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Sample records for mardin-darby canine kidney

  1. 4-chloro-1,2-phenylenediamine induces apoptosis in Mardin-Darby canine kidney cells via activation of caspases.

    PubMed

    Onn, Leong Chee; Ching, Chen Ssu; Lian, Tiong Yee; Foon, Loh Veng; Chew Hee, Ng; Moi, Chye Soi

    2014-06-01

    4-Chloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (4-Cl-o-PD) is a halogenated aromatic diamine that was used as a precursor for manufacturing permanent hair dyes. Despite its well-documented mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in a number of in vitro and in vivo models, its cytotoxicity and mode of action have not received similar attention. Here, we investigated the effect of 4-Cl-o-PD on Mardin-Darby canine kidney cells. It induced apoptosis and the evidence suggests its initiation by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results of various assays used show a dose-dependent (i) decrease in cell viability, (ii) increase in cells at sub-G1 phase and the G0/G1 phase arrested in cell cycle, (iii) increase in intracellular ROS accompanied by depletion of glutathione, and (iv) that apoptotic cell death probably involves activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. PMID:22778066

  2. An evidence-based review of therapies for canine chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Roudebush, P; Polzin, D J; Adams, L G; Towell, T L; Forrester, S D

    2010-05-01

    Successful treatment and prevention of kidney disease in dogs requires a multi-dimensional approach to identify and eliminate causes or exacerbating factors, provide professional evaluation on a regular basis and implement a comprehensive treatment programme when necessary. Over the years, many therapeutic and preventive interventions have been developed or advocated for chronic kidney disease in dogs, but evidence of efficacy or effectiveness is often lacking or highly variable. Accordingly, the main objective of this systematic review was to identify and critically appraise the evidence supporting various aspects of managing canine chronic kidney disease. PMID:20402842

  3. Elastography of the normal canine liver, spleen and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Andrew; Bradley, Kate; Birch, Sally; Browne, William J; Barberet, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Elastography is a simple, expedient and noninvasive technique that may be used to assess the elasticity or stiffness of a tissue, in conjunction with traditional B-mode ultrasonography. Quantitative assessment of tissue stiffness can be made which involves measurement of the shear wave velocity within the tissue of interest. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of elastography for clinical use in the abdomen of conscious small animals and to investigate factors that affect shear wave velocity measurement. Elastography was performed on the liver, spleen, and kidneys of 15 dogs at predefined depths within the parenchyma. Breed, age, gender, neuter status, and weight were documented for each animal. Depth at which measurements were taken had a significant negative relationship with the shear wave velocity value obtained. Individual dog effects, such as weight and gender, also appeared to have a significant effect on the shear wave velocity measurement for specific organs; weight had a significant positive effect on the shear wave velocity for each of the organs examined, whereas the effect of gender was inconsistent between organs (having a positive effect for the liver and a negative effect for the spleen). It is hoped that these results may act as a baseline to guide further work into the field of elastography in companion animals. PMID:24842271

  4. Functional and morphologic damage in the neonatally irradiated canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Peneyra, R.S.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1985-11-01

    Perinatal irradiation of the developing kidney results in progressive glomerulosclerosis (PGS) and renal failure. This syndrome may result from direct radiation damage to mature deep cortical nephrons and/or nephron functional adaptations resulting from outer cortical nephron ablation. Beagle dogs received single, whole-body exposures (330 R) to /sup 60/Co gamma radiation at 4 days of age (IR4) to study the combined effects of direct radiation damage and nephron loss, or at 30 days of age (IR30) to study the effects of renal irradiation alone. To study the effects of nephron loss alone, dogs underwent unilateral nephrectomy (UN4) or superficial hyperthermic renal ablation (HY4) at 4 days of age. Nephron loss due to irradiation (IR4) and partial renal ablation (UN4 and HY4) was associated with compensatory nephron hypertrophy and increased single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR), while irradiation at 30 days resulted in transitory decreased SNGFR. Similar degrees of PGS occurred in IR4 dogs which experienced both irradiation and loss of nephrons and UN4 and HY4 dogs which experienced only loss of nephrons. PGS of lesser severity also occurred in IR30 dogs. These findings indicate that PGS associated with perinatal renal irradiation results from direct radiation damage to deep cortical nephrons and compensatory functional changes occurring in response to loss of renal mass.

  5. Three-dimensional imaging of cholesterol and sphingolipids within a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell.

    PubMed

    Yeager, Ashley N; Weber, Peter K; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic stable isotope incorporation and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling performed on a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 were used to image the (18)O-cholesterol and (15)N-sphingolipid distributions within a portion of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell. Three-dimensional representations of the component-specific isotope distributions show clearly defined regions of (18)O-cholesterol and (15)N-sphingolipid enrichment that seem to be separate subcellular compartments. The low levels of nitrogen-containing secondary ions detected at the (18)O-enriched regions suggest that these (18)O-cholesterol-rich structures may be lipid droplets, which have a core consisting of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerides. PMID:26746168

  6. Analysis of the Weinbaum-Jiji model of blood flow in the canine kidney cortex for self-heated thermistors.

    PubMed

    Valvano, J W; Nho, S; Anderson, G T

    1994-05-01

    The Weinbaum-Jiji equation can be applied to situations where: 1) the vascular anatomy is know; 2) the blood velocities are known; 3) the effective modeling volume includes many vessels; and 4) the vessel equilibration length is small compared to the actual length of the vessel. These criteria are satisfied in the situation where steady-state heated thermistors are placed in the kidney cortex. In this paper, the Weinbaum-Jiji bioheat equation is used to analyze the steady state response of four different sized self-heated thermistors in the canine kidney. This heat transfer model is developed based on actual physical measurements of the vasculature of the canine kidney cortex. In this model, parallel-structured interlobular arterioles and venules with a 60 microns diameter play the dominant role in the heat transfer due to blood flow. Continuous power is applied to the thermistor, and the instrument measures the resulting steady state temperature rise. If an accurate thermal model is available, perfusion can be calculated from these steady-state measurements. The finite element simulations correlate well in shape and amplitude with experimental results in the canine kidney. In addition, this paper shows that the Weinbaum-Jiji equation can not be used to model the transient response of the thermistor because the modeling volume does not include enough vessels and the vessel equilibration length is not small compared to the actual length of the vessel. PMID:8078327

  7. Effects of in vitro potassium on ammoniagenesis in rat and canine kidney tissue.

    PubMed

    Sleeper, R S; Belanger, P; Lemieux, G; Preuss, H G

    1982-02-01

    Decreased ammonium (NH4+) excretion is associated with hyperkalemia. To determine if potassium could directly influence renal ammonia production, we investigated ammoniagenesis by rat and canine renal cortical tissues in vitro at different potassium concentrations. Renal tissue from normal and acidotic rats and normal dogs incubated in glutamine, lactate, and 7 to 10 mEq/liters of potassium or 25 mEq/liters of potassium produced significantly less ammonia than slices incubating in glutamine, lactate, and 4 to 5 mEq of potassium. Glutamate accumulation, which follows glutamine deamidation, did not decrease and even increased at 25 mEq/liters of potassium. With glutamine as the sole substrate, decreased ammoniagenesis was seen only at higher potassium concentrations (greater than 16 mEq/liters) than when lactate was also present. The depression to glutamine ammoniagenesis by high concentrations of potassium was partially obliterated in an anaerobic environment. When glutamate replaced glutamine as the precursor, renal ammonia produced by slices in 7 and 25 mEq/liters was again significantly lower than by slices incubating in 4 mEq/liters. We blocked glutamine synthesis by rat kidney slices with dl-methionine dl-sulfoximine when glutamate was the renal ammonia precursor. This essentially allows glutamate deamination to produce ammonia. Potassium depressed glutamate deamination significantly at 7 mEq/liters (decreases 13%) and at 25 mEq/liters of potassium (decreases 35%) as compared to 4 mEq/liters. The above findings are consistent with a major depressive effect of in vitro potassium on glutamate deamination in rat and canine kidneys. Other evidence, especially from rat tissue studies, suggests that potassium also may affect glutamine deamination directly. Rat kidney slices incubating in the high potassium medium of 7 mEq/liter or greater also consumed less oxygen in the presence of glutamine (P less than 0.01), oxidatively decarboxylated less glutamine (P less than 0.02) and produced less glucose from glutamine (P less than 0.01). PMID:6121928

  8. Growth hormone activates phospholipase C in proximal tubular basolateral membranes from canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.A.; Hammerman, M.R. )

    1989-08-01

    To delineate pathways for signal transduction by growth hormone (GH) in proximal tubule, the authors incubated basolateral membranes isolated from canine kidney with human growth hormone (hGH) or human prolactin (hPrl) and measured levels of inositol trisphosphate (InsP{sub 3}) in suspensions and of diacylglycerol extractable from the membranes. Incubation with hGH, but not hPrl, increased levels of InsP{sub 3} and diacylglycerol in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal effects occurred between 0.1 and 1 nM hGH. Increased levels of InsP{sub 3} were measured after as little as 5 sec of incubation with 1 nM hGH, and increase was maximal after 15 sec. Increases were no longer detectable after 60 sec because of dephosphorylation of InsP{sub 3} in membrane suspensions. hGH did not affect rates of dephosphorylation. hGH-stimulated increases in InsP{sub 3} were detectable in membranes suspended in 0, 0.1, and 0.2 {mu}M calcium but not in 0.3 or 1.0 {mu}M calcium. {sup 125}I-labeled hGH-receptor complexes with M{sub r} values of 66,000 and 140,000 were identified in isolated basolateral membranes. The findings establish that GH activates phospholipase C in isolated canine renal proximal tubular basolateral membranes, potentially after binding to a specific receptor. This process could mediate signal transmission by GH across the plasma membrane of the proximal tubular cell and elsewhere.

  9. TGN38 recycles basolaterally in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, A K; Humphrey, J S; Wagner, M; Miesenböck, G; Le Bivic, A; Bonifacino, J S; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1994-01-01

    Sorting of newly synthesized plasma membrane proteins to the apical or basolateral surface domains of polarized cells is currently thought to take place within the trans-Golgi network (TGN). To explore the relationship between protein localization to the TGN and sorting to the plasma membrane in polarized epithelial cells, we have expressed constructs encoding the TGN marker, TGN38, in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We report that TGN38 is predominantly localized to the TGN of these cells and recycles via the basolateral membrane. Analyses of the distribution of Tac-TGN38 chimeric proteins in MDCK cells suggest that the cytoplasmic domain of TGN38 has information leading to both TGN localization and cycling through the basolateral surface. Mutations of the cytoplasmic domain that disrupt TGN localization also lead to nonpolarized delivery of the chimeric proteins to both surface domains. These results demonstrate an apparent equivalence of basolateral and TGN localization determinants and support an evolutionary relationship between TGN and plasma membrane sorting processes. Images PMID:7865877

  10. Extracellular detection of K+ release during migration of transformed Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Danker, T; Gassner, B; Oberleithner, H; Schwab, A

    1996-01-01

    Madin Darby canine kidney cells transformed by alkaline stress (MDCK-F cells) constitutively migrate at a rate of about 1 microm.min-1. Migration depends on the intermittent activity of a Ca2+-stimulated, 53-pS K+ channel (KCa channel) that is inhibitable by charybdotoxin. In the present study we examined whether this intermittent KCa channel activity results in a significant K+ loss across the plasma membrane. K+ efflux from MDCK-F cells should result in a transient increase of extracellular K+ ([K+]e) in the close vicinity of a migrating cell. However, due to the rapid diffusion of K+ ions into the virtually infinite extracellular space, such a transient increase in [K+]e was too small to be detected by conventional K+-selective electrodes. Therefore, we developed a "shielded ion-sensitive microelectrode" (SIM) that limited diffusion to a small compartment, formed by a shielding pipette which surrounded the tip of the K+-sensitive microelectrode. The SIM improved the signal to noise ratio by a factor of at least three, thus transient increases of [K+]e in the vicinity of MDCK-F cells became detectable. They occurred at a rate of 1.3 min-1. The cell releases 40 fmol K+ during each burst of intermittent KCa channel activity, which corresponds to about 15% of the total cellular K+ content. Since transmembrane K+ loss must be accompanied by anion loss and therefore leads to a decrease of cell volume, these findings support the hypothesis that intermittent volume changes are a prerequisite for the migration of MDCK-F cells. PMID:9019733

  11. In vivo reflectance measurement of optical properties, blood oxygenation and motexafin lutetium uptake in canine large bowels, kidneys and prostates.

    PubMed

    Solonenko, Michael; Cheung, Rex; Busch, Theresa M; Kachur, Alex; Griffin, Gregory M; Vulcan, Theodore; Zhu, Timothy C; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Hahn, Stephen M; Yodh, A G

    2002-03-21

    Motexafin lutetium (MLu) is a second-generation photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. We have developed and applied a diffuse optical reflectance spectrometer for in vivo measurement of MLu uptake, optical properties, haemoglobin concentration and haemoglobin oxygen saturation in normal canine large bowels, kidneys and prostates. The probe consists of a broadband fibre-optic-coupled light source and detector fibres placed at various distances from the source fibre to collect reflected light. An analysis based on the diffusion approximation of the photon transport equation was used to recover tissue optical properties from the reflectance measurements. The instrumentation and analysis methods were validated using measurements from homogeneous, highly scattering phantoms with known MLu concentrations. The same techniques were then used to estimate chromophore concentrations of normal canine large bowels, kidneys and prostates. We estimated (mean (standard deviation)) total haemoglobin concentrations of 119 (25), 340 (92) and 51 (11) microM in the large bowels, kidneys and prostates of four dogs, respectively; tissue blood oxygen saturations in these same organs were 75 (15), 76 (21) and 74 (16) per cent, respectively. Tissue MLu concentrations (mg l(-1)) were estimated from data taken 3.5 h after injection of a 2 mg kg(-1) injected dose; data from three dogs gave concentrations of 2.4 (0.4) in large bowels, 6.8 (1.3) in kidneys and 2.2 (1.1) in prostates. The reduced scattering coefficients, mu's, estimated for large bowels, kidneys and prostates at 730 nm were, respectively: 10.1 (1.3), 19.6 (4.0) and 12.7 (0.6) cm(-1). We observed significant variability in MLu uptake, tissue scattering and haemoglobin concentration between organs and even between the same organ in different dogs. This class of in situ optical property measurement may be desirable to individualize PDT drug and light delivery. PMID:11936174

  12. Adhesion of calcium oxalate crystals to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and some effects of glycosaminoglycans or cell injuries.

    PubMed

    Ebisuno, S; Kohjimoto, Y; Tamura, M; Ohkawa, T

    1995-01-01

    The present investigation studied the quantitative adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals to the surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, which exhibit many characteristics of renal cortical collecting tubule cells. COM crystals adhered to the cell surface, and the attachment showed a time and concentration dependency with plateau. The results suggested that the attachment of microcrystals to the cortical tubular cell might be one of the earliest processes in the formation of kidney stones. Pretreatment with glycosaminoglycans significantly reduced the adherent crystals. Injuries to the Madin-Darby cells induced by 0.1 M HCl and gentamicin resulted in significant decreases of COM crystal adhesion to the cell surface. It was suggested that urinary glycosaminoglycans might play some critical role in preventing crystal adhesion to these cellular membranes and that cell injuries might not be essential for the attachment of microcrystals to the tubular cells. PMID:8521899

  13. Taurine reduces FK506-induced generation of ROS and activation of JNK and Bax in Madin Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seol-Hee; Park, Hye-Min; Kim, Shang-Jin; Lee, Mun-Young; Kim, Gi-Beum; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Woo, Jeong-Nam; Kim, In-Shik; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2010-08-01

    The immunosuppressive compound FK506 has been successfully used in kidney and liver transplant recipients. However, the compound can induce significant side effects on kidney function. Taurine is a potent free radical scavenger that attenuates a variety of renal diseases that are the consequence of excessive oxygen free radical damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate FK506-mediated death of Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We determined the calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) concentration in cultured MDCK cells by microfluorescence techniques and the level of activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK), Bcl-2 and Bax proteins by Western blot. Treatment with 10 muM FK506 induced apoptosis in MDCK cells by increasing the level of intracellular ROS and Ca(2+) and by decreaseing the level of intracellular Mg(2+). This increase in intracellular ROS promoted JNK and Bax activation, which increased FK506-induced MDCK cell death. Taurine reduced the FK506-induced generation of ROS and activation of JNK and Bax. The results indicate that taurine can prevent FK506-induced kidney toxicity. PMID:20056734

  14. The effects of parathyroid hormone and estradiol on cadmium accumulation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the toxic metal cadmium causes osteomalacia, osteoporosis, increased serum parathyroid hormone, renal stone formation, hypercalciuria and renal tubular dysfunction, reflecting one or more disturbances of calcium homeostasis. Since renal cadmium (Cd[sup 2+]) transport proceeds in both proximal and distal tubules and parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium reabsorption at distal nephron sites, it was postulated that PTH may also stimulate Cd[sup 2+] transport in distal tubules. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which express a distal phenotype including PTH-sensitive adenylate cyclase and calcium transport, were used as the cell model for the present study. Cadmium uptake was measured using [[sup 109]Cd[sup 2+

  15. Epithelial Sheet Folding Induces Lumen Formation by Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells in a Collagen Gel

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Sumire; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ogata, Genki; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Lumen formation is important for morphogenesis; however, an unanswered question is whether it involves the collective migration of epithelial cells. Here, using a collagen gel overlay culture method, we show that Madin-Darby canine kidney cells migrated collectively and formed a luminal structure in a collagen gel. Immediately after the collagen gel overlay, an epithelial sheet folded from the periphery, migrated inwardly, and formed a luminal structure. The inhibition of integrin-?1 or Rac1 activity decreased the migration rate of the peripheral cells after the sheets folded. Moreover, lumen formation was perturbed by disruption of apical-basolateral polarity induced by transforming growth factor-?1. These results indicate that cell migration and cell polarity play an important role in folding. To further explore epithelial sheet folding, we developed a computer-simulated mechanical model based on the rigidity of the extracellular matrix. It indicated a soft substrate is required for the folding movement. PMID:25170757

  16. Synergistic antioxidant activity of resveratrol with genistein in high-glucose treated Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    CHU, CHISHIH; LU, FUNG-JOU; YEH, RANG-HUI; LI, ZIH-LING; CHEN, CHING-HSEIN

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (Re), a stilbenoid, is associated with a potential benefit in controlling certain biomarkers in type II diabetes. Genistein (Ge), a phytoestrogen, may act as an antioxidant and thus may diminish damaging effects of free radicals in tissues. In the present study, a potential synergistic antioxidant effect of an Re/Ge combination on high-glucose (HG) incubation in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells was evaluated. Compared with the treatment of Re or Ge alone, the Re/Ge combination synergistically decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydroxyl radicals in MDCK cells. This synergistic antioxidant effect correlated with the inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expression and an increase in γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression. In addition, mitochondrial complex I, NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase contributed towards ROS overproduction when the MDCK cells were incubated with HG. In conclusion, the Re/Ge combination synergistically enhanced the antioxidant effect in HG-incubated kidney cells, possibly through an enhanced antioxidant regulation mechanism. The Re/Ge combination may be a potential benefit against oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus.

  17. High yield production of influenza virus in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with stable knockdown of IRF7.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Itsuki; Takaku, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Masato; Yamamoto, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a serious public health problem that causes a contagious respiratory disease. Vaccination is the most effective strategy to reduce transmission and prevent influenza. In recent years, cell-based vaccines have been developed with continuous cell lines such as Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero. However, wild-type influenza and egg-based vaccine seed viruses will not grow efficiently in these cell lines. Therefore, improvement of virus growth is strongly required for development of vaccine seed viruses and cell-based influenza vaccine production. The aim of our research is to develop novel MDCK cells supporting highly efficient propagation of influenza virus in order to expand the capacity of vaccine production. In this study, we screened a human siRNA library that involves 78 target molecules relating to three major type I interferon (IFN) pathways to identify genes that when knocked down by siRNA lead to enhanced production of influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 in A549 cells. The siRNAs targeting 23 candidate genes were selected to undergo a second screening pass in MDCK cells. We examined the effects of knockdown of target genes on the viral production using newly designed siRNAs based on sequence analyses. Knockdown of the expression of a canine gene corresponding to human IRF7 by siRNA increased the efficiency of viral production in MDCK cells through an unknown process that includes the mechanisms other than inhibition of IFN-?/? induction. Furthermore, the viral yield greatly increased in MDCK cells stably transduced with the lentiviral vector for expression of short hairpin RNA against IRF7 compared with that in control MDCK cells. Therefore, we propose that modified MDCK cells with lower expression level of IRF7 could be useful not only for increasing the capacity of vaccine production but also facilitating the process of seed virus isolation from clinical specimens for manufacturing of vaccines. PMID:23555825

  18. Effects of different concentrations of artemisinin and artemisinin-iron combination treatment on Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Payman; Mohammadpour, Hemn; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquitrepenelactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is a naturally occurring substance from Artemisia species plants. Artemisia species have been used in oriental medicine for centuries to treat malaria, gastrointestinal helminthosia, diarrhea, and as an antipyretic and sedative agent. Antileishmanial activity of the plants has been announced a few years ago. Dogs are the most important reservoir of leishmaniasis in some parts of the world. To use it as an antileishmanial drug in dogs, its side effects on different organs, among them the kidney as the organ of elimination have to be elucidated. Artemisinin with different concentrations (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 μg/ml) was added to the culture of MDCK (Madin darby canine kidney) cells with and without iron (86 μg/dl). All the changes were controlled and photographed every 12 hours using an invert microscope. After 60 hours, supernatants and cell extracts were examined for LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) concentration and total protein. Also TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was performed on cell extracts. Some microscopic slides were prepared from the cells and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic exams. Biochemical parameters showed cellular reaction and injury in a concentration dependent manner. Cell injury was more severe in the iron-added groups. Microscopic exams showed cell and nuclear swelling, granular degeneration, vacuole and vesicle formation, cellular detachment, piknosis, karyorrhexis, cellular necrosis and inhibition of new mitosis. On using the drug for leishmaniasis treatment in the dog, it should be done with caution and supervision. PMID:22783147

  19. Molecular characterization of gp40, a mucin-type glycoprotein from the apical plasma membrane of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (type I).

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, G; Lottspeich, F; Maisner, A; Klenk, H D; Herrler, G

    1997-01-01

    gp40 has been recently identified as a major apical cell-surface sialoglycoprotein of type-I Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, a cell line widely used for the study of polarized transport. The determination of two internal amino acid sequences of the purified glycoprotein by Edman degradation enabled us to isolated the cDNA encoding the 18.6 kDa protein backbone of gp40. Sequence analysis revealed that gp40 is a type-I membrane protein which has several characteristics in common with glycophorin A and other mucin-type glycoproteins. At least 14 serine/threonine residues were found to be used for O-glycosylation. No potential sites for N-glycosylation were detected. gp40 turned out to represent the canine homologue of a cell-surface antigen expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells in rat and mouse. Potential O-glycosylation sites, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains were found to be highly conserved in the three species. gp40 was detected in canine lung, intestine, kidney, brain and heart but not in liver and spleen. The subline II of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was found not to express gp40. Stable expression of gp40 in transfected type-II cells revealed that gp40 is predominantly delivered to the apical plasma membrane. N-Glycans and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, both proposed apical targeting signals, are absent from gp40, indicating that other determinants are responsible for its polarized transport. PMID:9337856

  20. The Effect of Capsaicin Derivatives on Tight-Junction Integrity and Permeability of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Mathias; Chalapala, Sudharani; Gorzelanny, Christian; Perali, Ramu Sridhar; Goycoolea, Francisco Martin

    2016-02-01

    Capsaicin is known to interfere with tight junctions (TJs) of epithelial cells and therefore to enhance paracellular permeability of poorly absorbable drugs. However, due to its low water solubility, pungency, and cytotoxicity, its pharmacologic use is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of capsaicin derivatives of synthetic (e.g., 10-hydroxy-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)decanamide, etc.) and natural (olvanil and dihydrocapsaicin) origin on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney-C7 cells. Impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the transepithelial electrical resistance and the capacitance. Permeability assays with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran were carried out to evaluate the impact on cell permeability. The results show that lipophilicity could play an important role for the interference with TJ and that the mechanism is independent from the ion channel TRPV-1 and hence on the flux of calcium into the cells. In summary, we synthesized 4 derivatives of capsaicin of lower lipophilicity and compared their properties with other well-known vanilloids. We show that these compounds are able to enhance the permeability of a hydrophilic macromolecule, by opening the TJ for a shorter time than capsaicin. This behavior is dependent on the lipophilicity of the molecule. Understanding of these phenomena may lead to better control of administration of therapeutic molecules. PMID:26869424

  1. Activation of protein kinase C and phospholipase A2 by phorbol diester in Madin Darby canine kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.; Daniel, L.W.; Waite, M.

    1987-05-01

    The authors report that in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells activation of protein kinase C by TPA correlates with activation of a phospholipase A2. Exposure of MDCK cells to TPA induced protein kinase C translocation from the cytosol to the particulate fraction of the cells and stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins of 40,000 and 48,000 daltons. The dose response and time course for stimulation of protein phosphorylation by TPA was similar to that for the activation of a phospholipase A2. Two compounds which inhibit protein kinase C by different mechanisms inhibited activation of protein kinase C in MDCK cells. Both 1-octadecyl-2-methoxy-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH3) and 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)piperazine inhibited protein kinase C from MDCK cells and inhibited the TPA stimulation of protein phosphorylation in the intact cells. Either compound inhibited the release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids induced by TPA and consequently decreased prostaglandin synthesis. Phospholipase A2 was not directly inhibited since ET-18-OCH3 failed to inhibit A23187 induced arachidonic acid release. Other studies showed that the ability of the cells to convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins was not effects by the ET-18-OCH3. Thus, activation of protein kinase C by TPA causes the activation of a phospholipase A2 involved in arachidonic acid release in the MDCK cells.

  2. Increased release of norepinephrine and dopamine from canine kidney during bilateral carotid occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, T.; Hjemdahl, P.; DiBona, G.F.

    1987-02-01

    The renal overflow of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) to plasma from the innervated kidney was studied at rest and during sympathetic nervous system activation by bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCO) in vagotomized dogs under barbiturate or barbiturate/nitrous oxide anesthesia. BCO elevated arterial pressure and the arterial plasma concentration of NE, DA, and epinephrine (Epi). Renal vascular resistance (renal arterial pressure kept constant) increased by 15 +/- 7% and the net renal venous outflows (renal veno-arterial concentration difference x renal plasma flow) of NE and DA were enhanced. To obtain more correct estimates of the renal contribution to the renal venous catecholamine outflow, they corrected for the renal extraction of arterial catecholamines, assessed as the extractions of (/sup 3/H)NE, (/sup 3/H)DA, or endogenous Epi. The (/sup 3/H)NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma increased from 144 +/- 40 to 243 +/- 64 pmol-min/sup -1/ during BCO, which, when compared with a previous study of the (/sup 3/H)NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma evoked by electrical renal nerve stimulation, corresponds to a 40% increase in nerve impulse frequency from approx. 0.6 Hz. If the renal catecholamine extraction was not taken into account the effect of BCO was underestimated. The renal DA overflow to plasma was about one-fifth of the NE overflow both at rest and during BCO, indicating that there was no preferential activation of noradrenergic or putative dopaminergic nerves by BCO.

  3. The subcellular organization of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells during the formation of a polarized epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bacallao, R; Antony, C; Dotti, C; Karsenti, E; Stelzer, E H; Simons, K

    1989-12-01

    Studies of the developing trophectoderm in the mouse embryo have shown that extensive cellular remodeling occurs during epithelial formation. In this investigation, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy is used to examine the three-dimensional changes in cellular architecture that take place during the polarization of a terminally differentiated epithelial cell line. Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were plated at a low density on permeable filter supports. Antibodies that specifically recognize components of the tight junction, adherens junction, microtubules, centrosomes, and the Golgi complex were used to study the spatial remodeling of the cytoarchitecture during the formation of the polarized cell layer. The immunofluorescence data were correlated with establishment of functional tight junctions as measured by transepithelial resistance and back-exchange of the cell surface, labeled with metabolites of the fluorescent lipid analogue N-(7-[4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole]) aminocaproyl sphingosine. 1 d after plating, single cells had microtubules, radiating from a broad region, that contained the centrosomes and the Golgi complex. 2 d after plating, the cells had grown to confluence and had formed functional tight junctions close to the substratum. The centrioles had split and no longer organized the microtubules which were running above and below the nucleus. The Golgi complex had spread around the nucleus. By the fifth day after plating, the final polarized state had been achieved. The junctional complex had moved greater than 10 microns upward from its basal location. The centrioles were together below the apical membrane, and the Golgi complex formed a ribbon-like convoluted structure located in the apical region above the nucleus. The microtubules were organized in an apical web and in longitudinal microtubule bundles in the apical-basal axis of the columnar cell. The longitudinal microtubules were arranged with their minus ends spread over the apical region of the cell and their plus ends toward the basal region. These findings show that there is an extensive remodeling of epithelial cytoarchitecture after formation of cell-cell contacts. Reorganization of the microtubule network results in functional polarization of the cytoplasm. PMID:2592406

  4. A novel canine kidney cell line model for the evaluation of neoplastic development: karyotype evolution associated with spontaneous immortalization and tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Omeir, R; Thomas, R; Teferedegne, B; Williams, C; Foseh, G; Macauley, J; Brinster, L; Beren, J; Peden, K; Breen, M; Lewis, A M

    2015-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying spontaneous neoplastic transformation in cultured mammalian cells remain poorly understood, confounding recognition of parallels with the biology of naturally occurring cancer. The broad use of tumorigenic canine cell lines as research tools, coupled with the accumulation of cytogenomic data from naturally occurring canine cancers, makes the domestic dog an ideal system in which to investigate these relationships. We developed a canine kidney cell line, CKB1-3T7, which allows prospective examination of the onset of spontaneous immortalization and tumorigenicity. We documented the accumulation of cytogenomic aberrations in CKB1-3T7 over 24 months in continuous culture. The majority of aberrations emerged in parallel with key phenotypic changes in cell morphology, growth kinetics, and tumor incidence and latency. Focal deletion of CDKN2A/B emerged first, preceding the onset and progression of tumorigenic potential, and progressed to a homozygous deletion across the cell population during extended culture. Interestingly, CKB1-3T7 demonstrated a tumorigenic phenotype in vivo prior to exhibiting loss of contact inhibition in vitro. We also performed the first genome-wide characterization of the canine tumorigenic cell line MDCK, which also exhibited CDKN2A/B deletion. MDCK and CKB1-3T7 cells shared several additional aberrations that we have reported previously as being highly recurrent in spontaneous canine cancers, many of which, as with CDKN2A/B deletion, are evolutionarily conserved in their human counterparts. The conservation of these molecular events across multiple species, in vitro and in vivo, despite their contrasting karyotypic architecture, is a powerful indicator of a common mechanism underlying emerging neoplastic activity. Through integrated cytogenomic and phenotypic characterization of serial passages of CKB1-3T7 from initiation to development of a tumorigenic phenotype, we present a robust and readily accessible model (to be made available through the American Type Culture Collection) of spontaneous neoplastic transformation that overcomes many of the limitations of earlier studies. PMID:25957863

  5. A mathematical model for simultaneous spatio-temporal dynamics of calcium and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roose, T; Chapman, S J; Maini, P K

    2006-11-01

    The landmark paper by Hirose et al. (Hirose, K., Kadowaki, S., Tanabe, M., Takeshima, H., Iino, M., Science 284:1527-1530, 1999) presented experimental investigations to show that not only can calcium upregulate IP(3), but that it can also have an inhibitory effect on IP(3). In this paper, we present a preliminary model, which is consistent with these experiments. This model includes positive and negative feedback between calcium and IP(3) and is able to reproduce more precisely the data presented in Hirose et al. (Hirose, K., Kadowaki, S., Tanabe, M., Takeshima, H., Iino, M., Science 284:1527-1530, 1999). In the second part of the paper, the intracellular and intercellular calcium movement in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells is investigated. With the aid of the model we are able to identify the aspects of IP(3) and calcium signalling, which should be studied further experimentally before refining the model. PMID:16868851

  6. Exposure of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells to Oxalate and Calcium Oxalate Crystals Activates Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH)-Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aslam; Byer, Karen; Khan, Saeed R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase activity in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the production of reactive oxygen species on exposure to oxalate (Ox) or calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. METHODS Monolayers of confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were exposed to 100, 300, 500 μmol, 1 mmol Ox or 33, 66, 132 μg/cm2 CaOx crystals for 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, or 3 hours. After specified periods of exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals, lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue exclusion, activation of NADPH oxidase, and superoxide production were determined using standard procedures. The production of Nox4, a membrane associated subunit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme, was determined by western blot analysis. RESULTS Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals leads to time- and concentration-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase. Western blot analysis showed an increase in the production of Nox4. The production of superoxide also changed in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximum increases after 30-minute exposure to the highest concentrations of Ox and CaOx crystals. Longer exposures did not change the results or resulted in decreased activities. Exposure to higher concentrations also caused increased lactate dehydrogenase release and trypan blue exclusion indicating cell damage. CONCLUSION Results indicate that cells of the distal tubular origin are equipped with NADPH oxidase that is activated by exposures to Ox and CaOx crystals. Higher concentrations of both lead to cell injury, most probably through the increased reactive oxygen species production by the exposed cells. PMID:24360063

  7. Novel MAPK-dependent and -independent tubulogenes identified via microarray analysis of 3D-cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Heszele, Maria F.; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Hellman, Nathan E.; McKenna, Sarah; Choi, Soo Young; Huang, Liwei; Tobias, John W.; Park, Kwon Moo

    2014-01-01

    Cystogenesis and tubulogenesis are basic building blocks for many epithelial organs, including the kidney. Most researchers have used two-dimensional (2D) cell culture to investigate signaling pathways downstream of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We hypothesize that three-dimensional (3D) collagen-grown Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which form cysts and then tubulate in response to HGF, are a much more in vivo-like system for the identification of novel tubulogenes. With the use of a canine microarray containing over 20,000 genes, 2,417 genes were identified as potential tubulogenes that were differentially regulated, exclusively in 3D-grown MDCK cells. Among these, 840 were dependent on MAPK signaling. Importantly, this work shows that many putative tubulogenes, previously identified via microarray analysis of 2D cultures, including by us, do not change in 3D culture and vice versa. The use of a 3D-culture system allowed for the identification of novel MAPK-dependent and -independent genes that regulate early renal tubulogenesis in vitro, e.g., matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Knockdown of MMP1 led to defects in cystogenesis and tubulogenesis in 3D-grown MDCK cells, most likely due to problems establishing normal polarity. We suggest that data obtained from 2D cultures, even those using MDCK cells treated with HGF, should not be automatically extrapolated to factors important for cystogenesis and tubulogenesis. Instead, 3D culture, which more closely replicates the biological environment and is therefore a more accurate model for identifying tubulogenes, is preferred. Results from the present analysis will be used to build a more accurate model of the signaling pathways that control cystogenesis and tubulogenesis. PMID:24573390

  8. Kidney.

    PubMed

    Hart, A; Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Gustafson, S K; Stewart, D E; Cherikh, W S; Wainright, J L; Boyle, G; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L; Israni, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplant provides significant survival, cost, and quality-of-life benefits over dialysis in patients with end-stage kidney disease, but the number of kidney transplant candidates on the waiting list continues to grow annually. By the end of 2014, nearly 100,000 adult candidates and 1500 pediatric candidates were waiting for kidney transplant. Not surprisingly, waiting times also continued to increase, along with the number of adult candidates removed from the list due to death or deteriorating medical condition. Death censored graft survival has increased after both living and deceased donor transplants over the past decade in adult recipients. The majority of the trends seen over the past 5 years continued in 2014. However, the new allocation system was implemented in late 2014, providing an opportunity to assess changes in these trends in the coming years. PMID:26755262

  9. Apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells: role of cell shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Orlov, S N; Dam, T V; Tremblay, J; Hamet, P

    1996-04-25

    Cell volume decrease is known to be one of the earliest steps of apoptosis in immune system cells. In this study, we compared the kinetics of apoptosis and cell volume adjustment in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the aorta of normotensive Brown-Norway (BN.1x) as well as spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats and in Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The transfer of VSMC to serum-deprived medium led to a transient cell volume decrease and to increased apoptosis. Both the cell volume decrease and apoptosis displayed faster kinetics in SHR than in BN.1x VSMC. Increased tonicity of serum-deprived medium by the addition of 200 mM mannitol augmented apoptosis in VSMC by 2.5- to 3-fold. In contrast to VSMC, neither apoptosis nor the cell volume of MDCK cells was affected by serum deprivation. Apoptosis in MDCK cells was also insensitive to tonicity of serum-deprived medium. There results demonstrate an initial volume decrease in VSMC undergoing apoptosis and suggest that this phenomenon is involved in triggering the apoptotic process. PMID:8630026

  10. Isolation, characterization, and expansion methods for defined primary renal cell populations from rodent, canine, and human normal and diseased kidneys.

    PubMed

    Presnell, Sharon C; Bruce, Andrew T; Wallace, Shay M; Choudhury, Sumana; Genheimer, Christopher W; Cox, Bryan; Guthrie, Kelly; Werdin, Eric S; Tatsumi-Ficht, Patricia; Ilagan, Roger M; Kelley, Russell W; Rivera, Elias A; Ludlow, John W; Wagner, Belinda J; Jayo, Manuel J; Bertram, Timothy A

    2011-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem; the growing gap between the number of patients awaiting transplant and organs actually transplanted highlights the need for new treatments to restore renal function. Regenerative medicine is a promising approach from which treatments for organ-level disorders (e.g., neurogenic bladder) have emerged and translated to clinics. Regenerative templates, composed of biodegradable material and autologous cells, isolated and expanded ex vivo, stimulate native-like organ tissue regeneration after implantation. A critical step for extending this strategy from bladder to kidney is the ability to isolate, characterize, and expand functional renal cells with therapeutic potential from diseased tissue. In this study, we developed methods that yield distinct subpopulations of primary kidney cells that are compatible with process development and scale-up. These methods were translated to rodent, large mammal, and human kidneys, and then to rodent and human tissues with advanced CKD. Comparative in vitro studies demonstrated that phenotype and key functional attributes were retained consistently in ex vivo cultures regardless of species or disease state, suggesting that autologous sourcing of cells that contribute to in situ kidney regeneration after injury is feasible, even with biopsies from patients with advanced CKD. PMID:20846053

  11. Similar uptake but different trafficking and escape routes of reovirus virions and infectious subvirion particles imaged in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Boulant, Steeve; Stanifer, Megan; Kural, Comert; Cureton, David K; Massol, Ramiro; Nibert, Max L; Kirchhausen, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Polarized epithelial cells that line the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts form a barrier that many viruses must breach to infect their hosts. Current understanding of cell entry by mammalian reovirus (MRV) virions and infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs), generated from MRV virions by extracellular proteolysis in the digestive tract, are mostly derived from in vitro studies with nonpolarized cells. Recent live-cell imaging advances allow us for the first time to visualize events at the apical surface of polarized cells. In this study, we used spinning-disk confocal fluorescence microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution to follow the uptake and trafficking dynamics of single MRV virions and ISVPs at the apical surface of live polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Both types of particles were internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but virions and ISVPs exhibited strikingly different trafficking after uptake. While virions reached early and late endosomes, ISVPs did not and instead escaped the endocytic pathway from an earlier location. This study highlights the broad advantages of using live-cell imaging combined with single-particle tracking for identifying key steps in cell entry by viruses. PMID:23427267

  12. Similar uptake but different trafficking and escape routes of reovirus virions and infectious subvirion particles imaged in polarized Madin–Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Boulant, Steeve; Stanifer, Megan; Kural, Comert; Cureton, David K.; Massol, Ramiro; Nibert, Max L.; Kirchhausen, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells that line the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts form a barrier that many viruses must breach to infect their hosts. Current understanding of cell entry by mammalian reovirus (MRV) virions and infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs), generated from MRV virions by extracellular proteolysis in the digestive tract, are mostly derived from in vitro studies with nonpolarized cells. Recent live-cell imaging advances allow us for the first time to visualize events at the apical surface of polarized cells. In this study, we used spinning-disk confocal fluorescence microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution to follow the uptake and trafficking dynamics of single MRV virions and ISVPs at the apical surface of live polarized Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. Both types of particles were internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but virions and ISVPs exhibited strikingly different trafficking after uptake. While virions reached early and late endosomes, ISVPs did not and instead escaped the endocytic pathway from an earlier location. This study highlights the broad advantages of using live-cell imaging combined with single-particle tracking for identifying key steps in cell entry by viruses. PMID:23427267

  13. Serological studies with influenza A(H1N1) viruses cultivated in eggs or in a canine kidney cell line (MDCK)

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, J. S.; Corcoran, T.; Knott, R.; Bates, J.; Bartolomei, O.; Major, D.; Newman, R. W.; Yates, P.; Robertson, J.; Webster, R. G.; Schild, G. C.

