Science.gov

Sample records for mare nel tardo

  1. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS) optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pribyl, William L.

    1993-01-01

    This is a compilation of NELS (NASA Electronic Library System) Optimization progress/problem, interim, and final reports for all phases. The NELS database was examined, particularly in the memory, disk contention, and CPU, to discover bottlenecks. Methods to increase the speed of NELS code were investigated. The tasks included restructuring the existing code to interact with others more effectively. An error reporting code to help detect and remove bugs in the NELS was added. Report writing tools were recommended to integrate with the ASV3 system. The Oracle database management system and tools were to be installed on a Sun workstation, intended for demonstration purposes.

  2. Enhancing reproductive performance in mares.

    PubMed

    Scherzer, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive performance in mares can be enhanced by various techniques. Protocols hastening the onset of follicular development help establish pregnancy in mares and ensure that foals are born early in the year. The time spent breeding mares can be reduced by synchronizing estrus and inducing ovulation. After successful fertilization of the oocyte, the developing embryo can survive in the uterus only if postbreeding endometritis, if present, is treated. PMID:20473845

  3. Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care (Letters to Nel Noddings)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This collection is a moving tribute to Nel Noddings, a fascinating and influential scholar who has contributed greatly to numerous fields, including education, feminism, ethics, and the study of social justice and equity. "Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care" presents contributions from renowned teachers, educators, and activists, such as David…

  4. Caring and Competence: Nel Noddings' Curriculum Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    Nel Noddings makes the case that producing caring and competent people ought to be the principal goal of education, suggesting that educators establish the conditions in which students with differing interests, capacities, and needs can achieve things that are educationally worthwhile. This paper considers how Noddings approaches two questions…

  5. The basalts of Mare Frigoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. Y.; Jaiswal, B.; Hawke, B. R.; Öhman, T.; Giguere, T. A.; Johnson, K.

    2015-10-01

    This paper discusses the methodology and results of a detailed investigation of Mare Frigoris using remote sensing data from Clementine, Lunar Prospector, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, with the objective of mapping and characterizing the compositions and eruptive history of its volcanic units. With the exception of two units in the west, Mare Frigoris and Lacus Mortis are filled with basalts having low-TiO2 to very low TiO2, low-FeO, and high-Al2O3 abundances. These compositions indicate that most of the basalts in Frigoris are high-Al basalts—a potentially undersampled, yet important group in the lunar sample collection for its clues about the heterogeneity of the lunar mantle. Thorium abundances of most of the mare basalts in Frigoris are also low, although much of the mare surface appears elevated due to contamination from impact gardening with the surrounding high-Th Imbrium ejecta. There are, however, a few regional thorium anomalies that are coincident with cryptomare units in the east, the two youngest mare basalt units, and some of the scattered pyroclastic deposits and volcanic constructs. In addition, Mare Frigoris lies directly over the northern extent of the major conduit for a magma plumbing system that fed many of the basalts that filled Oceanus Procellarum, as interpreted by Andrews-Hanna et al. (2014) using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission. The relationship between this deep-reaching magma conduit and the largest extent of high-Al basalts on the Moon makes Mare Frigoris an intriguing location for further investigation of the lunar mantle.

  6. Mare Chromium Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This crater, located in Mare Chromium, shows evidence of exterior modification, with little interior modification. While the rim is still visible, the ejecta blanket has been removed or covered. There is some material at the bottom of the crater, but the interior retains the bowl shape from the initial formation of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.4, Longitude 174.4 East (185.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Uterine culture in mares.

    PubMed

    Brook, D

    1984-05-01

    A guarded, sterile swab is used to obtain samples for uterine culture. With the mare in stocks, the tail bandage and the perineum washed, the culture rod is introduced into the vagina with a gloved hand. After the rod is guided through the cervix, the guard cap is dislodged and the swab is rubbed along the endometrium, after which the rod is extracted. Samples for uterine culture should only be obtained during full estrus. Swabs should be directly plated onto agar within 2 hours of collection. Blood agar is appropriate for initial screening, but use of specialized types of agar expedites identification of microbes. Plates are incubated at 37 C and inspected for growth every 12 hours. The type and number of bacterial colonies should be coupled with the history and clinical signs in deciding on the necessity and type of treatment. Pure, heavy bacterial growth is usually accompanied by clinical signs of infection. Interpretation of the significance of moderate bacterial growth may be aided by cytologic examination of endometrial smears, made by rolling the swab onto a glass slide and staining with Diff - Quik . Large numbers of neutrophils indicate the need for antibiotic therapy. Mixed bacterial growth and variable numbers of neutrophils usually indicate faulty sampling technic. Microaerophilic or anaerobic cultures may aid diagnosis in cases of equivocal aerobic culture results. PMID:6377040

