tool to prove the superintegrability of H{sub k} for odd integer k. The second one, employing two pairs of fermionic operators, leads to a supersymmetric extension of H{sub k} of the same kind as the familiar Freedman and Mende super-Calogero model. Some connection between both extensions is also outlined.