    1987-01-01

    Pairs of influenza A(H1N1) viruses cultivated from the same clinical specimen in canine kidney (MDCK) cells or in embryonated hens' eggs can frequently be distinguished by their reactions with monoclonal antibodies to haemagglutinin and with antibodies in ferret or human sera. Egg-adapted virus, further passaged in MDCK cultures remained ”egg-like” in serological characteristics indicating that the differences in their serological reactions were not a direct result of host cell-dependent glycosylation of the haemagglutinin. Haemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) or virus neutralizing antibodies in human sera can be detected more frequently, and to higher titre, in tests employing virus grown exclusively in MDCK cells than in tests with virus adapted to growth in embryonated eggs. Striking differences were detected in the serological reactions in HI tests when sera from ferrets infected with egg-grown virus were tested against a series of strains of influenza A(H1N1) virus isolated in 1983 and adapted to growth in eggs. In contrast, sera from ferrets infected with MDCK-derived virus failed to distinguish serologically between the same viruses that had been passaged exclusively in MDCK cells and also revealed relatively small differences between their egg-adapted counterparts. It was concluded that the cell substrate used for virus isolation and cultivation is a factor that should be considered when interpreting the results of strain characterization of influenza A(H1N1) isolates and in sero-surveys using these viruses. PMID:3496984

  14. Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-I; Chen, Kuan-Sheng; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs (in vivo experiment) and 6 client-owned dogs (in vitro experiment). PROCEDURES 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n = 6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells. RESULTS None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs. PMID:27027843

  15. A Non-Synonymous Mutation in the Canine Pkd1 Gene Is Associated with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease in Bull Terriers

    PubMed Central

    Gharahkhani, Puya; O'Leary, Caroline A.; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat; Sturm, Richard A.; Duffy, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic Kidney Disease is an autosomal dominant disease common in some lines of Bull Terriers (BTPKD). The disease is linked to the canine orthologue of human PKD1 gene, Pkd1, located on CFA06, but no disease-associated mutation has been reported. This study sequenced genomic DNA from two Bull Terriers with BTPKD and two without the disease. A non-synonymous G>A transition mutation in exon 29 of Pkd1 was identified. A TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay was designed and demonstrated the heterozygous detection of the mutation in 47 Bull Terriers with BTPKD, but not in 102 Bull Terriers over one year of age and without BTPKD. This missense mutation replaces a glutamic acid residue with a lysine residue in the predicted protein, Polycystin 1. This region of Polycystin 1 is highly conserved between species, and is located in the first cytoplasmic loop of the predicted protein structure, close to the PLAT domain and the second transmembrane region. Thus, this change could alter Polycystin 1 binding or localization. Analytic programs PolyPhen 2, Align GVGD and SIFT predict this mutation to be pathogenic. Thus, BTPKD is associated with a missense mutation in Pkd1, and the application of this mutation specific assay could reduce disease transmission by allowing diagnosis of disease in young animals prior to breeding. PMID:21818326

  16. Oxidative stress response in canine in vitro liver, kidney and intestinal models with seven potential dietary ingredients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoungju; Ortega, Maria T; Jeffery, Brett; Riviere, Jim E; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2016-01-22

    In vitro cell culture systems are a useful tool to rapidly assess the potential safety or toxicity of chemical constituents of food. Here, we investigated oxidative stress and organ-specific antioxidant responses by 7 potential dietary ingredients using canine in vitro culture of hepatocytes, proximal tubule cells (CPTC), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and enterocyte-like cells (ELC). Cellular production of free radical species by denatonium benzoate (DB), epigallocatechin gallate (EPI), eucalyptol (EUC), green tea catechin extract (GTE) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC), tetrahydroisohumulone (TRA) as well as xylitol (XYL) were continuously measured for reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and superoxide (SO) for up to 24h. DB and TRA showed strong prooxidant activities in hepatocytes and to a lesser degree in ELC. DB was a weak prooxidant in BMSC. In contrast DB and TRA were antioxidants in CPTC. EPI was prooxidant in hepatocytes and BMSC but showed prooxidant and antioxidant activity in CPTC. SCC in hepatocytes (12.5mg/mL) and CPTC (0.78mg/mL) showed strong prooxidant and antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent manner. GTE was effective antioxidant only in ELC. EUC and XYL did not induce ROS/RNS in all 4 cell types. SO production by EPI and TRA increased in hepatocytes but decreased by SCC in hepatocytes and ELC. These results suggest that organ-specific responses to oxidative stress by these potential prooxidant compounds may implicate a mechanism of their toxicities. PMID:26602166

  17. Transport of N-acetylcysteine s-conjugates of methylmercury in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably transfected with human isoform of organic anion transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Zalups, Rudolfs K; Ahmad, Sarfaraz

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies have implicated the activity of the organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) protein in the basolateral uptake of inorganic mercuric species in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, very little is known about the potential role of OAT1 (and other OATs) in the renal epithelial transport of organic forms of mercury such as methylmercury (CH(3)Hg(+)). The present investigation was designed to study the transport of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) S-conjugates of both methylmercury (CH(3)Hg-NAC) and inorganic mercury (NAC-Hg-NAC) in renal epithelial cells [Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells] stably transfected with the human isoform of OAT1 (hOAT1). These mercuric species were studied because numerous mercapturates have been shown to be substrates of OATs. Data on saturation kinetics, time dependence, substrate specificity, and temperature dependence for the transport of CH(3)Hg-NAC and NAC-Hg-NAC indicate that both of these two mercuric species are indeed transportable substrates of hOAT1. Substrate specificity data also show that CH(3)Hg-NAC is a substrate of a transporter in MDCK cells that is not hOAT1. These data indicate that an amino acid carrier system is a likely candidate responsible for this transport. Furthermore, the rates of survival of the hOAT1-transfected MDCK cells were significantly lower than those of corresponding control MDCK cells when they were exposed to cytotoxic concentrations of CH(3)Hg-NAC or NAC-Hg-NAC. Collectively, the present data support the hypothesis that CH(3)Hg-NAC and NAC-Hg-NAC are transportable substrates of OAT1 and thus potentially transportable mercuric species taken up in vivo at the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:15908511

  18. Bumetanide hyperpolarizes madin-darby canine kidney cells and enhances cellular gentamicin uptake by elevating cytosolic Ca(2+) thus facilitating intermediate conductance Ca(2+)--activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Yang, Yu-Qin; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Wang, Qi; Phillips, Amanda; Guan, Bing-Cai; Ma, Ke-Tao; Jiang, Meiyan; Xie, Ding-Hua; Steyger, Peter S; Jiang, Zhi-Gen

    2013-04-01

    Loop diuretics such as bumetanide and furosemide enhance aminoglycoside ototoxicity when co-administered to patients and animal models. The underlying mechanism(s) is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of these diuretics on cellular uptake of aminoglycosides, using Texas Red-tagged gentamicin (GTTR), and intracellular/whole-cell recordings of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We found that bumetanide and furosemide dose-dependently enhanced cytoplasmic GTTR fluorescence by ~60 %. This enhancement was suppressed by La(3+), a non-selective cation channel (NSCC) blocker, and by K(+) channel blockers Ba(2+) and clotrimazole, but not by tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or glipizide, nor by Cl(-) channel blockers diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid (DPC), niflumic acid (NFA), and CFTRinh-172. Bumetanide and furosemide hyperpolarized MDCK cells by ~14 mV, increased whole-cell I/V slope conductance; the bumetanide-induced net current I/V showed a reversal potential (V r) ~-80 mV. Bumetanide-induced hyperpolarization and I/V change was suppressed by Ba(2+) or clotrimazole, and absent in elevated [Ca(2+)]i, but was not affected by apamin, 4-AP, TEA, glipizide, DPC, NFA, or CFTRinh-172. Bumetanide and furosemide stimulated a surge of Fluo-4-indicated cytosolic Ca(2+). Ba(2+) and clotrimazole alone depolarized cells by ~18 mV and reduced I/V slope with a net current V r near -85 mV, and reduced GTTR uptake by ~20 %. La(3+) alone hyperpolarized the cells by ~-14 mV, reduced the I/V slope with a net current V r near -10 mV, and inhibited GTTR uptake by ~50 %. In the presence of La(3+), bumetanide-caused negligible change in potential or I/V. We conclude that NSCCs constitute a major cell entry pathway for cationic aminoglycosides; bumetanide enhances aminoglycoside uptake by hyperpolarizing cells that increases the cation influx driving force; and bumetanide-induced hyperpolarization is caused by elevating intracellular Ca(2+) and thus facilitating activation of the intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. PMID:23109177

  19. Oncogenic H-ras reprograms Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell-derived exosomal proteins following epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Bow J; Mathias, Rommel A; Greening, David W; Gopal, Shashi K; Ji, Hong; Kapp, Eugene A; Coleman, Bradley M; Hill, Andrew F; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Hallows, Janice L; Shteynberg, David; Moritz, Robert L; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved morphogenic process defined by the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. EMT is associated with increased aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastatic potential in carcinoma cells. To assess the contribution of extracellular vesicles following EMT, we conducted a proteomic analysis of exosomes released from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and MDCK cells transformed with oncogenic H-Ras (21D1 cells). Exosomes are 40-100 nm membranous vesicles originating from the inward budding of late endosomes and multivesicular bodies and are released from cells on fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes from MDCK cells (MDCK-Exos) and 21D1 cells (21D1-Exos) were purified from cell culture media using density gradient centrifugation (OptiPrep™), and protein content identified by GeLC-MS/MS proteomic profiling. Both MDCK- and 21D1-Exos populations were morphologically similar by cryo-electron microscopy and contained stereotypical exosome marker proteins such as TSG101, Alix, and CD63. In this study we show that the expression levels of typical EMT hallmark proteins seen in whole cells correlate with those observed in MDCK- and 21D1-Exos, i.e. reduction of characteristic inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin-1, and epithelial markers E-cadherin, and EpCAM, with a concomitant up-regulation of mesenchymal makers such as vimentin. Further, we reveal that 21D1-Exos are enriched with several proteases (e.g. MMP-1, -14, -19, ADAM-10, and ADAMTS1), and integrins (e.g. ITGB1, ITGA3, and ITGA6) that have been recently implicated in regulating the tumor microenvironment to promote metastatic progression. A salient finding of this study was the unique presence of key transcriptional regulators (e.g. the master transcriptional regulator YBX1) and core splicing complex components (e.g. SF3B1, SF3B3, and SFRS1) in mesenchymal 21D1-Exos. Taken together, our findings reveal that exosomes from Ras-transformed MDCK cells are reprogrammed with factors which may be capable of inducing EMT in recipient cells. PMID:23645497

  20. Oncogenic H-Ras Reprograms Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cell-derived Exosomal Proteins Following Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Tauro, Bow J.; Mathias, Rommel A.; Greening, David W.; Gopal, Shashi K.; Ji, Hong; Kapp, Eugene A.; Coleman, Bradley M.; Hill, Andrew F.; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Hallows, Janice L.; Shteynberg, David; Moritz, Robert L.; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved morphogenic process defined by the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. EMT is associated with increased aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastatic potential in carcinoma cells. To assess the contribution of extracellular vesicles following EMT, we conducted a proteomic analysis of exosomes released from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and MDCK cells transformed with oncogenic H-Ras (21D1 cells). Exosomes are 40–100 nm membranous vesicles originating from the inward budding of late endosomes and multivesicular bodies and are released from cells on fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes from MDCK cells (MDCK-Exos) and 21D1 cells (21D1-Exos) were purified from cell culture media using density gradient centrifugation (OptiPrep™), and protein content identified by GeLC-MS/MS proteomic profiling. Both MDCK- and 21D1-Exos populations were morphologically similar by cryo-electron microscopy and contained stereotypical exosome marker proteins such as TSG101, Alix, and CD63. In this study we show that the expression levels of typical EMT hallmark proteins seen in whole cells correlate with those observed in MDCK- and 21D1-Exos, i.e. reduction of characteristic inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin-1, and epithelial markers E-cadherin, and EpCAM, with a concomitant up-regulation of mesenchymal makers such as vimentin. Further, we reveal that 21D1-Exos are enriched with several proteases (e.g. MMP-1, -14, -19, ADAM-10, and ADAMTS1), and integrins (e.g. ITGB1, ITGA3, and ITGA6) that have been recently implicated in regulating the tumor microenvironment to promote metastatic progression. A salient finding of this study was the unique presence of key transcriptional regulators (e.g. the master transcriptional regulator YBX1) and core splicing complex components (e.g. SF3B1, SF3B3, and SFRS1) in mesenchymal 21D1-Exos. Taken together, our findings reveal that exosomes from Ras-transformed MDCK cells are reprogrammed with factors which may be capable of inducing EMT in recipient cells. PMID:23645497

  1. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing. PMID:25632689

  2. Heterologous Expression of WT and Mutant Photoreceptor Peripherin/rds in Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: an Assessment of Fusogenic Function

    PubMed Central

    STEFANO, FRANK P.; KROUSE, JENNIFER; MARTA, PETER; BOESZE-BATTAGLIA, KATHLEEN

    2016-01-01

    Peripherin/rds is proposed to function as a fusion protein within the rod outer segment and a fusion domain has been mapped to amino acids 311–325 within the C-terminus. To map regions within peripherin/rds required for membrane fusion a series of C-terminal mutants was analyzed. Madin Darby canine kidney cells were transiently transfected with an Xpress or FLAG epitope tagged peripherin/rds (wt) and three mutants of peripherin/rds. The mutants selected were a P296T mutant (replacement of the proline at position 296 with a threonine) and two C-terminal deletion mutants (one lacking the terminal 10 amino acids, ?10 and one lacking the terminal 50 amino acids, ?50). The wt protein, the P296T and ?10 mutants were detected on SDS–PAGE as 84 kDa dimers, that resolved into 38–42 kDa monomers under reducing conditions. The ?50 mutant showed a slightly increased mobility. The cellular localization of mutants differed from that of wt peripherin/rds. The wt Xpress-human and wt FLAG-bovine peripherin/rds were localized to both intracellular and plasma membranes. In contrast, the C-terminal deletion mutants were localized only to the intracellular membrane. The P296T mutant presented a still different pattern: initially the protein localized to intracellular membranes. Upon confluence, however, the localization appeared to become predominantly plasma membrane. To assess the fusion activity of the proteins, the cell membranes were fractionated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation and the various fractions identified based on immunoreactivity in Western blot analysis with Golgi (anti-rab 6) or plasma membrane (anti-ZO-3) specific marker proteins. All membrane fractions were assayed for fusion with ROS plasma membrane vesicles. The plasma membrane enriched fractions (isolated at densities of 1·08 and 1·125 g ml?1) containing tagged peripherin/rds and the ?10 mutant promoted membrane fusion with ROS plasma membrane vesicles. In contrast, fusion was not detected with plasma membrane vesicles from mock-transfected cells or the ?50 peripherin/rds deletion mutant. Fusion was enhanced in a less dense fraction enriched in the P296T mutant (isolated from the 1·04/1·02 interface) relative to wt. Fusion was dependent on the presence of peripherin/rds in the membranes and could be inhibited with trypsinolysis and competition studies with the bovine fusion peptide, PP-5. Peptide competition suggests that the fusion domain of human peripherin/rds is most likely identical to that characterized in bovine and corresponds to amino acid residues 312–326. The C-terminal deletion mutants have allowed us to predict the minimal region of the C-terminus necessary for fusion to include residues starting at number 335. In addition a second region important in the formation of a fusion competent peripherin/rds has been mapped to a region upstream of the fusion peptide domain. PMID:11950237

  3. Inhibition of ABCG2/BCRP transporter by soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein: effect on plasma and milk levels of danofloxacin in sheep.

    PubMed

    Perez, Miriam; Otero, Jon A; Barrera, Borja; Prieto, Julio G; Merino, Gracia; Alvarez, Ana I

    2013-05-01

    Danofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent and a substrate for ATP-binding cassette transporter G2/breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP). This protein actively extrudes drugs from cells in the intestine, liver, kidney, and other organs, such as the mammary gland. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genistein and daidzein, isoflavones present in soy and known inhibitors of ABCG2, could diminish danofloxacin secretion into milk. The results obtained from BCRP-transduced MDCK-II cells (Mardin-Darby canine kidney) showed that both isoflavones efficiently inhibited the in vitro transport of the drug. In addition, danofloxacin transport into milk was studied in Assaf sheep. The experimental design with ewes (n = 18) included ewes fed with standard forage, soy-enriched forage for 15 days prior to the experiment or standard forage paired with orally administered exogenous genistein and daidzein. The danofloxacin levels in the milk of ewes in the soy-enriched diet group were decreased. The area under concentration-time curve AUC (0-24 h) was 9.3 ± 4.6 vs. 16.58 ± 4.44 μgh/mL in the standard forage or control group. The plasma levels of danofloxacin were unmodified. The AUC (0-24 h) milk/plasma ratio decreased by over 50% in the soy-enriched diet group, compared to the control group (4.90 ± 2.65 vs. 9.58 ± 2.17). Exogenous administration of isoflavones did not modify danofloxacin secretion into milk. This study showed that milk excretion of a specific substrate of BCRP, such as danofloxacin, can be diminished by the presence of isoflavones in the diet. PMID:23083838

  4. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and, often, the nervous systems of puppies and dogs. The virus also infects wild canids (e.g. ... How is Canine Distemper virus spread? Puppies and dogs usually become infected through airborne exposure to the ...

  5. Dissociation of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells by the monoclonal antibody anti-arc-1: mechanistic aspects and identification of the antigen as a component related to uvomorulin

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the monoclonal antibody anti-Arc-1 dissociates Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells and changes their morphology in vitro (Imhof, B.A., H.P. Vollmers, S.L. Goodman, and W. Birchmeier, 1983, Cell, 35:667-675). In this article we demonstrate that the anti-Arc-1 antibody recognizes an uvomorulin-like molecule on MDCK cells, i.e., it immunoprecipitates an 84-kD protein fragment from a tryptic digest of cell surfaces in the presence of Ca2+ (as does anti-uvomorulin antiserum). Furthermore, anti-uvomorulin antiserum prevents the binding of anti-Arc-1 to MDCK cells. The distribution of the Arc-1 antigen is also quite similar to that of uvomorulin: it is enriched at the cell-cell contacts both of MDCK cells and of cells in various canine tissues. In the intestinal epithelium the antigen could be further localized in the region of the junctional complex. To study the mechanism of action of the dissociating antibody, MDCK cells grown on Nuclepore filters in Boyden chambers were exposed to anti-Arc-1 from either the upper or lower compartment. It could be shown that the antibody interfered with cell adhesion only from the basolateral but not from the apical cell surface. Antibody action was inhibited in the presence of colchicine but not cytochalasin B. Furthermore, cell dissociation was prevented when the cellular cAMP level was raised. These findings indicate that the anti-Arc-1 antibody acts on a target below the tight junctions (possibly on the antigen located in the junctional complex), and they confirm that cytoskeleton and metabolic factors are actively involved in the maintenance of junctional integrity. PMID:2995405

  6. P73 tumor suppressor and its targets, p21 and PUMA, are required for madin-darby canine kidney cell morphogenesis by maintaining an appropriate level of epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanhong; Young, Ashley; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    P73, a member of p53 tumor suppressor family, plays a crucial role in tumor suppression and neural development. Due to the usage of two promoters, p73 is expressed as two isoforms, TAp73 and ?Np73, with opposing functions. Here, we investigated the potential role of p73 in epithelial polarity and morphogenesis by using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as a model system. We found that knockdown of TAp73 enhances, whereas knockdown of ?Np73 inhibits, MDCK cell proliferation and migration in two-dimensional (2-D) culture. We also found that knockdown of TAp73, but not ?Np73, disrupts cyst formation of MDCK cells in three-dimensional (3-D) culture. Interestingly, we found that p21 and PUMA, both of which are induced by TAp73 but repressed by ?Np73, are required for suppressing cell proliferation and migration in 2-D culture and for MDCK ce ll morphogenesis in 3-D culture. Finally, we showed knockdown of TAp73, p21 or PUMA induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) with a decrease in E-cadherin and an increase in EMT transcription factors. Together, our data suggest that TAp73, p21 and PUMA play a critical role in modulating MDCK cell morphogenesis by maintaining an appropriate level of the EMT. PMID:26101856

  7. The N-terminal segment of endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1b contains a di-leucine motif that can redirect neprilysin to an intracellular compartment in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cailler, F; Zappulla, J P; Boileau, G; Crine, P

    1999-01-01

    Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1 is a membrane-bound metallopeptidase of the neprilysin (NEP) family. ECE-1 is responsible for the conversion of inactive big-endothelins into active endothelins. Three different isoforms of human ECE-1 (ECE-1a, ECE-1b and ECE-1c) have been identified. They differ in their N-terminal cytosolic regions, have distinct tissue distribution and intracellular localization. ECE-1a and ECE-1c are both located at the cell surface whereas ECE-1b is targeted to an intracellular compartment. To better understand the nature of the signal responsible for the targeting of ECE-1b to the intracellular compartment, we have constructed several ECE/NEP chimaeric proteins and expressed them by transfection into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. This allowed us to identify a nine amino acid segment in the cytosolic tail of ECE-1b that is sufficient to relocate NEP from the cell surface to an intracellular compartment. Site-directed mutagenesis on these chimaeras led to the identification of two leucine residues as part of the intracellular retention signal. PMID:10377252

  8. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and prostaglandin E2 formation in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Possible parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2

    SciTech Connect

    Slivka, S.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1987-03-25

    alpha 1-Adrenergic receptors mediate two effects on phospholipid metabolism in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-D1) cells: hydrolysis of phosphoinositides and arachidonic acid release with generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The similarity in concentration dependence for the agonist (-)-epinephrine in eliciting these two responses implies that they are mediated by a single population of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. However, we find that the kinetics of the two responses are quite different, PGE2 production occurring more rapidly and transiently than the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. The antibiotic neomycin selectively decreases alpha 1-receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis without decreasing alpha 1-receptor-mediated arachidonic acid release and PGE2 generation. In addition, receptor-mediated inositol trisphosphate formation is independent of extracellular calcium, whereas release of labeled arachidonic acid is largely calcium-dependent. Moreover, based on studies obtained with labeled arachidonic acid, receptor-mediated generation of arachidonic acid cannot be accounted for by breakdown of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, or phosphatidic acid. Further studies indicate that epinephrine produces changes in formation or turnover of several classes of membrane phospholipids in MDCK cells. We conclude that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in MDCK cells appear to regulate phospholipid metabolism by the parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2. This parallel activation of phospholipases contrasts with models described in other systems which imply sequential activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase or phospholipase A2.

  9. Canine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Prier, J. E.; Brodey, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    The authors review current knowledge of spontaneous neoplasms in the dog. The prevalence of certain types of canine tumour has been studied, and comparisons have been made with the occurrence of similar neoplasms in man. Where there are appropriate analogies between the two species, the dog with spontaneous tumours can be used for studies that are not practicable in man. Nutritional and morphological studies have been done on cells cultured from canine tumours. Some consistency has been demonstrated in the morphology of cultures of different tumours of the same type. Nutritional studies with the transmissible venereal sarcoma of the dog have shown the cells to be subject to a growth-repressing effect by SH-containing amino-acids. Attempts to transmit tumours to other dogs or other species have generally been unsuccessful. A transplantable tumour developed in a mouse injected with non-cellular material from a canine thyroid carcinoma, but it is not certain that the tumour was induced. Cell-culture studies have shown that some tumours yield a factor that is cytopathogenic for normal cells, but none has been shown capable of inducing neoplasms in vivo. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:14058226

  10. Tyrosine-Dependent Basolateral Targeting of Human Connexin43-eYFP in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells Can Be Disrupted by the Oculodentodigital Dysplasia Mutation L90V

    PubMed Central

    Chtchetinin, Jana; Gifford, Wes D.; Li, Sichen; Paznekas, William A.; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Lai, Albert

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Polarized membrane sorting of Connexin 43 (Cx43) has not been well-characterized. Based on the presence of a putative sorting signal, Y286KLV289, within its carboxy terminal cytoplasmic domain, we hypothesized that Cx43 is selectively expressed on the basolateral surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in a tyrosine-dependent manner. We generated stable MDCK cell lines expressing human wild-type and mutant Cx43-eYFP and analyzed the membrane localization of Cx43-eYFP within polarized monolayers using confocal microscopy and selective surface biotinylation. We found that wild-type Cx43-eYFP was selectively targeted to the basolateral membrane domain of MDCK cells. Substitution of alanine for Y286 disrupted basolateral targeting of Cx43-eYFP. Additionally, transplantation of a sequence containing the transferrin receptor internalization signal, LSYTRF, for P284GYKLV289 also disrupted basolateral targeting. Taken together, these results indicate that Y286 in its native amino acid sequence is necessary for targeting Cx43-eYFP to the basolateral membrane domain of MDCK cells. To determine whether the F52dup or L90V oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD)-associated mutations could affect polarized sorting of Cx43-eYFP, we analyzed the expression of these Cx43-eYFP mutant constructs and found that the L90V mutation disrupted basolateral expression. These findings raise the possibility that alteration of polarized targeting of Cx43 by some ODDD- associated mutations may have a phenotypic contribution. PMID:19860828

  11. Cell-permeable ceramides preferentially inhibit coated vesicle formation and exocytosis in Chinese hamster ovary compared with Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by preventing the membrane association of ADP-ribosylation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Hobman, Tom C; Dewald, Jay; Garbutt, Michael; Brindley, David N

    2002-01-01

    Differential effects of acetyl(C2-) ceramide (N-acetylsphingosine) were studied on coated vesicle formation from Golgi-enriched membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C2-ceramide blocked the translocation of ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF-1) and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) to the membranes from CHO cells, but not those of MDCK cells. Consequently, C2-ceramide blocked the stimulation of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) by the cytosol and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in membranes from CHO cells. Basal specific activity of PLD1 and the concentration of ARF-1 were 3-4 times higher in Golgi-enriched membranes from MDCK cells compared with CHO cells. Moreover, PLD1 activity in MDCK cells was stimulated less by cytosol and GTP[S]. PLD2 was not detectable in the Golgi-enriched membranes. Incubation of intact CHO cells or their Golgi-enriched membranes with C2-ceramide also inhibited COP1 vesicle formation by membranes from CHO, but not MDCK, cells. Specificity was demonstrated, since dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect on ARF-1 translocation, PLD1 activation or vesicle formation in membranes from both cell types. C2-ceramide also decreased the secretion of virus-like particles to a greater extent in CHO compared with MDCK cells, whereas dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect. The results demonstrate a biological effect of C2-ceramide in CHO cells by decreasing ARF-1 and PKC-alpha binding to Golgi-enriched membranes, thereby preventing COP1 vesicle formation. PMID:11802796

  12. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Canine hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, P G; Steiner, J M

    2015-10-01

    Hyperlipidaemia refers to an increased concentration of lipids in the blood. Hyperlipidaemia is common in dogs and has recently emerged as an important clinical condition that requires a systematic diagnostic approach and appropriate treatment. Hyperlipidaemia can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidaemia is the most common form in dogs, and it can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, as well as other conditions and the use of certain drugs. Primary hyperlipidaemia is less common in the general canine population but it can be very common within certain breeds. Hypertriglyceridaemia of Miniature Schnauzers is the most common form of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs but other breeds are also affected. Possible complications of hyperlipidaemia in dogs include pancreatitis, liver disease, atherosclerosis, ocular disease and seizures. Management of primary hyperlipidaemia in dogs is achieved by administration of ultra low-fat diets with or without the administration of lipid lowering drugs such as omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, niacin and statins. PMID:26456868

  14. Canine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Wanke, M M

    2004-07-01

    This review discusses the prevalence, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical findings, diagnostic methods, therapy, management and public health considerations of Brucella canis infection in dogs. Canine brucellosis is a contagious infection produced by a gram-negative coccobacilus called Brucella canis. The main sources of infection are vaginal fluids of infected females and urine in males. Routes of entry are venereal, oronasal, conjunctivae mucosa and placenta. The most significant symptoms are late abortions in bitches, epididymitis in males and infertility in both sexes, as well as generalized lymphadenitis, discospondylitis and uveitis. Diagnosis is complex because serology can give false positive results and chronic cases can give negative results, needing to be complemented with bacteriological studies. No antibiotic treatment is 100% effective and the infection often recurs in animals apparently treated successfully. Infected animals must be removed from the kennels and no longer used for breeding. Preferably, males should be castrated and females spayed. Human contagion is not frequent, although it has been reported, and is easily treated. PMID:15271453

  15. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidney Disease Print A ... Syndrome Coping With Kidney Conditions What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  16. Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

  17. Kidney Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  18. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ...

  19. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an AKF screening Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. About AKF ... our Northeast Region. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Our late spring event is an elegant fundraiser ...

  20. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ...

  1. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  2. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  3. Kidney School

    MedlinePLUS

    ... copies? Read our licensing agreement Living Successfully with Kidney Disease People with kidney disease can live long ... Listen Printing multiple copies? Read our licensing agreement Kidneys: How They Work, How They Fail, What You ...

  4. Kidney Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your body. The transplanted kidney takes over the work of the two kidneys that failed, so you no longer need dialysis. During a transplant, the surgeon places the new kidney in your lower abdomen and ...

  5. Canine malignant melanoma alpha-3 integrin binding peptides

    PubMed Central

    Aina, Olulanu H.; Maeda, Yoshiko; Harrison, Matthew; Zwingenberger, Allison L.; Walker, Naomi J.; Lam, Kit S.; Kent, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to develop novel targeted imaging and therapeutic agents that can aid in early diagnosis, detection of metastasis and treatment of melanoma. Alpha-3 integrin is overexpressed in 82% of metastatic melanomas in humans and may be a potential target for peptide ligands carrying therapeutic agents. Five melanoma cell lines were generated from canine primary oral and metastatic canine tumors, grown in mice, and validated with melanoma markers Melan A, S-100, Micropthalmia transcription factor (MITF), Tyrosinase, and MART-1. The melanoma cell lines were tested for binding affinity to previously published alpha-3 integrin-binding peptides containing the cdGXGXXc motif. Fluorescent conjugates of the alpha-3 integrin binding OA02 peptide were used to quantify receptor affinity in the cell lines, a specimen of canine primary oral melanoma, and melanoma xenografts. Alpha-3 integrin was expressed by all 5 canine melanoma cell lines. Four of the 5 lines as well as the primary canine tumor showed affinity to alpha-3 integrin binding peptides with the cdGXGXXc motif. Optical imaging of canine melanoma xenografts in nude mice indicates rapid, strong uptake of the optical tracer in the tumor with an average persistence of approximately 48 hours. Ex vivo images showed high tumor-to-background ratio, with tumor signals more than twice that of the kidney and other vital organs. We propose that integrin alpha-3 integrin binding ligands could potentially become useful probes for imaging and delivery of cytotoxic agents for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:21722969

  6. Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Kidney Cysts Overview What do the kidneys do? The kidneys remove waste from your blood. They do this by filtering the blood and making urine. What are kidney cysts? As people get older, sacs filled with ...

  7. Solitary Kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Institute, Inc., Kidney School National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Solitary Kidney Page Content On this page: What is a ...

  8. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies. PMID:26315688

  9. Kidney: polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Paul, Binu M; Vanden Heuvel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by the presence of fluid-filled cysts primarily in the kidneys. PKD can be inherited as autosomal recessive (ARPKD) or autosomal dominant (ADPKD) traits. Mutations in either the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, which encode polycystin 1 and polycystin 2, are the underlying cause of ADPKD. Progressive cyst formation and renal enlargement lead to renal insufficiency in these patients, which need to be managed by lifelong dialysis or renal transplantation. While characteristic features of PKD are abnormalities in epithelial cell proliferation, fluid secretion, extracellular matrix and differentiation, the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are not understood. Here we review the progress that has been made in defining the function of the polycystins, and how disruption of these functions may be involved in cystogenesis. PMID:25186187

  10. Tests for Kidney Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kidney disease Free kidney health screenings Free kidney health screenings The American Kidney Fund offers free health ... blood. Tests for kidney health Tests for kidney health The only way to know if your kidneys ...

  11. Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fists. They are located near the ... back, just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney about a million tiny structures called nephrons filter ...

  12. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  13. Kidney Dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dimes National Kidney Foundation Urology Care Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Kidney Dysplasia Page Content On this page: What is ...

  14. Antiviral and antiproliferative effects of canine interferon-?1.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Tomonori; Asano, Atsushi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Takeuchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Yasuko; Yamano, Yoshiaki

    2013-11-15

    Interferon (IFN)-?s, members of the type III IFN group, were recently identified in several vertebrates. Although IFN-?s have the potential to be utilized as antiviral and antitumor agents in veterinary medicine, the biological properties of IFN-?s have not yet been studied in companion animals. In this study, we analyzed the expression of canine IFN-?s and their receptors, produced a recombinant canine IFN-?1 protein, and investigated its antiviral and antiproliferative activities using a canine kidney epithelial cell line, MDCK cells. MDCK cells were found to express type III IFN molecules, IFN-?1 and IFN-?3, and the receptors, IFN?R1 and IL10R2. IFN-?1 was induced faster than IFN-?3 by stimulation with poly (I:C). His-tagged IFN-?1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli inhibited cytolytic plaque formation by influenza A virus infection, and induced the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, Mx1 and OAS1, in MDCK cells. In addition, recombinant IFN-?1 inhibited the proliferation of MDCK cells slightly. These effects were observed in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that canine IFN-?1 has antiviral effect, and suggest the potential applicability of canine IFN-?1 as a therapeutic agent. PMID:24126210

  15. Canine viral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L E

    1983-08-01

    Canine viral enteritis should be suspected in dogs with an acute onset of vomiting and diarrhea, especially in puppies and where several animals are affected simultaneously. Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation, most often detection of viral particles in the stool. No diagnostic test is entirely specific or absolutely sensitive, however, and laboratory findings should be weighed accordingly. Immunization is the key to successful control. Effective vaccines for canine parvovirus are available. Maternal antibody suppresses response to vaccination in young pups and is the major problem in the control of infection. Vaccines against canine rotavirus and coronavirus are not available. The need for such vaccines and the feasibility of their effective use have not yet been clearly demonstrated. PMID:6316616

  16. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now. PMID:25628897

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ago. Kidney Disease About your kidneys About your kidneys Your kidneys are vital organs that remove waste ... long as possible. Kidney-friendly diet for CKD Kidney-friendly diet You may be able to prevent ...

  18. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  19. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  20. Solute Carrier Family of the Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides 1A2- Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II: A Promising In Vitro System to Understand the Role of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 in Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Penetration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houfu; Yu, Na; Lu, Sijie; Ito, Sumito; Zhang, Xuan; Prasad, Bhagwat; He, Enuo; Lu, Xinyan; Li, Yang; Wang, Fei; Xu, Han; An, Gang; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Sahi, Jasminder

    2015-07-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1A2 has the potential to be a target for central nervous system drug delivery due to its luminal localization at the human blood-brain barrier and broad substrate specificity. We found OATP1A2 mRNA expression in the human brain to be comparable to breast cancer resistance protein and OATP2B1 and much higher than P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and confirmed greater expression in the brain relative to other tissues. The goal of this study was to establish a model system to explore OATP1A2-mediated transcellular transport of substrate drugs and the interplay with P-gp. In vitro (human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing Oatp1a4, the closest murine isoform) and in vivo (naïve and Oatp1a4 knock-out mice) studies with OATP1A2 substrate triptan drugs demonstrated that these drugs were not Oatp1a4 substrates. This species difference demonstrates that the rodent is not a good model to investigate the active brain uptake of potential OATP1A2 substrates. Thus, we constructed a novel OATP1A2 expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II wild type and an MDCKII-multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) system using BacMam virus transduction. The spatial expression pattern of OATP1A2 after transduction in MDCKII-MDR1 cells was superimposed to P-gp, confirming apical membrane localization. OATP1A2-mediated uptake of zolmitriptan, rosuvastatin, and fexofenadine across monolayers increased with increasing OATP1A2 protein expression. OATP1A2 counteracted P-gp efflux for cosubstrates zolmitriptan and fexofenadine. A three-compartment model incorporating OATP1A2-mediated influx was used to quantitatively describe the time- and concentration-dependent apical-to-basolateral transcellular transport of rosuvastatin across OATP1A2 expressing the MDCKII monolayer. This novel, simple and versatile experimental system is useful for understanding the contribution of OATP1A2-mediated transcellular transport across barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25908246

  1. Vaccine-associated canine distemper infection in a litter of African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Durchfeld, B; Baumgärtner, W; Herbst, W; Brahm, R

    1990-05-01

    Four, 57 days old, African hunting dog puppies (Lycaon pictus) from one litter died within three weeks following vaccination with modified-live canine distemper virus (CDV) and killed canine adenovirus type 1, canine parvovirus and Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae and canicola. 18 days post vaccination, the animals developed neurologic disease characterized by episodes of grand mal seizures and circling. Macroscopic, histological and immunohistochemical studies revealed acute systemic CDV infection with acute encephalopathy. Virus isolation attempts using primary dog kidney cells, lung macrophages and Vero cells were negative. Therefore, the question whether the infection was the result of vaccination or natural infection remains open. The benefits and risks regarding the use of modified-live CDV vaccines and killed canine distemper vaccines in exotic carnivores are briefly discussed. PMID:2385981

  2. Ectopic Kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Human Development March of Dimes National Office MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Ectopic Kidney Page Content On this page: What is an ...