  8. MARE: Mars Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Lellis, A. M.; Capria, M. T.; Espinasse, S.; Magni, G.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Pauselli, C.; Scarpa, G.

    1999-09-01

    MARE is an experiment for the measurement of the beta and gamma radioactivity in space and in the Martian soil, both at the surface and in the subsurface. This will be accomplished by means of a dosimeter and a spectrometer. The radiation dose rate to which crews will be exposed is one of the hazards that has to be quantified before the human exploration of Mars may begin. Data for evaluating radioactivity levels at Martian surface are of great interest for environmental studies related to life in general. The dosimeter will be able to measure the beta and gamma radiation dose received, with a responsivity which is very close to that of a living organism. The dosimeter is based on thermo-luminescence pills which emit an optical signal proportional to the absorbed dose when heated. Radioactive elements ((40) K, (235) U, (238) U and (232) Th) can be used as a mean of tracing the evolution of a terrestrial planet. These radioactive elements are the source of the internal heat, which drives convection in the mantle. They have been redistributed in this process and they are now concentrated in the crust where they are accessible for study. Their different behavior during the fractionation process can be used as a mean to investigate the geochemical characteristic of Mars. The spectrometer, a scintillation radiation absorber system for single event counting, is capable of detecting gamma photons with energies between 200 KeV and 10 MeV. The detected events will be processed in such a way to allow the recognition of the spectral signature of different decay processes, and thus the identification and the measurement of the concentrations of different radionuclides in the Martian soil.

  9. An Apollo 15 Mare Basalt Fragment and Lunar Mare Provinces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Burling, Trina Cox

    1996-01-01

    Lunar sample 15474,4 is a tiny fragment of olivine-augite vitrophyre that is a mare basalt. Although petroraphically distinct from all other Apollo 15 samples, it has been ignored since its first brief description. Our new petrographic and mineral chemical data show that the olivines and pyroxenes are distinct from those in other basalts. The basalt cooled and solidified extremely rapidly; some of the olivine might be cumulate or crystallized prior to extrusion. Bulk-chemical data show that the sample is probably similar to an evolved Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalt in major elements but is distinct in its rare earth element pattern. Its chemical composition and petrography both show that 15474,4 cannot be derived from other Apollo 15 mare basalts by shallow-level crystal fractionation. It represents a distinct extrusion of magma. Nonetheless, the chemical features that 15474,4 has in common with other Apollo 15 mare basalts, including the high FeO/Sc, the general similarity of the rare earth element pattern, and the common (and chondritic) TiO2/Sm ratio, emphasize the concept of a geochemical province at the Apollo 15 site that is distinct from basalts and provinces elsewhere. In making a consistent picture for the derivation of all of the Apollo 15 basalts, both the commonalities and the differences among the basalts must be explained. The Apollo 15 commonalities and differences suggest that the sources must have consisted of major silicate phases with the same composition but with varied amounts of a magma trapped from a contemporary magma ocean. They probably had a high olivine/pyroxene ratio and underwent small and reasonably consistent degrees of partial melting to produce the basalts. These inferences may be inconsistent with models that suggest greatly different depths of melting among basalts, primitive sources for the green glasses, or extensive olivine fractionation during ascent. An integrated approach to lunar mare provinces, of which the Apollo 15

  10. Effects of pinealectomy in Pony mares.

    PubMed

    Grubaugh, W; Sharp, D C; Berglund, L A; McDowell, K J; Kilmer, D M; Peck, L S; Seamans, K W