  3. Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  4. Effects of T lymphocytes, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 on renal fibrosis in canine end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Yhee, Ji-Young; Yu, Chi-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2008-09-01

    Canine end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is defined as the almost complete failure of renal function or irreversible destruction and is characterized by extensive glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis. Renal fibrosis is a common pathway leading to kidney failure. Infiltrating immunocytes in the end-stage kidney and several related factors are involved in renal fibrogenesis. A total of 18 renal tissue samples were obtained from canine patients with ESRD using biopsy and necropsy procedures. The extent of renal fibrosis was histopathologically examined by Masson trichrome staining. T-cell and B-cell localization and macrophage lineages were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, and IL-6 levels in the canine ESRD kidney were immunohistochemically evaluated and compared with expression patterns in the normal kidney. Significant fibrosis and infiltrating immunocytes consistent with lymphocytes were observed. Although the B-cell count was increased in the end-stage kidney, immunostaining patterns disclosed a marked increase in the number of CD3(+) cells. Furthermore, the remarkable increase in IL-1 and IL-6 levels suggests that T cells in the kidneys of dogs with ESRD spontaneously express these cytokines. In this study, the correlation between the degree of renal fibrosis and cytokines in canine ESRD was examined. The present study shows that T lymphocytes and IL-6 play important roles in renal fibrosis. PMID:18776090

  5. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease. PMID:23637476

  6. Cryopreservation of canine embryos.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yasuyuki; Suwa, Yoshinori; Asano, Tomoyoshi; Ueta, Yoshiko Yanagimoto; Kobayashi, Nanae; Ohshima, Natsumi; Shirasuna, Saori; Abdel-Ghani, Mohammed Ali; Oi, Maya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Miyoshi, Masafumi; Miyahara, Kazuro; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, and cryopreservation of gametes have contributed considerably to the development of biomedical sciences in addition to improving infertility treatments in humans as well as the breeding of domestic animals. However, ARTs used in canine species have strictly limited utility when compared with other mammalian species, including humans. Although successful somatic cell cloning has been reported, artificial insemination by frozen semen to date is only available for the improved breeding and reproduction for companion and working dogs as well as guide dogs for the blind. We describe here the successful cryopreservation of embryos and subsequent embryo transfer in dogs. Canine embryos were collected from excised reproductive organs after artificial insemination and subsequently cryopreserved by a vitrification method. When the 4-cell to morula stage of cryopreserved embryos were nonsurgically transferred into the uteri of nine recipient bitches using a cystoscope, five recipients became pregnant and four of them delivered a total of seven pups. The cryopreservation of embryos in canine species will facilitate the transportation and storage of genetic materials and will aid in the elimination of vertically transmitted diseases in dogs. In addition, this technique will contribute to the improved breeding of companion and working dogs such as guide dogs, drug-detecting dogs, and quarantine dogs. PMID:20926804

  7. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  8. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program -- www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation -- www.kidney.org National ...

  9. Kidney Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the kidneys is to remove waste from the body through the production of urine. They also help to regulate blood pressure, blood volume and the chemical (electrolyte) composition of the blood. Content on this page requires ...

  10. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. October 2, 2013 Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  11. Canine Gastric Pathology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Amorim, I; Taulescu, M A; Day, M J; Catoi, C; Reis, C A; Carneiro, F; Gärtner, F

    2016-01-01

    Gastric disorders are common in dogs and are a major reason for veterinary consultation. In human medicine, the classification of gastric diseases based on histological features, genotypes and molecular phenotypes helps to better understand the characteristics of each subtype, and to improve early diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Canine gastric lesions often show strong histological similarities to their human counterparts. However, such conditions in the canine stomach are poorly studied and their cellular and molecular features are largely unknown. This article reviews the histopathological classification of inflammatory and neoplastic lesions of the canine stomach and provides an update on the application of molecular techniques within the field of canine gastric pathology. The canine disorders are compared with current knowledge of the equivalent human diseases. PMID:26774560

  12. Kidney Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney tumors are rare and generally curable in children. However, there are subsets of patients afflicted with these diseases that do not respond to treatment or eventually relapse. These patients usually have poor clinical outcomes as compared with the majority of children diagnosed with kidney tumors. All patients undergo therapy regimens that can be detrimental later in life. Through genome-wide characterization, TARGET investigators are identifying critical molecular alterations in these tumors, mostly from relapsed patients.

  13. Canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Macy, D W

    1985-07-01

    Despite the fact that the mast cell tumor is a common neoplasm of the dog, we still have only a meager understanding of its etiology and biologic behavior. Many of the published recommendations for treatment are based on opinion rather than facts derived from careful studies and should be viewed with some skepticism. Because of the infrequent occurrence of this tumor in man, only a limited amount of help can be expected from human oncologists; therefore, burden of responsibility for progress in predicting behavior and developing treatment effective for canine mast cell tumors must fall on the shoulders of the veterinary profession. PMID:3929444

  14. Canine paroxysmal movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Urkasemsin, Ganokon; Olby, Natasha J

    2014-11-01

    Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders characterized by muscle hypertonicity that can produce involuntary movements. Signs emanate from the central nervous system; consciousness is not impaired, ictal electroencephalography is normal, and there are no autonomic signs, distinguishing them from seizure disorders. In humans they are classified into 3 groups, each responding to different therapies. A mutation in the gene for brevican (BCAN) has been identified as the cause of Episodic Falling in Cavalier King Charles spaniels. Further elucidation of the genetic causes will enhance our ability to identify and treat these canine diseases. PMID:25441627

  15. Absence of canine papillomavirus sequences in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sardon, D; Blundell, R; Burrai, G P; Alberti, A; Tore, G; Passino, E Sanna; Antuofermo, E

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (PVs) are found in human breast cancer tissue; however, it remains controversial as to whether these viruses play a role in the aetiology of this tumour. There has been minimal study of whether PVs are found in normal or abnormal mammary glands of animals. The present study investigated whether a PV sequence could be found in the mammary glands of 33 female dogs by rolling circle amplification and polymerase chain reaction. No PV DNA was found in normal or neoplastic canine mammary tissues, suggesting that canine PVs are probably not involved in the pathogenesis of canine mammary neoplasia. PMID:25435511

  16. Kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Linehan, W Marston; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2012-01-01

    Over 65,000 Americans are diagnosed with kidney cancer each year and nearly 13,000 die of this disease. Kidney cancer is not a single disease, it is made up of a number of different types of cancer, each with a different histology, a different clinical course, responding differently to therapy and caused by a different gene. Study of the 13 genes that are known to cause kidney cancer has led to the understanding that kidney cancer is a metabolic disease. Recent discoveries of chromatin remodeling/histone modifying genes, such as PBRM1 and SETD2, have opened up new areas of intense interest in the study of the fundamental genetic basis of kidney cancer. New approaches to immunotherapy with agents such as the CTLA4 inhibitor, ipilumumab, have opened up promising new directions for clinical trials. A number of new agents targeting of VEGF receptor signaling and the mTOR pathways as well as novel approaches targeting HIF2 will hopefully provide the foundation for the development of effective forms of therapy for this disease. PMID:23218074

  17. Kidney removal - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Nephrectomy may be recommended for: kidney deformities (birth defects: congenital abnormalities) injury (trauma) disease infection hypertension tumor removal of kidney from donor for kidney transplant

  18. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women. PMID:12852237

  19. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  20. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  1. Polycystic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited), usually as an autosomal dominant trait. If one parent ...

  2. Diet and Kidney Stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  3. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...

  4. Kidney Disease Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  5. Kidney-Pancreas Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  6. National Kidney Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an AKF screening Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. About AKF ... our Northeast Region. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Our late spring event is an elegant fundraiser ...

  8. American Kidney Fund

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an AKF screening Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. About AKF ... our Northeast Region. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Our late spring event is an elegant fundraiser ...

  9. Promoting canine health at Crufts.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Canine Health Schemes, run by BVA in partnership with the Kennel Club, were promoted at this year's Crufts, which was held at the NEC, Birmingham, last month. Tim Keen, BVA marketing manager, reports. PMID:27034308

  10. Your Kidneys

    MedlinePLUS

    ... jobs of the kidneys is to filter the waste out of the blood . How does the waste get in your blood? Well, your blood delivers ... to break down the nutrients. Some of the waste is the result of these chemical reactions. Some ...

  11. Kidney pain (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  12. Cell Fusion by Canine Distemper Virus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Anne M.; Fisher, Linda E.; Bussell, Robert H.

    1972-01-01

    AV3 cells (continuous human amnion) infected with the Onderstepoort strain of canine distemper virus produced cell fusion within 2 to 5 hr when added to AV3 cell monolayers. An apparent requirement for intact, infected cells was demonstrated by showing that (i) frozen-and-thawed infected cells failed to induce fusion, (ii) infected cells frozen in the presence of glycerol retained their ability to induce fusion, (iii) infected cells subjected to swelling in hypotonic buffer and homogenization lost their ability to fuse cells, and (iv) semipurified and concentrated virus preparations with infectivity titers as high as 107.5 mean tissue culture doses per ml failed to induce fusion within 5 hr. Preparations of intact, infected cells had a mean log10 ratio of infectivity to fusion activity of 3.6. Treatment with beta-propiolactone rendered the active preparations free from detectable infectivity while they retained their ability to cause cell fusion. Cycloheximide did not block the formation of syncytia in assay cells. This type of cell fusion was neutralized by canine distemper virus immune antisera, and measles virus immune sera showed a slight degree of cross-neutralization. Other cell lines, HEp-2, MA 139 (embryonic ferret lung), MA 104 (embryonic rhesus monkey kidney), and Vero (African green monkey kidney) were also susceptible. PMID:4644630

  13. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G.; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers. PMID:26053201

  14. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  15. Molecular characterization and mapping of canine cGMP-phosphodiesterase delta subunit (PDE6D).

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Zhang, Q; Acland, G M; Mellersh, C; Ostrander, E A; Ray, K; Aguirre, G D

    1999-08-20

    cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) is composed of two catalytic (alpha and beta) and two identical inhibitory (gamma) subunits. The human gene (PDE6D) encoding a new subunit (delta) has been characterized and mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2 (HSA2q35-q36) where a new autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) locus (RP26) has been localized. Characterization of the canine PDE6D shows the gene is about 4.2kb containing four exons interrupted by three introns; the size of the cDNA is 1059bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 453bp. A single transcript of identical size (1.43kb) was detected in all tissues examined (liver, lung, spleen, kidney, heart, brain and retina), with the highest abundance in the retina. Canine PDE6D has been localized to canine radiation hybrid group 14-a, which extends conserved synteny between the dog, human chromosome 2q and mouse chromosome 1. The characterization of the canine PDE6D gene and its mapping provide important information for testing causal association of the gene with canine retinal degenerations, in particular rod-cone dysplasia 2 (rcd2) in collie dogs. This disease is characterized by abnormal retinal cGMP metabolism due to a deficiency in cGMP-PDE activity, yet the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of PDE have been excluded as candidate gene loci. PMID:10452952

  16. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D R; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'non-receptor' epithelium. The 'non-receptor' epithelium consists of basal cells, ciliated and non-ciliated columnar cells, and globular cells packed with mitochondria. Contained within the 'non-receptor' epithelium are leucocytes, plasma cells, and nerve endings. The 'receptor' epithelium consists of basal, sustentacular, and ciliated receptor cells. The microtubules in cilia of the receptor cells do not appear to have dynein arms or radial spokes. Images Figs. 1-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 PMID:6746408

  17. Approaches to canine health surveillance.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance. PMID:26401319

  18. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  19. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  1. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  2. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  3. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  4. KIDNEY XENOTRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Peter J.; Cooper, David K.C.; d’Apice, Anthony J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using pigs as donors offers the possibility of eliminating the chronic shortage of donor kidneys, but there are several obstacles to be overcome before this goal can be achieved. Preclinical studies have shown that while porcine renal xenografts are broadly compatible physiologically, they provoke a complex rejection process involving preformed and elicited antibodies, heightened innate immune cell reactivity, dysregulated coagulation, and a strong T cell-mediated adaptive response. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the xenograft to pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant stimuli is probably increased by cross-species molecular defects in regulatory pathways. To balance these disadvantages, xenotransplantation has at its disposal a unique tool to address particular rejection mechanisms and incompatibilities: genetic modification of the donor. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of porcine renal xenograft rejection, and on the significant genetic, pharmacological and technical progress that has been made to prolong xenograft survival. PMID:24088952

  5. Kidney xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Peter J; Cooper, David K C; d'Apice, Anthony J F

    2014-02-01

    Xenotransplantation using pigs as donors offers the possibility of eliminating the chronic shortage of donor kidneys, but there are several obstacles to be overcome before this goal can be achieved. Preclinical studies have shown that, while porcine renal xenografts are broadly compatible physiologically, they provoke a complex rejection process involving preformed and elicited antibodies, heightened innate immune cell reactivity, dysregulated coagulation, and a strong T cell-mediated adaptive response. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the xenograft to proinflammatory and procoagulant stimuli is probably increased by cross-species molecular defects in regulatory pathways. To balance these disadvantages, xenotransplantation has at its disposal a unique tool to address particular rejection mechanisms and incompatibilities: genetic modification of the donor. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of porcine renal xenograft rejection, and on the significant genetic, pharmacological, and technical progress that has been made to prolong xenograft survival. PMID:24088952

  6. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this. PMID:11424078

  7. Kidney Disease: A Silent Problem

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Disease: A Silent Problem Heath and Aging Kidney Disease: A Silent Problem Kidney Disease Who Is ... hormones that your body needs to stay healthy. Kidney Disease Kidney disease can sometimes develop very quickly, ...

  8. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F. N.; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed. PMID:26266250

  9. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Association of Kidney Patients National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Medullary Sponge Kidney Page Content On this page: What is Medullary ...

  10. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Simple Kidney Cysts Page Content On this page: What are ...

  11. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... onset of disease. People with ACKD already have chronic kidney disease when they develop cysts. Kidneys Ureters Bladder What ... kidney failure and finding treatment to stop its progression. The NIDDK’s Division ... Diseases sup ports basic research into normal kidney function ...

  12. Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

  13. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  14. Cloning of the canine glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kishnani, P.; Bao, Y.; Brix, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    Two Maltese puppies with massive hepatomegaly and failure to thrive were found to have a markedly reduced Glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity in the liver and kidney. Deficiency of G-6-Pase activity causes type 1a glycogen storage disease in humans. To further study the mutation responsible for the disease in dog, we cloned G-6-Pase canine cDNA from normal mixed breed dog liver RNA using reverse transcriptase and PCR amplification using primers derived from the published murine G-6-Pase gene sequence. Sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1071 nucleotides that encodes a predicted 357 amino acid polypeptide in the canine G-6-Pase gene, same as mouse and human. We found more than 90% sequence homology between dog and human G-6-Pase sequence. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced canine G-6-Pase polypeptide shows six transmembrane-spanning segments similar to those seen in human and mouse. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization is similarly predicted by the presence of the ER protein retention signal KK positioned 3 and 4 amino acids from the carboxy terminal. Potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites are identified at positions 96, 203, and 276. Northern blot analysis revealed increased G-6-Pase mRNA in the deficient dog liver compared to control. This could possibly reflect upregulation of transcription due to the persistent hypoglycemic state. Further studies are directed at the identification of the mutation involved in this deficient dog strain. Characterization of the G-6-Pase gene and protein in the deficient dog model can pave the way for new understanding in the pathophysiology of this disease and for the trials of novel therapeutic approaches including gene therapy.

  15. 2006 AAHA canine vaccine guidelines.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael A; Carmichael, Leland E; Childers, Henry; Cotter, Susan; Davidson, Autumn; Ford, Richard; Hurley, Kate F; Roth, James A; Schultz, Ronald D; Thacker, Eileen; Welborn, Link

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, AAHA's Canine Vaccine Task Force met to reexamine and revise guidelines on the use of vaccines in dogs. The results of the Task Force's work are summarized and tabulated in this article and are published in their entirety on the AAHA website (www.aahanet.org). The 2006 AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines contain information on new technological developments in vaccines, an introduction to conditionally licensed vaccines, and detailed recommendations on the use of available vaccines. Perhaps the most noteworthy addition to the guidelines is a separate set of recommendations created for shelter facilities. Vaccines are classified as core (universally recommended), noncore (optional), or not recommended. The Task Force recognizes that vaccination decisions must always be made on an individual basis, based on risk and lifestyle factors. PMID:16527908

  16. Canine Blastomycosis in Southern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Harasen, Greg L.G.; Randall, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of canine blastomycosis in southern Saskatchewan is examined and three clinical cases are described. Nineteen cases of the disease have been diagnosed in southern Saskatchewan since April of 1981. Eight cases were diagnosed during a six month period from August 1985 to February 1986 in dogs residing in a small central area of Regina. The geographical and chronological clustering of cases suggests a local source of exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis, not previously considered to be endemic to Saskatchewan. PMID:17422705

  17. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control. PMID:18634509

  18. Development of Canine Models of Type 1 Diabetes With Partial Pancreatectomy and the Administration of Streptozotocin

    PubMed Central

    Seita, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Kubota, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Hironobu; Nakaji, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Naoya; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We created canine models of type 1 diabetes that were suitable for the assessment of cell therapies, such as islet transplantation and bioartificial pancreas, with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection and partial pancreatectomy. In our model, a 50% pancreatectomy was performed with general anesthesia, followed by systemic injection of 35 mg/kg STZ into a vein of the foreleg. Four weeks after the administration of STZ, the fasting blood glucose level of our model dogs was found to be over 200 mg/dl twice on different days, and we could not detect any canine insulin by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). We therefore diagnosed the dogs to have induced diabetes. Some studies have reported high-dose STZ to be very toxic for both the kidney and liver, and therefore a lower dose is desirable to induce diabetic models without any associated kidney or liver damage. We think that the combination of a partial pancreatectomy can thus make it possible to reduce the dose of STZ, and it is therefore useful for the creation of type 1 diabetes models. We believe that our model is a safe and reliable model for type 1 diabetes in canines to assess the efficacy of pancreas-targeted cell therapies. PMID:26858877

  19. Effects of acid aspiration-induced acute lung injury on kidney function.

    PubMed

    Hoag, Jeffrey B; Liu, Manchang; Easley, R Blaine; Britos-Bray, Martin F; Kesari, Priya; Hassoun, Heitham; Haas, Mark; Tuder, Rubin M; Rabb, Hamid; Simon, Brett A

    2008-04-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) in combination with acute kidney injury carries a mortality approaching 80% in the intensive care unit. Recently, attention has focused on the interaction of the lung and kidney in the setting of ALI and mechanical ventilation (MV). Small animal models of ALI and MV have demonstrated changes in inflammatory mediators, water channels, apoptosis, and function in the kidney early in the course of injury. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that ALI and injurious MV cause early, measurable changes in kidney structure and function in a canine HCl aspiration model of ALI when hemodynamics and arterial blood gas tensions are carefully controlled. Intratracheal HCl induced profound ALI as demonstrated by increased shunt fraction and airway pressures compared with sham injury. Sham-injured animals had similar mean arterial pressure and arterial Pco(2) and HCO(3) levels compared with injured animals. Measurements of renal function including renal blood flow, urine flow, serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and kidney histology scores were not different between groups. With maintenance of hemodynamic parameters and alveolar ventilation, ALI and injurious MV do not alter kidney structure and function early in the course of injury in this acid aspiration canine model. Kidney injury in large animal models may be more similar to humans and may differ from results seen in small animal models. PMID:18256314

  20. Oncolytic Reovirus in Canine Mast Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chung Chew; Umeki, Saori; Kubo, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshiharu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken; Baba, Kenji; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Coffey, Matt; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    The usage of reovirus has reached phase II and III clinical trials in human cancers. However, this is the first study to report the oncolytic effects of reovirus in veterinary oncology, focusing on canine mast cell tumor (MCT), the most common cutaneous tumor in dogs. As human and canine cancers share many similarities, we hypothesized that the oncolytic effects of reovirus can be exploited in canine cancers. The objective of this study was to determine the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine MCT in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. We demonstrated that MCT cell lines were highly susceptible to reovirus as indicated by marked cell death, high production of progeny virus and virus replication. Reovirus induced apoptosis in the canine MCT cell lines with no correlation to their Ras activation status. In vivo studies were conducted using unilateral and bilateral subcutaneous MCT xenograft models with a single intratumoral reovirus treatment and apparent reduction of tumor mass was exhibited. Furthermore, cell death was induced by reovirus in primary canine MCT samples in vitro. However, canine and murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMCMC) were also susceptible to reovirus. The combination of these results supports the potential value of reovirus as a therapy in canine MCT but warrants further investigation on the determinants of reovirus susceptibility. PMID:24073198

  1. Downregulation of the KLF4 transcription factor inhibits the proliferation and migration of canine mammary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yung-Tien; Chang, Mei-Hsien; Chu, Pei-Yi; Lin, Chen-Si; Liu, Chen-Hsuan; Liao, Albert T

    2015-08-01

    Canine mammary tumor (CMT) is the most common neoplasm in female dogs, and over 50% of CMTs are diagnosed as malignant. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a member of the KLF family of transcription factors and is associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Although the role of KLF4 is still controversial in various human cancers, KLF4 has been identified as an oncogene in human breast cancer. Moreover, high KLF4 expression is correlated with an aggressive phenotype in CMT. Therefore, investigating the function of KLF4 may help better understand the pathogenesis of CMT. In this study, partial sequences of canine KLF4 and KLF4 expression were identified in various normal canine tissues, as well as CMT cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Kenpaullone, a small molecule inhibitor of KLF4, downregulated KLF4 expression in CMT cells and reduced CMT cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation in soft agar. Kenpaullone treatment induced S and G2/M phase arrest in CMT and MDCK cells, and induced death in CMT cells, but not in MDCK cells. It was concluded that KLF4 is expressed in various normal canine tissues, and downregulation of KLF4 inhibited CMT cell proliferation and migration, and induced cell death. The results of this study suggest that KLF4 may represent a suitable therapeutic target for CMT therapy. PMID:25616642

  2. Canine model of crush syndrome established by a digital crush injury device platform

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Ding, Hui; Fan, Hao-Jun; Dong, Wen-Long; Sun, Zhen-Xing; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish a canine model of crush syndrome (CS). Methods: A total of 16 healthy adult female Beagle dogs were randomly divided into the control group (n=8) and the experimental group (n=8). The crush injury was created in the left hind leg of each dog in the experimental group. Results: The biochemical indexes in the experimental group changed significantly compared to the values before extrusion. And they were also significantly different from the values of the control group. The glomerular capillary dilation, renal tubular epithelial cell degeneration, and renal interstitial lymphocytic infiltration were found in the kidneys. Conclusion: The canine CS model established by the digital crush injury device platform was successful according with the diagnosis of CS. It is good for the investigation of the CS mechanism and treatment using this model. PMID:26261489

  3. Medullary cystic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and diet changes, limiting foods containing phosphorus and potassium. You may need dialysis and a kidney transplant. ... Hyponatremia (low blood sodium level) Hyperkalemia (too much potassium in the blood), especially with end-stage kidney ...

  4. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most commonly encountered kidney complications of IBD—particularly oxalate stones. Kidney stones are more common in Crohn's ... of fat malabsorption. Fat binds to calcium, leaving oxalate (a type of salt) free to be absorbed ...

  5. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  6. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and requires immediate medical attention. [ Top ] How do health care providers diagnose autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease? Health ... when test results are available. [ Top ] How do health care providers treat autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease? Although ...

  7. Testing for Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Albumin Children and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. September 17, 2014​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  8. Kidney Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a way of cleaning the blood with an artificial kidney. There are two types of dialysis: hemodialysis ... keep diabetes under control. Hemodialysis In hemodialysis, an artificial kidney removes waste from the blood. A surgeon ...

  9. Kidney Disease Risks among Hispanics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an AKF screening Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. About AKF ... our Northeast Region. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Our late spring event is an elegant fundraiser ...

  10. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  11. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or organization Alternate Language URL At Risk for Kidney Disease? Page Content You are at risk for ... failure by treating kidney disease early. Diabetes and Kidney Disease Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney ...

  12. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23293164

  13. A review of canine pseudocyesis.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches at the end of metaoestrus. PSC is a frequent finding in domestic dogs. Although it is generally admitted that prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the appearance of PSC, its precise aetiophysiology is not completely understood yet. A number of clinical studies suggest that at some point of metaoestrus circulating PRL levels rise in overtly pseudopregnant bitches. Individual differences in sensitivity to PRL as well as the existence of molecular variants of canine PRL with different bioactivity versus immunoreactivity ratios may help clarify the aetiopathology of PSC. Diagnosis of PSC is based on the presence of typical clinical signs in metaoestrous non-pregnant bitches. Considering that PSC is a self limiting physiological state, mild cases usually need no treatment. Discouraging maternal behaviour and sometimes fitting Elizabethan collars to prevent licking of the mammary glands may suffice in these cases. Sex steroids (oestrogens, progestins and androgens) have been traditionally used to treat PSC but the side-effects usually outweigh the benefits of these medications. Inhibition of PRL release by ergot derivatives [bromocriptine (10-100 microg/kg per day for 10-14 days], cabergoline (5 microg/kg per day during 5-10 days), metergoline (0.2 mg/kg per day during 8-10 days) has proved to be effective for the treatment of canine PSC. Although some of these ergot derivatives present some untoward side-effects, they are transient and can usually be managed. Predisposed bitches not intended for breeding should be spayed as ovariectomy is the only permanent preventive measure. PMID:11928922

  14. Genetics of Canine Primary Glaucomas.

    PubMed

    Komáromy, András M; Petersen-Jones, Simon M

    2015-11-01

    Primary glaucomas are a leading cause of incurable vision loss in dogs. Based on their specific breed predilection, a genetic cause is suspected to be responsible, and affected dogs should be excluded from breeding. Despite the high prevalence of primary glaucomas in dogs, their genetics have been studied in only a small number of breeds. The identification of canine glaucoma disease genes, and the development of genetic tests, will help to avoid the breeding of affected dogs in the future and will allow for earlier diagnosis and potentially more effective therapy. PMID:26277300

  15. Ultrasonographic features of canine lipomas.

    PubMed

    Volta, Antonella; Bonazzi, Mattia; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gazzola, Margherita; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic features of canine lipomas. A group of 94 dogs with a soft tissue mass was considered. All dogs were examined ultrasonographically and cyto/histologic examination was performed. Twenty-four dogs, whose mass was diagnosed as a lipoma, were selected. Fifty-five lipomas were present on the 24 dogs. Fifty-one lipomas were superficial and located subcutaneously. Four lipomas were deep and located in the paratesticular region. Ultrasonographically, lipomas appeared as oval, well-defined, encapsulated, striated masses. PMID:17153070

  16. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  17. Identification of a canine adenovirus (infectious canine hepatitis virus) inhibitor in dog liver extracts as arginase.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, L E

    1972-09-01

    Extracts of canine liver inhibited growth of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) virus, a canine adenovirus. Purified extracts from mammalian, but not avian, liver tissue contained the inhibitor, and evidence is presented that the inhibitory factor is the enzyme arginase (arginine ureohydrolase). This study further emphasized the need for arginine in adenovirus growth and may explain some of the difficulties in isolating small amounts of ICH virus from suspensions of liver. PMID:4344396

  18. Seroconversion of puppies to canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus: a comparison of two combination vaccines.

    PubMed

    Coyne, M J

    2000-01-01

    Sixty puppies were randomly assigned to receive one of two commercially available combination vaccines, and responses to the canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus components of the vaccines were determined by measuring serum antibody titers. The percentage of puppies that seroconverted to canine parvovirus was significantly higher and the mean time for seroconversion was significantly shorter for puppies that received one of the vaccines than for puppies that received the other vaccine. Percentages of puppies that seroconverted to canine distemper virus were not significantly different. PMID:10730624

  19. Dual Kidney Transplant.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ahmed; Halawa, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    During the past decades, dual kidney transplant has enabled greater use of marginal kidneys and reduced waiting time. Since the first description of dual transplant in 1996, the techniques and outcomes have improved. No clear allocation criteria for donors and suitable candidates have been outlined; however, in general, an older for older approach is followed by many centers. Many centers are hampered by the lack of a clear allocation policy and the fact that decisions for dual kidney transplant are solely clinician based. Unilateral placement of both kidneys is the technique of choice in many centers. En block pediatric dual transplant and several vascular reconstruction methods for dual kidneys have been adopted by surgeons to enable single arterial and venous anastomosis and to reduce complications. Although there is a higher prevalence of vascular complications, mainly in the form of graft thrombosis, the overall complication rate with dual kidney transplant is comparable to single kidney transplant. Kidney survival and function are encouraging and close to results with standard criteria single kidney transplant. Although the technique is well established in many centers, standardized guidelines are lacking. Here, we review the current experience with dual kidney transplant. PMID:26643671

  20. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  1. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  2. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation. PMID:25698302

  3. Canine viral enteritis. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L

    1979-05-01

    Two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (CPV) and one by a corona-like virus (CCV). A rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. Canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. Treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. Infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these diseases makes them difficult to contain. Feces from infected dogs appear to be the primary means of transmission. Sodium hypochlorite solutions (eg, Clorox) are recommended for disinfection. The development of effective vaccines is an immediate and pressing problem. PMID:224304

  4. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  5. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding. PMID:23477413

  6. [New kidney transplants].

    PubMed

    Bergerat, S

    2015-11-01

    Chronic kidney failure and patients that require haemodialysis is increasing, mainly because of the increasing prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. Kidney transplantation is an alternative therapy for chronic renal failure in its terminal stage. Currently, in France and in the world, there is a shortage of kidney transplants. The evolution of the French legislation allows the organ donation from living donor, including awaiting cardiac arrest. PMID:26337224

  7. Papillary Kidney Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

  8. Clear Cell Kidney Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The most common type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. This cancer forms in the cells lining the small tubules in the kidney that filter waste from the blood and make urine. An estimated 58,240 Americans were expected to have been diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2010 and an estimated 13,040 to have died of this cancer.1 Most people with kidney cancer are usually over 55 years of age and this cancer is more common in men.

  9. HCV and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Corouge, Marion; Vallet-Pichard, Anaïs; Pol, Stanislas

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is significantly associated with a risk of renal deterioration over time. Renal impairment, especially stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease, increases the risk of: (i) the prevalence and incidence (in dialysis/transplantation) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; (ii) liver deterioration during kidney transplantation and (iii) allograft failure and patient mortality. HCV-infected dialysis patients have a higher mortality than non-infected dialysis patients and than HCV-infected kidney recipients. The harmful impact of HCV emphasizes the need for oral antiviral therapies in patients with chronic kidney disease. Symptomatic cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and extensive liver fibrosis are already approved indications for early access to oral antiviral treatment. Patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease should also be given priority: dialysis patients (whatever the stage of fibrosis and whether or not they are candidates for kidney transplantation) as well as all kidney recipients. The results of treatment of HCV with direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) drugs in patients with late chronic kidney disease are excellent, similar to those in the general population, although additional clinical trials are definitely needed, particularly to optimize adjustment of treatment to kidney function and determine the risk of drug-drug interactions. PMID:26725894

  10. Metabolic flux profiling of MDCK cells during growth and canine adenovirus vector production

    PubMed Central

    Carinhas, Nuno; Pais, Daniel A. M.; Koshkin, Alexey; Fernandes, Paulo; Coroadinha, Ana S.; Carrondo, Manuel J. T.; Alves, Paula M.; Teixeira, Ana P.

    2016-01-01

    Canine adenovirus vector type 2 (CAV2) represents an alternative to human adenovirus vectors for certain gene therapy applications, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. However, more efficient production processes, assisted by a greater understanding of the effect of infection on producer cells, are required. Combining [1,2-13C]glucose and [U-13C]glutamine, we apply for the first time 13C-Metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) to study E1-transformed Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells metabolism during growth and CAV2 production. MDCK cells displayed a marked glycolytic and ammoniagenic metabolism, and 13C data revealed a large fraction of glutamine-derived labelling in TCA cycle intermediates, emphasizing the role of glutamine anaplerosis. 13C-MFA demonstrated the importance of pyruvate cycling in balancing glycolytic and TCA cycle activities, as well as occurrence of reductive alphaketoglutarate (AKG) carboxylation. By turn, CAV2 infection significantly upregulated fluxes through most central metabolism, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, glutamine anaplerosis and, more prominently, reductive AKG carboxylation and cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A formation, suggestive of increased lipogenesis. Based on these results, we suggest culture supplementation strategies to stimulate nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis for improved canine adenoviral vector production. PMID:27004747

  11. Metabolic flux profiling of MDCK cells during growth and canine adenovirus vector production.

    PubMed

    Carinhas, Nuno; Pais, Daniel A M; Koshkin, Alexey; Fernandes, Paulo; Coroadinha, Ana S; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Teixeira, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    Canine adenovirus vector type 2 (CAV2) represents an alternative to human adenovirus vectors for certain gene therapy applications, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. However, more efficient production processes, assisted by a greater understanding of the effect of infection on producer cells, are required. Combining [1,2-(13)C]glucose and [U-(13)C]glutamine, we apply for the first time (13)C-Metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) to study E1-transformed Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells metabolism during growth and CAV2 production. MDCK cells displayed a marked glycolytic and ammoniagenic metabolism, and (13)C data revealed a large fraction of glutamine-derived labelling in TCA cycle intermediates, emphasizing the role of glutamine anaplerosis. (13)C-MFA demonstrated the importance of pyruvate cycling in balancing glycolytic and TCA cycle activities, as well as occurrence of reductive alphaketoglutarate (AKG) carboxylation. By turn, CAV2 infection significantly upregulated fluxes through most central metabolism, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, glutamine anaplerosis and, more prominently, reductive AKG carboxylation and cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A formation, suggestive of increased lipogenesis. Based on these results, we suggest culture supplementation strategies to stimulate nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis for improved canine adenoviral vector production. PMID:27004747

  12. Effects of vaccines on the canine immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, T R; Jensen, J L; Rubino, M J; Yang, W C; Schultz, R D

    1989-01-01

    The effects of several commercially available polyvalent canine vaccines on the immune system of the dog were examined. The results demonstrated that the polyvalent vaccines used in this study significantly suppressed the absolute lymphocyte count and that most of the polyvalent vaccines significantly suppressed lymphocyte response to mitogen, but had no effect on natural effector cell activity, neutrophil chemiluminescence, nor antibody response to canine distemper virus. The individual vaccine components from the polyvalent vaccines when inoculated alone did not significantly suppress the lymphocyte response to mitogen. However, when canine distemper virus was combined with canine adenovirus type 1 or canine adenovirus type 2, significant suppression in lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogen occurred. The results indicate that interactions between canine distemper virus and canine adenovirus type 1 or canine adenovirus type 2 are responsible for the polyvalent vaccine induced suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness. PMID:2540897

  13. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission. PMID:25686382

  14. Kidney Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney, Renal Pelvis, and Ureter Kidney C649, Renal Pelvis C659, Ureter C669 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor

  15. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foundation Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  16. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Albumin Children and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. September 17, 2014​​​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  17. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acquired cystic kidney disease should talk with their health care provider about when to begin screening. [ Top ] Eating, Diet, and Nutrition No specific diet will prevent or delay acquired cystic kidney disease. In general, a diet designed for people on hemodialysis or ...

  18. Bioengineering Kidneys for Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia L.; Ott, Harald C.

    2014-01-01

    One in ten Americans suffer from chronic kidney disease, and close to 90,000 people die each year from causes related to kidney failure. Patients with end-stage renal disease are faced with two options: hemodialysis or transplantation. Unfortunately, the reach of transplantation is limited because of the shortage of donor organs and the need for immunosuppression. Bioengineered kidney grafts theoretically present a novel solution to both problems. Herein we discuss the history of bioengineering organs, the current status of bioengineered kidneys, considerations for the future of the field, and challenges to clinical translation. We hope that by integrating principles of tissue engineering, and stem cell and developmental biology, bioengineered kidney grafts will advance the field of regenerative medicine while meeting a critical clinical need. PMID:25217267

  19. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation. PMID:27026555

  20. cDNA cloning, expression, purification, distribution, and characterization of biologically active canine alanine aminotransferase-1.

    PubMed

    Rajamohan, Francis; Nelms, Linda; Joslin, Diane L; Lu, Bin; Reagan, William J; Lawton, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a pyridoxal enzyme found mainly in the liver and kidney, but also in small amounts in the heart, muscle, fat, and brain. Serum aminotransferase activities have been used broadly as surrogate markers for tissue injury and disease in human and veterinary clinical settings and in safety assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Because of its relative abundance in liver, increased serum ALT activity is generally considered indicative of liver damage. Two ALT isoenzymes, ALT1 and ALT2, are known and have been cloned and sequenced from human, rat, and mouse. In this study, we have cloned the complementary DNA encoding the canine orthologue of ALT1 (cALT1). The complete cDNA sequence comprised 1852 bases and contained a 1485-base open reading frame, which encodes a polypeptide of 494 amino acid residues. Canine ALT1 shares 87.7, 87.2, and 87.0% amino acid identity to its human, mouse, and rat orthologues, respectively. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli, with a N-terminal His (6x) tag, and the recombinant enzyme was purified using immobilized metal-affinity chromatography. The final yield of the purified recombinant cALT1 was greater than 5mg/L culture. The alanine transaminase activity of purified cALT1 was 229.81U/mg protein, which is approximately 38-fold higher than that of total soluble recombinant E. coli cell lysate, confirming that the enzyme is a functional ALT. Evaluation of various canine tissues by RT-PCR revealed that the level of ALT1 expression is in the order of: heart>liver>fat approximately brain approximately gastrocnemius>kidney. The purified cALT1 will be helpful to develop isoenzyme-specific anti-bodies, which could further improve the diagnostic resolution of current ALT assays in drug safety studies. PMID:16495081

  1. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  2. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

  3. Engraftment of canine peripheral blood lymphocytes into nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient IL-2R common gamma chain null mice.

    PubMed

    Foote, Jeremy B; Kabir, Farruk M Lutful; Graff, Emily C; Cattley, Russell C; DeInnocentes, Patricia; Smith, Bruce F; Bird, R Curtis

    2014-02-15

    To study the canine immune system we generated a mouse model engrafted with canine lymphocytes using NOD SCID IL2R common gamma chain -/- (NSG) mice as recipients (Ca-PBL-SCID). Engraftment of canine peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was determined post-injection with 10(7) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) into irradiated NSG mice using flow cytometry and fluorescently labeled antibodies specific to canine helper T cells (CD45(+) CD4(+)), cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD45(+) CD8(+)), regulatory T cells (CD45(+) CD4(+) Foxp3(+)), and B cells (CD45(+) Ig(+) CD21lo). Canine CD45(+) lymphocytes were detectable as early as day 1 in the peritoneal cavity, and beginning at 9 days in the blood, bone marrow, and spleen. CD4(+) T cells, of which Foxp-3(+) CD25hi cells constituted a minor percentage, were the predominant lymphocyte population at 9 days post engraftment contrasting with increasing proportions of CD8(+) CTL's and Ig(+) B cells beginning at 16 days. Canine immunoglobulin was initially detected in the serum of Ca-PBL-SCID mice at 9 days post-engraftment and peaked in concentration at day 36. From day 28 to 52 post-engraftment 30% of the Ca-PBL-SCID mice became markedly anemic and thrombocytopenic, yet gross and histopathologic examination of bone marrow, kidneys, spleen, liver, and intestine revealed no obvious lesions. Blood smear evaluation revealed agglutination of mature red blood cells, reticulocytes and a regenerative anemia. These findings demonstrate that NSG mice are capable of engraftment of canine PBLs yet develop graft versus host disease similar to Hu-PBL-SCID mice. PMID:24368085

  4. Canine parvovirus enteritis 2: Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Macartney, L; McCandlish, I A; Thompson, H; Cornwell, H J

    1984-11-01

    Two groups of puppies, eight and 10 weeks of age, were inoculated orally with canine parvovirus of faecal origin. The patterns of faecal excretion of virus, antibody production and systemic viral localisation following inoculation were studied. Faecal excretion of virus was first apparent at day 3 after inoculation, was present most frequently and in greatest quantity at days 4 to 7 after inoculation and fell sharply thereafter. Serum antibody was first detected at day 5 after inoculation with high titres in all samples from day 7 onwards. Virus isolation from serum samples revealed a non-cell associated viraemia at days 3 and 4 after inoculation. Immunocytochemical examination, using both immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques, first revealed antigen in the thymic cortex at day 1 after inoculation and in the germinal centres of the lymph nodes and the splenic white pulp from days 2 and 3. Viral antigen was first detected in the intestines at day 4 in individual cells in the proliferative zone of the crypt epithelium. From day 5 onwards, the amount of antigen present in the lymphoid tissue decreased so that by days 7 and 8, only a trace was present. There was widespread specific staining in the small intestinal mucosa at day 6, but little antigen was present by day 7. Virus was present in the bone marrow of some dogs killed at days 5 and 6. PMID:6095514

  5. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine.

    PubMed

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments. PMID:20957163

  6. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nykky, Jonna; Tuusa, Jenni E; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Vuento, Matti; Gilbert, Leona

    2010-01-01

    Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV) to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK) cells and canine fibroma cells (A72) displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments. PMID:20957163

  7. The orthodontic management of ectopic canine

    PubMed Central

    Thirunavukkarasu, R.; Sriram, G.; Satish, R.

    2015-01-01

    The canines being the cornerstone of the arch and smile is one of the teeth, which has the longest eruption passage that gets influenced by local and general etiological factors easily. The initial calcification of the crowns starts at 4–5 months of age and proceeds toward eruption about 11–13 years of age with mesiobuccal crown angulation that gets corrected toward occlusion. It gets displaced buccally or palatally or may sometimes get impacted. Early intervention is the best suited to manage canine eruption patterns. Once erupted ectopically, they possess a great challenge in repositioning them back into their correct position. This case report discusses an orthodontic treatment planning and execution to correct a buccally placed canine with an anterior crossbite in an adult. PMID:26538959

  8. Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bingham, John

    2005-09-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio > or =1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in > or =1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  9. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy: Catch Kidney Disease Early

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Catch Kidney Disease Early Your kidneys aren’t very big—each is about the ... other substances inside your body. Unfortunately, if your kidneys start to malfunction, you might not realize it ...

  10. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... V iew personal stories .??? Alternate Language URL Español Kidney Disease A-Z Page Content Kidney disease topics ... lead to chronic kidney disease Anatomy of the Kidneys The Kidneys and How They Work Anemia and ...

  11. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the key statistics about kidney cancer? What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? About the kidneys To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps ...

  12. Canine treatment with SnET2 for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Donita L.; Milligan, Andrew J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Morgan, Alan R.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1990-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment technique that utilizes the photoactived species of a drug to destroy tumor tissue. To be successful, the drug must localize in tumor tissue preferentially over normal tissue and must be activated by light of a specific wavelength. Currently the only drug to be approved for clinical use is Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) although a series of new drugs are being developed for use in the near future. One of the drugs belongs to a class called purpurins which display absorp-' tions between 630-711 nm. Along with several other investigators, we are currently exploring the characteristics of a specific purpurin (SnET2) in normal and tumorous canine tissue. The use of this compound has demonstrated increased tumor control rates in spontaneous dog tumors. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have been performed on 6 normal beagle dogs. SnET2 (2 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 10 minutes and blood was collected at 5, 15, 30, 45 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours following administration for determination of drug concentration and calculation of pharinacokinetic parameters. Skin biopsies were collected at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Dogs were euthanized at 24 hours and tissues (liver, kidney muscle, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileura, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid, heart, lung, urinary bladder, prostate, pancreas, eye, brain) were collected for drug raeasurement. Drug was shown to persist in liver and kidney for a prolonged period of time coiapared to other tissues. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug will greatly add to the ability to treat patients with effective protocols.

  13. Canine mammary mixed tumours: a review.

    PubMed

    Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Cavalheiro Bertagnolli, Angélica; Ferreira, Enio; Araújo Damasceno, Karine; de Oliveira Gamba, Conrado; Bonolo de Campos, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Mammary mixed tumours are the most frequent neoplasias in female dogs. In humans, mixed tumours are frequently found in the salivary glands and are known as pleomorphic adenomas. In addition to their histomorphologic similarities, mixed tumours and pleomorphic adenomas have the potential to become malignant and give rise to carcinomas in mixed tumours and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, respectively. The factors associated with malignant transformation are still poorly known in the case of canine mixed tumours. However, this form of neoplasia tends to be associated with a better prognosis than other malignant histological types. This paper discusses the main features associated with female canine mammary mixed tumours. PMID:23193497

  14. Canine Mammary Mixed Tumours: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Cavalheiro Bertagnolli, Angélica; Ferreira, Enio; Araújo Damasceno, Karine; de Oliveira Gamba, Conrado; Bonolo de Campos, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Mammary mixed tumours are the most frequent neoplasias in female dogs. In humans, mixed tumours are frequently found in the salivary glands and are known as pleomorphic adenomas. In addition to their histomorphologic similarities, mixed tumours and pleomorphic adenomas have the potential to become malignant and give rise to carcinomas in mixed tumours and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, respectively. The factors associated with malignant transformation are still poorly known in the case of canine mixed tumours. However, this form of neoplasia tends to be associated with a better prognosis than other malignant histological types. This paper discusses the main features associated with female canine mammary mixed tumours. PMID:23193497

  15. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  16. Dens invaginatus (dilated odontome) in mandibular canine

    PubMed Central

    Halawar, Sangamesh S; Satyakiran, GVV; Krishnanand, PS; Prashanth, R

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation of teeth related to shape of the teeth. Affected teeth show a deep infolding of enamel and dentin starting from the tip of the cusps and may extend deep into the root. It results from the invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla before calcification has occurred. Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors. The presence of dens invaginatus in mandibular canine is extremely rare. The tooth was symptomatic in that it was mobile and was oriented horizontally. This article presents a case of symptomatic dens invaginatus in mandibular canine. PMID:25364169

  17. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  18. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  19. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature of each animal shall be taken and the presence of respiratory or other clinical signs of canine... and controls using a scoring system approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,...

  20. Canine parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, and major histocompatibility complex genetic variation in Mexican wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lee, Rhonda N; Buchanan, Colleen

    2003-10-01

    The endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was recently reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico (USA). In 1999 and 2000, pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. Overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. The parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene DRB1. Similar MHC genes are related to disease resistance in other species. All six of the surviving pups genotyped for the MHC gene were heterozygous while five of the pups that died were heterozygous and one was homozygous. Resistance to pathogens is an important aspect of the management and long-term survival of endangered taxa, such as the Mexican wolf. PMID:14733289

  1. Bioprocess development for canine adenovirus type 2 vectors.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Peixoto, C; Santiago, V M; Kremer, E J; Coroadinha, A S; Alves, P M

    2013-04-01

    Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vectors overcome many of the clinical immunogenic concerns related to vectors derived from human adenoviruses (AdVs). In addition, CAV-2 vectors preferentially transduce neurons with an efficient traffic via axons to afferent regions when injected into the brain. To meet the need for preclinical and possibly clinical uses, scalable and robust production processes are required. CAV-2 vectors are currently produced in E1-transcomplementing dog kidney (DK) cells, which might raise obstacles in regulatory approval for clinical grade material production. In this study, a GMP-compliant bioprocess was developed. An MDCK-E1 cell line, developed by our group, was grown in scalable stirred tank bioreactors, using serum-free medium, and used to produce CAV-2 vectors that were afterwards purified using column chromatographic steps. Vectors produced in MDCK-E1 cells were identical to those produced in DK cells as assessed by SDS-PAGE and dynamic light scatering measurements (diameter and Zeta potential). Productivities of ?10(9) infectious particles (IP)?ml(-1) and 2 × 10(3)?IP per cell were possible. A downstream process using technologies transferable to process scales was developed, yielding 63% global recovery. The total particles to IP ratio in the purified product (<20:1) was within the limits specified by the regulatory authorities for AdV vectors. These results constitute a step toward a scalable process for CAV-2 vector production compliant with clinical material specifications. PMID:22763405

  2. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  3. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-04-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  4. HIV and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... remove the waste in urine. The most important waste products are excess sodium and water. . Each kidney contains about a million filtering units called nephrons. They: eliminate wastes from the body, regulate the volume and pressure ...

  5. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the kidneys is to remove waste from the body through the production of urine. They also help to regulate blood pressure, blood volume and the chemical (electrolyte) composition of the blood. The pancreas is a five ...

  6. Living with Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials Find A Clinical Trial (EmergingMed) A Patient’s Perspective Live Living With Kidney Cancer Cancer Nutrition Information ( ... Second, many insurance companies have formal claims appeal processes. You can appeal your claim and have it ...

  7. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is the most common cause of kidney failure, accounting for nearly 44 percent of new cases. 1 ... health care provider regarding insulin injections, medicines, meal planning, physical activity, and blood glucose monitoring. have their ...

  8. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Diabetes ... of your body. Are there different types of diabetes? The most common ones are Type 1 and ...

  9. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 One of the more ... thereafter.) This content was last reviewed January 2016. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  10. Sulfadiazine for kidney disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.; Bernier, A.F.; Whipple, W.J.; Burrows, R.E.

    1951-01-01

    The blueback salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus nerka) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Station at Winthrop, Washington, underwent an infection that was caused by a very short, Gram-positive, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacterium. A further description is impossible at this time, as the organism has not been grown satisfactorily for proper identification. The disease was characterized by white, raised areas of dead tissue mainly in the kidney: for this reason it is referred to as kidney disease. Belding and Merrill (1935) described a disease among the brook, brown, and rainbow trout at a State hatchery in Massachusetts which, from the description, might be the same as kidney disease. J.H. Wales of the California Division of Fish and Game described (unpublished manuscript, 1941) a disease in hatchery trout in California which seems to be identical to kidney disease.

  11. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can develop in the urinary tract . Also called calculi or nephrolithiasis, kidney stones form when salts and ... form a stone. Struvite stones: Also called staghorn calculi because they look like a stag's antlers, these ...

  12. Medicines and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. ​​September 17, 2014 Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  13. Unusual drainage of the main kidney on accessory kidney

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Gülnur; U?ra?, Murat; Demiröz, Sevgi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with an accessory kidney are characterized by an excessive number of kidneys. The ureter of the accessory kidney either drains separately into the bladder or merges with the ureter of the main kidney. In our case, interestingly, the ureter of the left main kidney drained directly into the accessory kidney and the ureter of the latter was the common drainage route for both. The drainage of a normal kidney via the ureter of an accessory kidney has not been reported in the literature, so far. The aim of this report is to present the case with radiological findings and to emphasize the effects of this situation on planned surgical procedures. A 62-year-old female patient had an interesting abnormality on the left collecting system, which was revealed on excretory urography (EU), retrograde urography (RU) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A kinky left ureter, which formed a U shape, was revealed on EU. On MDCT, an accessory kidney was revealed at the anterior aspect of the middle zone of left main kidney. The ureter of the main left kidney drained directly into the accessory kidney. The course of this drainage was confirmed by retrograde urography. An accessory kidney is a rare entity associated with horseshoe kidney, ectopic ureter draining into the vagina, bifid collecting system and coarctation of the aorta. In our case, an unusual association between the ureters of the main and accessory kidneys was revealed, which may have an impact on planned surgery in the groin and retroperitoneal areas. PMID:26328163

  14. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  15. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor BB, erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, F.R.L.; Steinborn, R.; Grausgruber, H.; Wolfesberger, B.; Walter, I.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of expression of the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) on neoplastic cells has led to concerns about the safety of treating anaemic cancer patients with EPO. In addition to its endocrine function, the receptor may play a role in tumour progression through an autocrine mechanism. In this study, the expression of EPO, EPO-R and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) was analysed in five feline and 13 canine osteosarcomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EPO expression was positive in all tumours by IHC, but EPO mRNA was only detected in 38% of the canine and 40% of the feline samples. EPO-R was expressed in all samples by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and IHC. EPO-R mRNA was expressed at higher levels in all feline tumours, tumour cell lines, and kidney when compared to canine tissues. PDGF-BB expression was variable by IHC, but mRNA was detected in all samples. To assess the functionality of the EPO-R on tumour cells, the proliferation of canine and feline osteosarcoma cell lines was evaluated after EPO administration using an alamarBlue assay and Ki67 immunostaining. All primary cell lines responded to EPO treatment in at least one of the performed assays, but the effect on proliferation was very low indicating only a weak responsiveness of EPO-R. In conclusion, since EPO and its receptor are expressed by canine and feline osteosarcomas, an autocrine or paracrine tumour progression mechanism cannot be excluded, although in vitro data suggest a minimal role of EPO-R in osteosarcoma cell proliferation. PMID:26189892

  16. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor BB, erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F R L; Steinborn, R; Grausgruber, H; Wolfesberger, B; Walter, I

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of expression of the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) on neoplastic cells has led to concerns about the safety of treating anaemic cancer patients with EPO. In addition to its endocrine function, the receptor may play a role in tumour progression through an autocrine mechanism. In this study, the expression of EPO, EPO-R and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) was analysed in five feline and 13 canine osteosarcomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EPO expression was positive in all tumours by IHC, but EPO mRNA was only detected in 38% of the canine and 40% of the feline samples. EPO-R was expressed in all samples by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and IHC. EPO-R mRNA was expressed at higher levels in all feline tumours, tumour cell lines, and kidney when compared to canine tissues. PDGF-BB expression was variable by IHC, but mRNA was detected in all samples. To assess the functionality of the EPO-R on tumour cells, the proliferation of canine and feline osteosarcoma cell lines was evaluated after EPO administration using an alamarBlue assay and Ki67 immunostaining. All primary cell lines responded to EPO treatment in at least one of the performed assays, but the effect on proliferation was very low indicating only a weak responsiveness of EPO-R. In conclusion, since EPO and its receptor are expressed by canine and feline osteosarcomas, an autocrine or paracrine tumour progression mechanism cannot be excluded, although in vitro data suggest a minimal role of EPO-R in osteosarcoma cell proliferation. PMID:26189892

  17. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  18. Signaling during Kidney Development

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Mirja; Rak-Raszewska, Aleksandra; Pietilä, Ilkka; Quaggin, Susan E.; Vainio, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    The kidney plays an essential role during excretion of metabolic waste products, maintenance of key homeostasis components such as ion concentrations and hormone levels. It influences the blood pressure, composition and volume. The kidney tubule system is composed of two distinct cell populations: the nephrons forming the filtering units and the collecting duct system derived from the ureteric bud. Nephrons are composed of glomeruli that filter the blood to the Bowman’s capsule and tubular structures that reabsorb and concentrate primary urine. The collecting duct is a Wolffian duct-derived epithelial tube that concentrates and collects urine and transfers it via the renal pelvis into the bladder. The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework. Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis. As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies. This review focuses on how the pattern of renal development is generated, how the inductive signals are regulated and what are their effects on proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis. PMID:25867084

  19. DELINEATING TOXIC AREAS BY CANINE OLFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was undertaken to learn how the highly acute olfactory sensitivity of the canine could be applied with advantage to environmental problems. The objectives were to determine how dogs could be trained to detect hazardous and toxic pollutants in the environment an...

  20. Canine Coronavirus Highly Pathogenic for Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Castagnaro, Massimo; Tempesta, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is usually responsible for mild, self-limiting infections restricted to the enteric tract. We report an outbreak of fatal disease in puppies caused by a pathogenic variant of CCoV that was isolated from organs with severe lesions. PMID:16704791

  1. Canine coronavirus highly pathogenic for dogs.

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, Canio; Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Castagnaro, Massimo; Tempesta, Maria

    2006-03-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is usually responsible for mild, self-limiting infections restricted to the enteric tract. We report an outbreak of fatal disease in puppies caused by a pathogenic variant of CCoV that was isolated from organs with severe lesions. PMID:16704791

  2. Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Valerie M; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir

    2012-11-01

    An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment. PMID:23633720

  3. Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Valerie M.; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir

    2012-01-01

    An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment. PMID:23633720

  4. An Ectopic Pelvic Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bhoil, Rohit; Sood, Dinesh; Singh, Yash Paul; Nimkar, Kshama; Shukla, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background If a kidney does not ascend as it should in normal fetal development, it remains in the pelvic area and is called a pelvic kidney. Often a person with a pelvic kidney will go through his/her whole life unaware of this condition, unless it is discovered during neonatal kidney ultrasound screening or if complications arise later in life due to this or a completely different reason and the condition is noted during investigations. Generally, this is not a harmful condition but it can lead to complications like in our case. With appropriate testing and treatment, if needed, an ectopic kidney should cause no serious long-term health complications and all that may be required for the patient is reassurance with advice to follow up at regular intervals. Case Report A 28-year-old male presented with recurrent pain in his lower left abdomen for one month and an episode of hematuria 3 days earlier accompanied by an attack of acute pain lasting for 3–4 hours. He gave a history of passing 2 small (about 5 mm each) calculi in his urine after the occurrence of hematuria, following which pain decreased in intensity. No history of fever was present. Conclusions Although a simple ectopic kidney seldom causes symptoms, the association of malrotation of the renal pelvis with calculus increases the risk of hematuria and/or hydronephrosis, presenting with colicky pain as in the present case. The clinician should be aware of these in such a case. If asymptomatic, no treatment is required. However, the patient should be advised to have follow-up ultrasounds at regular intervals to detect complications like calculus, hydronephrosis, etc. With appropriate testing and treatment, if required, an ectopic kidney should not cause serious long-term health complications. PMID:26413178

  5. Necroinflammation in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Linkermann, Andreas; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The bidirectional causality between kidney injury and inflammation remains an area of unexpected discoveries. The last decade unraveled the molecular mechanisms of sterile inflammation, which established danger signaling via pattern recognition receptors as a new concept of kidney injury-related inflammation. In contrast, renal cell necrosis remained considered a passive process executed either by the complement-related membrane attack complex, exotoxins, or cytotoxic T cells. Accumulating data now suggest that renal cell necrosis is a genetically determined and regulated process involving specific outside-in signaling pathways. These findings support a unifying theory in which kidney injury and inflammation are reciprocally enhanced in an autoamplification loop, referred to here as necroinflammation. This integrated concept is of potential clinical importance because it offers numerous innovative molecular targets for limiting kidney injury by blocking cell death, inflammation, or both. Here, the contribution of necroinflammation to AKI is discussed in thrombotic microangiopathies, necrotizing and crescentic GN, acute tubular necrosis, and infective pyelonephritis or sepsis. Potential new avenues are further discussed for abrogating necroinflammation-related kidney injury, and questions and strategies are listed for further exploration in this evolving field. PMID:26334031

  6. Horseshoe kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kanyári, Zsolt; Zádori, Gergely; Zsom, Lajos; Berhés, Mariann; Hamar, Mátyás; Kóbor, Krisztina; Péter, Antal

    2015-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is a fusion anomaly found in approximately one in 400–600 people. Due to vascular and ureteral variations, transplantation with a horseshoe kidney presents a technical challenge. In our case, the isthmus connected the upper poles and contained parenchyma. It consisted of three renal arteries, five veins collected to the inferior vena cava, and two ureters and pyelons. It was implanted en bloc to the left side retroperitoneally. During the early period, cellular and humoral rejection was confirmed and treated. For a urine leak, double J catheters were implanted into both ureters. Later, the first catheter was removed. Subsequently, urinary sepsis developed, necessitating graftectomy. The uncommon anatomy of ureters and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) may both be factors for a ureter tip necrosis led to an infected urinoma. After other Hungarian authors, we also report a horseshoe kidney transplantation that was technically successful. However, after an adequately treated but severe acute humoral rejection, the patient developed sepsis, and the kidney had to be removed. We conclude that transplantation with horseshoe kidney is technically feasible but may increase the risk for urinary complications and resultant infections. Careful consideration of risk and benefit is advised when a transplant professional is faced with this option. PMID:26120481

  7. Kidney Failure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arabic (???????) Kidney Failure (Arabic) ????? ?????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Kidney Failure Otkazivanje rada bubrega - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Kidney ...

  8. Cloning of canine IL-1ra, TNFR and TIMP-2.

    PubMed

    Campbell, S E; Nasir, L; Argyle, D J; Gault, E A; Duthie, S; Bennett, D

    2001-01-26

    This paper describes the cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA's encoding the canine homologues of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), tumour necrosis factor receptor extra-cellular domain (TNFR/ECD) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). The coding sequences for canine IL-1ra and TNFR/ECD were obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using RNA harvested from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TIMP-2 was isolated in a similar fashion from the canine D17 osteosarcoma cell line. Sequence analysis of the canine genes demonstrated open reading frames of 531, 633 and 663 base pairs (bp), respectively. All three canine proteins IL-1ra, TNFR/ECD and TIMP-2 (177, 211 and 221 amino acids, respectively) showed considerable sequence similarity with the homologous sequences published for other species. PMID:11182158

  9. Brain–kidney crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Encephalopathy and altered higher mental functions are common clinical complications of acute kidney injury. Although sepsis is a major triggering factor, acute kidney injury predisposes to confusion by causing generalised inflammation, leading to increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier, exacerbated by hyperosmolarity and metabolic acidosis due to the retention of products of nitrogen metabolism potentially resulting in increased brain water content. Downregulation of cell membrane transporters predisposes to alterations in neurotransmitter secretion and uptake, coupled with drug accumulation increasing the risk of encephalopathy. On the other hand, acute brain injury can induce a variety of changes in renal function ranging from altered function and electrolyte imbalances to inflammatory changes in brain death kidney donors. PMID:25043644

  10. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Nagihan; Ça??rankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  11. A new method for ultrasonographic measurement of kidney size in healthy dogs?

    PubMed Central

    Barella, G.; Lodi, M.; Sabbadin, L.A.; Faverzani, S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The authors propose a simple method for assessment of canine kidney size derived from the radiological technique described by Finco et al in 1971. Materials and methods In 26 healthy dogs ultrasonography was used to measure the length, height, and thickness of each kidney. These measurements were correlated with the lengths of the fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae (L5 and L6), also measured by ultrasound. The resulting values were compared with the linear correlation method and the ratios defined using descriptive statistics. Results No significant differences were observed between the dimensions of the right and left kidneys. The length of both kidneys displayed significant correlation with both the length of L5 and that of L6. In both cases, the renal:vertebral length ratios ranged from 1.3 to 2.7. Discussion The ratio of kidney length to the length of L5 or L6 can be considered a useful parameter for assessing the size of the kidneys in healthy dogs. The normal range we identified in this study (from 1.3 to 2.7) is sufficiently narrow to allow sonographic detection of even limited changes in renal length. PMID:23459261

  12. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks. Recommendations based on the specific type of ... do to prevent kidney stones. Some studies suggest citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice protect against ...

  13. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of this ... complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal (kidney) disease during their lifetime. There are three particular ...

  14. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

  15. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page Content What ... pharmacist and provider need to know about your medicine and supplement use Your kidneys do not filter ...

  16. Kidney Failure and Vascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with renal failure can be treated with an artificial kidney machine (dialysis) which removes toxins from the blood. Patients requiring ongoing dialysis use the artificial kidney machine up to three times a week ...

  17. Kidney Disease Risks among African-Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an AKF screening Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. About AKF ... our Northeast Region. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Our late spring event is an elegant fundraiser ...

  18. You, Your Blood Pressure, and Your Kidneys

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an AKF screening Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. About AKF ... our Northeast Region. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Our late spring event is an elegant fundraiser ...

  19. When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Child When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant KidsHealth > For Parents > When Your Child Needs ... to monitor their new kidney function. About the Kidneys Kidneys are bean-shaped organs located near the ...

  20. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  1. Lupus and Kidney Disease (Lupus Nephritis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  2. Working with Kidney Disease: Rehabilitation and Employment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  3. When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Food Allergies When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant KidsHealth > For Parents > When Your Child Needs ... to monitor their new kidney function. About the Kidneys Kidneys are bean-shaped organs located near the ...

  4. Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in your kidney. The kidney stone may be stuck in your ureter (the tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder). It also may be stuck ...

  5. An Improved Canine Genome and a Comprehensive Catalogue of Coding Genes and Non-Coding Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Hoeppner, Marc P.; Lundquist, Andrew; Pirun, Mono; Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Zamani, Neda; Johnson, Jeremy; Sundström, Görel; Cook, April; FitzGerald, Michael G.; Swofford, Ross; Mauceli, Evan; Moghadam, Behrooz Torabi; Greka, Anna; Alföldi, Jessica; Abouelleil, Amr; Aftuck, Lynne; Bessette, Daniel; Berlin, Aaron; Brown, Adam; Gearin, Gary; Lui, Annie; Macdonald, J. Pendexter; Priest, Margaret; Shea, Terrance; Turner-Maier, Jason; Zimmer, Andrew; Lander, Eric S.; di Palma, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is a well-established model system for mapping trait and disease loci. While the original draft sequence was of good quality, gaps were abundant particularly in promoter regions of the genome, negatively impacting the annotation and study of candidate genes. Here, we present an improved genome build, canFam3.1, which includes 85 MB of novel sequence and now covers 99.8% of the euchromatic portion of the genome. We also present multiple RNA-Sequencing data sets from 10 different canine tissues to catalog ?175,000 expressed loci. While about 90% of the coding genes previously annotated by EnsEMBL have measurable expression in at least one sample, the number of transcript isoforms detected by our data expands the EnsEMBL annotations by a factor of four. Syntenic comparison with the human genome revealed an additional ?3,000 loci that are characterized as protein coding in human and were also expressed in the dog, suggesting that those were previously not annotated in the EnsEMBL canine gene set. In addition to ?20,700 high-confidence protein coding loci, we found ?4,600 antisense transcripts overlapping exons of protein coding genes, ?7,200 intergenic multi-exon transcripts without coding potential, likely candidates for long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and ?11,000 transcripts were reported by two different library construction methods but did not fit any of the above categories. Of the lincRNAs, about 6,000 have no annotated orthologs in human or mouse. Functional analysis of two novel transcripts with shRNA in a mouse kidney cell line altered cell morphology and motility. All in all, we provide a much-improved annotation of the canine genome and suggest regulatory functions for several of the novel non-coding transcripts. PMID:24625832

  6. [Construction and identification of recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing exogenous rabies glycoprotein (Rgp)].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong-peng; Xia, Xian-zhu; Hu, Rong-liang; Xie, Zhi-jing; Yan, Fang; Huang, Geng; Yang, Song-tao

    2007-04-01

    Safe and effective vaccination is important for rabies prevention. Here, genetically engineered rabies vaccine CAV2-deltaE3-Rgp was developed and characterized. The recombinant genome pPoly2-CAV2-deltaE3-Rgp carrying the rabies glycoprotein (Rgp) cDNA was generated by a series of strictly gene cloning steps and infectious recombinant virus CAV2-deltaE3-Rgp was obtained by transfecting the recombinant genome into a canine kidney cell line, MDCK. To efficiently construct cloned recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 genome pPoly2-CAV2-deltaE3-Rgp bearing exogenous Rgp gene, The Rgp gene was first subcloned from the clone vector pMD18-T into the eukaryon expression vector pVAX1. The Rgp expression cassette was then subcloned into the shuttle vector pVAXdeltaE3 and subsequently into the canine adenovirus type 2 backbone vector pPoly2-CAV2. To indirectly confirm pPoly2-CAV2-deltaE3-Rgp, conventional restriction endonuclease digestion was performed. CAV2-deltaE3-Rgp can generate typical CPE of CAV-2. CAV2-deltaE3-Rgp was tested by restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR, DNA sequencing. As a result, The Rgp expression cassette was successfully integrated into the target region of the CAV2 genome. It is confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot that CAV2-deltaE3-Rgp can express Rgp antigen in MDCK cell. This recombinant virus, CAV2-deltaE3-Rgp, was intramuscularly injected into dogs. All vaccinated dogs produced effective antibodies against CAV and RV after three inoculations. This recombinant virus would be prospective in immunizing dogs against CAV and RV. PMID:17552245

  7. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in urine (pee) become extra concentrated and form crystals. Over a few weeks or months, the crystals can build up and become stones. Kidney stones ... changes the level of a substance in it, crystals can begin to form. The crystals can become ...

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The most common causes of CKD are high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. Chronic kidney disease can also ... healthy diet can also help to lower your blood pressure. If you have diabetes, your doctor will tell you what to do ...

  9. Monitoring Your Kidney Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. ​​September 17, 2014​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  10. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the sodium in your diet. Look for these words on food labels: Low-sodium No salt added Sodium-free Sodium-reduced Unsalted Check ... much potassium can build up when the kidneys no longer function ... is found in many food groups, including fruits and vegetables. ...

  11. Kynanthropy: canine madness in Byzantine late antiquity.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Nadine

    2015-09-01

    Those afflicted bark like dogs, scramble on all fours and loiter around graveyards - canine madness, referred to as kynanthropy, was an illness concept in its own right in the medicine of late antiquity. At roughly the same time as the medical description produced by Aëtius of Amida, the Syrian chronicler John of Ephesus, also from Amida, reported an epidemic of dog-like madness sweeping his home town in ad 560. The symptoms are identical and both authors are from Amida - what is the connection between the two depictions? In addition to the history of the medical concept, the example of the canine madness of Amida and its cultural embedding allows us to contextualize and interpret the significance of dog-like behaviour for the people of the sixth century AD. PMID:26254130

  12. Myoepithelial cells in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Reymundo, Carlos; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio; Martín de Las Mulas, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms of female dogs. Compared to mammary tumours of humans and cats, myoepithelial (ME) cell involvement is common in canine mammary tumours (CMT) of any subtype. Since ME cell involvement in CMT influences both histogenetic tumour classification and prognosis, correct identification of ME cells is important. This review describes immunohistochemical methods for identification of canine mammary ME cells used in vivo. In addition, phenotypic and genotypic methods to isolate ME cells for in vitro studies to analyse tumour-suppressor protein production and gene expression are discussed. The contribution of ME cells to both histogenetic classifications and the prognosis of CMT is compared with other species and the potential use of ME cells as a method to identify carcinoma in situ is discussed. PMID:26639832

  13. Reevaluating canine perspective-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Udell, Monique A R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2011-12-01

    Udell, Dorey, and Wynne (2011) demonstrated that both domesticated and nondomesticated canids-specifically, gray wolves-have the capacity to succeed on perspective-taking tasks, suggesting that dogs' ability to respond to the human attentional state is not a by-product of domestication alone. Furthermore, not all dogs were successful on the task. Instead, the occluder type used was a strong predictor of performance, indicating the important role of environment and experience for tasks of this type. Here, we address several commentaries reflecting on the methods and design of that study, as well as the interpretation of the results. We also discuss the positive shift toward more interactive approaches in the field of canine behavior and cognition. Finally, we question the functionality of describing canine social behavior in terms of theory of mind. PMID:21870213

  14. Cryptosporidium muris in a Texas canine population.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Philip J; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C; Robinson, Mary; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Chappell, Cynthia L

    2008-06-01

    Molecular technology has led to the discovery of previously unrecognized Cryptosporidium species in new hosts, such as C. canis in humans. The notion that dogs may transmit Cryptosporidium species to humans has significant public health implications, and additional studies are merited. The purpose of this study was to examine a group of kenneled dogs to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species infection and to identify parasite species. Prevalence of active infection was 71%. Six positive samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the Cryptosporidium species. Restriction digest patterns identified C. muris as the infecting species in all six dogs; species identity was confirmed by genetic sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring C. muris infection in a canine host. The finding of C. muris in asymptomatic canines supports the notion of dogs as potential sources of human infection. PMID:18541769

  15. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection. PMID:25294661

  16. Serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (Canis lupus) pup mortalities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Boyd, D K; Pletscher, D H

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious canine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevalences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of 20 wolves for these diseases, respectively. Pups died or disappeared in three of the eight packs studied. In these three packs, adult pack members had CPV titers > or = 1,600 or CD titers > or = 1,250. In packs that successfully raised pups, CPV and CD titers were low. We propose that CPV or CD may have caused some pup mortalities. PMID:8028116

  17. Kidneys and How They Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Options National Kidney Foundation The NephCure Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español The Kidneys and How They Work Page Content On this ...

  18. Kidney Failure: What to Expect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fund National Kidney Foundation Renal Support Network MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Kidney Failure: What to Expect Page Content On this ...

  19. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Foundation U.S. Food and Drug Administration MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  20. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected. PMID:8801016

  1. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected. PMID:8801016

  2. Increased cancer risk in canine radiation chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Prentice, R.; Fritz, T.E.; Weiden, P.L.; Sale, G.E.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1980-02-01

    The present study analyzes the cancer risk in marrow graft recipients (chimeras) in a canine model that has been used to study many of the principles of marrow transplantation that have been applied to man. Specifically, the cancer incidence among 108 radiation chimeras and 15 chemotherapy chimeras observed from 6 to 121 mo is compared to that amoung 215 normal dogs observed for similar periods of time.

  3. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors.

    PubMed

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central nervous system, or for inducing a wide range of protective immune responses, from humoral to cellular immunity. Nowadays, CAV2 represents one of the most appealing nonhuman adenovirus for use as a vaccine vector. This protocol describes a simple method to construct, produce and titer recombinant CAV2 vectors. After cloning the expression cassette of the gene of interest into a shuttle plasmid, the recombinant genomic plasmid is obtained by homologous recombination in the E. coli BJ5183 bacterial strain. The resulting genomic plasmid is then transfected into canine kidney cells expressing the complementing CAV2-E1 genes (DK-E1). A viral amplification enables the production of a large viral stock, which is purified by ultracentrifugation through cesium chloride gradients and desalted by dialysis. The resulting viral suspension routinely has a titer of over 10(10) infectious particles per ml and can be directly administrated in vivo. PMID:24326926

  4. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters effect alkalinization of canine renal proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mellas, J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-03-01

    We have demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for tumor-promoting phorbol esters in the plasma membrane of the canine renal proximal tubular cell. These compounds affect proximal tubular metabolism in vitro. For example, we have shown that they inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown to effect alkalinization of non-renal cells, by enhancing Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange across the plasma membrane. To determine whether the actions of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in proximal tubular segments might be mediated by a similar process, we incubated suspensions of segments from dog kidney with these compounds and measured changes in intracellular pH using (/sup 14/C)-5,5-dimethoxazoladine-2-4-dione (DMO) and flow dialysis. Incubation of segments with phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, but not inactive phorbol ester, 4 ..gamma.. phorbol, effected alkalinization of cells within the segments in a concentration-dependent manner. Alkalinization was dependent upon the presence of extracellular (Na/sup +/) > intracellular (Na/sup +/), was prevented by amiloride and was demonstrable in the presence of SITS. Our findings suggest that tumor-promoting esters stimulate the Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchanger known to be present in the brush border membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. It is possible that the stimulation reflects a mechanism by which phorbol esters affect metabolic processes in these cells.

  5. Genotyping and pathobiologic characterization of canine parvovirus circulating in Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important pathogen that causes acute enteric disease in dogs. It has mutated and spread throughout the world in dog populations. We provide an update on the molecular characterization of CPV that circulated in Nanjing, a provincial capital in China between 2009 and 2012. Results Seventy rectal swab samples were collected from the dogs diagnosed with CPV infection in 8 animal hospitals of Nanjing. Sequence analysis of VP2 genes of 31 samples revealed that 29 viral strains belonged to CPV-2a subtype, while other two strains were classified into CPV-2b. To investigate the pathogenicity of the prevalent virus, we isolated CPV-2a and performed the animal experiment. Nine beagles were inoculated with 105.86 of 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) of the virus. All the experimentally infected beagles exhibited mild to moderate mucoid or watery diarrhea on day 4 post-infection (p.i.). On day 9 p.i., characteristic histopathological lesions were clearly observed in multiple organs of infected dogs, including liver, spleen, kidney, brain and all segments of the small and large intestines, while viral DNA and antigen staining could be detected in the sampled tissues. It is notable that canine parvovirus was isolated in one from two brain samples processed. Conclusion Our results indicated that CPV-2a is the predominant subtype in Nanjing of China. And this virus caused extensive lesions in a variety of tissues, including the brain. PMID:23988202

  6. Identification of canine helper T-cell epitopes from the fusion protein of canine distemper virus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Souravi; Walker, John; Jackson, David C

    2001-01-01

    The fusion protein of canine distemper virus (CDV-F), a 662 amino-acid envelope protein, was used as the target molecule for identification of canine T helper (Th) epitopes. A library of 94 peptides, each 17 residues in length overlapping by 10 residues and covering the entire sequence of CDV-F, was screened using a lymphocyte proliferation assay with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from dogs inoculated with canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine. Initially we observed low and inconsistent proliferation of PBMC in response to these peptides, even when using cells obtained from dogs that had received multiple doses of CDV. Subsequently, the use of expanded cell populations derived by in vitro stimulation of canine PBMC with pools of peptides allowed the identification of a number of putative canine Th-epitopes within the protein sequence of CDV-F. There were two major clusters of Th-epitopes identified close to the cleavage site of the F0 fusion protein, while some others were scattered in both the F1 and F2 fragments of the protein. Some of these peptides, in particular peptide 35 (p35), were stimulatory in dogs of different breeds and ages. The identification of such promiscuous canine Th-epitopes encouraged us to assemble p35 in tandem with luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) a 10 amino-acid residue synthetic peptide representing a B-cell epitope which alone induces no antibody in dogs. The totally synthetic immunogen was able to induce the production of very high titres of antibodies against LHRH in all dogs tested. These results indicate that p35 could be an ideal candidate for use as a Th-epitope for use in outbred dogs. PMID:11576221

  7. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  8. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  9. Prostate Histotripsy in an Anticoagulated Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Jeffery C.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen; Roberts, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Histotripsy is a non-invasive ultrasound technology which induces microbubble formation (cavitation) within tissues producing mechanical tissue fractionation. During initial in-vivo feasibility canine studies of prostate ablation, minimal hematuria was observed. In the current study, we sought to further explore this phenomenon by performing extensive prostate histotripsy treatments in anticoagulated canines. Materials and Methods Histotripsy was performed on 9 canine subjects pre-treated with 6 mg of oral warfarin for 3 to 5 days using an extracorporeal 750 kHz therapeutic ultrasound transducer delivering acoustic pulses to the prostatic urethra and periurethral parenchyma. After 7–28 days, the subjects were euthanized, transrectal prostate ultrasound was performed and the prostate was harvested. Serum hemoglobin and International Normalization Ratio (INR) were measured immediately prior to histotripsy treatment and at euthanasia. Results Mean treatment INR was 4.6 (median 2.4, range 1.2 to 11.3). There was no clinically significant change in hemoglobin concentration at euthanasia compared to baseline. At harvest, histologic sections of the prostate revealed a large cavity corresponding to the planned treatment volume incorporating the prostatic urethra and parenchyma in all subjects. Urine was clear within 2 days of treatment and no blood clots were seen. Conclusions Despite therapeutic and supratherapeutic anticoagulation, histotripsy resulted in minimal bleeding despite significant fractionation and tissue debulking of the prostate. These results have prompted further studies to understand the mechanism of non-thermal hemostasis underlying histotripsy. PMID:19931897

  10. Rapid communications: antiperspirant induced DNA damage in canine cells by comet assay.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Millions of people around the world use antiperspirants to decrease or eliminate body odors. Most antiperspirants contain aluminum zirconium or another form of aluminum as its active ingredient. The present investigation applied Comet assay to detect if Secret Platinum for women, Old Spice for men, or Crystal Natural produced DNA damage in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII). This study has shown that antiperspirants cause DNA damage on a single-cell level. Additionally, our data showed us that in general, Secret Platinum for women and Old Spice for men, produced equivalent damage. Crystal Natural, marketed as being safer or less damaging, induced the most extensive damage of all three antiperspirants tested. PMID:20021076

  11. Kidney Size Comparison of BEN Victims

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Normal size kidney (left) and a Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) kidney (right). The BEN kidney is reduced by one third compared to a normal kidney. The collapse of the kidney structure in the BEN kidney causes the organ to cease to function, resulting in uremia (blood poisoning) and requiring dialy...