    1982-01-01

    When mares were pinealectomized in summer or in winter there was no difference in the annual ovulation date of these animals and of pineal-intact controls during the first post-operative breeding season but in the second season the ovulation date of the winter pinealectomized mares was significantly delayed, suggesting a long-term but clear pineal involvement in seasonal reproductive patterns. Exposure of pinealectomized mares to a stimulatory photoperiod failed to advance the average date of first annual ovulation and was similar to that of intact mares receiving no stimulatory lighting. The results indicate that pinealectomy blocks the ability to respond to photostimulation. In intact mares plasma melatonin concentrations were significantly increased during darkness (P less than 0 . 003) but pinealectomized mares demonstrated no significant time trends. PMID:6962863

  11. Induced lactation with a dopamine antagonist in mares: different responses between ovariectomized and intact mares.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, D; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Combarnous, Y; Duchamp, G; Martinat, N; Nagy, P; Daels, P F

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of treatment with repeated injections of sulpiride (a dopamine D2 antagonist) on prolactin secretion and induced lactation in ovariectomized and intact adult mares and to verify if this induction was possible at the beginning and at the end of the birth season. Two experiments were carried out in September [experiment (expt) 1], and in March (expt 2), in France (48 degrees N). In expt 1, three groups of five mares were tested: intact-control, intact-treated and ovariectomized-treated mares. In expt 2, mares previously subjected to artificial photoperiod were assigned in two groups: four intact-control and five intact-treated mares. The cyclicity of intact mares was previously synchronized with PGF2alpha injections, then all the mares were in the follicular phase at the beginning of treatment. Sulpiride was intramuscularly injected (0.5 mg/kg of BW), twice a day. Mares were milked at 7:30, 11:45, 16:00 and 20:15 hours. Blood samples were collected every day during the treatment for progesterone, total oestrogen and prolactin assays. In the two experiments, only treated intact mares produced milk, with a large inter-animal variability. Prolactin increase after sulpiride treatment was not so great in the ovariectomized-treated mares as in the intact-treated mares. The total correlations between prolactin, progesterone, oestrogen plasma concentrations and daily milk production were significant (0.57, 0.25, 0.17 respectively). This induction of lactation can be performed during the entire birth season in intact mares, but not in ovariectomized mares, indicating that steroids are necessary for this induction in mares treated by dopamine D2 antagonist. PMID:12950692

  12. Follicular dynamics in Mangalarga mares.

    PubMed

    Buratini, J; Rosa e Silva, A A; Barros, C M; Papa, F O; Caldas, M C; Meira, C

    1997-12-01

    Ovarian follicular activity was studied by ultrasonography during 17 oestrous cycles in 9 Mangalarga mares during the second half of the ovulatory season. Sixteen oestrous cycles were considered normal and one 3-wave cycle showing a prolonged luteal phase was considered atypical. Daily ultrasonographic examinations were performed and the compiled data on follicular dynamics were studied retrospectively. One major wave of follicular growth was observed in 13 of the 16 normal cycles (81.25%), whereas 2 major waves occurred in 3 cycles (18.75%). The mean (+/- s.d.) days of emergence of the primary wave of follicular development in cycles containing one or 2 waves were Day 6.0 +/- 2.3 and Day 11.0 +/- 1.0, respectively. The secondary wave of follicular development in 2-wave cycles emerged on Day 0.0 +/- 3.6. The day of wave divergence for primary waves of follicular development in cycles which exhibited one or 2 major waves were Day 12.2 +/- 3.5 and Day 17.3 +/- 3.0, respectively. Divergence of secondary waves occurred in only one of the 3 cycles which exhibited 2 major follicular waves (Day 7). The mean (+/- s.d.) maximum diameters of the dominant follicle in the primary wave of oestrous cycles exhibiting one and 2 major waves were 39.0 +/- 3.9 mm and 34.7 +/- 2.5 mm, respectively. The mean (+/- s.d.) maximum diameter of the dominant follicle present in the secondary wave was 34.3 +/- 11.0 mm. The mean (+/- s.d.) lengths of the interovulatory intervals for cycles containing one and 2 major waves were 19.4 +/- 2.2 and 23.3 +/- 2.5 days, respectively. These data indicate that most Mangalarga mares show one major follicular wave during the oestrous cycle but a small percentage of mares show 2 major waves. PMID:9593519