  12. Hypertension and a missing kidney

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Rupesh; Gulani, Vikas; Mehta, Lina; Jacobs, Gretta H.; Joyce, Kelly; Ponsky, Todd A.; Kenagy, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Standard initial assessment via ultrasound of a 4-year-old girl with hypertension revealed the absence of one kidney. Instead of cross-sectional imaging of the retroperitoneal space, a functional (nuclear) study was performed. This revealed a malformed kidney within the chest. Though systemic levels of renin and aldosterone were not elevated, removal of the malformed kidney normalized the blood pressure. The presence of prominent smooth muscle nodules surrounding the arteries was seen in the malformed kidney. Initial attempts to avert surgery by pharmacologically reducing blood flow to the malformed kidney were unsuccessful. The review of the literature offers little evidence to support such a strategy. PMID:25874090

  13. Questionnaire survey on Canine Leishmaniosis in southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    de Ybáñez, R Ruiz; del Río, L; Martínez-Carrasco, C; Segovia, M; Cox, J; Davies, C; Berriatua, E

    2009-10-14

    A veterinary practitioner's questionnaire survey on Canine Leishmaniosis (CanL) was carried out in southeast Spain to provide information on disease incidence, diagnosis and recommended preventive measures. A third of 101 responding veterinarians reported seeing more than 20 CanL cases during the previous year and clinical signs considered frequent or very frequent included weight loss, areas of exfoliative dermatitis, lymphadenomegaly, kidney dysfunction, onychogryphosis, cutaneous ulcers, anaemia, asthenia and apathy. Almost a third of veterinarians reported diagnosing CanL solely on the basis of lack of response to treatment for other chronic illnesses. The frequency of individual signs did not always reflect their diagnostic value. The majority of veterinarians, considered lymphadenomegaly, exfoliative dermatitis, onychogryphosis, weight loss and epistaxis to be the best disease indicators. However, up to 93% of veterinarians reported using laboratory tests to confirm infection, including indirect (biochemical and antibody assays) and direct (PCR and microscopy) methods. Among recommended measures to prevent CanL, insecticide impregnated collars and topical spot-on capsules were prescribed by 92% and 74% of respondents; however, at least 11% of veterinarians believed existing CanL preventive measures were ineffective. Multivariable statistical analysis indicated that seeing more than 20 CanL cases during the previous year was independently associated with being located in Alicante province, having a rural clientele and recognising that dogs with no other sign but a lack of response to other chronic disease treatments may be infected with CanL. There was a weak association between CanL incidence and rainfall in the months prior to typical sandfly peak abundance. PMID:19608347

  14. Hepatitis C and Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Marco; Cockwell, Paul; Neuberger, James

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively common among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on dialysis and kidney transplant recipients. HCV infection in hemodialysis patients is associated with an increased mortality due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The severity of hepatitis C-related liver disease in kidney transplant candidates may predict patient and graft survival after transplant. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the assessment of liver fibrosis in this setting. Kidney transplantation, not haemodialysis, seems to be the best treatment for HCV+ve patients with ESKD. Transplantation of kidneys from HCV+ve donors restricted to HCV+ve recipients is safe and associated with a reduction in the waiting time. Simultaneous kidney/liver transplantation (SKL) should be considered for kidney transplant candidates with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis. Treatment of HCV is more complex in hemodialysis patients, whereas treatment of HCV recurrence in SLK recipients appears effective and safe. PMID:21755059

  15. Horizontally impacted maxillary premolar and bilateral canine transposition.

    PubMed

    Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2009-03-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a patient whose maxillary left first premolar was impacted horizontally, and both maxillary canines were transposed relative to the first premolars. The patient was treated without extractions, and both canines were brought to their correct positions in the maxillary arch. Treatment mechanics during the various stages are discussed. PMID:19268838

  16. Canine Evolution in Sabretoothed Carnivores: Natural Selection or Sexual Selection?

    PubMed Central

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  17. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Streck, André Felipe; de Souza, Carine Kunzler; Gonçalves, Karla Rathje; Zang, Luciana; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2009-01-01

    The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population. PMID:24031389

  18. The Kidney Research Predicament

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Lisa; Ibrahim, Tod; Fischer, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Research funding from public and private sources has reached an all-time low. Economic conditions, sequestration, and a trend of low award success rates have created an imbalance between the supply of highly qualified research investigators and the availability of critically necessary research dollars. This grim environment continues to hinder the success of established investigators and deter potential investigators from joining the research workforce. Without action and support of innovative science, the future of the US health care system is in jeopardy, and its leadership role in medical research will decrease. This work discusses the effects of the decline in research funding, the plight of kidney research, and the impact of the American Society of Nephrology Grants Program on scientists. The ASN also calls on the entire nephrology community to rejuvenate the research environment, improve the lives of millions of people with kidney disease, and ultimately, find a cure. PMID:24652790

  19. Diabetes after Kidney Donation

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, H. N.; Kukla, A.; Cordner, G.; Bailey, R.; Gillingham, K.; Matas, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Kidney donors, similar to the general population, are at risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The course of donors who develop T2DM has not been studied. We surveyed 3777 kidney donors regarding the development of T2DM. Of the 2954 who responded, 154 developed T2DM 17.7 ± 9.0 years after donation. The multivariable risk of development of T2DM was associated with type 1 DM in the recipient, male gender and body mass index >30 kg/m2 at time of donation. Compared to age, gender, duration after donation and body mass index (BMI)-matched non-diabetic donor controls; diabetic donors were more likely to have hypertension (70.8% vs. 36.2%, p = 0.005), proteinuria (18.8% vs. 3.9%, p < 0.0001) but had a similar serum creatinine. eGFR change after T2DM development was ?0.80 ± 0.94 mL/min/year, ?0.70 ± 0.86 in nondiabetic donors with similar duration after donation and ?0.61 ± 0.76 mL/min/year in age, gender, BMI and duration after donation matched nondiabetic donor controls. These preliminary and shor-term data demonstrate that factors associated with T2DM in kidney donors are similar to those in the general population and donors screened carefully at the time of donation do not appear to have an acceleration of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:20041863

  20. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  1. Neonatal Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Selewski, David T; Charlton, Jennifer R; Jetton, Jennifer G; Guillet, Ronnie; Mhanna, Maroun J; Askenazi, David J; Kent, Alison L

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advancements in our understanding of acute kidney injury (AKI) and its impact on outcomes across medicine. Research based on single-center cohorts suggests that neonatal AKI is very common and associated with poor outcomes. In this state-of-the-art review on neonatal AKI, we highlight the unique aspects of neonatal renal physiology, definition, risk factors, epidemiology, outcomes, evaluation, and management of AKI in neonates. The changes in renal function with gestational and chronologic age are described. We put forth and describe the neonatal modified Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes AKI criteria and provide the rationale for its use as the standardized definition of neonatal AKI. We discuss risk factors for neonatal AKI and suggest which patient populations may warrant closer surveillance, including neonates <1500 g, infants who experience perinatal asphyxia, near term/ term infants with low Apgar scores, those treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and those requiring cardiac surgery. We provide recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of these patients, including medications and renal replacement therapies. We discuss the need for long-term follow-up of neonates with AKI to identify those children who will go on to develop chronic kidney disease. This review highlights the deficits in our understanding of neonatal AKI that require further investigation. In an effort to begin to address these needs, the Neonatal Kidney Collaborative was formed in 2014 with the goal of better understanding neonatal AKI, beginning to answer critical questions, and improving outcomes in these vulnerable populations. PMID:26169430

  2. Claudins and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alan S L

    2015-01-01

    Claudins are tight-junction membrane proteins that function as both pores and barriers in the paracellular pathway in epithelial cells. In the kidney, claudins determine the permeability and selectivity of different nephron segments along the renal tubule. In the proximal tubule, claudins have a role in the bulk reabsorption of salt and water. In the thick ascending limb, claudins are important for the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium and are tightly regulated by the calcium-sensing receptor. In the distal nephron, claudins need to form cation barriers and chloride pores to facilitate electrogenic sodium reabsorption and potassium and acid secretion. Aldosterone and the with-no-lysine (WNK) proteins likely regulate claudins to fine-tune distal nephron salt transport. Genetic mutations in claudin-16 and -19 cause familial hypomagnesemic hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis, whereas polymorphisms in claudin-14 are associated with kidney stone risk. It is likely that additional roles for claudins in the pathogenesis of other types of kidney diseases have yet to be uncovered. PMID:24948743

  3. Acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Gerhard Anton

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Acute kidney injury is a frequent and serious complication in hospitalized patients. Mortality rates have not substantially been decreased during the last 20 years. In most patients AKI results from transient renal hypoperfusion or ischemia. The consequences include tubular cell dysfunction/damage, inflammation of the organ, and post-ischemic microvasculopathy. The two latter events perpetuate kidney damage in AKI. Clinical manifestations result from diminished excretion of water, electrolytes, and endogenous / exogenous waste products. Patients are endangered by cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, heart failure, and arrhythmia. In addition, the whole organism may be affected by systemic toxification (uremia). The diagnostic approach in AKI involves several steps with renal biopsy inevitable in some patients. The current therapy focuses on preventing further kidney damage and on treatment of complications. Different pharmacological strategies have failed to significantly improve prognosis in AKI. If dialysis treatment becomes mandatory, intermittent and continuous renal replacement therapies are equally effective. Thus, new therapies are urgently needed in order to reduce short- and long-term outcome in AKI. In this respect, stem cell-based regimens may offer promising perspectives. PMID:25618438

  4. Claudins and the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Claudins are tight-junction membrane proteins that function as both pores and barriers in the paracellular pathway in epithelial cells. In the kidney, claudins determine the permeability and selectivity of different nephron segments along the renal tubule. In the proximal tubule, claudins have a role in the bulk reabsorption of salt and water. In the thick ascending limb, claudins are important for the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium and are tightly regulated by the calcium-sensing receptor. In the distal nephron, claudins need to form cation barriers and chloride pores to facilitate electrogenic sodium reabsorption and potassium and acid secretion. Aldosterone and the with-no-lysine (WNK) proteins likely regulate claudins to fine-tune distal nephron salt transport. Genetic mutations in claudin-16 and -19 cause familial hypomagnesemic hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis, whereas polymorphisms in claudin-14 are associated with kidney stone risk. It is likely that additional roles for claudins in the pathogenesis of other types of kidney diseases have yet to be uncovered. PMID:24948743

  5. Reliability of mandibular canine and mandibular canine index in sex determination: A study using Uyghur population.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Raza; Zhang, Shuang; Mi, Congbo

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination is a key process that is required to establish the forensic profile of an individual. Mandibular canine index (MCI) method yields fairly positive results for sex determination. However, this method has been challenged by a few authors. This study aimed to examine the reliability of MCI in Chinese Uyghur population and to establish its normal value for this ethnic group. Dental casts of 216 students (117 males and 119 females) from the College of Stomatology of Xinjiang Medical University in China were used to determine the sexing accuracy of MCI. The mesiodistal (MD) dimension of mandibular canine crowns, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI were calculated. The accuracy of the standard MCI derived from the current data was compared with that of the standard MCIs derived from previous data. Results were statistically described using the independent-samples t-test. The MD dimension of mandibular crown, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI exhibited statistically significant sexual dimorphism. Sex determination using the MCI derived from the current data revealed fairly reliable results. Therefore, MCI is a reliable method for sex determination for Uyghur population, with 0.248 as standard MCI value. PMID:26048489

  6. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

  7. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. PMID:14988915

  8. The Genetics of Canine Skull Shape Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    A dog’s craniofacial diversity is the result of continual human intervention in natural selection, a process that began tens of thousands of years ago. To date, we know little of the genetic underpinnings and developmental mechanisms that make dog skulls so morphologically plastic. In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull shapes. Of particular interest are those molecular genetic changes that are associated with the development of distinct breeds. PMID:23396475

  9. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O'Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  10. Functional characterization of canine interferon-lambda.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun; Yang, Limin; Luo, Tingrong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2'5'-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  11. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    PubMed

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. PMID:25244536

  12. Canine tooth dimorphism: An adjunct for establishing sex identity

    PubMed Central

    Yuwanati, Madhavi; Karia, Ashok; Yuwanati, Monal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teeth are an excellent material for genetic, odontological and forensic investigations and research purpose. From all the teeth, the mandibular canines are found to exhibit sexual dimorphism. However, very few studies have been published on maxillary canine's measurements. Aims: 1. To find out utility of maxillary and mandibular canine width as a tool for sex determination in Central Indian population. 2. To find out the average size of canines in males and females of Central Indian population. 3. To compare the findings with National and International studies Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in 100 cases in the age group of 17-21 years. Mesiodistal width of right and left mandibular and maxillary canines were measured on the casts with digital calliper and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done to assess sex difference using Students “t” test (paired). Results and Conclusions: It was seen that a definite statistically significant sexual dimorphism exists when mandibular and maxillary canine measurements were compared. Thus, it can be suggested that canine width measurements can be used as an adjunct for sex identification purpose in Central Indian Population. PMID:23741147

  13. Rapid maxillary canine retraction by dental distraction: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Chitharanjan, Arun; Kailasam, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to perform rapid maxillary canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament and investigate the rate and amount of canine retraction, amount of anchor loss, the nature of tooth movement achieved, and radiographic changes in the periodontal ligament region during and after canine distraction. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 10 distractions ranging in age from 14 years to 25 years who needed canine retraction and first premolar extraction in the maxillary arch. Ten canine distractions were carried out with custom-made, tooth-borne intra-oral distraction device. Results: The results indicate that the periodontal ligament can be distracted just like the mid-palatal suture in rapid palatal expansion and the maxillary canines are retracted rapidly into the first premolar extraction space at the rate of about 2.53 mm/week. Conclusion: Though this study indicates that the periodontal ligament can be distracted to elicit rapid tooth movement, the long-term effects of canine distraction are not well known and need close monitoring. PMID:25298710

  14. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. PMID:26739040

  15. Duration of immunity for canine and feline vaccines: a review.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Ronald D

    2006-10-01

    In our studies aimed at assessing the minimum duration of vaccinal immunity (DOI), approximately 1000 dogs have been vaccinated with products from all the major US veterinary biological companies. The DOI for the various products is determined by antibody titers for all dogs and, by challenge studies in selected groups of dogs. Recently, all major companies that make canine vaccines for the U.S. market have completed their own studies; published data show a 3 years or longer minimum DOI for the canine core products, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2). Studies with feline core vaccines - feline parvovirus (FPV), calicivirus (FCV) and herpes virus type I (FHV-1) have shown a minimum DOI of greater than 3 years. Based on these results, the current canine and feline guidelines (which recommend that the last dose of core vaccines be given to puppies and kittens > or =12 weeks of age or older, then revaccination again at 1 year, then not more often than every 3 years) should provide a level of protection equal to that achieved by annual revaccination. In contrast, the non-core canine and feline vaccines, perhaps with the exception of feline leukaemia vaccines, provide immunity for < or =1 year. In general the effectiveness of the non-core products is less than the core products. Thus, when required, non-core vaccines should be administered yearly, or even more frequently. PMID:16707236

  16. CD74 in Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Valiño-Rivas, Lara; Baeza-Bermejillo, Ciro; Gonzalez-Lafuente, Laura; Sanz, Ana Belen; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    CD74 (invariant MHC class II) regulates protein trafficking and is a receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and d-dopachrome tautomerase (d-DT/MIF-2). CD74 expression is increased in tubular cells and/or glomerular podocytes and parietal cells in human metabolic nephropathies, polycystic kidney disease, graft rejection and kidney cancer and in experimental diabetic nephropathy and glomerulonephritis. Stressors like abnormal metabolite (glucose, lyso-Gb3) levels and inflammatory cytokines increase kidney cell CD74. MIF activates CD74 to increase inflammatory cytokines in podocytes and tubular cells and proliferation in glomerular parietal epithelial cells and cyst cells. MIF overexpression promotes while MIF targeting protects from experimental glomerular injury and kidney cysts, and interference with MIF/CD74 signaling or CD74 deficiency protected from crescentic glomerulonephritis. However, CD74 may protect from interstitial kidney fibrosis. Furthermore, CD74 expression by stressed kidney cells raises questions about the kidney safety of cancer therapy strategies delivering lethal immunoconjugates to CD74-expressing cells. Thus, understanding CD74 biology in kidney cells is relevant for kidney therapeutics. PMID:26441987

  17. [Kidney toxicity's "HAART" therapy].

    PubMed

    Marino, Alfonsina; Ardu, Francesco; Dentone, Chiara; Secondo, Giovanni; Ferrea, G

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and antiretroviral therapy can damage the kidney. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) generally improves the renal function as it reduces the viral replication, although the renal function may be reduced by certain antiretroviral drugs. HAART causes acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis, calculi, Fanconi Syndrome, crystal nephropathy, elevated lipid levels as well as calcium and phosphorus alteration. The physician must estimate renal function before and during antiretroviral therapy, especially when HIV-infected patients have some risk factors for renal damage such as high-blood pressure or hepatitis B or C infections. PMID:26480259

  18. [Infertility and kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Atallah, David; Salameh, Charbel; El Kassis, Nadine; Safi, Joelle; Lutfallah, Fouad; Bejjani, Lina; Ghaname, Wadih; Moukarzel, Maroun

    2015-01-01

    Renal failure impairs the endocrine system, especially in women, due to hyperprolactinemia, altering fertility, ovulatory cycles, libido and growth in adolescents. Renal transplantation is considered the best solution to the problems of renal failure and and of dialysis, as evidenced by comparing the rate of hyperprolactinemia (100% in chronic renal failure, 60% in patients on dialysis and 35% in post-transplantation). Kidney transplant is less efficient for restoring perfect function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis due in part to the immunosuppressant regimens prescribed. When these drugs are properly managed, transplantation will restore near normal sexual function. PMID:26591193

  19. Skeletal features in patient affected by maxillary canine impaction

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Emanuele; Cavallini, Costanza; Vicari, Donatella; Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the skeletal features of patients with maxillary canine impaction. Material and Methods: The complete pre-treatment records of 1674 orthodontic patients were examined. From the subjects with maxillary impacted canine 12 patients were excluded , remaining 108. The subjects with maxillary impacted canine were divided into two study groups: a palatally displaced canine group (PDCG) (77 patients) and a buccally displaced canine group (BDCG) (31 patients). The values of the skeletal features measured on the lateral cephalometric radiograph were compared with a control group (CG) of 121 subjects randomly selected from the initial sample without maxillary canine impaction. The statistical analysis of the difference between the study groups and the CG was tested using ?2 test and Fisher’s exact test. The level of significance was set at P ?0.05. Results: The CG was characterized by increased values of A point-Nasion-B point angle (ANB) and by a retro-positioned or smaller lower jaw. PDCG patients showed normal skeletal features compared to the CG, presenting mainly I class and lower rank of II and III sagittal skeletal features. PDCG subjects presented also normal values of the Steiner vertical skeletal relationship angles with normal facial divergence compared to the CG. PDCG cases were also characterized by horizontal and prognathic growth. BDCG did not present significant differences in skeletal features compared to the CG, except for an increased ANB. Conclusions: Palatally displaced canine (PDC) was frequently the only orthodontic problem of patients and was not associated whit altered skeletal features. The frequent absence of malocclusion in PDC patients explains the delayed identification of this problem. BDCG patients did not present significant differences in skeletal features with respect to the orthodontic population. The presence of both buccally displaced canine (BDC) and malocclusion makes the patient with BDC both aware of the need for, and motivated to undergo, orthodontic treatment. Key words:Canine impaction, palatal displacement, buccal displacement, skeletal features. PMID:23722128

  20. Apical uptake of radiolabelled ochratoxin A into Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Schwerdt, G; Freudinger, R; Silbernagl, S; Gekle, M

    1998-11-16

    Uptake of ochratoxin A (OTA) across the apical cell membrane of collecting duct cells is the first step in reabsorption and partly mediated by proton-dipeptide cotransport. As the remaining part of apical OTA uptake remained unclear, we studied the characteristics of apical uptake of tritium-labelled OTA (3H-OTA) in MDCK-C11 cells in detail. Uptake of 3H-OTA was pH- and temperature-dependent and led to intracellular accumulation of OTA. Lowering pH led to an increase and lowering temperature (4 degrees C) to a decrease of OTA uptake. Besides dipeptides, the beta-lactam antibiotics cephalexin and ceftibuten inhibited the 3H-OTA uptake also confirming the role of the proton dipeptide cotransporter. In addition, substrates of organic anion transporter, taurocholate and methotrexate, inhibited 3H-OTA uptake in part. Aspartylphenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame) had no inhibitory effect on 3H-OTA uptake. Uptake of OTA was not dependent on sodium. Sixty minutes of preincubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) led to increased apical uptake of OTA. The PMA effects were inhibited by ethylisopropylamilorid (EIPA). We conclude that apical uptake of OTA occurs by Na+-independent transport. One part of the uptake is mediated by proton-dipeptide cotransport (30%, dipeptide-inhibitable), by organic anion transporter (20%, taurocholate-inhibitable) and by diffusion (20%, responsible for uptake at 4 degrees C). The remaining part occurs by as yet unidentified but pH-dependent transport mechanisms. An acidic urine in distal parts of the nephron provides thus the main risk for OTA uptake leading to its reabsorption and consequently alkalinisation of the urine should help to prevent this reabsorption. PMID:9928634

  1. Induction of Caveolae in the Apical Plasma Membrane of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Verkade, Paul; Harder, Thomas; Lafont, Frank; Simons, Kai

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the behavior of antibody cross-linked raft-associated proteins on the surface of MDCK cells. We observed that cross-linking of membrane proteins gave different results depending on whether cross-linking occurred on the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. Whereas antibody cross-linking induced the formation of large clusters on the basolateral membrane, resembling those observed on the surface of fibroblasts (Harder, T., P. Scheiffele, P. Verkade, and K. Simons. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 929–942), only small (∼100 nm) clusters formed on the apical plasma membrane. Cross-linked apical raft proteins e.g., GPI-anchored placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), influenza hemagglutinin, and gp114 coclustered and were internalized slowly (∼10% after 60 min). Endocytosis occurred through surface invaginations that corresponded in size to caveolae and were labeled with caveolin-1 antibodies. Upon cholesterol depletion the internalization of PLAP was completely inhibited. In contrast, when a non-raft protein, the mutant LDL receptor LDLR-CT22, was cross-linked, it was excluded from the clusters of raft proteins and was rapidly internalized via clathrin-coated pits. Since caveolae are normally present on the basolateral membrane but lacking from the apical side, our data demonstrate that antibody cross-linking induced the formation of caveolae, which slowly internalized cross-linked clusters of raft-associated proteins. PMID:10684254

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases contribute to kidney fibrosis in chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Dong, Yanting; Tian, Xinrui; Tan, Thian Kui; Liu, Zhuola; Zhao, Ye; Zhang, Yun; Harris, David CH; Zheng, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are members of the neutral proteinase family. They were previously thought to be anti-fibrotic because of their ability to degrade and remodel of extracellular matrix. However, recent studies have shown that MMPs are implicated in initiation and progression of kidney fibrosis through tubular cell epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as activation of resident fibroblasts, endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and pericyte-myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Interstitial macrophage infiltration has also been shown to correlate with the severity of kidney fibrosis in various chronic kidney diseases. MMPs secreted by macrophages, especially MMP-9, has been shown by us to be profibrotic by induction of tubular cells EMT. EMT is mainly induced by transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). However, MMP-9 was found by us and others to be up-regulated by TGF-?1 in kidney tubular epithelial cells and secreted by activated macrophages, resulting in EMT and ultimately kidney fibrosis. Therefore, MMP-9 may serve as a potential therapeutic target to prevent kidney fibrosis in chronic kidney disease. This review, by a particular focus on EMT, seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of MMPs, especially MMP-9, in kidney fibrosis. PMID:24255890

  3. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted. PMID:26861285

  4. Immunohistochemistry of the canine vomeronasal organ

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, JC; Allgier, JG; Desouza, LS; Eward, WC; Morrison, EE

    2003-01-01

    The canine's olfactory acuity is legendary, but neither its main olfactory system nor its vomeronasal system has been described in much detail. We used immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections of male and female adult dog vomeronasal organ (VNO) to characterize the expression of proteins known to be expressed in the VNO of several other mammals. Basal cell bodies were more apparent in each section than in rodent VNO and expressed immunoreactivity to anticytokeratin and antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. The thin layer of neurone cell bodies in the sensory epithelium and axon fascicles in the lamina propria expressed immunoreactivity to neurone cell adhesion molecule, neurone-specific beta tubulin and protein gene product 9.5. Some neurones expressed growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43): and a number of those also expressed neurone-specific beta tubulin-immunoreactivity. Some axon fascicles were double labelled for those two proteins. The G-protein alpha subunits Gi and Go, involved in the signal transduction pathway, showed immunoreactivity in the sensory cell layer. Our results demonstrate that the canine vomeronasal organ contains a population of cells that expresses several neuronal markers. Furthermore, GAP43 immunoreactivity suggests that the sensory epithelium is neurogenic in adult dogs. PMID:14529050

  5. Immunohistochemistry of the canine vomeronasal organ

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, JC; Allgier, JG; Desouza, LS; Eward, WC; Morrison, EE

    2003-01-01

    The canine's olfactory acuity is legendary, but neither its main olfactory system nor its vomeronasal system has been described in much detail. We used immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections of male and female adult dog vomeronasal organ (VNO) to characterize the expression of proteins known to be expressed in the VNO of several other mammals. Basal cell bodies were more apparent in each section than in rodent VNO and expressed immunoreactivity to anticytokeratin and antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. The thin layer of neurone cell bodies in the sensory epithelium and axon fascicles in the lamina propria expressed immunoreactivity to neurone cell adhesion molecule, neurone-specific beta tubulin and protein gene product 9.5. Some neurones expressed growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43): and a number of those also expressed neurone-specific beta tubulin-immunoreactivity. Some axon fascicles were double labelled for those two proteins. The G-protein alpha subunits Gi and Go, involved in the signal transduction pathway, showed immunoreactivity in the sensory cell layer. Our results demonstrate that the canine vomeronasal organ contains a population of cells that expresses several neuronal markers. Furthermore, GAP43 immunoreactivity suggests that the sensory epithelium is neurogenic in adult dogs. PMID:12846473

  6. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted. PMID:26861285

  7. Management of a transmigrated mandibular canine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sneh Lata; Sharma, V. P.; Singh, Gyan P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the management of a transmigrated mandibular canine with emphasis on saving the tooth as natural part rather than surgical removal of the transmigrated tooth. There are several treatment options proposed for impacted mandibular canines including surgical removal, exposure and orthodontic alignment, intra-alveolar tooth transplantation (surgical repositioning of a tooth in its alveolar socket) and observation. The technique, surgical repositioning of a tooth involves the surgical extraction of impacted tooth and fixation in the correct position in the dental arch after surgical preparation (correction) of the alveolar socket. It is especially valuable in cases of difficult-to-treat impaction. A repositioned tooth is better substitute than fixed or removable prostheses, and the technique is more cost effective than other methods. Patients with excellent oral hygiene should be considered as preferred candidates for surgical repositioning of tooth. Disadvantages include the invasiveness of surgery, the difficulty of projecting long term stability due to chances of root resorption and loss of gingival attachment. PMID:24987621

  8. Immunology and pathogenesis of canine demodicosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Lluis; Ravera, Ivan; Silbermayr, Katja

    2014-10-01

    Demodex mites colonized the hair follicles and sebaceous glands of mammals millions of years ago and have remained relatively unchanged in this protected ecologic niche since then. The host immune system detects and tolerates their presence. Toll-like receptor-2 of keratinocytes has been demonstrated to recognize mite chitin and to elicit an innate immune response. The subsequent acquired immune response is poorly understood at present, but there is experimental and clinical evidence that this is the main mechanism in the control of mite proliferation. A transgenic mouse model (STAT(-/-) /CD28(-/-) ) has demonstrated that the immune response is complex, probably involving both cellular and humoral mechanisms and requiring the role of co-stimulatory molecules (CD28). It is known that a genetic predisposition for developing canine juvenile generalized demodicosis exists; however, the primary defect leading to the disease remains unknown. Once the mite proliferation is advanced, dogs show a phenotype that is similar to the T-cell exhaustion characterized by low interleukin-2 production and high interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-? production by lymphocytes, as described in other viral and parasitic diseases. Acaricidal treatment (macrocyclic lactones) decreases the antigenic load and reverses T-cell exhaustion, leading to a clinical cure. Although in recent years there have been significant advances in the management and understanding of this important and complex canine disease, more research in areas such as the aetiology of the genetic predisposition and the immune control of the mite populations is clearly needed. PMID:24910252

  9. The Evolutionary Processes of Canine Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pratelli, Annamaria

    2011-01-01

    Since the first identification of the virus in 1971, the disease caused by canine coronavirus (CCoV) has not been adequately investigated, and the role that the virus plays in canine enteric illness has not been well established. Only after the emergence in 2002 of SARS in human has new attention been focused on coronaviruses. As a consequence of the relatively high mutation frequency of RNA-positive stranded viruses, CCoV has evolved and, with the biomolecular techniques developed over the last two decades, new virus strains, serotypes, and subtypes have been identified in infected dogs. Considering the widespread nature of CCoV infections among dog populations, several studies have been carried out, focusing upon the epidemiological relevance of these viruses and underlining the need for further investigation into the biology of CCoVs and into the pathogenetic role of the infections. This paper reports the evolutionary processes of CCoVs with a note onto recent diagnostic methods. PMID:22315601

  10. Molecular characterization of a virulent canine coronavirus BGF strain.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Morgado, Jose M; Poynter, Scott; Morris, Timothy H

    2004-08-01

    Molecular characterisation of a canine coronavirus (CCoV) isolate (BGF), associated with an outbreak of diarrhoea in puppies, showed 92.7% identity with attenuated Insavc-1 strain. Canine coronavirus BGF revealed a full length non-structural protein 3b (nsp 3b), associated with virulence in other coronaviruses, and a highly divergent region at the amino terminal domain of the membrane protein that may be implicated in avoiding the host immune reaction. This new canine coronavirus strain could help to identify virulence factors in coronavirus. PMID:15177889

  11. Kinetics of canine dental calculus crystallization: an in vitro study on the influence of inorganic components of canine saliva.

    PubMed

    Borah, Ballav M; Halter, Timothy J; Xie, Baoquan; Henneman, Zachary J; Siudzinski, Thomas R; Harris, Stephen; Elliott, Matthew; Nancollas, George H

    2014-07-01

    This work identifies carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) as the primary component of canine dental calculus, and corrects the long held belief that canine dental calculus is primarily CaCO3 (calcite). CAP is known to be the principal crystalline component of human dental calculus, suggesting that there are previously unknown similarities in the calcification that occurs in these two unique oral environments. In vitro kinetic experiments mimicking the inorganic components of canine saliva have examined the mechanisms of dental calculus formation. The solutions were prepared so as to mimic the inorganic components of canine saliva; phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium ion concentrations were varied individually to investigate the roll of these ions in controlling the nature of the phases that is nucleated. To date, the inorganic components of the canine oral systems have not been investigated at concentrations that mimic those in vivo. The mineral composition of the synthetic calculi grown under these conditions closely resembled samples excised from canines. This finding adds new information about calculus formation in humans and canines, and their sensitivity to chemicals used to treat these conditions. PMID:24776659

  12. Physiology of kidney renin.

    PubMed

    Castrop, Hayo; Höcherl, Klaus; Kurtz, Armin; Schweda, Frank; Todorov, Vladimir; Wagner, Charlotte

    2010-04-01

    The protease renin is the key enzyme of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone cascade, which is relevant under both physiological and pathophysiological settings. The kidney is the only organ capable of releasing enzymatically active renin. Although the characteristic juxtaglomerular position is the best known site of renin generation, renin-producing cells in the kidney can vary in number and localization. (Pro)renin gene transcription in these cells is controlled by a number of transcription factors, among which CREB is the best characterized. Pro-renin is stored in vesicles, activated to renin, and then released upon demand. The release of renin is under the control of the cAMP (stimulatory) and Ca(2+) (inhibitory) signaling pathways. Meanwhile, a great number of intrarenally generated or systemically acting factors have been identified that control the renin secretion directly at the level of renin-producing cells, by activating either of the signaling pathways mentioned above. The broad spectrum of biological actions of (pro)renin is mediated by receptors for (pro)renin, angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7). PMID:20393195

  13. Klotho and kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming-Chang; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.

    2011-01-01

    Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein that exerts its biological functions through multiple modes. Membrane-bound Klotho acts as coreceptor for the major phosphatonin fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), while soluble Klotho functions as an endocrine substance. In addition to in the distal nephron where it is abundantly expressed, Klotho is present in the proximal tubule lumen where it inhibits renal Pi excretion by modulating Na-coupled Pi transporters via enzymatic glycan modification of the transporter proteins – an effect completely independent of its role as the FGF23 coreceptor. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are states of systemic Klotho deficiency, making Klotho a very sensitive biomarker of impaired renal function. In addition to its role as a marker, Klotho also plays pathogenic roles in renal disease. Klotho deficiency exacerbates decreases in, while Klotho repletion or excess preserves, glomerular filtration rate in both AKI and CKD. Soft tissue calcification, and especially vascular calcification, is a dire complication in CKD, associated with high mortality. Klotho protects against soft tissue calcification via at least 3 mechanisms: phosphaturia, preservation of renal function and a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting phosphate uptake and dedifferentiation. In summary, Klotho is a critical molecule in a wide variety of renal diseases and bears great potential as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker as well as for therapeutic replacement therapy. PMID:21170871

  14. Pruritus in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Combs, Sara A; Teixeira, J Pedro; Germain, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Pruritus is a common and distressing symptom in patients with chronic kidney disease. The most recent epidemiologic data have suggested that approximately 40% of patients with end-stage renal disease experience moderate to severe pruritus and that uremic pruritus (UP) has a major clinical impact, being associated strongly with poor quality of life, impaired sleep, depression, and increased mortality. The pathogenesis of UP remains largely unclear, although several theories on etiologic or contributing factors have been proposed including increased systemic inflammation; abnormal serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus levels; an imbalance in opiate receptors; and a neuropathic process. UP can present somewhat variably, although it tends to affect large, discontinuous, but symmetric, areas of skin and to be most symptomatic at night. A variety of alternative systemic or dermatologic conditions should be considered, especially in patients with asymmetric pruritus or other atypical features. Treatment initially should focus on aggressive skin hydration, patient education on minimizing scratching, and optimization of the aspects of chronic kidney disease care that are most relevant to pruritus, including dialysis adequacy and serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus management. Data for therapy specifically for UP remain limited, although topical therapies, gabapentin, type B ultraviolet light phototherapy, acupuncture, and opioid-receptor modulators all may play a role. PMID:26355256

  15. Genetic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the primary cause of a disease is essential for understanding its mechanisms and for adequate classification, prognosis, and treatment. Recently, the etiologies of many kidney diseases have been revealed as single-gene defects. This is exemplified by steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, which is caused by podocin mutations in ~25% of childhood and ~15% of adult cases. Knowledge of a disease-causing mutation in a single-gene disorder represents one of the most robust diagnostic examples of “personalized medicine”, because the mutation conveys an almost 100% risk of developing the disease by a certain age. Whereas single-gene diseases are rare disorders, polygenic “risk alleles” are found in common adult-onset diseases. This review will discuss prominent renal single-gene kidney disorders and polygenic risk alleles of common disorders. We delineate how emerging techniques of total exome capture and large-scale sequencing will facilitate molecular genetic diagnosis, prognosis and specific therapy and lead to a better understanding of disease mechanisms, thus enabling development of new targeted drugs. PMID:20382325

  16. Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Anna; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-01-14

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Other than dialysis, no therapeutic interventions reliably improve survival, limit injury, or speed recovery. Despite recognized shortcomings of in vivo animal models, the underlying pathophysiology of AKI and its consequence, chronic kidney disease (CKD), is rich with biological targets. We review recent findings relating to the renal vasculature and cellular stress responses, primarily the intersection of the unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and the innate immune response. Maladaptive repair mechanisms that persist following the acute phase promote inflammation and fibrosis in the chronic phase. Here macrophages, growth-arrested tubular epithelial cells, the endothelium, and surrounding pericytes are key players in the progression to chronic disease. Better understanding of these complex interacting pathophysiological mechanisms, their relative importance in humans, and the utility of biomarkers will lead to therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat AKI or impede progression to CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). PMID:26768243

  17. The kidney in space.

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Leivaditis, Konstantinos; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Dombros, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Renal adaptation in space has been studied during various space missions since the early 70s. Technical and financial disadvantages of performing experiments under real microgravity conditions have warranted the conductance of relative studies under simulated weightlessness on earth. Arriving in microgravity leads to a redistribution of body fluids to the upper part of the body and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. Plasma volume as well as skin evaporation and oral hydration are reduced, while total body water seems to remain stable. Urinary sodium is diminished and a substantial amount of sodium is retained outside the intravascular space. Glomerular filtration rate shows a transient mild increase. Urinary albumin excretion is reduced although initial studies had demonstrated the opposite. Examination of renal histopathology after exposure to simulated microgravity in rats revealed glomerular atrophy, interstitial edema, and degeneration of renal tubular cells. Acute urinary retention which has been reported during spaceflights can lead to certain medical complications that could compromise an entire mission. Kidney stone formation is another important potential hazard for any manned spaceflight. Increased kidney stone formation in space is attributed to several factors including reduced fluid intake, hypercalciuria, and the presence of nanobacteria. Nutritional and pharmacological interventions are currently recommended as preventive measures against renal stone formation in space travelers. PMID:23001611

  18. Murine Kidney Transplant Technique.

    PubMed

    Plenter, Robert; Jain, Swati; Ruller, Chelsea M; Nydam, Trevor L; Jani, Alkesh H

    2015-01-01

    The first mouse kidney transplant technique was published in 1973(1) by the Russell laboratory. Although it took some years for other labs to become proficient in and utilize this technique, it is now widely used by many laboratories around the world. A significant refinement to the original technique using the donor aorta to form the arterial anastomosis instead of the renal artery was developed and reported in 1993 by Kalina and Mottram (2) with a further advancement coming from the same laboratory in 1999 (3). While one can become proficient in this model, a search of the literature reveals that many labs still experience a high proportion of graft loss due to arterial thrombosis. We describe here a technique that was devised in our laboratory that vastly reduces the arterial thrombus reported by others (4,5). This is achieved by forming a heel-and-toe cuff of the donor infra-renal aorta that facilitates a larger anastomosis and straighter blood flow into the kidney. PMID:26555373

  19. Obesity and kidney protection

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Results: The concept of the “Metabolic Syndrome“ helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Conclusions: Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity. PMID:25093156

  20. Inadvertent Transmission of Polycystic Kidney Disease in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Langote, Amit; Mazarova, Andrea; Mahoney, John; Blew, Brian; Knoll, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 55 Final Diagnosis: Polycystic transformation of transplant kidney Symptoms: Hematuia Medication: Tacrolimus • Mycophenoalte Moefitil • Prednisone Clinical Procedure: Graft nephrectomy Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Although organ donors are rigorously tested, occasionally an unidentified donor disease can be transmitted to the recipient. These conditions include malignancies, infections, and, rarely, congenital diseases. Case Report: We report a case of an inadvertent transmission of polycystic kidney disease from a 40-year-old trauma victim to both kidney recipients. There was no family history of renal disease in the donor. The renal allografts gradually increased in size with the development of cysts and functioned for 10 and 14 years. Conclusions: We report a case of inadvertent transmission of polycystic kidney disease from an unsuspecting deceased donor to both the recipients through renal allograft. Both the grafts lasted long enough to suggest that polycystic kidneys from deceased donors can be considered for transplantation. PMID:25716074

  1. A new approach for evaluation of canine dento alveolar distraction using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Chandrasekaran; Kannan, M. S.; Sukumar, M. R.; Rajesekar, L.; Datta, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate and plan the canine dento alveolar distractions (DADs) with the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: 5 patients are requiring 10 canine DADs were selected for the study. A custom-made DAD distractor was fabricated for the study. CBCT scans were taken prior to and post thedistraction. DAD parameters such as Canine retraction, canine and molar rotation, molar anchor loss and level of the osteotomy cut above the canine was evaluated. Results: Average canine retraction was 7.5 mm in 17 days, molar anchor loss was 0.5 mm, canine and molar rotations were 8° and 0.40° and thedistance of the osteotomy cut to the canine was1.93 mm. Conclusion: The CBCT can be used to accurately evaluate the canine DADtechnique. PMID:26015689

  2. Validation of a commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. Objective The purpose of the study was to validate a new automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP method (Gentian cCRP). Methods Studies of imprecision, accuracy, prozone effect, interference, limit of quantification, and stability under different storage conditions were performed. The new method was compared with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. Results Total imprecision was < 2.4% for 4 tested serum pools analyzed twice daily over 10 days. The method was linear under dilution, and no prozone effect was detected at a concentration of 1200 mg/L. Recovery after spiking serum with purified canine CRP at 2 different concentrations was 123% and 116%, respectively. No interference from hemoglobin or triglycerides (10 g/L) was detected. CRP was stable for 14 days at 4°C and 22°C. In the method comparison study, there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). Conclusions The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is a reliable and rapid method for measuring canine CRP, suitable for clinical use due to the option for an automated assay. PMID:24798319

  3. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  4. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Center National Kidney Foundation Smokefree.gov MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Polycystic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Polycystic kidney disease On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2014 What is polycystic kidney disease? Polycystic kidney disease is a disorder that ...