  13. Reduction of mare basalts by sulfur loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.

    1976-01-01

    Metallic Fe content and S abundance are inversely correlated in mare basalts. Either S volatilization from the melt results in reduction of Fe2+ to Fe0 or else high S content decreases Fe0 activity in the melt, thus explaining the correlation. All considerations favor the model that metallic iron in mare basalts is due to sulfur loss. The Apollo 11 and 17 mare basalt melts were probably saturated with S at the time of eruption; the Apollo 12 and 15 basalts were probably not saturated. Non-mare rocks show a positive correlation of S abundance with metallic Fe content; it is proposed that this is due to the addition of meteoritic material having a fairly constant Fe0/S ratio. If true, metallic Fe content or S abundance in non-mare rocks provides a measure of degree of meteoritic contamination. ?? 1976.

  14. Mare basalt magma source region and mare basalt magma genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, A.B.

    1982-11-15

    Given the available data, we find that the wide range of mare basaltic material characteristics can be explained by a model in which: (1) The mare basalt magma source region lies between the crust-mantle boundary and a maximum depth of 200 km and consists of a relatively uniform peridotite containing 73--80% olivine, 11--14% pyroxene, 4--8% plagioclase, 0.2--9% ilmenite and 1--1.5% chromite. (2) The source region consists of two or more density-graded rhythmic bands, whose compositions grade from that of the very low TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (0.2% ilmenite) to that of the very high TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (9% ilmenite). These density-graded bands are proposed to have formed as co-crystallizing olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, ilmenite, and chromite settled out of a convecting magma (which was also parental to the crust) in which these crystals were suspended. Since the settling rates of the different minerals were governed by Stoke's law, the heavier minerals settled out more rapidly and therefore earlier than the lighter minerals. Thus the crystal assemblages deposited nearest the descending side of each convection cell were enriched in heavy ilmenite and chromite with respect to lighter olivine and pyroxene and very much lighter plagioclase. The reverse being the case for those units deposited near the ascending sides of the convection cells.

  15. Thickness of western mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.

  16. Mare basalts - Crystal chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Hodges, F. N.; Bence, A. E.; Cameron, M.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper attempts a synthesis of the major-element chemistry, petrography, mineral chemistry, and crystal chemistry of the mare basalts returned by Apollo and Luna missions. A classification of the mare basalts based on major-element chemistry is given, and textural sequences within each major-element group are identified. The mineral chemistry and crystal chemistry of each mineral group are considered within the framework of the major-element groups and the textural sequences. The various classes of models for the origin of the mare basalts and the nature of their source regions are discussed in the context of the major- and trace-element chemistries and experimental investigations.

  17. TiME - The Titan Mare Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, E.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Clark, B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ravine, M.

    The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) is a Discovery-class mission concept that underwent a detailed Phase A study in 2011-2012. The mission would splashdown a capsule on Titan's ethane sea Ligeia Mare as early as the summer of 2023, and would spend multiple Titan days performing science measurements and transmitting data directly back to Earth. This paper reviews briefly the mission concept.

  18. Melatonin rhythms in Pony mares and foals.

    PubMed

    Kilmer, D M; Sharp, D C; Berglund, L A; Grubaugh, W; McDowell, K J; Peck, L S

    1982-01-01

    Melatonin concentrations in intact (N = 3) and sham-operated (N = 3) mares during March were greater (P less than 0 . 05) during the night than during the day, but this pattern was not seen in 3 mares from which the superior cervical ganglia had been removed bilaterally. When 4 Pony mares were exposed to a photoperiod of 10L:14D for 3 weeks and then to continuous darkness (0L:24D) for another 3 weeks, melatonin levels were greater (P less than 0 . 05) at the end of the 0L:24D period than during the earlier period and still displayed rhythmic fluctuations but were no longer co-ordinated with equivalent day/night rhythms or among mares. When melatonin rhythms were monitored in 3 mares and their foals housed in open pens exposed to natural lighting, significant time trends in melatonin concentrations were observed in mares when the foals were aged 1-3, 4-6 and 7-11 weeks, but foals did not display significant times trends in melatonin until they were 7-11 weeks old. PMID:6962864

  19. What Can NELS Tell Us about Adolescent Behavior Problems? (And Vice Versa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giancola, Susan P.