  6. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also order print versions from our online catalog. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States Page Content ... for Vascular Access Acknowledgments The Growing Burden of Kidney Disease Kidney disease statistics for the United States ...

  7. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Peritoneal Dialysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Life Options Rehabilitation Program National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Peritoneal Dialysis Page Content On this page: ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Polycystic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the urine (hematuria), recurrent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and heart valve abnormalities. Additionally, people with polycystic ... valve ; hematuria ; hemodialysis ; hypertension ; inheritance ; inherited ; kidney ; kidney stones ; mutation ; new mutation ; nucleus ; pattern of inheritance ; polycystic ...

  9. Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Carol F.; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC) of the kidney is a unique, rare, and recently recognized neoplasm. Although originally considered a low-grade collecting duct carcinoma, TCC is now considered to be a distinct entity. TCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic renal neoplasms. We report a case of TCC arising in the left kidney. PMID:26130898

  10. Calcium Supplements and Kidney Health

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Calcium_Supplements_101415.html Calcium Supplements and Kidney Health HealthDay News Video - October 15, 2015 To use ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Calcium Dietary Supplements Kidney Stones About MedlinePlus ...

  11. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... least 3 months. Normally, the kidneys filter extra water and waste out of the blood and make urine. The ... to estimate how well the kidneys are filtering waste out of the blood. Potential ... lead to early treatment, which might result in better outcomes for people ...

  12. VAMP7 Modulates Ciliary Biogenesis in Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szalinski, Christina M.; Labilloy, Anatália; Bruns, Jennifer R.; Weisz, Ora A.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells elaborate specialized domains that have distinct protein and lipid compositions, including the apical and basolateral surfaces and primary cilia. Maintaining the identity of these domains is required for proper cell function, and requires the efficient and selective SNARE-mediated fusion of vesicles containing newly synthesized and recycling proteins with the proper target membrane. Multiple pathways exist to deliver newly synthesized proteins to the apical surface of kidney cells, and the post-Golgi SNAREs, or VAMPs, involved in these distinct pathways have not been identified. VAMP7 has been implicated in apical protein delivery in other cell types, and we hypothesized that this SNARE would have differential effects on the trafficking of apical proteins known to take distinct routes to the apical surface in kidney cells. VAMP7 expressed in polarized Madin Darby canine kidney cells colocalized primarily with LAMP2-positive compartments, and siRNA-mediated knockdown modulated lysosome size, consistent with the known function of VAMP7 in lysosomal delivery. Surprisingly, VAMP7 knockdown had no effect on apical delivery of numerous cargoes tested, but did decrease the length and frequency of primary cilia. Additionally, VAMP7 knockdown disrupted cystogenesis in cells grown in a three-dimensional basement membrane matrix. The effects of VAMP7 depletion on ciliogenesis and cystogenesis are not directly linked to the disruption of lysosomal function, as cilia lengths and cyst morphology were unaffected in an MDCK lysosomal storage disorder model. Together, our data suggest that VAMP7 plays an essential role in ciliogenesis and lumen formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study implicating an R-SNARE in ciliogenesis and cystogenesis. PMID:24466086

  13. Shedding of klotho by ADAMs in the kidney.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Ellen P M; Pulskens, Wilco P; van der Hagen, Eline A E; Lavrijsen, Marla; Vervloet, Marc G; van Goor, Harry; Bindels, René J M; Hoenderop, Joost G J

    2015-08-15

    The anti-aging gene klotho plays an important role in Ca(2+) and phosphate homeostasis. Membrane-bound klotho is an essential coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 and can be cleaved by proteases, including a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)10 and ADAM17. Cleavage of klotho occurs at a site directly above the plasma membrane (?-cut) or between the KL1 and KL2 domain (?-cut), resulting in soluble full-length klotho or KL1 and KL2 fragments, respectively. The aim of the present study was to gain insights into the mechanisms behind klotho cleavage processes in the kidney. Klotho shedding was demonstrated using a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line stably expressing klotho and human embryonic kidney-293 cells transiently transfected with klotho. Here, we report klotho expression on both the basolateral and apical membrane, with a higher abundance of klotho at the apical membrane and in the apical media. mRNA expression of ADAM17 and klotho were enriched in mouse distal convoluted and connecting tubules. In vitro ADAM/matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by TNF484 resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of the ?-cut, with a less specific effect on ?-cut shedding. In vivo TNF484 treatment in wild-type mice did not change urinary klotho levels. However, ADAM/matrix metalloproteinase inhibition did increase renal and duodenal mRNA expression of phosphate transporters, whereas serum phosphate levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, our data show that renal cells preferentially secrete klotho to the apical side and suggest that ADAMs are responsible for ?-cut cleavage. PMID:26155844

  14. Bochdalek hernia with intrathoracic kidney

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Arti D.; Ajay, Stani; Adalia, Mayur; Rathi, Amar

    2012-01-01

    Bochdalek hernia is a congenital diaphragmatic defect that allows abdominal viscera to herniate into the thorax. Intrathoracic kidney is a very rare finding representing less than 5% of all renal ectopias. A 20 year old female presented with complaints of dry cough since 15 days and intermittent fever of 4 days duration. As part of routine investigation chest X-ray was done which showed a left retro-cardiac homogenous opacity, rest of the lung field appeared normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed the right kidney to be normal, left kidney was not visualized. Computed tomography scan demonstrated left-sided Bochdalek hernia with the left kidney within the thorax. An IVP was done to confirm the diagnosis. Many a times intrathoracic kidney is confused with a thoracic mass and the patient undergoes a battery of unnecessary investigations, surgical interventions and image guided biopsies for the same, hence to avoid this we are reporting this case. PMID:23243354

  15. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

    PubMed Central

    Prabhat, K. C.; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Gupta, N. D.; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Goyal, Lata

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of “distracting the periodontal ligament” is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks. PMID:22628978

  16. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  17. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  18. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  19. Dento-Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis for rapid Orthodontic Canine Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naveen; Prashantha, GS; Raikar, Sudhir; Ranganath, Krishnappa; Mathew, Silju; Nambiar, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rate of canine distalization by segmental alveolar distraction method in first premolar extraction cases, to evaluate the displacement of the canine and first molar teeth, to assess the effects of the procedure on the pulpal vitality of the canines, and to determine the amount of root resorption in retracted canines. Materials & Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 20 teeth in 7 patients (five females and two males, mean age 18.5 years). After the osteotomy procedure distractor was fixed. After 3 days of consolidation period, the distractor was activated 3 quarter turns per day(0.75 mm/day) till the canines comes in contact with second premolar. An electrical vitality test was applied before and after the distraction procedure and during the follow-up period. Results: The mean distal retraction of canines was 7.262 ± 0.4864 mm. The distal displacement of the canine was mainly a combination of tipping and translation. The mean distraction procedure was completed in 14.60 ±1.536 days. The duration of retraction was less for mandibular canine compared to maxillary canine. The mean posterior anchorage loss was mean 0.50±0.688 mm. The amount of root resorption that occurred during distraction was clinically insignificant. None of the teeth reacted negatively to the electrical vitality test that was performed 6 months after the completion of the distraction procedure. There was no clinical sign of discoloration or pulpal pain in any tooth. Conclusion: With dentoalveolar distraction, as canines can be fully retracted in 12 to 16 days, the non-compliance patients, patients with root-shape malformations, periodontal problems, or ankylosed teeth will benefit from this technique. The anchorage teeth can withstand the retraction forces better with no anchorage loss, and without clinical or radiographic evidence of root resorption, ankylosis, periodontal problems, and soft tissue dehiscence. This technique reduces orthodontic treatment duration by 6 to 9 months in patients who need extraction, with no need for any sort of anchorage reinforcement. How to cite this article: Kumar N, Prashantha GS, Raikar S, Ranganath K, Mathew S, Nambiar S. Dento-Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis for rapid Orthodontic Canine Retraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):31-41 . PMID:24453442

  20. APOL1 Localization in Normal Kidney and Nondiabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Sethu M.; O'Toole, John F.; Konieczkowski, Martha; Ganesan, Santhi; Bruggeman, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    In patients of African ancestry, genetic variants in APOL1, which encodes apolipoprotein L1, associate with the nondiabetic kidney diseases, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), and hypertensive nephropathy. Understanding the renal localization of APOL1 may provide clues that will ultimately help elucidate the mechanisms by which APOL1 variants promote nephropathy. Here, we used immunohistology to examine APOL1 localization in normal human kidney sections and in biopsies demonstrating either FSGS (n = 8) or HIVAN (n = 2). Within normal glomeruli, APOL1 only localized to podocytes. Compared with normal glomeruli, fewer cells stained for APOL1 in FSGS and HIVAN glomeruli, even when expression of the podocyte markers GLEPP1 and synaptopodin appeared normal. APOL1 localized to proximal tubular epithelia in normal kidneys, FSGS, and HIVAN. We detected APOL1 in the arteriolar endothelium of normal and diseased kidney sections. Unexpectedly, in both FSGS and HIVAN but not normal kidneys, the media of medium artery and arterioles contained a subset of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells that stained for APOL1. Comparing the renal distribution of APOL1 in nondiabetic kidney disease to normal kidney suggests that a previously unrecognized arteriopathy may contribute to disease pathogenesis in patients of African ancestry. PMID:21997392

  1. Management of an Unusual Maxillary Canine: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Muppalla, Jaya Nagendra Krishna; Kavuda, Krishnamurthy; Punna, Rajani; Vanapatla, Amulya

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians need to have intimate knowledge and thorough understanding of both pulp chamber and root canal anatomy. They should be aware of possibility of anatomical variations in the root canal system during endodontic treatment. Maxillary canines usually have single root and root canal but rarely may have single root with two root canals. This case describes a lengthier maxillary canine with two root canals. PMID:26779354

  2. Effects of the zygoma anchorage system on canine retraction.

    PubMed

    Cetinsahin, Alev; Dinçer, Müfide; Arman-Ozçirpici, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the Gjessing (PG) retraction spring used with and without the zygoma anchorage system (ZAS) on canine retraction. Thirty patients, with an Angle Class I or Class II malocclusion, whose upper first premolars were scheduled for extraction, were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 comprised maximum anchorage cases (nine females and six males with a mean age of 16 years 8 months) in which the ZAS was used to improve posterior anchorage and the PG retraction springs for canine retraction. Moderate anchorage cases (10 females and 5 males with a mean age of 15 years 5 month) were included in group 2 and canine retraction was achieved using only PG retraction springs. Study models and lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained at the initial and final stages of canine retraction were used for comparison of the groups to determine the effects of zygoma anchorage on canine retraction. All measurements were evaluated statistically using a Student's t-test, 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance, Bonferroni-adjusted t-test, and Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests according to the normality of the distribution of the variables. Mesial crown movement of the molars was 0.63 mm (P < 0.05) in group 1 and 1.50 mm (P < 0.001) in group 2. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the groups. No significant difference was observed between the groups for the rate of canine retraction or sagittal and vertical movement of the canines. The ZAS is a reliable and successful anchorage reinforcement method for canine retraction in extraction cases. PMID:20457580

  3. Outbreak of Canine Norovirus Infection in Young Dogs â–¿

    PubMed Central

    Ntafis, Vasileios; Xylouri, Eftychia; Radogna, Arianna; Buonavoglia, Canio; Martella, Vito

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus (NoV) infection was identified in a kennel. Sequence analysis of a short fragment in the polymerase complex indicated the clonal origin of the strains, which were similar to the prototype canine NoV strain GIV.2/Bari/170/07-4/ITA (94.7% nucleotide identity). The findings demonstrate that canine NoV circulates in dogs in Greece and that it can spread easily across a group of animals. PMID:20484606

  4. Longitudinal Study of Viruses Associated with Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erles, Kerstin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Brooks, Harriet W.; Brownlie, Joe

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs. PMID:15472304

  5. Melioidosis and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Zulfikar; Currie, Bart J

    2013-03-01

    Melioidosis, caused by the saprophytic soil and freshwater Gram-negative aerobic bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei, is classically characterized by pneumonia, sometimes with multiple organ abscesses, usually in patients with defined risk factors and with a mortality rate of up to 40%. It is a major cause of community-acquired sepsis in Southeast Asia and tropical northern Australia with an expanding global geographical distribution. It is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic infectious disease of importance to physicians, who may need to suspect it in at-risk patients that may come from or visit endemic areas, and could be fatal if treated late or inappropriately. Mortality could be prevented by early institution of specific antimicrobial therapy. Epidemiology, clinical features, overall management, and aspects of melioidosis particularly relevant to kidney disease and immunosuppression are discussed in this review. PMID:23279670

  6. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes. PMID:25409904

  7. Metals and kidney autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Bigazzi, P E

    1999-01-01

    The causes of autoimmune responses leading to human kidney pathology remain unknown. However, environmental agents such as microorganisms and/or xenobiotics are good candidates for that role. Metals, either present in the environment or administered for therapeutic reasons, are prototypical xenobiotics that cause decreases or enhancements of immune responses. In particular, exposure to gold and mercury may result in autoimmune responses to various self-antigens as well as autoimmune disease of the kidney and other tissues. Gold compounds, currently used in the treatment of patients with progressive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis, can cause a nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, an immune-mediated membranous nephropathy frequently occurred when drugs containing mercury were commonly used. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that occupational exposure to mercury does not usually result in autoimmunity. However, mercury induces antinuclear antibodies, sclerodermalike disease, lichen planus, or membranous nephropathy in some individuals. Laboratory investigations have confirmed that the administration of gold or mercury to experimental animals leads to autoimmune disease quite similar to that observed in human subjects exposed to these metals. In addition, studies of inbred mice and rats have revealed that a few strains are susceptible to the autoimmune effects of gold and mercury, whereas the majority of inbred strains are resistant. These findings have emphasized the importance of genetic (immunogenetic and pharmacogenetic) factors in the induction of metal-associated autoimmunity. (italic)In vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) research of autoimmune disease caused by mercury and gold has already yielded valuable information and answered a number of important questions. At the same time it has raised new issues about possible immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive mechanisms of xenobiotic activity. Thus it is evident that investigations of metal-induced renal autoimmunity have the potential to produce new knowledge with relevance to autoimmune disease caused by xenobiotics in general as well as to idiopathic autoimmunity. PMID:10502542

  8. Canine feces as a reservoir of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J R; Stell, A L; Delavari, P

    2001-03-01

    To test the canine reservoir hypothesis of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), 63 environmental canine fecal deposits were evaluated for the presence of ExPEC by a combination of selective culturing, extended virulence genotyping, hemagglutination testing, O serotyping, and PCR-based phylotyping. Overall, 30% of canine fecal samples (56% of those that yielded viable E. coli) contained papG-positive E. coli, usually as the predominant E. coli strain and always possessing papG allele III (which encodes variant III of the P-fimbrial adhesin molecule PapG). Multiple other virulence-associated genes typical of human ExPEC were prevalent among the canine fecal isolates. According to serotyping, virulence genotyping, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, over 50% of papG-positive fecal E. coli could be directly correlated with specific human clinical isolates from patients with cystitis, pyelonephritis, bacteremia, or meningitis, including archetypal human ExPEC strains 536, CP9, and RS218. Five canine fecal isolates and (clonally related) archetypal human pyelonephritis isolate 536 were found to share a novel allele of papA (which encodes the P-fimbrial structural subunit PapA). These data confirm that ExPEC representing known virulent clones are highly prevalent in canine feces, which consequently may provide a reservoir of ExPEC for acquisition by humans. PMID:11179292

  9. [Skeletal anchorage: use of miniscrews for impacted maxillary canine management].

    PubMed

    Kocsis, András; Seres, László; Kocsis-Savanya, Gábor; Kovács, Adám

    2010-03-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Patients' refusal to a long orthodontic treatment or ankylosis of the impacted tooth results in various treatment difficulties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of miniscrews in the management of impacted upper canines. In a series of 28 consecutive patients with a total of 31 impacted maxillary canines (12 men and 16 women aged from 14 to 63 years, mean 24 years), each impacted tooth was surgically exposed and an attachment was bonded. An intraosseous screw (1.5 mm in diameter and 8-10 mm long) with an endosseous body and intraoral neck section was inserted into the premolar-molar interradicular space. Following soft tissue healing, orthodontic traction was initiated. After correction of the angulation of the canine, the mini-screw was removed and traditional orthodontic therapy was completed. Twenty-seven canines were extruded successfully (87%), the duration of the orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances was decreased. In the 3 cases that failed due to ankylosis, the skeletal anchorage spared the patients and the clinicans the disappointment of a long-term unsuccessful traditional orthodontic treatment. In one patient, the mini-screw was removed because of inflammation and pain before the beginning of the orthodontic traction. This study shows that mini screw anchorage should be taken into consideration when extrusion of an impacted canine is planned. PMID:20443350

  10. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  11. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  12. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  13. Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher H.; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M. Karen; Malcolm, James R.; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world’s rarest canid; ?500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005–2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%–87% vs. 34%–39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP’s Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  14. Canine transmissible venereal tumour: a review.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, B; Das, U; Das, A K

    2016-03-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious venereal tumour of dogs, commonly observed in dogs that are in close contact with one another, or in stray and wild dogs that exhibit unrestrained sexual activity. CTVT represents a unique, naturally transmissible, contagious tumour, where the mutated tumour cell itself is the causative agent and perpetuates as a parasitic allograft in the host. Clinical history, signalment and cytological features are often obvious for establishing a diagnosis though biopsy and histological examination may be needed in atypical cases. Most cases are curable with three intravenous injections of vincristine sulphate at weekly intervals. The role of stray and wild dogs makes the disease difficult to control and necessitates sustained animal birth control in stray dogs along with prompt therapy of the affected dogs. This review captures the manifold developments in different areas embracing this fascinating tumour, including its biology, diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives. PMID:23981098

  15. Kidney injury molecule–1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that confers a phagocytic phenotype on epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Takaharu; Asseldonk, Edwin J.P.v.; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2008-01-01

    Following injury, the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells is necessary for mitigation and resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. In addition to macrophages, which are traditionally assigned to this task, neighboring epithelial cells in the affected tissue are postulated to contribute to this process. Kidney injury molecule–1 (KIM-1 or TIM-1) is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell-surface protein not expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage but highly upregulated on the surface of injured kidney epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that injured kidney epithelial cells assumed attributes of endogenous phagocytes. Confocal images confirm internalization of apoptotic bodies within KIM-1–expressing epithelial cells after injury in rat kidney tubules in vivo. KIM-1 was directly responsible for phagocytosis in cultured primary rat tubule epithelial cells and also porcine and canine epithelial cell lines. KIM-1 was able to specifically recognize apoptotic cell surface-specific epitopes phosphatidylserine, and oxidized lipoproteins, expressed by apoptotic tubular epithelial cells. Thus, KIM-1 is the first nonmyeloid phosphatidylserine receptor identified to our knowledge that transforms epithelial cells into semiprofessional phagocytes. PMID:18414680

  16. Refinement of the canine CD1 locus topology and investigation of antibody binding to recombinant canine CD1 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Schjaerff, Mette; Keller, Stefan M; Fass, Joseph; Froenicke, Lutz; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie; Affolter, Verena K; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Moore, Peter F

    2016-03-01

    CD1 molecules are antigen-presenting glycoproteins primarily found on dendritic cells (DCs) responsible for lipid antigen presentation to CD1-restricted T cells. Despite their pivotal role in immunity, little is known about CD1 protein expression in dogs, notably due to lack of isoform-specific antibodies. The canine (Canis familiaris) CD1 locus was previously found to contain three functional CD1A genes: canCD1A2, canCD1A6, and canCD1A8, where two variants of canCD1A8, canCD1A8.1 and canCD1A8.2, were assumed to be allelic variants. However, we hypothesized that these rather represented two separate genes. Sequencing of three overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) spanning the entire canine CD1 locus revealed canCD1A8.2 and canCD1A8.1 to be located in tandem between canCD1A7 and canCD1C, and canCD1A8.1 was consequently renamed canCD1A9. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused canine CD1 transcripts were recombinantly expressed in 293T cells. All proteins showed a highly positive GFP expression except for canine CD1d and a splice variant of canine CD1a8 lacking exon 3. Probing with a panel of anti-CD1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) showed that Ca13.9H11 and Ca9.AG5 only recognized canine CD1a8 and CD1a9 isoforms, and Fe1.5F4 mAb solely recognized canine CD1a6. Anti-CD1b mAbs recognized the canine CD1b protein, but also bound CD1a2, CD1a8, and CD1a9. Interestingly, Ca9.AG5 showed allele specificity based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 321. Our findings have refined the structure of the canine CD1 locus and available antibody specificity against canine CD1 proteins. These are important fundamentals for future investigation of the role of canine CD1 in lipid immunity. PMID:26687789

  17. Serological diagnosis of canine alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Staebler, Sandra; Grimm, Felix; Glaus, Tony; Kapel, Christian M O; Haller, Markus; Hasler, Andreas; Hanosset, Régis; Deplazes, Peter

    2006-11-01

    Canine alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare liver disease caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of E. multilocularis. Its diagnosis so far is rather difficult and invasive. Imaging techniques for the diagnosis have been described recently and in this study, the serological diagnosis of canine AE was evaluated in 30 dogs with confirmed AE using ELISA based on seven different antigens (E. multilocularis-antigens: Em2G11, EmII/3-10, protoscolex (EmP), excretory/secretory and adult integument (EmAd/I); E. granulosus antigens: hydatid fluid (EgHF) and antigen B (EgAgB)) and by the detection of circulating Em2G11-antigen. EmII/3-10 and Em2G11-based tests detected AE in 50 and 53%. The combined serological investigation for specific circulating Em2G11-antigen and specific antibodies against this antigen showed a sensitivity of 77%. This strategy is useful in animals with large parasite masses and ascites. The highest sensitivities for AE were obtained by the EmAd/I and the EmP antigens (97 and 93% sensitivity) with high specificities in the control group of 76 dogs (100 and 98.7%, respectively). Heterologous E. granulosus antigens (EgHF and EgAgB) showed low sensitivities (43 and 50%, respectively) with high numbers of unspecific reactions (>16%) in the control group. In the follow-up of four dogs, the serological reaction patterns against the antigens Em2G11, EmP and EmAd/I showed some correlations with the development of the parasite mass. Intestinal infections cannot be differentiated from AE by most antigens (except EmII/3-10) and have to be excluded by the absence of coproantigens or DNA of E. multilocularis in faecal samples. PMID:16822617

  18. Genetic diversity of canine olfactory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Stéphanie; Tacher, Sandrine; Rimbault, Maud; Vaysse, Amaury; Dréano, Stéphane; André, Catherine; Hitte, Christophe; Galibert, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Background Evolution has resulted in large repertoires of olfactory receptor (OR) genes, forming the largest gene families in mammalian genomes. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of olfactory receptors is essential if we are to understand the differences in olfactory sensory capability between individuals. Canine breeds constitute an attractive model system for such investigations. Results We sequenced 109 OR genes considered representative of the whole OR canine repertoire, which consists of more than 800 genes, in a cohort of 48 dogs of six different breeds. SNP frequency showed the overall level of polymorphism to be high. However, the distribution of SNP was highly heterogeneous among OR genes. More than 50% of OR genes were found to harbour a large number of SNP, whereas the rest were devoid of SNP or only slightly polymorphic. Heterogeneity was also observed across breeds, with 25% of the SNP breed-specific. Linkage disequilibrium within OR genes and OR clusters suggested a gene conversion process, consistent with a mean level of polymorphism higher than that observed for introns and intergenic sequences. A large proportion (47%) of SNP induced amino-acid changes and the Ka/Ks ratio calculated for all alleles with a complete ORF indicated a low selective constraint with respect to the high level of redundancy of the olfactory combinatory code and an ongoing pseudogenisation process, which affects dog breeds differently. Conclusion Our demonstration of a high overall level of polymorphism, likely to modify the ligand-binding capacity of receptors distributed differently within the six breeds tested, is the first step towards understanding why Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs have a much greater potential for use as sniffer dogs than Pekingese dogs or Greyhounds. Furthermore, the heterogeneity in OR polymorphism observed raises questions as to why, in a context in which most OR genes are highly polymorphic, a subset of these genes is not? This phenomenon may be related to the nature of their ligands and their importance in everyday life. PMID:19144169

  19. Naproxen-induced Ca2+ movement and death in MDCK canine renal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H-H; Chou, C-T; Sun, T-K; Liang, W-Z; Cheng, J-S; Chang, H-T; Tseng, H-W; Kuo, C-C; Chen, F-A; Kuo, D-H; Shieh, P; Jan, C-R

    2015-11-01

    Naproxen is an anti-inflammatory drug that affects cellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and viability in different cells. This study explored the effect of naproxen on [Ca(2+)](i) and viability in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) canine renal tubular cells. At concentrations between 50 ?M and 300 ?M, naproxen induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises in a concentration-dependent manner. This Ca(2+) signal was reduced partly when extracellular Ca(2+) was removed. The Ca(2+) signal was inhibited by a Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine but not by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (econazole and SKF96365), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and a PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone or thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pumps, partly inhibited naproxen-induced Ca(2+) signal. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 did not alter naproxen-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) rises. At concentrations between 15 ?M and 30 ?M, naproxen killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with the acetoxymethyl ester of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that naproxen induced apoptosis. Together, in MDCK renal tubular cells, naproxen induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises by inducing Ca(2+) release from multiple stores that included the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via nifedipine-sensitive Ca(2+) channels. Naproxen induced cell death that involved apoptosis. PMID:25636639

  20. Kidney donation after cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-01-01

    There is continuing disparity between demand for and supply of kidneys for transplantation. This review describes the current state of kidney donation after cardiac death (DCD) and provides recommendations for a way forward. The conversion rate for potential DCD donors varies from 40%-80%. Compared to controlled DCD, uncontrolled DCD is more labour intensive, has a lower conversion rate and a higher discard rate. The super-rapid laparotomy technique involving direct aortic cannulation is preferred over in situ perfusion in controlled DCD donation and is associated with lower kidney discard rates, shorter warm ischaemia times and higher graft survival rates. DCD kidneys showed a 5.73-fold increase in the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) and a higher primary non function rate compared to donation after brain death kidneys, but the long term graft function is equivalent between the two. The cold ischaemia time is a controllable factor that significantly influences the outcome of allografts, for example, limiting it to < 12 h markedly reduces DGF. DCD kidneys from donors < 50 function like standard criteria kidneys and should be viewed as such. As the majority of DCD kidneys are from controlled donation, incorporation of uncontrolled donation will expand the donor pool. Efforts to maximise the supply of kidneys from DCD include: implementing organ recovery from emergency department setting; improving family consent rate; utilising technological developments to optimise organs either prior to recovery from donors or during storage; improving organ allocation to ensure best utility; and improving viability testing to reduce primary non function. PMID:24175245

  1. Presence of antibodies to canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus type 1 in free-ranging jackals (Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas) in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J A; Bingham, J; Heath, R; Richards, B

    1999-09-01

    A survey of free-ranging jackals (Canis adustus and Canis mesomelas) in Zimbabwe was conducted to determine the prevalence of serum antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1). Sera from 16 Canis adustus and 22 Canis mesomelas were collected from 1990 to 1993 from various regions of Zimbabwe and assayed by means of immunofluorescent techniques. Seroprevalence in C. adustus and C. mesomelas respectively were 50% and 63.6% for CDV, 12.5% and 18.2% for CPV and 37.5 and 9.1 for CAV-1. These results demonstrate that jackals are infected with these viruses and may act as reservoirs of them, although their susceptibility to the viruses is not known. PMID:10631712

  2. R270C polymorphism leads to loss of function of the canine P2X7 receptor.

    PubMed

    Spildrejorde, Mari; Bartlett, Rachael; Stokes, Leanne; Jalilian, Iman; Peranec, Michelle; Sluyter, Vanessa; Curtis, Belinda L; Skarratt, Kristen K; Skora, Amanda; Bakhsh, Tahani; Seavers, Aine; McArthur, Jason D; Dowton, Mark; Sluyter, Ronald

    2014-07-15

    The relative function of the P2X7 receptor, an ATP-gated ion channel, varies between humans due to polymorphisms in the P2RX7 gene. This study aimed to assess the functional impact of P2X7 variation in a random sample of the canine population. Blood and genomic DNA were obtained from 69 dogs selected as representatives of a cross section of different breeds. P2X7 function was determined by flow cytometric measurements of dye uptake and patch-clamp measurements of inward currents. P2X7 expression was determined by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Sequencing was used to identify P2RX7 gene polymorphisms. P2X7 was cloned from an English springer spaniel, and point mutations were introduced into this receptor by site-directed mutagenesis. The relative function of P2X7 on monocytes varied between individual dogs. The canine P2RX7 gene encoded four missense polymorphisms: F103L and P452S, found in heterozygous and homozygous dosage, and R270C and R365Q, found only in heterozygous dosage. Moreover, R270C and R365Q were associated with the cocker spaniel and Labrador retriever, respectively. F103L, R270C, and R365Q but not P452S corresponded to decreased P2X7 function in monocytes but did not explain the majority of differences in P2X7 function between dogs, indicating that other factors contribute to this variability. Heterologous expression of site-directed mutants of P2X7 in human embryonic kidney-293 cells indicated that the R270C mutant was nonfunctional, the F103L and R365Q mutants had partly reduced function, and the P452S mutant functioned normally. Taken together, these data highlight that a R270C polymorphism has major functional impact on canine P2X7. PMID:24824213

  3. Biomarkers in chronic kidney disease, from kidney function to kidney damage

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Giacoman, Salvador; Madero, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) typically evolves over many years, with a long latent period when the disease is clinically silent and therefore diagnosis, evaluation and treatment is based mainly on biomarkers that assess kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) remains the ideal marker of kidney function. Unfortunately measuring GFR is time consuming and therefore GFR is usually estimated from equations that take into account endogenous filtration markers like serum creatinine (SCr) and cystatin C (CysC). Other biomarkers such as albuminuria may precede kidney function decline and have demonstrated to have strong associations with disease progression and outcomes. New potential biomarkers have arisen with the promise of detecting kidney damage prior to the currently used markers. The aim of this review is to discuss the utility of the GFR estimating equations and biomarkers in CKD and the different clinical settings where these should be applied. The CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation performs better than the modification of diet in renal disease equation, especially at GFR above 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Equations combining CysC and SCr perform better than the equations using either CysC or SCr alone and are recommended in situations where CKD needs to be confirmed. Combining creatinine, CysC and urine albumin to creatinine ratio improves risk stratification for kidney disease progression and mortality. Kidney injury molecule and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin are considered reasonable biomarkers in urine and plasma to determine severity and prognosis of CKD. PMID:25664247

  4. Prevention of rabies virus infection in dogs by a recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rongliang; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fooks, Anthony R; Yuan, Huijun; Liu, Ye; Li, Haitao; Tu, Changchun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xiao, Yueqiang

    2006-04-01

    Safe and effective vaccination is important for rabies prevention in animals. Although several genetically engineered rabies vaccines have been developed, few have been licensed for use, principally due to biosafety concerns or due to poor efficacy in animal models. In this paper, we describe the construction and characterization of a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (SRV9 strain) by a different strategy from that reported previously, i.e., the recombinant genome carrying the glycoprotein cDNA was generated by a series of strictly gene cloning steps, infectious recombinant virus was obtained by transfecting the recombinant genome into a canine kidney cell line, MDCK. This recombinant virus, CAV-E3delta-CGS, was subcutaneously injected into dogs. All vaccinated dogs produced effective neutralizing antibodies after one inoculation and a stronger anamnestic immune response was produced after booster injection. The immunized dogs could survive the challenge of 60,000 mouse LD50 CVS-24, which is lethal to all unimmunized dogs and is comparable to the conventional vaccines. The immunity lasts for months with a protective level of neutralizing antibody. This recombinant virus would be an alternative to the attenuated and the inactivated rabies vaccines and be prospective in immunizing dogs against rabies. PMID:16524754

  5. FastStats: Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mental Health Diabetes Digestive and Liver Digestive Diseases Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis Kidney Disease Oral and Dental Health Respiratory and Allergies Allergies and Hay Fever Asthma Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Infectious/Immune AIDS and HIV ...

  6. Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection) in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... scans use a combination of x rays and computer technology to create three-dimensional (3-D) images. ... the body to the kidneys. Special cameras and computers are used to create images of the radioactive ...

  7. 10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... were so big I couldn't get my shoes on." "My sister, her hair started to fall ... do anything, just totally drained." Symptom 4: Skin Rash/Itching Kidneys remove wastes from the bloodstream. When ...

  8. Adiponectin effects on the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Sweiss, Natalie; Sharma, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a 30-kDa polypeptide secreted primarily by adipose tissue and plays a key role in kidney disease. In obesity, reduced adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and obesity related kidney disease. The latter includes microalbuminuria, glomerulomegaly, overt proteinuria and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetics also negatively correlate with early features of nephropathy. However, in patients with established chronic kidney disease, adiponectin levels are elevated and positively predict progression of disease. The mechanism of action of adiponectin in the kidney appears to be related to AMPK activation and NADPH oxidase. Further studies are needed to elucidate this pathway and investigate the role of potential targets of adiponectin-AMPK-Nox pathway for CKD as obesity-related CKD is increasing worldwide. PMID:24417947

  9. The kidney tight junction (Review)

    PubMed Central

    HOU, JIANGHUI

    2014-01-01

    The tight junction is an important subcellular organelle which plays a vital role in epithelial barrier function. Claudin, as the integral membrane component of tight junctions, creates a paracellular transport pathway for various ions to be reabsorbed by the kidneys. This review summarizes advances in claudin structure, function and pathophysiology in kidney diseases. Different claudin species confer selective paracellular permeability to each of three major renal tubular segments: the proximal tubule, the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop and the distal nephron. Defects in claudin function can cause a wide spectrum of kidney diseases, such as hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria, kidney stones and hypertension. Studies using transgenic mouse models with claudin mutations have recapitulated several of these renal disease phenotypes and have elucidated the underlying biological mechanisms. Modern recording approaches based upon scanning ion conductance microscopy may resolve the biophysical nature of claudin transport function and provide novel insight into tight junction architecture. PMID:25319473

  10. Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, accounting for 44% percent of new cases. Current research ... more common than type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes), accounting for about 90 to 95 percent of the ...

  11. Canine retraction: A systematic review of different methods used

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Rohit S; Tandon, Ragni; Chandra, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Canine retraction is a very important step in treatment of patients with crowding, or first premolar extraction cases. In severe crowding cases until, the canines have been distilized to relive the crowding, space to correctly align the incisors will not be available. Correct positioning of the canines after retraction is of great importance for the function, stability, and esthetics. The aim of this systematic review was to examine, in an evidence-based way, which kinds of canine retraction methods/techniques are most effective and which have the least side effects. A literature survey was performed by applying the Medline Database (Entrez PubMed) and Science Direct database covering the period from 1985 to 2014, to find out efficient ways to accomplish canine retraction. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective controlled studies, and clinical trials were included. Two reviewers selected and extracted the data independently and assessed the quality of the retrieved studies. The search strategy resulted in 324 articles, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Due to the vast heterogeneity in study methods, the scientific evidence was too weak to evaluate retraction efficiency during space closure. The data so far reviewed proved that elastomeric power chains, elastic threads, magnets, NiTi coil springs, corticotomies, distraction osteogenesis, and laser therapy, all are able to provide optimum rate of tooth movements. All the methods were nearly similar to each other for retraction of canines Most of the techniques lead to anchorage loss in various amounts depending on the methods used. Most of the studies had serious problems with small sample size, confounding factors, lack of method error analysis, and no blinding in measurements. To obtain reliable scientific evidence, controlled RCT's with sufficient sample sizes are needed to determine which method/technique is the most effective in the respective retraction situation. Further studies should also consider patient acceptance and cost analysis as well as implants and minor surgeries for canine retraction. PMID:25657985

  12. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  13. [Iatrogenic kidney diseases].

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Boles?aw

    2010-01-01

    Iatrogenic kidney diseases may appeared as the consequence of medical mistakes or as the result of drug side effects. Present paper is dedicated mainly to this second group of disorders. Spectrum of different syndromes caused by the undesirable drug effects is very long and varied. There are among them water and electrolyte, disorders, tubulo-interstitial nephritis, glomerulopathies or acute renal failure. Also list of potentially nephrotoxic drugs is very long and including many different medicines. Additionally it is important to take into account existence of many risk factors enabling appearance of drug nephrotoxicity. Most important seen to be advanced age and deterioration of renal function. Main prophylactic method preventing development of drug induced nephropaties is strict drug dosage, their adjustment according glomerular filtration rate and monitoring of water- electrolyte balance. Common automatic estimation of eGFR by diagnostic laboratories have to be useful tool in this matter. It is also important to avoid combinations of potentially nephrotoxic drugs. In case of the appearance of first symptoms of toxic renal injury specific activities dependent from the character and severity of pathological changes are necessary. Nevertheless most important issue is consciousness of this danger in both sides: physician and patients enabling avoid drug nephrotoxicity. PMID:20369729

  14. Kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter L; Buffington, Deborah A; Humes, H David

    2006-01-01

    Kidney tubules are an essential component of an organism's blood clearance mechanism, recovering essential metabolites from glomerular filtration by active transport. Tubules are subject to injury, usually as the result of ischemia-reperfusion events that damage the polarized tubular cell layer that coats the tubule basement membrane, causing dysfunction and necrosis that is often associated with acute renal failure. However, tubules are capable of self-repair, forming new proximal tubular cells to replace failing or necrotic cells. The origin of the progenitor cells that give rise to new tubular cells is unknown. At one extreme, it is possible that all or a fraction of tubular cells can undergo a form of dedifferentiation and subsequent mitosis to form new tubular cells, or alternatively, it is possible that tubular regeneration follows the stem cell/transit-amplifying cell paradigm described for more rapidly regenerating organ systems. Regardless of the mechanism employed to generate new tubular cells, human tubular cells are readily grown in primary cultures and can recapitulate many of the metabolic, endocrine, and immunological properties attributable to endogenous renal proximal tubules when engrafted into bioartificial devices. PMID:17141057

  15. Stress and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of CKD has increased considerably over the past 2 decades. The rising rates of CKD have been attributed to known comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; however, recent research has begun to explore the degree to which social, economic, and psychological factors have implications for the prevalence and progression of CKD, especially among high-risk populations such as African Americans. It has been suggested that stress can have implications for CKD, but this area of research has been largely unexplored. One contributing factor associated with the paucity of research on CKD is that many of the social, psychological, and environmental stressors cannot be recreated or simulated in a laboratory setting. Social science has established that stress can have implications for health, and we believe that stress is an important determinant of the development and progression of CKD. We draw heavily from the social scientific and social epidemiologic literature to present an intersectional conceptual frame specifying how stress can have implications for kidney disease, its progression, and its complications through multiple stressors and pathways. PMID:25573512

  16. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-?, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-? antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions. PMID:25680810

  17. The three-kidney rat

    SciTech Connect

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft.

  18. Endodontic treatment of mandibular canine with two roots and two canals.

    PubMed

    Moogi, Prashant P; Hegde, Reshma S; Prashanth, B R; Kumar, G Vinay; Biradar, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    In majority of cases, mandibular canines have one root and one root canal, although 15% may have two canals. Literature report shows incidence of two-rooted canine as low as 1.7%. This article reports a clinical case of endodontic treatment of mandibular canine with two roots and two canals. PMID:23404024

  19. Thirteen cases of liver-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    González, M R; Ramírez, P; Cascales, P; Domingo, J; López, M D; Rios, A; Sánchez, F; Robles, R; Parrilla, P

    2010-10-01

    Combined kidney-liver transplantation is currently the best therapeutic option for patients with end-stage kidney and liver disease. We present our experience of kidney-liver transplantation in a series of 13 patients. The most frequent indications were familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) and polycystosis of the liver and kidney. The 1- and 5-year survival rates of the liver grafts were 75% and 67%, respectively, with no kidney losses during follow-up. PMID:20970636

  20. Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscle Dynamics in Canines and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle is the sole abductor of the glottis and serves important functions during respiration, phonation, cough, and sniff. The present study examines vocal fold abduction dynamics during PCA muscle activation. Study Design Basic science study using an in vivo canine model and human subjects. Methods In four canines and five healthy humans vocal fold abduction time was measured using high speed video recording. In the canines, PCA muscle activation was achieved using graded stimulation of the PCA nerve branch. The human subjects performed coughing and sniffing tasks. High speed video and audio signals were concurrently recorded. Results In the canines the vocal fold moved posteriorly, laterally, and superiorly during abduction. Average time to reach 10%, 50% and 90% abduction was 23, 50, and 100 ms with low stimulation, 24, 58, and 129 ms with medium stimulation, and 21, 49, and 117 ms with high level stimulation. In the humans, 100% abduction times for coughing and sniffing tasks were 79 and 193 ms, respectively. Conclusion The PCA abduction times in canines are within the range in humans. The results also further support the notion that PCA muscles are fully active during cough. Level of Evidence N/A (Animal studies and basic research) PMID:24781959

  1. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25444773

  2. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indian population, no cases of maxillary canine agenesis have been documented. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilateral agenesis of permanent maxillary canines, along with agenesis of both mandibular central incisors in a healthy 13-year-old Indian female patient; and a brief literature review on prevalence, etiology and treatment modalities of the condition. How to cite this article: Kambalimath HV, Jain S, Patil RU, Asokan A, Kambalimath D. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(3):242-246. PMID:26604546

  3. Eliminating canine rabies: the role of public-private partnerships.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Louise

    2013-05-01

    Canine rabies has been eliminated from industrialized countries, but infected dogs remain the principal source of human infections in the developing world. Despite the availability of effective tools for prevention and post-exposure prophylaxis, canine rabies inflicts a heavy burden on the poorest people of Africa, Asia and Latin America, resulting in more than 60,000 deaths each year. Public-private partnerships offer a new approach to the challenge of eliminating canine rabies in the developing world, by bringing together stakeholders to share responsibilities and reduce costs. The leading partnership for rabies control, the Partners for Rabies Prevention, is an informal international group that includes representatives of major health organizations (WHO, PAHO, FAO, OIE), the European Commission, universities, nongovernmental organizations, the human and animal health industries, and private global health institutions. This article describes how the Partners for Rabies Prevention is working toward the global elimination of canine rabies. It forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies. PMID:23499647

  4. Discriminant canine index – a novel approach in sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Chennoju Sai; Ramaswamy, Pachigolla; Swathi, Erva; Smitha, Balla; Sudhakar, Shankaran

    2015-01-01

    Summary Context Assessment of sex has significant contribution in construction of a physical profile of the decedent along with other parameters like race, stature and age. Sex determination with aid of skeletal remains is difficult procedure when, only a part of the body is obtainable. To solve this difficulty, tooth size standards based on odontometric data can be used in age and sex determination. The present study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the reliability of sex determination using discriminant canine index (DCI). Methods A total of 120 subjects, with healthy periodontium and between the age groups of 15 to 40 years were selected randomly. Subjects with hard tissue abnormalities were excluded from the study. The maximum mesiodistal widths of left mandibular canines were measured intraorally with the help of divider and digital vernier caliper. Data was collected and analyzed statistically. Results A significant increase in the mesiodistal width of canines in males (7.21 ± 0.45 mm) when compared to females (6.77 ± 0.29 mm) was observed. The discriminant canine index (DCI) has identified 68.3% of males and 76.7% of females correctly with an overall accuracy rate of 72.5%. Conclusion The present study indicated that the DCI can produce reliable results and can be used as an alternative for mandibular canine index (MCI), for sex determination. PMID:26330903

  5. Anchoring of canine linkage groups with chromosome-specific markers.

    PubMed

    Werner, P; Mellersh, C S; Raducha, M G; DeRose, S; Acland, G M; Prociuk, U; Wiegand, N; Aguirre, G D; Henthorn, P S; Patterson, D F; Ostrander, E A

    1999-08-01

    A high-resolution genetic map with polymorphic markers spaced frequently throughout the genome is a key resource for identifying genes that control specific traits or diseases. The lack of rigorous selection against genetic disorders has resulted in many breeds of dog suffering from a very high frequency of genetic diseases, which tend to be breed-specific and usually inherited as autosomal recessive or apparently complex genetic traits. Many of these closely resemble human genetic disorders in their clinical and pathologic features and are likely to be caused by mutations in homologous genes. To identify loci important in canine disease genes, as well as traits associated with morphological and behavioral variation, we are developing a genetic map of the canine genome. Here we report on an updated version of the canine linkage map, which includes 341 mapped markers distributed over the X and 37 autosomal linkage groups. The average distance between markers on the map is 9.0 cM, and the linkage groups provide estimated coverage of over 95% of the genome. Fourteen linkage groups contain either gene-associated or anonymous markers localized to cosmids that have been assigned to specific canine chromosomes by FISH. These 14 linkage groups contain 150 microsatellite markers and allow us to assign 40% of the linkage groups to specific canine chromosomes. This new version of the map is of sufficient density and characterization to initiate mapping of traits of interest. PMID:10430668

  6. Perioperative acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Goren, O; Matot, I

    2015-12-01

    Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is not uncommon and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Recently, several definition systems for AKI were proposed, incorporating both small changes of serum creatinine and urinary output reduction as diagnostic criteria. Novel biomarkers are under investigation as fast and accurate predictors of AKI. Several special considerations regarding the risk of AKI are of note in the surgical patient. Co-morbidities are important risk factors for AKI. The surgery in itself, especially emergency and major surgery in the critically ill, is associated with a high incidence of AKI. Certain types of surgeries, such as cardiac and transplantation surgeries, require special attention because they carry higher risk of AKI. Nephrotoxic drugs, contrast dye, and diuretics are commonly used in the perioperative period and are responsible for a significant amount of in-hospital AKI. Before surgery, the anaesthetist is required to identify patients at risk of AKI, optimize anaemia, and treat hypovolaemia. During surgery, normovolaemia is of utmost importance. Additionally, the surgical and anaesthesia team is advised to use measures to reduce blood loss and avoid unnecessary blood transfusion. Hypotension should be avoided because even short periods of mean arterial pressure <55-60 mm Hg carry a risk of postoperative AKI. Higher blood pressures are probably required for hypertensive patients. Urine output can be reduced significantly during surgery and is unrelated to perioperative renal function. Thus, fluids should not be given in excess for the sole purpose of avoiding or treating oliguria. Use of hydroxyethyl starch needs to be reconsidered. Recent evidence indicates a beneficial effect of administering low-chloride solutions. PMID:26658199

  7. [Kidney donors and kidney transplantation in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Giessing, M; Conrad, S; Schönberger, B; Huland, H; Budde, K; Neumayer, H-H; Loening, S A

    2004-08-01

    The likelihood of terminal renal insufficiency escalates with age, increasing the risk of dying as a patient requiring dialysis. In 1999, Eurotransplant initiated the Eurotransplant Senior Programm (ESP), in which the kidneys of old donors (>64 years) are allocated to recipients 64 years and older. Allocation does not take HLA-matching into account and is performed regionally only according to blood-group-compatibility to keep the storage time short. As a consequence of the short ischemic time, and thus reduced non-immunological damage to the anyways susceptible old kidney, graft-function and graft-survival in the ESP are very good. The results of the initial 5 years of this program show that it successfully utilizes more kidneys from old donors and that more old recipients are being transplanted, with a satisfactory graft-function. Increased donor- and/or recipient age require a thorough evaluation to exclude malignant and other diseases. Furthermore, short term controls on the waiting list and following kidney transplantation are prerequisites for successful transplantation in the aged recipient. If this is guaranteed, kidney transplantation in the old recipient-even with old donor organs-is a good alternative to the morbidity of a prolonged dialysis. Nevertheless, the role of HLA-matching should be reconsidered to reduce rejections. PMID:15249962

  8. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    PubMed Central

    XUE, Junjie; YE, Niansong; YANG, Xin; WANG, Sheng; WANG, Jing; WANG, Yan; LI, Jingyu; MI, Congbo; LAI, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress. Results The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises) stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. Conclusions Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction. PMID:24626249

  9. The canine mast cell activation via CRP.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Sato, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Nobuo; Teshima, Reiko; Hanaoka, Kazuo; Kitani, Seiichi

    2003-01-31

    We report here canine mastocytoma-derived cell (CMMC) activation via two pentraxin, limulus- and human-CRP. Mast cell chemotaxis was measured by Boyden's blindwell chamber. To confirm that the cell migration was chemotactic, "checkerboard" analysis was performed. We used Fura-2 to investigate CRP-mediated cytosolic calcium elevation. To examine whether CRP-induced stimulation is mediated through G-proteins, CMMC were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTx) before use in chemotaxis assay and Ca(2+) mobilization. CMMC migration in response to CRP was both chemokinetic and chemotactic. Limulus-CRP induced a transient Ca(2+)-mobilization dose-dependently. Preincubation of the cells with PTx inhibited CRP chemotaxis and Ca(2+)-mobilization, suggesting that G-proteins of the Gi-class are involved in the chemotaxis. We suggest that CRP may participate in the migration of mast cells to inflamed tissues during an acute-phase response. CRP-mediated recruitment of mast cells might play an important role in hypersensitivity and inflammatory processes. PMID:12535664

  10. Viscoelastic characterization of in vitro canine tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Miklos Z; Varghese, Tomy; Hall, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical properties of biological tissues are of interest for assessing the performance of elastographic methods that evaluate the stiffness characteristics of tissue. The mechanical properties of interest include the frequency-dependent complex moduli, storage and loss moduli of tissues. Determination of the mechanical properties of biological tissues is often limited by proper geometry of the sample, as well as homogeneity of the stress–strain relationship. Measurements were performed on in vitro canine liver tissue specimens, over a frequency range from 0.1 to 400 Hz. Tests were conducted using an EnduraTEC ELF 3200, a dynamic testing system for determining the mechanical properties of materials. Both normal tissues and thermal lesions prepared by radio frequency ablation were tested. Experiments were conducted by uniaxially compressing tissue samples using Plexiglas platens larger than the specimens and measuring the load response. The resulting moduli spectra were then fit to a modified Kelvin–Voigt model, called the Kelvin–Voigt fractional derivative model. The data agree well with the model and in comparing the results from the normal tissue with that of the thermal lesions, the concept of a complex modulus contrast is introduced and its applications to elastography are discussed. PMID:15509061

  11. Secretory pattern of canine growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    French, M.B.; Vaitkus, P.; Cukerman, E.; Sirek, A.; Sirek, O.V.

    1987-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to define the secretory pattern of growth hormone (GH) under basal conditions in fasted, conscious, male dogs accustomed to handling. Blood samples were withdrawn from a cephalic vein at 15-min intervals. In this way, any ultradian rhythms, if present, could be detected within the frequency range of 0.042-2 cycles/h. In addition, samples were drawn at either 1- or 2.5-min intervals for 2.5 or 5 h to determine whether frequency components greater than 2 cycles/h were present. GH was measured by radioimmunoassay and the raw data were submitted to time series analysis employing power spectral estimation by means of fast Fourier transformation techniques. Peak plasma levels were up to 12 times higher than the baseline concentration of approx. 1 ng/ml. Spectral analysis revealed an endogenous frequency of 0.22 cycles/h, i.e., a periodicity of 4.5 h/cycle. The results indicate that under basal conditions the secretory bursts of canine GH are limited to one peak every 4.5 h.

  12. Treatment of canine hip dysplasia: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Remedios, A M; Fries, C L

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the treatment approaches and recommendations for canine hip dysplasia. A search of the literature database MEDLINE (1969-1994) was conducted and relevant journal articles regarding the medical and surgical treatment of hip dysplasia were selected and reviewed. Dysplastic dogs can be divided, for treatment purposes, into those with no or minimal osteoarthrosis, and those with moderate to severe osteoarthrosis. In young animals with joint laxity and pain, but with no or minimal radiographic evidence of osteoarthrosis, the treatment approach is controversial. Conservative management may be effective in the short term, but progressive development of osteoarthrosis occurs and clinical signs may manifest at an older age. Options for surgical treatments in these young dogs include pectineal myectomy, lengthening of the femoral neck, and corrective osteotomies. Corrective osteotomies are advocated to reestablish joint congruency and prevent development of osteoarthrosis. In the mature osteoarthritic dog, effective conservative management depends on the severity of the degenerative joint disease. Proposed surgical treatments for clinically debilitating hip dysplasia include biocompatible osteoconductive/shelf arthroplasty; femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty, with or without muscle sling interposition; and total hip replacement. Although research directly comparing the salvage procedures has not been reported, studies suggest that total hip replacement is more effective in returning large dogs to full functional weight bearing. Images Figure 6. PMID:7585437

  13. Salivary gland transplantation: a canine model.

    PubMed

    Eid, A; Nitzan, D W; Shiloni, E; Neuman, A; Marmary, Y

    1997-09-15

    Impaired salivary function with resultant severe dryness of the mouth, or xerostomia, may occur in association with a variety of systemic disorders or therapies. No adequate treatment exists for this debilitating condition, which impedes normal oral function, in particular alimentation and phonation. This study explores the feasibility of salivary gland autotransplantation, using a canine model. A salivary gland with its duct and surrounding blood vessels still attached was excised and reimplanted in the dog's thigh by anastomosing the graft's blood vessels to the femoral artery and vein. The duct was sutured to an artificial orifice cut in the thigh's skin, from which the saliva was collected. Salivary secretion was induced by a single intravenous bolus of pilocarpine (5 mg). Preoperative (normal) salivation was measured by collecting saliva from the gland in situ. Periodic functional studies showed normal saliva production during the first month after grafting, after which the salivary flow was reduced by 35% over the next 2 months. This reduction was interpreted as a sign of disuse atrophy resulting from the lack of autonomic innervation. To overcome this impediment, oral pilocarpine (5 mg/day) was administered to the recipient dog, after which normal levels of saliva were excreted through the graft during the 3-month follow-up period. The quality of the graft saliva was assessed by its protein and electrolyte levels, which showed close to normal values. PMID:9311702

  14. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  15. Canine echinococcosis: global epidemiology and genotypic diversity.

    PubMed

    Carmena, David; Cardona, Guillermo A

    2013-12-01

    Canine echinococcosis is a potential zoonotic infection caused by the adult form of several cestode species belonging to the genus Echinococcus, of which E. granulosus sensu lato and E. multilocularis are the most epidemiologically relevant. Dogs infected with E. granulosus and E. multilocularis are widely regarded as the main source of infection for human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, diseases that cause substantial morbidity and socio-economic burden in several regions of the world. Following our previous review on the global situation of cystic echinococcosis in livestock species (Cardona and Carmena. Vet. Parasitol. 2013;192:10-32), we summarize here current knowledge on the global epidemiology, geographical distribution and molecular diversity of Echinococcus spp. infection in dogs. We address relevant topics including the implications of the increasing urbanization of wildlife species such as foxes, coyotes, and dingoes in the establishment of urban cycles of Echinococcus spp., or the rising concerns regarding the role of unsupervised translocation of infected dogs in spreading the infection to Echinococcus-free areas. The involvement of wildlife species as natural reservoirs of disease to domestic animals and humans and the epidemiological significance of the sympatric occurrence of different Echinococcus species in the same geographical region are also debated. Data presented are expected to be useful for policy makers, educational and health authorities responsible for designing and implementing effective measures for disease control and prevention. PMID:23954494

  16. Canine coronavirus infection in Turkish dog population.

    PubMed

    YeÅŸilbaÄŸ, K; Yilmaz, Z; Torun, S; Pratelli, A

    2004-09-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is one of the most important viral agents affecting the gastrointestinal system of dogs. In this study virological and serological investigations were performed to demonstrate the existence and prevalence of CCoV infection in a Turkish dog population. A total of 269 animals were subjected to the study. Of 179 dogs tested for CCoV antibodies, 112 (62.5%) were found to be positive by serum neutralization test, while 133 (74.3%) were positive by ELISA. The highest prevalence (94.2%) was detected in kennel dogs. Detection of CCoV genome in faeces was performed in samples from 90 diarrhoeic puppies by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen (15.5%) faeces were positive for CCoV RNA, five of which were characterized as CCoV type I. The widespread CCoV infection in the Turkish dog population may be attributed as an important cause of viral diarrhoea in dogs. PMID:15525364

  17. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-05-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection. PMID:1313899

  18. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR. PMID:26403490

  19. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. PMID:25525144

  20. A clinically relevant canine lung cancer model

    SciTech Connect

    Benfield, J.R.; Shors, E.C.; Hammond, W.G.; Paladugu, R.R.; Cohen, A.H.; Jensen, T.; Fu, P.C.; Pak, H.Y.; Teplitz, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Research on early human lung cancer is difficult; we have sought a canine correlate. Regimens included endobronchial submucosal injections and topical focal applications of benzo(a)pyrene, nitrosomethylurea, dimethylbenzanthracene, and methylcholanthrene, singly or in combinations. Sustained-release discs were placed into lung parenchyma or sutured into major bronchi. Tracheal segments were isolated as cervical pedicle grafts. Gross and histological evolution was reproducible. Columnar and basal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia were early changes. Atypia occurred within 6 weeks and was found in all dogs within 16 to 18 weeks. Invasive cancers occurred within 8 to 65 months. No tracheal graft developed cancer. Of 15 dogs with parenchymal sustained-release implants, 1 to date has developed cancer in 8 months. Four endobronchial regimens have produced 16 cancers in 56 lungs at risk for 18 to 65 months. No cancers developed in 23 lungs at risk from eight other regimens. Of 10 dogs at risk for unilateral endobronchial cancer, 5 have had cancer. Of 23 dogs with both lungs at risk, 9 developed cancer. We have shown focal carcinogenesis with well-defined pathogenesis and an extended preneoplastic period at predictable sites in a lung cancer model.

  1. Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

  2. Comparative mapping of canine and human proximal Xq and genetic analysis of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Deschenes, S.M.; Puck, J.M.; Dutra, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Parallel genetic analysis of animal and human genetic diseases can facilitate the identification and characterization of the causative gene defects. For example, canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by clinical, pathological, and immunological manifestations similar to the most common form of human SCID. To derive a canine syntenic map including genes that in humans are located in proximal Xq, near human X-linked SCID, poly (TG) polymorphisms were identified at the canine phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and choroideremia (CHM) loci. These plus a polymorphic poly (CAG) sequence in exon 1 of the canine androgen receptor gene (AR) were used to genotype members of the colony informative for X-linked SCID. No recombinations among SCIDX1, AR, PGK, or CHM were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized PGK and CHM to proximal Xq in the dog, in the same chromosomal location occupied by the human genes. Somatic cell hybrid analysis and methylation differences at AR demonstrated that female dogs carrying X-linked SCID have the same lymphocyte-limited skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns as human carriers. These genetic and phenotypic findings provide evidence that mutations in the same gene, now identified as the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor, cause canine and human X-linked SCID. This approach is an efficient method for comparative gene mapping and disease identification. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Adult stem-like cells in kidney.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, Keiichi; Takase, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Taro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-26

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatment for kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivation of kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidney tissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lower vertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephrons after tubular damages is commonly observed after renal injury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitor cell or system is reportedly presents suggesting that adult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinical targets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclear if kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. In general, stemness is defined by several factors such as self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency and characteristic gene expression profiles. The definite use of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidney regeneration, and here we describe the recent broad findings of kidney regeneration and the cells that contribute regeneration. PMID:25815133

  4. Current Bioengineering Methods for Whole Kidney Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Kidney regeneration is likely to provide an inexhaustible source of tissues and organs for immunosuppression-free transplantation. It is currently garnering considerable attention and might replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, anatomical complications make kidney regeneration difficult. Here, we review recent advances in the field of kidney regeneration, including (i) the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells/embryonic stem cells into kidney cells; (ii) blastocyst decomplementation; (iii) use of a decellularized cadaveric scaffold; (iv) embryonic organ transplantation; and (v) use of a nephrogenic niche for growing xenoembryos for de novo kidney regeneration from stem cells. All these approaches represent potentially promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Although many obstacles to kidney regeneration remain, we hope that innovative strategies and reliable research will ultimately allow the restoration of renal function in patients with end-stage kidney disease. PMID:26089921

  5. The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Shwiff, S A

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the economic impacts of canine rabies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect costs of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, dog vaccination and control, rabies diagnostic testing and cattle mortality-related costs were accounted for. The number of human deaths was updated from previous estimates based on population growth, and the costs associated with the risk of human mortality were incorporated. We accounted for uncertainty associated with the parameter estimates using a Monte Carlo simulation and estimated that the global burden of canine rabies is approximately $124 billion annually. This result illustrates the potential benefits that could be realized if canine rabies was eliminated and provides an important benchmark against which the cost of any potential elimination campaign can be compared. PMID:24112194

  6. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Otávio Valério; Botelho, Clarisse Vieira; Ferreira, Caroline Gracielle Torres; Scherer, Paulo Oldemar; Soares-Martins, Jamária Adriana Pinheiro; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies. PMID:23193403

  7. Spinosad is a potent inhibitor of canine P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Schrickx, Johannes A

    2014-04-01

    Inhibition of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by the oral flea preventative spinosad has been suggested as the underlying cause of the drug-drug interaction with ivermectin. In this study, an in vitro model consisting of canine cells was validated to describe the inhibitory effect of drugs on canine P-gp. In this model, ivermectin, cyclosporin, verapamil, loperamide and ketoconazole inhibited P-gp function with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 3.7 ?mol/L. Spinosad was a potent inhibitor of canine P-gp with an IC50 value of 0.27 ?mol/L or 0.2 ?g/mL. The risk of spinosad causing P-gp related drug-drug interactions in the dog could be predicted by the IC50 value, the oral dosage and plasma concentrations. PMID:24582422

  8. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Le Poder, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV) will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses. PMID:22312347

  9. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  10. Mathematical models of canine right and left atria cardiomyocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ling; Gong, Ying-lan; Zhu, Xiu-wei; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qi; Zhang, Heng-gui

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to build two mathematical models of canine ionic currents specific to right atria and left atria. The canine left atria mathematical model was firstly modified from the Ramirez-Nattel-Courtemanche (RNC) model using the recently available experimental data of ionic currents and was further developed based on our own experimental data. A model of right atria was then built by considering the differences between right atria and left atria. The two developed models well reproduced the experimental data on action potential morphology, the rate dependence, and action potential duration restitution. They are useful for investigating the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of canine regional action potentials and would help the simulation of whole heart excitation propagation and cardiac arrhythmia in the near future. PMID:20506570

  11. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them. PMID:25936672

  12. Multidetector CT of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Coppenrath, E M; Mueller-Lisse, U G

    2006-11-01

    The technological development of multidetector CT offers new possibilities for better imaging of organic structures that can be used in diagnosis of the kidney. The thinner slices allow a better spatial resolution, and slice fusion allows improved contrast resolution. The isotropic voxel has been realized in the latest 64-channel scanners. The image quality of arbitrarily reconstructed planes has arrived at the image quality of the scan plane. Faster scanning allows studies in different contrast phases, which is helpful for better discrimination of benign or malignant lesions especially in the highly vascularized kidney. Different phases of contrast uptake can be differentiated (arterial, cortico-medullary, nephrographic, and excretory phase). Multidetector CT brings along the risk of increased dose due to thinner slice collimation and overranging phenomena. Indications for CT investigation of the kidney include urolithiasis, tumor diagnosis and staging, renal trauma, and vascular disease. Even in children, special indications for CT of the kidney remain in polytrauma and tumor staging. Multidetector CT of the kidney has become a very valuable tool in urology, but a careful protocol strategy is mandatory. PMID:16568265

  13. MicroRNA expression in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Boggs, R Michelle; Wright, Zachary M; Stickney, Mark J; Porter, Weston W; Murphy, Keith E

    2008-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-22-nt noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Oncomirs, a subclass of miRNAs, include genes whose expression, or lack thereof, are associated with cancers. Until the last decade, the domestic dog was an underused model for the study of various human diseases that have genetic components. The dog exhibits marked genetic and physiologic similarity to the human, thereby making it an excellent model for study and treatment of various hereditary diseases. Furthermore, because the dog presents with distinct, spontaneously occurring mammary tumors, it may serve as a model for genetic analysis and treatments of humans with malignant breast tumors. Because miRNAs have been found to act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes in several different cancers, expression patterns of ten miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, miR-181b, let-7f) known to be associated with human breast cancers were compared to malignant canine mammary tumors (n = 6) and normal canine mammary tissue (n = 10). Resulting data revealed miR-29b and miR-21 to have a statistically significant (p < 0.05 by MANOVA analysis) upregulation in cancerous samples. The ten canine miRNAs follow the same pattern of expression as in the human, except for miR-145 which does not show a difference in expression between the normal and cancerous canine samples. In addition, when analyzed according to specific cancer phenotypes, miR-15a and miR-16 show a significant downregulation in canine ductal carcinomas while miRsR-181b, -21, -29b, and let-7f show a significant upregulation in canine tubular papillary carcinomas. PMID:18665421

  14. Supernumerary Kidney With a Horseshoe Component☆

    PubMed Central

    Fathollahi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of supernumerary kidney consisting of 4 renal moieties and including a horseshoe kidney. A 40-year-old woman presented complaining of intermittent vague abdominal pain and heaviness for a few years. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract revealed 2 kidneys on the left side and horseshoe kidneys located distal to them. The right horseshoe kidney was of small size. Further imaging revealed 4 renal moieties. Three moieties were on the left side and the other was attached to the most distal moiety on the left, forming a horseshoe kidney.

  15. Diagnosis of canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): an overview.

    PubMed

    Harrus, Shimon; Waner, Trevor

    2011-03-01

    Canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, an important canine disease with a worldwide distribution. Diagnosis of the disease can be challenging due to its different phases and multiple clinical manifestations. CME should be suspected when a compatible history (living in or traveling to an endemic region, previous tick exposure), typical clinical signs and characteristic hematological and biochemical abnormalities are present. Traditional diagnostic techniques including hematology, cytology, serology and isolation are valuable diagnostic tools for CME, however a definitive diagnosis of E. canis infection requires molecular techniques. This article reviews the current literature covering the diagnosis of infection caused by E. canis. PMID:20226700

  16. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa J

    2011-11-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing. PMID:22041204

  17. Comprehensive characterization of commercially available canine training aids.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Christopher A; Caldwell, Patricia T; Kile, Brian M; Beussman, Douglas J; Rushing, Blake; Mitchell, Natalie J; Whitchurch, Christian J; Grime, Martin; Stockham, Rex; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    Effective and reliable training aids for victim recovery canine teams is essential for law enforcement and investigative purposes. Without adequate training aids, the rate of recovery for sub surface or surface human remains deposition using canine teams may be adversely affected and result in confusing information. The composition of three commercially available canine training aids that purportedly generate volatile components responsible for the odor of human decomposition is relatively simple and not closely related to those compounds experimentally determined to be present at the site of surface or sub-surface human remains. In this study, these different commercial formulations were chemically characterized using six different sampling approaches, including two applications of direct liquid injection, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), purge and trap, ambient preconcentration/thermal desorption, and cryogenic preconcentration/thermal desorption. Direct liquid injections resulted in the fewest number of detected compounds, while a cryogen based thermal desorption method detected the greatest number of compounds in each formulation. Based solely upon the direct liquid injection analysis, Pseudo™ Scent I was composed of approximately 29±4% and 71±5% of 2-pyrrolidinone and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. This same analysis showed that Pseudo™ Scent II was composed of approximately 11±1, 11±1, 24±5, and 54±7% of putrescine, cadaverine, 2-pyrrolidinone, and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. Headspace analysis was conducted to more closely simulate the process whereby a canine's nose would capture a volatiles profile. More compounds were detected using the headspace sampling method; however, the vast majority was not consistent with current data on human decomposition. Additionally, the three formulations were tested in outdoor and indoor scenarios by a double-blinded canine team, using a certified and specifically trained victim recovery canine with multiple confirmed recoveries, to determine if the formulations would be recognized by that canine as being related to human decomposition. The canine used in this study did not provide a positive response to any of the formulations tested in either test scenario. The implications for locating residual human decomposition odor in the absence of recoverable material are discussed in light of these data. PMID:25093917

  18. The diagnostic assessment of canine lymphoma: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Bienzle, Dorothee; Vernau, William

    2011-03-01

    Lymphoma in dogs is a heterogeneous cancer with highly variable prognosis. Many types of canine lymphoma have similar counterparts in the World Health Organization classification of human lymphoid tumors. The most common variant of canine lymphoma is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which, if treated with multiagent chemotherapy, has a survival time of approximately 12 months. T-cell lymphomas are more heterogeneous and high- and low-grade variants are common, which necessitates classification beyond B- versus T-cell lineage. PMID:21295720

  19. Puncture in the canine fossa: technique and pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Neves-Pinto, R M; Medrado, A C; da Silva, C A; Palis, W

    1982-03-01

    The authors describe in detail the technique they are employing for puncturing the canine fossa, for irrigation, sinuscopy and/or register of the antral pressures. Two trocars are introduced, one developed and the other modified by one of the authors (N.P.) A morbid entity named "glue-sinus" is commented. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed concluding that puncture in the canine fossa is a valid procedure and even more advantageous than the one in the nasal inferior meatus. PMID:7071468

  20. Computational analysis of kidney scintigrams

    SciTech Connect

    Vrincianu, D.; Puscasu, E.; Creanga, D.; Stefanescu, C.

    2013-11-13

    The scintigraphic investigation of normal and pathological kidneys was carried out using specialized gamma-camera device from nuclear medicine hospital department. Technetium 90m isotope with gamma radiation emission, coupled with vector molecules for kidney tissues was introduced into the subject body, its dynamics being recorded as data source for kidney clearance capacity. Two representative data series were investigated, corresponding to healthy and pathological organs respectively. The semi-quantitative tests applied for the comparison of the two distinct medical situations were: the shape of probability distribution histogram, the power spectrum, the auto-correlation function and the Lyapunov exponent. While power spectrum led to similar results in both cases, significant differences were revealed by means of distribution probability, Lyapunov exponent and correlation time, recommending these numerical tests as possible complementary tools in clinical diagnosis.

  1. Radiation-associated kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Laura A; Kavanagh, Brian D; Paulino, Arnold C; Das, Shiva K; Miften, Moyed; Li, X Allen; Pan, Charlie; Ten Haken, Randall K; Schultheiss, Timothy E

    2010-03-01

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients. PMID:20171504

  2. Radiation-Associated Kidney Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Laura A.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Das, Shiva K.; Miften, Moyed; Li, X. Allen; Pan, Charlie; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    2010-03-01

    The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs for radiotherapy to upper abdominal cancers and during total body irradiation. The incidence of radiotherapy-associated kidney injury is likely underreported owing to its long latency and because the toxicity is often attributed to more common causes of kidney injury. The pathophysiology of radiation injury is poorly understood. Its presentation can be acute and irreversible or subtle, with a gradual progressive dysfunction over years. A variety of dose and volume parameters have been associated with renal toxicity and are reviewed to provide treatment guidelines. The available predictive models are suboptimal and require validation. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients.

  3. Growing kidney in the frog.

    PubMed

    Chan, Techuan; Asashima, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of the regulation of kidney development has increased dramatically in the past decade. The pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros represent three distinct renal organs that function, in succession, as the vertebrate excretory system during development of the kidney. These three organ systems are derived from the intermediate mesoderm and develop in a well-defined temporal and spatial sequence. The pronephros, which consists of a tubule, duct and glomus, is established first and is the simplest of the excretory organs in vertebrates. Xenopus pronephros serves as an ideal model for investigating organogenesis and development of renal function in vertebrates. In this article, we highlight the advantages of Xenopus for analyzing kidney organogenesis and the latest research in pronephros development. PMID:16554664

  4. The exposome for kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  5. Computational analysis of kidney scintigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrincianu, D.; Puscasu, E.; Creanga, D.; Stefanescu, C.

    2013-11-01

    The scintigraphic investigation of normal and pathological kidneys was carried out using specialized gamma-camera device from nuclear medicine hospital department. Technetium 90m isotope with gamma radiation emission, coupled with vector molecules for kidney tissues was introduced into the subject body, its dynamics being recorded as data source for kidney clearance capacity. Two representative data series were investigated, corresponding to healthy and pathological organs respectively. The semi-quantitative tests applied for the comparison of the two distinct medical situations were: the shape of probability distribution histogram, the power spectrum, the auto-correlation function and the Lyapunov exponent. While power spectrum led to similar results in both cases, significant differences were revealed by means of distribution probability, Lyapunov exponent and correlation time, recommending these numerical tests as possible complementary tools in clinical diagnosis.

  6. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia and canine elbow dysplasia in Bernese mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and canine elbow dysplasia (CED) using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on dog chromosome (CFA) 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED. PMID:23189162

  7. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Canine Hip Dysplasia and Canine Elbow Dysplasia in Bernese Mountain Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and canine elbow dysplasia (CED) using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on dog chromosome (CFA) 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED. PMID:23189162

  8. Effect of Ayurvedic mercury preparation Makaradhwaja on geriatric canine--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sinyorita, S; Ghosh, C K; Chakrabarti, A; Auddy, B; Ghosh, Runa; Debnath, P K

    2011-07-01

    Makaradhwaja, an alchemical Ayurvedic mercury preparation is used as stimulant and vitalizer. Towards veterinary practices, the acceptability, tolerability and toxicity studies were undertaken in geriatric pet dogs aged more than 10 years irrespective of breed and sex for future use. Makaradhwaja (2.5 mg/kg) was used with honey once daily for 30 days. Before and after treatment, blood was collected for hematological studies as well as liver, kidney function and anti-oxidant activity. In control group, honey itself showed no appreciable change whereas, Makaradhwaja lowered neutrophil and total leucocyte count. Serum cholesterol, urea, glucose, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, sodium, phosphorus and calcium were decreased. Haemoglobin and serum creatinine were significantly increased. There was appreciable physical, behavioral and body weight change including quality of life. The dose was used in replication of human dose (125 mg/50 kg). Anti-oxidant study showed significant increase of lipid per oxidation in experimental group while the values of ABTS radical cation decolorisation assay although decreased but did not show any significant changes. Decrease of serum urea and increase of serum creatinine could not be explained on single dose response. Different dose study could only explain the optimum dose to be required in canine practices. PMID:21800504

  9. Evaluation of Osseous Integration of PVD-Silver-Coated Hip Prostheses in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Gregor; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Blaske, Franziska; Wehe, Christoph; Karst, Uwe; Höll, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (mega)prostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition-) silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb) and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses. PMID:25695057

  10. ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) expression in the normal canine pancreas and in canine insulinomas

    PubMed Central

    Donley, Vicky R; Hiskett, Erin K; Kidder, Aimee C; Schermerhorn, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background Pancreatic beta cells express ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels that are needed for normal insulin secretion and are targets for drugs that modulate insulin secretion. The KATP channel is composed of two subunits: a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR 1) and an inward rectifying potassium channel (Kir6.2). KATP channel activity is influenced by the metabolic state of the cell and initiates the ionic events that precede insulin exocytosis. Although drugs that target the KATP channel have the expected effects on insulin secretion in dogs, little is known about molecular aspects of this potassium channel. To learn more about canine beta cell KATP channels, we studied KATP channel expression by the normal canine pancreas and by insulin-secreting tumors of dogs. Results Pancreatic tissue from normal dogs and tumor tissue from three dogs with histologically-confirmed insulinomas was examined for expression of KATP channel subunits (SUR1 and Kir6.2) using RT-PCR. Normal canine pancreas expressed SUR1 and Kir6.2 subunits of the KATP channel. The partial nucleotide sequences for SUR1 and Kir6.2 obtained from the normal pancreas showed a high degree of homology to published sequences for other mammalian species. SUR1 and Kir6.2 expression was observed in each of the three canine insulinomas examined. Comparison of short sequences from insulinomas with those obtained from normal pancreas did not reveal any mutations in either SUR1 or Kir6.2 in any of the insulinomas. Conclusion Canine pancreatic KATP channels have the same subunit composition as those found in the endocrine pancreases of humans, rats, and mice, suggesting that the canine channel is regulated in a similar fashion as in other species. SUR1 and Kir6.2 expression was found in the three insulinomas examined indicating that unregulated insulin secretion by these tumors does not result from failure to express one or both KATP channel subunits. PMID:16266437

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Kidney Transport

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Anita T.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to metabolic waste and toxin excretion, the kidney also plays an indispensable role in regulating the balance of water, electrolytes, nitrogen, and acid-base. In this review, we describe representative mathematical models that have been developed to better understand kidney physiology and pathophysiology, including the regulation of glomerular filtration, the regulation of renal blood flow by means of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms and of the myogenic mechanism, the urine concentrating mechanism, epithelial transport, and regulation of renal oxygen transport. We discuss the extent to which these modeling efforts have expanded our understanding of renal function in both health and disease. PMID:23852667

  12. Infection and Pathogenesis of Canine, Equine, and Human Influenza Viruses in Canine Tracheas

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Gaelle; Marshall, John F.; Morrell, Joanna; Robb, David; McCauley, John W.; Perez, Daniel R.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can jump species barriers and occasionally cause epidemics, epizootics, pandemics, and panzootics. Characterizing the infection dynamics at the target tissues of natural hosts is central to understanding the mechanisms that control host range, tropism, and virulence. Canine influenza virus (CIV; H3N8) originated after the transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) into dogs. Thus, comparing CIV and EIV isolates provides an opportunity to study the determinants of influenza virus emergence. Here we characterize the replication of canine, equine, and human IAVs in the trachea of the dog, a species to which humans are heavily exposed. We define a phenotype of infection for CIV, which is characterized by high levels of virus replication and extensive tissue damage. CIV was compared to evolutionarily distinct EIVs, and the early EIV isolates showed an impaired ability to infect dog tracheas, while EIVs that circulated near the time of CIV emergence exhibited a CIV-like infection phenotype. Inoculating dog tracheas with various human IAVs (hIAVs) showed that they infected the tracheal epithelium with various efficiencies depending on the virus tested. Finally, we show that reassortant viruses carrying gene segments of CIV and hIAV are viable and that addition of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of CIV to the 2009 human pandemic virus results in a virus that replicates at high levels and causes significant lesions. This provides important insights into the role of evolution on viral emergence and on the role of HA and NA as determinants of pathogenicity. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have entered new host species in recent history, sometimes with devastating consequences. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 originated from a direct transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) in the early 2000s. We studied the infection patterns of IAVs that circulate in dogs or to which dogs are commonly exposed and showed that CIV emergence was likely caused by an adaptive driver, as evolutionarily distinct EIVs display distinct infection phenotypes. We also showed that many human viruses can infect dog tracheas and that reassortment with CIV results in viable viruses. Finally, we showed that the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of CIV act as virulence factors. Our findings have significant implications because they show that dogs might act as “mixing vessels” in which novel viruses with pandemic potential could emerge and also provide experimental evidence supporting the role of viral evolution in influenza virus emergence. PMID:24899186

  13. Survival of post-treatment canine-to-canine lingual retainers with fiber-reinforced composite resin: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Farronato, Davide; Briguglio, Roberto; Mangano, Francesco; Azzi, Lorenzo; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Briguglio, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of the study is to evaluate the long term results of ribbond retainer after orthodontic treatment. One hundred and thirty patients who were orthodontically treated satisfied the inclusion criteria of having received a semipermanent retention were treated with FRC lingual retainers (Ribbond ®). It was performed a follow up evaluation after 2 years average from the retainer application and any complication or failure was recorded. Data from 119 remaining patients that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and no instances of loosening were observed. It may be concluded that orthodontic canine-to-canine FRC retainers provide aneffective means of retaining realigned anterior teeth for at least two years. PMID:25506411

  14. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year to determine the correlation of fly CPV status (positive or negative) for each facility, facility design (open or closed), mean number of dogs present monthly and number of flies captured. Significant differences occurred between fly CPV positive vs. negative sites with regard to their CPV case numbers, fly numbers captured, and number of dogs present. At the ASL, a statistically significant relationship was found between PCR-determined fly CPV status (positive or negative) and facility design (open vs. closed). Open-facility designs were likely to have more CPV outbreaks and more likely to have flies testing positive for CPV DNA. PMID:24679715

  15. Canine Babesioses in Noninvestigated Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Simona; Otaševi?, Suzana; Ignjatovi?, Aleksandra; Savi?, Sara; Fraulo, Maurizio; Arsi?-Arsenijevi?, Valentina; Mom?ilovi?, Stefan; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    During the years 2012-2014, a total of 158 outdoor dogs from Pan?evo and ?ur?evo (northern Serbia) and Niš and Prokuplje (southern Serbia) were submitted to molecular analyses (PCR and sequencing) for canine babesioses. An overall prevalence of 21.5% was found, due to the species Babesia sp. 'spanish dog' (10.1%), B. gibsoni (5.7%), B. canis vogeli (1.9%), B. caballi (1.9%), and B. microti (1.9%). In addition, sequence analysis showed the presence of Hepatozoon canis in a dog from Niš. No significant difference between infected and noninfected dogs was found by age, sex, and place of residence, whereas there was difference regarding the presence of ticks (p<0.005) and application of preventive measures such as applying of antitick drugs/devices. Moreover, a significant difference was established by area: Dogs from Prokuplje showed infection rates (59.1%) higher than dogs from Pan?evo (11.9%), Niš (4.5), and ?ur?evo (where infected dogs were not found), and a different geographical distribution of the species was found. The presence of so many Babesia species and the first identification of H. canis will allow investigations on the pathogenic role played by each one and suggests entomological studies on the tick species that are more suitable vectors for each of them. Finally, the presence of so many infected dogs offers the opportunity of evaluating the hypothesis of a possible zoonotic role of babesial species affecting dogs. PMID:26348245

  16. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  17. Myogenic potential of canine craniofacial satellite cells.