    This research uses the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS) to examine student misbehavior in the context of individual, familial, and institutional influences. The NELS is the third longitudinal study of students and schools conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, and the NELS surveys encompass not only students…

  20. Modelisation of tidal flows between Titan's seas Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, David; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Numerous lakes and seas filled with liquid hydrocarbons have been detected on Titan's surface by Cassini spacecraft [1]. Most of these liquid bodies are located in the northern high latitudes [2]. In this study, we focus on two of them: Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare and in particular on the tidal currents between them. Recent observations of the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) from February 12, 2015 suggested the presence of waves in a strait called Trevize fretum linking the two seas [3]. These waves could be generated by either wind or strong currents between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare. We simulate the tidal response of Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare and the currents in the straits linking those seas with SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, www.climate.be/slim). SLIM resolves 2D shallow water equations on an unstructured mesh, which allows higher accuracy in the straits without drastically increasing the computational costs. It has been recently used to simulate the tidal response in Ontario Lacus [4]. The tide generating force modelled in this work is the gradient of tidal potential due to Titan's obliquity and Titan's orbital eccentricity around Saturn (other contribution such as sun tide generating force are unheeded). Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare composition might be different. Consequently, fluid exchanges could also occur due to a density gradient between those seas. In this study, we focus on the flow in the strait between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare and consider the effect of parameters such as the composition, solid deformations and the depth of the strait. [1] Stofan et al. (2007) Nature, 445, 61-64.[2] Aharonson et al. (2009), Nature geoscience, 2(12), 851-854. [3] Sotin et al. (2015) AGU, P12B-04. [4] Vincent et al. (2016) Ocean Dynamics.

  1. Connecticut Participation in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Department of Education Research Bulletin, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Statewide information concerning the Connecticut eight-grade public school students who particpated in the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) in the spring of 1988 is presented. Over 900 students in 46 schools in 35 school districts, almost evenly divided between males and females, completed cognitive tests and student surveys about…

  2. Caring for the Ethical Ideal: Nel Noddings on Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Nel Noddings is arguably one of the premier philosophers of moral education in the English-speaking world today. Although she is outside the mainstream theory, research, and practice traditions of cognitive-developmentalism (the Kohlberg legacy) and of character education (which is in public ascendancy), her body of work is unrivalled for…

  3. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Dry dock 2 with six destroyers; 1922 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, California Avenue, east side near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Building 253; 1920. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Coal sheds with coals; 1906. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Coal Sheds, Waterfront Avenue, northwest corner of Waterfront Avenue & Fourth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Looking northeast over Piers 22 and 23 toward Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast over Piers 22 and 23 toward Mare Island Strait and the City of Vallejo - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of waterfront during World War II; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Building H1; 1920. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Detail of building 390 east elevation, sign reading Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of building 390 east elevation, sign reading Mare Island Ship fitters Shop, above main door; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Forge Shop, Railroad Avenue, southwest corner of Railroad Avenue & Twelfth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. QUARTERS A IN THE SNOW; 1913. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Commandant's Quarters, Walnut Avenue, west side near Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Dry dock 1 with sailing ship, 1899. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 1, California Avenue, east side near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. View of sawmill after earthquake of 1898. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Preliminary Results of the MARE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Bagliani, D.; Biassotti, M.; Ceruti, G.; Corsini, D.; Faverzani, M.; Gatti, F.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Kling, A.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Maino, M.; Manfrinetti, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessina, G.; Pizzigoni, G.; Ribeiro Gomes, M.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M.

    2014-09-01

    The microcalorimeter array for a rhenium experiment (MARE) project aims at the direct and calorimetric measurement of the electron neutrino mass with sub-eV sensitivity. The design is based on large arrays of thermal detectors to study the beta decay of Re and the electron capture of Ho. One of the activities of the project, MARE 1 in Milan, has started in Milan using one array of 6 6 silicon implanted thermistors equipped with AgReO absorbers. The purposes of MARE 1 in Milan are to achieve a sensitivity on the neutrino mass of a few eV and to investigate the systematics of Re neutrino mass measurements, focusing on those caused by the beta environmental fine structure and the beta spectrum theoretical shape. In parallel, the MARE collaboration is performing an R&D work for producing absorbers embedded with radioactive metal Ho. We report here the status of MARE using Re as beta source and the preliminary results obtained with Ho.

  14. Detector Development for the MARE Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, M.; Bogorin, D.; Molina, R.; Saab, T.; Ribeiro Gomes, M.

    2009-12-16

    The MARE experiment is designed to measure the mass of the neutrino with sub-eV sensitivity by measuring the beta decay of {sup 187}Re with cryogenic microcalorimeters. A preliminary analysis shows that, to achieve the necessary statistics, between 10,000 and 50,000 detectors are likely necessary. We have fabricated and characterized Iridium transition edge sensors with high reproducibility and uniformity for such a large scale experiment. We have also started a full scale simulation of the experimental setup for MARE, including thermalization in the absorber, detector response, and optimum filter analysis, to understand the issues related to reaching a sub-eV sensitivity and to optimize the design of the MARE experiment. We present our characterization of the Ir devices, including reproducibility, uniformity, and sensitivity, and we discuss the implementation and capabilities of our full scale simulation.

  15. Physiopathologic mechanisms involved in mare endometrosis.

    PubMed

    Rebordão, M R; Galvão, A; Szóstek, A; Amaral, A; Mateus, L; Skarzynski, D J; Ferreira-Dias, G

    2014-10-01

    Endometrosis is a degenerative chronic process, characterized by paramount fibrosis development in mare endometrium. This condition is one of the major causes of subfertility/infertility in mares. As in other organs, fibrosis might be a pathologic sequel of many chronic inflammatory diseases. However, aetiology and physiopathologic mechanisms involved in endometrial fibrosis are still controversial. This review presents new hypotheses based on our newest data. As the first line of innate immune defence, systemic neutrophils arrive in the uterus at mating or in the presence of pathogens. A novel paradigm is that neutrophils cast out their DNA in response to infectious stimuli and form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We have shown that bacterial strains of Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus capitis, known to cause endometritis in mares were able to induce NETs release in vitro by equine PMN to different extents. An intriguing dilemma is the dual action of NETs. While NETs play a desirable role fighting micro-organisms in mare uterus, they may also contribute to endometrial fibrosis. A long-term in vitro exposure of mare endometrium explants to NETs components (myeloperoxidase, elastase and cathepsin G) up-regulated fibrosis markers TGFβ and Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Also, pro-fibrotic cytokines regulated collagen deposition and fibrosis. Changes in expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), interleukins (IL)1-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and receptors in endometrium with different degrees of fibrosis and/or inflammation were observed. A putative role of CTGF, IL and NETs components in endometrosis development should be considered. Additionally, we speculate that in sustained endometritis in mares, prostaglandins may not only cause early luteolysis or early pregnancy loss, but may also be related to endometrial fibrosis pathogenesis by stimulating collagen deposition. PMID:25277436

  16. Symposium on the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the NELS:88 Field Test (New Orleans, Louisiana, April 5-9, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; And Others

    The National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) is a major new panel study of educational outcomes sponsored by the Center for Education Statistics of the United States Department of Education. The NELS:88 is designed to provide trend data about critical transitions experienced by young people as they develop, attend school, and embark…

  17. DCS Color near Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 28, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering an area near Mare Cimmerium. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    This area contains a mixture of basaltic materials (magenta/purple) and dust (green/blue). Faint blue areas may be due to some thin water ice clouds. The different compositional units are sometimes correlated with crater floors and other surface features, but they are often not tied to valleys, lava flows, etc... indicating that the surface materials could be mobile (dust and sand).