    PubMed

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  18. Gastrin receptors on isolated canine parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soll, A.H.; Amirian, D.A.; Thomas, L.P.; Reedy, T.J.; Elashoff, J.D.

    1984-05-01

    The receptors in the fundic mucosa that mediate gastrin stimulation of acid secretion have been studied. Synthetic human gastrin-17-I (G17) with a leucine substitution in the 15th position ((Leu15)-G17) was iodinated by chloramine T; high saturable binding was found to enzyme-dispersed canine fundic mucosal cells. /sup 127/I-(Leu15)-G17, but not /sup 127/I-G17, retained binding potency and biological activity comparable with uniodinated G17. Fundic mucosal cells were separated by size by using an elutriator rotor, and specific /sup 125/I-(Leu-15)-G17 binding in the larger cell fractions was highly correlated with the distribution of parietal cells. There was, however, specific gastrin binding in the small cell fractions, not accounted for by parietal cells. Using sequential elutriation and stepwise density gradients, highly enriched parietal and chief cell fractions were prepared; /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding correlated positively with the parietal cell (r . 0.98) and negatively with chief cell content (r . -0.96). In fractions enriched to 45-65% parietal cells, specific /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding was rapid, reaching a steady state at 37 degrees C within 30 min. Dissociation was also rapid, with the rate similar after 100-fold dilution or dilution plus excess pentagastrin. At a tracer concentration from 10 to 30 pM, saturable binding was 7.8 +/- 0.8% per 10(6) cells (mean +/- SE) and binding in the presence of excess pentagastrin accounted for 11% of total binding. G17 and carboxyl terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (26-33) were equipotent in displacing tracer binding and in stimulating parietal cell function ((/sup 14/C)aminopyrine accumulation), whereas the tetrapeptide of gastrin (14-17) had a much lower potency. Proglumide inhibited gastrin binding and selectively inhibited gastrin stimulation of parietal cell function.

  19. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  20. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article Body ​Kidney stones are hard ... age, even in premature infants , most occur in teens , with teen girls having the highest incidence. Types ...

  1. Heartburn Meds Linked to Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156632.html Heartburn Meds Linked to Chronic Kidney Disease While study can't ... heartburn medication called proton pump inhibitors may be linked to long-term kidney damage, a new study ...

  2. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fund National Kidney Foundation American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy Page Content On ...

  3. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... to suppress your immune system. Newer approaches to immunotherapy Cytokines can also be used as part of ...

  4. Opdivo Approved for Advanced Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_155894.html Opdivo Approved for Advanced Kidney Cancer More than 14,000 projected to die ... renal cell carcinoma, the most common type of kidney cancer. The drug targets proteins that would otherwise ...

  5. Autophagy in Kidney Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhibo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Autophagy is emerging as an important pathway in many biological processes and diseases. This review summarizes the current progress on the role of autophagy in renal physiology and pathology. Recent Advances: Studies from renal cells in culture, human kidney tissues, and experimental animal models implicate that autophagy regulates many critical aspects of normal and disease conditions in the kidney, such as diabetic nephropathy and other glomerular diseases, tubular injuries, kidney development and aging, cancer, and genetic diseases associated with the kidney. Critical Issues: The importance of autophagy in the kidney has just started to be elucidated. How the process of autophagy is altered in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases and how this alteration is beneficial or detrimental to kidney functions still need to be fully understood. Future Directions: Investigations that uncover the precise mechanism and regulation of autophagy in various kidney diseases may lead to new strategies for therapeutic modulation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 519–537. PMID:23642034

  6. Kidney Transplant 'Tourism' Comes with Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155565.html Kidney Transplant 'Tourism' Comes With Risks: Study Infections, complications, ... people languish on a wait-list for a kidney transplant, they may start to consider a desperate ...

  7. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Peritoneal Dialysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share External Link Disclaimer Kidney Disease Peritoneal Dialysis Alternate Versions ​ Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Peritoneal Dialysis ( ... or in your home life. Accepting this new reality can be very hard on you and your ...

  8. Simple tests for rapid detection of canine parvovirus antigen and canine parvovirus-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Marulappa, Shashidhara Y; Kapil, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the number one viral cause of enteritis, morbidity, and mortality in 8-week-old young puppies. We have developed twin assays (slide agglutination test [SAT] for CPV antigen and slide inhibition test [SIT] for CPV antibody) that are sensitive, specific, cost-effective, generic for all genotypes of CPV, and provide instant results for CPV antigen detection in feces and antibody quantification in serum. We found these assays to be useful for routine applications in kennels with large numbers of puppies at risk. The results of these assays are available in 1 min and do not require any special instrumentation. SAT-SIT technology will find applications in rapid screening of samples for other hemagglutinating emerging viruses of animals and humans (influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus). PMID:18987166

  9. Simple Tests for Rapid Detection of Canine Parvovirus Antigen and Canine Parvovirus-Specific Antibodies▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Marulappa, Shashidhara Y.; Kapil, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the number one viral cause of enteritis, morbidity, and mortality in 8-week-old young puppies. We have developed twin assays (slide agglutination test [SAT] for CPV antigen and slide inhibition test [SIT] for CPV antibody) that are sensitive, specific, cost-effective, generic for all genotypes of CPV, and provide instant results for CPV antigen detection in feces and antibody quantification in serum. We found these assays to be useful for routine applications in kennels with large numbers of puppies at risk. The results of these assays are available in 1 min and do not require any special instrumentation. SAT-SIT technology will find applications in rapid screening of samples for other hemagglutinating emerging viruses of animals and humans (influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus). PMID:18987166

  10. What I Need to Know about Living with Kidney Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Kidney Fund Life Options National Kidney Foundation Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... What I need to know about Living with Kidney Failure Page Content On this page: What is ...

  11. Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Cancer Research Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Key Points Childhood kidney tumors are diseases ...

  13. Metabolic Syndrome after Kidney Transplantation - Are You at Risk?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  14. General Information about Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Cancer Research Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Key Points Childhood kidney tumors are diseases ...

  15. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  16. Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Tips for Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  17. Do You Have Symptoms of a Kidney Stone?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: REN-related kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kidneys become less able to filter fluids and waste products from the body, resulting in kidney failure. ... related kidney disease typically require dialysis (to remove wastes from the blood) or a kidney transplant between ...

  19. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species. PMID:23805791

  20. Canine coronavirus-associated puppy mortality without evidence of concurrent canine parvovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Evermann, J F; Abbott, J R; Han, S

    2005-11-01

    This report presents 2 cases in which puppy fatalities were associated with canine coronavirus (CCV), but no evidence of concurrent canine parvovirus (CPV-2) disease was observed. Case 1 involved a 7-week-old, male short-haired Chihuahua, which had become lethargic 24 hours after purchase from a pet store. Within 72 hours, the puppy began to vomit, had diarrhea, and was admitted to the veterinary clinic, where it was placed on IV fluids. The parvovirus Cite test was negative. The puppy died within 12 hours of admission and was submitted for diagnostic workup. Gross pathology revealed an enteritis suggestive of CPV-2. Histopathology on intestines showed scattered dilated crypts with necrotic cellular debris and neutrophils. There was moderate depletion and necrosis of lymphoid follicles. Electron microscopy (EM) on intestinal contents was positive for coronavirus and negative for parvovirus. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) on gut sections was positive for CCV and negative for CPV-2. Case 2 was an 8-week-old, male Shih Tzu, which was admitted to the veterinary clinic exhibiting symptoms of severe gastroenteritis with abdominal pain. The referring veterinarian euthanized the puppy, and the entire body was submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Necropsy revealed a severe ileo-cecal intussusception and segmental necrotic enteritis of the small intestine. Electron microscopy of the intestinal contents was positive for coronavirus and negative for parvovirus. Immunohistochemistry on sections of affected gut were positive for CCV and negative for CPV-2. These cases emphasize the importance of pursuing a diagnosis of CCV in young puppies when CPV-2 disease has been ruled out by IHC. PMID:16475526

  1. Bacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease of salmonid fish that impacts sustainable production for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in juvenile salmonids and prespawning a...

  2. Flu Season and Your Kidneys

    MedlinePLUS

    ... counter medications, you should always drink plenty of water and stay well hydrated. If you take anti-histamines or decongestants, you should avoid ... 04/02/2016 - 10:00am Buffalo, NY Your Kidneys and You at The Community ...

  3. Vitamin D and the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Tebben, Peter J.; Thompson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The kidney is essential for the maintenance of normal calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Calcium and inorganic phosphorus are filtered at the glomerulus, and are reabsorbed from tubular segments by transporters and channels which are regulated by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin (1?,25(OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). The kidney is the major site of the synthesis of 1?,25(OH)2D under physiologic conditions, and is one of the sites of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) synthesis. The activity of the 25(OH)D-1?-hydroxylase, the mixed function oxidase responsible for the synthesis of 1?,25(OH)2D, is regulated by PTH, 1?,25(OH)2D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), inorganic phosphorus and other growth factors. Additionally, the vitamin D receptor which binds to, and mediates the activity of 1?,25(OH)2D, is widely distributed in the kidney. Thus, the kidney by regulating multiple transport and synthetic processes is indispensible in the maintenance of mineral homeostasis in physiological states. PMID:22426203

  4. Possible mechanisms of kidney repair

    PubMed Central

    Romagnani, Paola; Kalluri, Raghu

    2009-01-01

    In most adult epithelia the process of replacing damaged or dead cells is maintained through the presence of stem/progenitor cells, which allow epithelial tissues to be repaired following injury. Existing evidence strongly supports the presence of stem cells in the adult kidney. Indeed, recent findings provide evidence in favour of a role for intrinsic renal cells and against a physiological role for bone marrow-derived stem cells in the regeneration of renal epithelial cells. In addition, recent studies have identified a subset of CD24+CD133+ renal progenitors within the Bowman's capsule of adult human kidney, which provides regenerative potential for injured renal epithelial cells. Intriguingly, CD24+CD133+ renal progenitors also represent common progenitors of tubular cells and podocytes during renal development. Chronic injury causes dysfunction of the tubular epithelial cells, which triggers the release of fibrogenic cytokines and recruitment of inflammatory cells to injured kidneys. The rapid interposition of scar tissue probably confers a survival advantage by preventing infectious microorganisms from invading the wound, but prevents subsequent tissue regeneration. However, the existence of renal epithelial progenitors in the kidney suggests a possible explanation for the regression of renal lesions which has been observed in experimental animals and even in humans. Thus, manipulation of the wound repair process in order to shift it towards regeneration will probably require the ability to slow the rapid fibrotic response so that renal progenitor cells can allow tissue regeneration rather than scar formation. PMID:19558670

  5. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about one in every 10 adults in the United States. Most people with CKD also have diabetes, high blood pressure, or both. Other risk factors for CKD are older age, obesity, and a family history of kidney failure. Most people with CKD have ...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Canine Papillomavirus Type 16

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Michelle; Britton, Monica; Fass, Joseph; Rowland, Peter; Orr, Carolyn; Schlegel, Richard; Yuan, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic, circular, double-stranded DNA viruses within the family Papillomaviridae that are associated with benign and malignant tumors in humans and animals. We report the complete genome sequence of canine papillomavirus type 16 identified within multiple pigmented cutaneous plaques and squamous cell carcinoma from an intact female Basenji dog. PMID:25953189

  7. The Human-Canine Bond: Closer than Family Ties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sandra B.; Barker, Randolph T.

    1988-01-01

    Used Family Life Space Diagram to compare relationship between human family members with the human-canine relationship. Subjects were 29 dog enthusiasts, 66 typical pet owners, and 27 elementary school students with dogs. Results suggest that individuals may perceive their relationship with their pet dog as being as close as their relationship…

  8. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…

  9. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population.

    PubMed

    Noman, Anila Virani; Wong, Ferranti; Pawar, Ravikiran Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM) which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. This case report is of a 15-year-old Somalian born boy, who presented at the dental institute with intermittent pain in his lower right permanent canine which was associated with a discharging intra oral buccal sinus. The tooth was endodontically treated and then restored with composite. General dental practitioners need to be vigilant when encountered with tooth presenting unusual morphology, unilateral missing tooth, and shift in the midline due to early loss of deciduous/permanent canines. Identification of any such dental mutilation practice will need further counselling of the individual and family members. It is the duty of every dental professional to educate and safeguard the oral and dental health of general public. PMID:26266057

  10. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  11. [Canine onychomycosis produced by Microsporum gypseum. A case report].

    PubMed

    Andrino, Marta; Blanco, José Luis; Durán, Consuelo; Fernández-Barredo, Salceda; Cruzado, Mar; García, Marta E

    2003-12-01

    One case of severe canine onychomycosis is described. The aetiological agent was identified as Microsporum gypseum. The incidence of this fungus in this kind of pathology is discussed, with special attention to the successful treatment with topic enilconazole and systemic griseofulvin. PMID:15456357

  12. Canine osteosarcoma: a naturally occurring disease to inform pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Fenger, Joelle M; London, Cheryl A; Kisseberth, William C

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common form of malignant bone cancer in children and dogs, although the disease occurs in dogs approximately 10 times more frequently than in people. Multidrug chemotherapy and aggressive surgical techniques have improved survival; however, new therapies for OSA are critical, as little improvement in survival times has been achieved in either dogs or people over the past 15 years, even with significant efforts directed at the incorporation of novel therapeutic approaches. Both clinical and molecular evidence suggests that human and canine OSA share many key features, including tumor location, presence of microscopic metastatic disease at diagnosis, development of chemotherapy-resistant metastases, and altered expression/activation of several proteins (e.g. Met, ezrin, phosphatase and tensin homolog, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), and p53 mutations, among others. Additionally, canine and pediatric OSA exhibit overlapping transcriptional profiles and shared DNA copy number aberrations, supporting the notion that these diseases are similar at the molecular level. This review will discuss the similarities between pediatric and canine OSA with regard to histology, biologic behavior, and molecular genetic alterations that indicate canine OSA is a relevant, spontaneous, large animal model of the pediatric disease and outline how the study of naturally occurring OSA in dogs will offer additional insights into the biology and future treatment of this disease in both children and dogs. PMID:24936031

  13. Canine versus human epilepsy: are we up to date?

    PubMed

    Uriarte, A; Maestro Saiz, I

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we analyse and compare features of canine and human epilepsy and we suggest new tools for better future understanding of canine epilepsy. The prevalence of epileptic seizures in dogs ranges between 0.5% and 5.7% and between 1% and 3% in the human population. Studies on human epilepsy provide a ready-made format for classification, diagnosis and treatment in veterinary epilepsy. Human studies highlight the value of a thorough seizure classification. Nevertheless, a matter of concern in canine epilepsy is the limited information regarding seizure description and classification because of the lack of EEG-video recording. Establishment of a consensus protocol for ambulatory home video-recording in dogs who suffer from epilepsy, mainly considering indications, duration of monitoring, the sufficient essential training for an optimal interpretation of ictal semiology and the methodology of recordings is needed. The ultimate goal is that the information gathered by these videos will be analysed to describe the epileptic seizures thoroughly, recognize patterns and move towards a better understanding and therefore classification of canine epileptic seizures. PMID:26931499

  14. Retrospective Evaluation of Canine Dermatitis Secondary to Corynebacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Boynosky, Nicole Ann; Stokking, Laura B

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium species are considered nonpathogenic in canine dermatitis; however, potential clinical significance has been demonstrated in canine otitis externa and from a dog bite wound in a human. Objectives of this study were to identify the predominant Corynebacterium species present in lesions of canine dermatitis, assess pathogenic role, determine antimicrobial susceptibility, and evaluate clinical response. Of 37 isolates identified as Corynebacterium, 31 were Corynebacterium auriscanis . Most Corynebacterium isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (97%), tetracyclines (92%), and amikacin (89%); isolate susceptibilities to β-lactams, trimethoprim-sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones were <50%. Most cultures grew mixed populations of bacteria; C. auriscanis was the only organism isolated in three patients. At recheck, 2-8 wk after initial presentation, pleomorphic rods were absent or significantly decreased in all patients. Two of three C. auriscanis isolates were obtained in pure culture and were evaluable, meaning patient had an initial exam and recheck examination. Both patients were already on antimicrobials to which C. auriscanis was resistant in vitro. Both improved after doxycycline administration. C. auriscanis may act as an opportunistic pathogen in canine dermatitis and may not respond to antimicrobial therapy based on susceptibilities for other organisms in mixed infections. Occasionally, Corynebacterium isolated alone may be pathogenic. PMID:26535455

  15. Expression of cytokeratins in the epithelium of canine odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Nemec, A; Vapniarsky, N; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-11-01

    Odontogenic tumours are considered to be relatively rare; however, several histologically distinct types have been identified in dogs. The more common canine odontogenic tumours are peripheral odontogenic fibroma and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) has been established for the human dental germ and odontogenic tumours. The aim of the present study was to describe the immunohistochemical expression of a panel of CKs in the epithelium of the canine dental germ, normal gingiva and odontogenic tumours arising in this species. Samples from 20 odontogenic tumours, 12 tooth germs and three normal gingival tissues were obtained. Each sample was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and subjected to immunohistochemistry for CK expression. The typical expression pattern of CKs in the odontogenic epithelium and gingiva of dogs was CK14 and CK5/6. CKs 7, 8, 18 and 20 were generally absent from the canine dental germ, gingiva and odontogenic tumours. Dogs and man therefore exhibit similar CK expression in the odontogenic epithelium. PMID:21511272

  16. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus...

  17. The first reported cases of canine schistosomiasis mekongi in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Muth, Sinuon; Socheat, Duong; Matsuda, Hajime

    2002-09-01

    We have been conducting surveys of schistosomiasis mekongi along the Mekong river in Cambodia since 1997. We attempted to detect canine schistosome infection during the survey in 2000 because dogs were reported to be natural reservoirs of the Mekong schistosome in Lao PDR. A total of 28 canine fecal samples were collected in Kbal Chuor village, Kratie Province and examined for schistosome eggs. One specimen had schistosome eggs (positive rate = 3.6%; egg density = 100/gram stool), which showed characteristics of Schistosoma mekongi. During the 2001 survey, one out of 310 canine stool samples was positive for schistosome eggs (positive rate = 0.32%; egg density = 3,456/gram stool). These are the first confirmed cases of canine schistosomiasis mekongi in Cambodia, which suggests that dogs are animal reservoirs of S. mekongi in the survey area. We further tried to detect S. mekongi in cows, water buffalos, pigs,horses, and field rats in five villages in Kratie Province; no schistosome egg was found in the stools of these animals. PMID:12693576

  18. Selection against canine hip dysplasia: success or failure?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bethany; Nicholas, Frank W; Thomson, Peter C

    2011-08-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a multifactorial skeletal disorder which is very common in pedigree dogs and represents a huge concern for canine welfare. Control schemes based on selective breeding have been in operation for decades. The aim of these schemes is to reduce the impact of CHD on canine welfare by selecting for reduced radiographic evidence of CHD pathology as assessed by a variety of phenotypes. There is less information regarding the genotypic correlation between these phenotypes and the impact of CHD on canine welfare. Although the phenotypes chosen as the basis for these control schemes have displayed heritable phenotypic variation in many studies, success in achieving improvement in the phenotypes has been mixed. There is significant room for improvement in the current schemes through the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs), which can combine a dog's CHD phenotype with CHD phenotypes of relatives, other phenotypes as they are proven to be genetically correlated with CHD (especially elbow dysplasia phenotypes), and information from genetic tests for population-relevant DNA markers, as such tests become available. Additionally, breed clubs should be encouraged and assisted to formulate rational, evidenced-based breeding recommendations for CHD which suit their individual circumstances and dynamically to adjust the breeding recommendations based on continuous tracking of CHD genetic trends. These improvements can assist in safely and effectively reducing the impact of CHD on pedigree dog welfare. PMID:21727013

  19. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…

  20. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  1. Successful experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. Twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. Altered feces were most frequent on postexposure day 11. Seven dogs passed frank blood in their stools on one or more occasions and seven dogs vomited sporadically. Pyrexia was noted in 71.6% of the dogs on postexposure day 6 and lymphopenia was detected on postexposure day 5 or 6 in 50% of the dogs monitored. In contrast, four dogs not starved at the time of challenge remained free of gastrointestinal signs apart from one dog which passed a soft stool with scant mucus on one day, postexposure day 6. Also four dogs vaccinated with a killed canine parvovirus-2 vaccine preparation and subsequently starved at the time of challenge, remained clinically healthy. Apart from these last mentioned four dogs, all others shed canine parvovirus-2 in their feces following challenge. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6280819

  2. Immunohistochemical vascular factor expression in canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Peña, L; Gil, A González; Martín-Ruiz, A; Dunner, S; Illera, J C

    2014-07-01

    Human inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) and canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) are considered the most malignant types of breast cancer. IMC has similar characteristics to IBC; hence, IMC has been suggested as a model to study the human disease. To compare the angiogenic and angioinvasive features of IMC with non-IMC, 3 canine mammary tumor xenograft models in female SCID mice were developed: IMC, comedocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma. Histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of both primary canine tumors and xenografts using cellular markers pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and ?-smooth muscle actin and vascular factors (VEGF-A, VEGF-D, VEGFR-3, and COX-2) was performed. Tumor cell proliferation index was measured by the Ki-67 marker. The xenograft models reproduced histological features found in the primary canine tumor and preserved the original immunophenotype. IMC xenografts showed a high invasive character with tumor emboli in the dermis, edema, and occasional observations of ulceration. In addition, compared with osteosarcoma and comedocarcinoma, the IMC model showed the highest vascular factor expression associated with a high proliferation index. Likewise, IMC xenografts showed higher COX-2 expression associated with VEGF-D and VEGFR-3, as well as a higher presence of dermal lymphatic tumor emboli, suggesting COX-2 participation in IMC lymphangiogenesis. These results provide additional evidence to consider vascular factors, their receptors, and COX-2 as therapeutic targets for IBC. PMID:24048323

  3. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine inner and middle ear.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marco; Covelli, Eugenio M; Meomartino, Leonardo; Lamb, Christopher R; Brunetti, Arturo

    2002-01-01

    A series of high-resolution computed x-ray tomography (CT) images of the normal canine middle and inner ear are presented to serve as a reference for optimal interpretation of clinical CT images of animals with diseases affecting this region. PMID:11866039

  4. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric studies of canine urinary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Zhang, C H; Kosugi, C; Matsumoto, I

    1995-04-01

    After the urine was treated with urease, lyophilized, and trimethylsilylated, it was examined for metabolic profiles in Dalmatian dogs and Shetland sheepdogs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which simultaneously analyzes organic acids, amino acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, purine and pyrimidine bases, and nucleosides. The profiles were compared with those from human specimens. As clarified in past studies, Dalmatian dogs showed an extreme decrease in allantoin, which is the final product of purine metabolism in the canine of other species, and a marked detection of uric acid peak. This finding suggests that purine metabolism in Dalmatian dogs is different from that in the other species. Only two Shetland sheepdogs, whose mother had chronic renal failure, showed a marked excretion of uric acid, as in Dalmatian dogs. In addition, some Dalmatian dogs, who were maintained on a protein-restricted diet, showed a little excretion of uric acid. A large amount of uric acid is detected in combination with pentose-monosaccharides, hexose-monosaccharides and sugar alcohols in neonatal human urine in comparison with the present dog samples. A marked difference between the canine and the humans is that phenylacetylglycine, which is derived from the aromatic amino acid phenylalanine, is excreted in the canine urine. Phenylacetylglycine is not detected in the human urine, and there have been no reports of its excretion in canine urine. PMID:7492634

  5. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Anila Virani; Wong, Ferranti; Pawar, Ravikiran Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM) which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. This case report is of a 15-year-old Somalian born boy, who presented at the dental institute with intermittent pain in his lower right permanent canine which was associated with a discharging intra oral buccal sinus. The tooth was endodontically treated and then restored with composite. General dental practitioners need to be vigilant when encountered with tooth presenting unusual morphology, unilateral missing tooth, and shift in the midline due to early loss of deciduous/permanent canines. Identification of any such dental mutilation practice will need further counselling of the individual and family members. It is the duty of every dental professional to educate and safeguard the oral and dental health of general public. PMID:26266057

  6. Efficient generation of canine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Isotani, Mayu; Katsuma, Kensuke; Tamura, Kyoichi; Yamada, Misato; Yagihara, Hiroko; Azakami, Daigo; Ono, Kenichiro; Washizu, Tsukimi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    Because of their unsurpassed potency in presenting antigens to naive T cells, dendritic cells are considered to be an important candidate in the development of immunotherapeutic strategies. Despite the high potential of dendritic cell-based immunotherapy, as a so-called dendritic cell vaccination, few clinical approaches using dendritic cell vaccination have been performed in the dog because of very limited information regarding the generation of canine dendritic cells and their functional properties. We therefore established a protocol for the efficient generation of dendritic cells from canine bone marrow cells using recombinant feline granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and canine interleukin-4. Dendritic cells were generated efficiently: a yield of 1-9 x 10(6) cells per approximately 0.5 ml of canine bone marrow aspiration was achieved. These dendritic cells showed features shared with mouse and human dendritic cells: dendrite morphology, expression of surface markers MHC class II and CD11c, and up-regulation of molecules related to antigen presentation (MHC class II, B7-1, and B7-2) by activation with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, the dendritic cells demonstrated phagocytic activity, processing activity of pinocytosed proteins, and activation of allogeneic T cells far more potent than that by macrophages. Our findings suggest that the bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are functional for the capturing and processing of antigens and the initiation of T cell responses. PMID:16953080

  7. Differential expression of CD45 isoforms in canine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Hiyoshi; Tamamoto, Takashi; Mizutani, Noriyuki; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2014-07-15

    CD45 is one of the most abundant molecules expressed on the white blood cell surface in various mammals. In this study, we investigated the differential expression of CD45 isoforms in normal canine white blood cells. It has been shown that all canine nucleated blood cells express CD45. We characterized two major isoforms of canine CD45 derived from alternative splicing: a higher molecular weight isoform, CD45RA, and a lower molecular weight isoform, CD45RO. The nucleotide sequences of the two isoforms were identical, except for the region corresponding to a part in the extracellular domain. Flow cytometry analysis using an antibody that recognizes CD45RA, but not CD45RO, revealed that granulocytes did not express CD45RA, and monocytes express low levels of CD45RA. We further analyzed the expression levels of CD45RA in each lymphocyte subpopulation and found that the expression of CD45RA on CD21+ B cells was uniform. On the other hand, expression of CD45RA on CD3+ T cells was variable. Upon stimulation of lymphocytes with Con A, the CD45RA+ fraction increased, indicating that not only the phenotypes but also the activation status influences the isoform expression pattern of CD45. Our finding provides a basic knowledge of the expression of canine CD45, which could be a tool to study lymphocytes with various phenotypes, developmental stages, and activation status. PMID:24794330

  8. Evaluation of canines for accelerant detection at fire scenes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, M E; Billard, M; Rettig, M; Augustiniak, J; Lange, J; Larsen, M; Warrick, R; Mohns, T; Bora, R; Broadus, K

    1994-11-01

    In recent years, canines have been successfully used in fire investigations to detect accelerant residues. We set out to determine the lower limits at which canines could reliably detect potential accelerants. Measured amounts ranging from 10 to as little as 0.01 microL of gasoline, kerosene, and isopars were applied to preselected spots along a continuous sample path (25 to 40 feet long) made out of burned and unburned wood or nylon carpeting strips at the testing site. Two canines were led past this sample path at least three times and positive alerts and negative responses were recorded. Both dogs were generally able to alert on spots containing 0.01 microL or more of all three accelerants, at or beyond the purge and trap recovery and gas chromatographic detection method employed. The canines did alert occasionally on background, especially that containing traces of styrene residues, either purposely added in specific amounts or formed upon partial pyrolysis of carpeting material. The dogs alerted on sites containing 0.1 to 1.0 microL of freshly applied gasoline or kerosene placed at actual heavily damaged fire scenes, but were less successful on samples containing smaller amounts. PMID:7815032

  9. HIV and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmania, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 – 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune complex disease is the second most common diagnosis obtained from biopsies of patients with HIV-CKD. CKD is mediated by factors related to the virus, host genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The host response to HIV infection may influence disease phenotype through activation of cytokine pathways. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there has been a decline in the incidence of HIVAN, with an increasing prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overall improvement in kidney function when initiating ART for HIV CKD. Progression to end stage kidney disease has been reported to be more likely when high grade proteinuria, severely reduced eGFR, hepatitis B and/C co-infection, diabetes mellitus, extensive glomerulosclerosis, and chronic interstitial fibrosis are present. Improved renal survival is associated with use of renin angiotensin system blockers and viral suppression. Many antiretroviral medications are partially or completely eliminated by the kidney and require dose adjustment in CKD. Certain drug classes, such as the protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, are metabolized by the liver and do not require dose adjustment. HIV-infected patients requiring either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis, who are stable on ART, are achieving survival rates comparable to those of dialysis patients without HIV infection. Kidney transplantation has been performed successfully in HIV-infected patients; graft and patient survival appears to be similar to that of HIV-uninfected recipients. Early detection of kidney disease by implementation of screening on diagnosis of HIV infection and annual screening thereafter will have an impact on the burden of disease, together with access to ART to those who require it. Programs for prevention of HIV infection are essential to prevent this lethal disease.

  10. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  11. Overview of Kidney Diseases in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Foundation United Network for Organ Sharing MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Overview of Kidney Disease in Children Page Content On this page: ...

  12. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Life Options Rehabilitation Program National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis Page Content On this page: When ...

  13. The oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine solid tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Igase, Masaya; Hwang, Chung Chew; Coffey, Matt; Okuda, Masaru; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Takuya

    2015-05-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a new strategy for cancer treatment for humans and dogs. Reovirus has been proven to be a potent oncolytic virus in human medicine. Our laboratory has previously reported that canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma were susceptible to reovirus. In this study, canine solid tumor cell lines (mammary gland tumor, osteosarcoma and malignant melanoma) were tested to determine their susceptibility towards reovirus. We demonstrated that reovirus induces more than 50% cell death in three canine mammary gland tumors and one canine malignant melanoma cell line. The reovirus-induced cell death occurred via the activation of caspase 3. Ras activation has been shown to be one of the important mechanisms of reovirus-susceptibility in human cancers. However, Ras activation was not related to the reovirus-susceptibility in canine solid tumor cell lines, which was similar to reports in canine mast cell tumor and canine lymphoma. The results of this study highly suggest that canine mammary gland tumor and canine malignant melanoma are also potential candidates for reovirus therapy in veterinary oncology. PMID:25648933

  14. Effects of body weight on antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type 1 in vaccinated domestic adult dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Saito, Miyoko; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether post-vaccination antibody titers vary according to body weight in adult dogs. Antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) were measured for 978 domestic adult dogs from 2 to 6 y of age. The dogs had been vaccinated approximately 12 mo earlier with a commercial combination vaccine. The dogs were divided into groups according to their weight. It was found that mean antibody titers in all weight groups were sufficient to prevent infection. Intergroup comparison, however, revealed that CPV-2 antibody titers were significantly higher in the Super Light (< 5 kg) group than in the Medium (10 to 19.9 kg) and Heavy (> 20 kg) groups and were also significantly higher in the Light (5 to 9.9 kg) group than in the Heavy group. Antibody titers against CDV were significantly higher in the Super Light, Light, and Medium groups than in the Heavy group. There were no significant differences among the groups for the CAdV-1 antibody titers. PMID:23543958

  15. Comparative trial of the canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine adenovirus type 2 fractions of two commercially available modified live vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J G H E; Muniz, M; Sutton, D; Fensome, R; Ling, F; Paul, G

    2006-11-25

    The results of vaccinating two groups of puppies with commercial vaccines, both of which claimed to provide adequate protection with a final vaccination at 10 weeks of age, were compared. Groups of 19 and 20 puppies with similar titres of maternally derived antibodies against canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine adenovirus type 2 (cav-2) at four weeks of age were vaccinated at six and 10 weeks of age and their responses to each vaccination were measured by comparing the titres against cpv, cdv and cav-2 in the serum samples taken immediately before the vaccination and four weeks later. After the vaccination at six weeks of age, all 19 of the puppies in group 1 had responded to cpv and cdv, and 14 had responded to cav-2; in group 2, 17 of the 20 had responded to cpv, 19 to cdv and 15 to cav-2. In both groups the puppies that did not respond to the first vaccination had responded serologically to cpv, cdv and cav-2 at 10 weeks of age. PMID:17127756

  16. Migrastatin Analogues Inhibit Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Kinga; Lo Re, Daniele; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Homa, Agata; Pawłowski, Karol; Motyl, Tomasz; Murphy, Paul V.; Król, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6) on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. Results Our results showed that two of six fully synthetic analogues of migrastatin: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6) disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. Conclusion Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6) were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs. However, further in vivo studies are required to verify this hypothesis. PMID:24116159

  17. Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Seema; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbes have important roles in the nutritional, immunological, and physiologic processes of the host. Traditional cultivation techniques have revealed bacterial density ranges from 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/g in the stomach, from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g in the small intestine, and from 10(9) to 10(11) CFU/g in the colon of healthy dogs. As a small number of bacterial species can be grown and studied in culture, however, progress was limited until the recent emergence of DNA-based techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics have allowed for better phylogenetic and functional/metabolic characterization of the canine gut microbiome. Predominant phyla include Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Studies using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing have demonstrated spatial differences along the GI tract and among microbes adhered to the GI mucosa compared to those in intestinal contents or feces. Similar to humans, GI microbiome dysbiosis is common in canine GI diseases such as chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. DNA-based assays have also identified key pathogens contributing to such conditions, including various Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia spp. Moreover, nutritionists have applied DNA-based techniques to study the effects of dietary interventions such as dietary fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics on the canine GI microbiome and associated health indices. Despite recent advances in the field, the canine GI microbiome is far from being fully characterized and a deeper characterization of the phylogenetic and functional/metabolic capacity of the GI microbiome in health and disease is needed. This paper provides an overview of recent studies performed to characterize the canine GI microbiome. PMID:22647637

  18. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    PubMed Central

    Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained from patients with CRC and from healthy controls prior to colonoscopy. Each test group consisted of one sample from a patient with CRC and four control samples from volunteers without cancer. These five samples were randomly and separately placed into five boxes. A Labrador retriever specially trained in scent detection of cancer and a handler cooperated in the tests. The dog first smelled a standard breath sample from a patient with CRC, then smelled each sample station and sat down in front of the station in which a cancer scent was detected. Results 33 and 37 groups of breath and watery stool samples, respectively, were tested. Among patients with CRC and controls, the sensitivity of canine scent detection of breath samples compared with conventional diagnosis by colonoscopy was 0.91 and the specificity was 0.99. The sensitivity of canine scent detection of stool samples was 0.97 and the specificity was 0.99. The accuracy of canine scent detection was high even for early cancer. Canine scent detection was not confounded by current smoking, benign colorectal disease or inflammatory disease. Conclusions This study shows that a specific cancer scent does indeed exist and that cancer-specific chemical compounds may be circulating throughout the body. These odour materials may become effective tools in CRC screening. In the future, studies designed to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds will be important for the development of new methods for early detection of CRC. PMID:21282130

  19. Headspace concentrations of explosive vapors in containers designed for canine testing and training: theory, experiment, and canine trials.

    PubMed

    Lotspeich, Erica; Kitts, Kelley; Goodpaster, John

    2012-07-10

    It is a common misconception that the amount of explosive is the chief contributor to the quantity of vapor that is available to trained canines. In fact, this quantity (known as odor availability) depends not only on the amount of explosive material, but also the container volume, explosive vapor pressure and temperature. In order to better understand odor availability, headspace experiments were conducted and the results were compared to theory. The vapor-phase concentrations of three liquid explosives (nitromethane, nitroethane and nitropropane) were predicted using the Ideal Gas Law for containers of various volumes that are in use for canine testing. These predictions were verified through experiments that varied the amount of sample, the container size, and the temperature. These results demonstrated that the amount of sample that is needed to saturate different sized containers is small, predictable and agrees well with theory. In general, and as expected, once the headspace of a container is saturated, any subsequent increase in sample volume will not result in the release of more vapors. The ability of canines to recognize and alert to differing amounts of nitromethane has also been studied. In particular, it was found that the response of trained canines is independent of the amount of nitromethane present, provided it is a sufficient quantity to saturate the container in which it is held. PMID:22421324

  20. A comparison of canine distemper vaccine and measles vaccine for the prevention of canine distemper in young puppies.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, W S; Baxendale, W

    1994-10-01

    Two groups of six-week-old beagle puppies were vaccinated with either high titre canine distemper virus or human measles virus, a third group remaining unvaccinated. All the puppies were subsequently challenged by the nasopharyngeal route at 10 weeks old with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of canine distemper. Severe clinical signs were observed in 90 per cent of the unvaccinated dogs but both groups of vaccinated dogs survived the challenge. High temperatures were recorded in 20 per cent of the measles vaccinates and abdominal petechial rashes were observed in 60 per cent of them. The only clinical signs observed in the puppies vaccinated with distemper virus were transient rashes in 20 per cent of the group. The high titre canine distemper vaccine stimulated a humoral response quickly in 78 per cent of the puppies in the presence of maternally derived antibody and protected them against challenge with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of distemper virus. The remaining dogs responded sluggishly but were still protected against challenge. The results of field surveys showed that 95 per cent of young puppies with different levels of maternally derived antibodies responded to the distemper component in a vaccine also containing canine parvovirus. No incompatibility was observed between the two components. PMID:7846822