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 139.3 East (220.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter

  18. Effects of melatonin implants in pony mares. 1. Acute effects.

    PubMed

    Peltier, M R; Robinson, G; Sharp, D C

    1998-04-15

    The effects of melatonin implant treatment over a four week period on LH, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) secretion during the breeding season were studied in ovary-intact and ovariectomized pony mares. Mares with melatonin implants had significantly higher daytime melatonin concentrations than mares with sharm implants (P = 0.0065). In ovariectomized mares, LH secretion did not differ between mares with melatonin and sham implants. In ovary-intact mares, melatonin implants altered the pattern of LH secretion (P = 0.0023) in such a way that an increase in LH secretion was observed during the periovulatory period. Estradiol and P4 secretion were unaffected by melatonin implants. These results suggest that constant administration of melatonin may enhance the secretion of LH during the periovulatory surge but does not adversely affect E2, P4 or basal LH secretion in mares during the breeding season. PMID:10732050

  19. Mare basalts on the Apennine Front and the mare stratigraphy of the Apollo 15 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1989-01-01

    Olivine-normative mare basalts are present on the Apennine Front as crystalline particles and shocked or shock-melted fragments. Picritic basalts, which may be related to the olivine-normative basalts by olivine accumulation, not only occur on the Front but such samples so far recognized are confined to it. Mare volcanic and impact glasses also occur on the Front; all are olivine-normative, though none are quite the equivalent of the typical olivine-normative mare group. The quartz-normative mare basalts are not present (or are extremely rare) on the Front either as crystalline basalts or shocked or glass equivalents. These observations are consistent with the olivine-normative mare basalts being both local and the youngest flows at the site, and the fragments being emplaced on the Front by impacts. The picritic basalts raise the distinct possibility that the olivine-normative basalts also ponded on the Front. An influx of olivine-normative basalts from exotic sources (e.g., a ray from Aristillus) is inconsistent with their abundance, their dominance in the mare soil chemistry, and their age, isotopic, and trace element similarities with the quartz-normative basalts. However, the thermal histories of the olivine-normative basalts require elucidation.

  20. The history of mare volcanism in the Orientale Basin: Mare deposit ages, compositions and morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadel, S. D.; Greeley, R.; Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    The eruptive history of mare basalts in the Orientale Basin has been studied, using Lunar Orbiter 4 high-resolution photographs, Zond 8 photographs, and recently acquired Galileo EM-1 multispectral images. This work represents a refined set of compositional data incorporating the use of a linear mixing model for mare compositions, crater count data, and a comprehensive morphologic analysis of Orientale Basin mare deposits. Evidence for multiple eruptive episodes has been found, with compositions ranging from medium- to high-Ti basalt (less than 4 to greater than 6 wt. percent TiO2). Eruptive styles included flood, rille-forming, and shield-forming eruptions. Impact crater densities of mare units in the Orientale Basin enable determination of the ages of these deposits, using the method of Neukum et al. Earliest eruptions of mare basalt in the basin occurred at greater than or equal to 3.80 Ga and the latest eruptions occurred at about 2.3-2.5 Ga. Hence, mare volcanism occurred over a period of nearly 1.5 Ga.

  1. NIF-0096141-OA Prop Simulations of NEL PBRS Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Widmayer, C; Manes, K

    2003-02-21

    Portable Back Reflection Sensor, PBRS, (NEL only) and Quad Back Reflection Sensor, QBRS, time delay reflectometer traces are among the most useful diagnostics of NIF laser status available. NEL PBRS measurements show several signals reaching the detector for each shot. The time delay between signals suggests that the largest of these is due to energy at the spatial filter pinhole planes leaking into adjacent pinholes and traveling back upstream to the PBRS. Prop simulations agree with current PBRS measurements to within 50%. This suggests that pinhole leakage is the dominant source of energy at the PBRS. However, the simulations predict that the energy leakage is proportional to beam output energy, while the PBRS measurements increase more slowly (''saturate''). Further refinement of the model or the measurement may be necessary to resolve this discrepancy.

  2. How thick are lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that De Hon's estimates of the thickness of lunar mare basalts, made by analyzing 'ghost' craters on mare surfaces, were inflated as the result of the crater morphometric data of Pike (1977) to reconstruct rim heights of degraded craters. Crater rim heights of 82 randomly selected highland craters of various states of degradation were determined, and median rim height was compared to that of corresponding fresh impact structures. Results indicate that the thickness estimates of De Hon may be reduced by a factor of 2, and that the total volume of mare basalt produced throughout lunar history could be as little as 1-2 million cubic kilometers. A survey of geochemical and petrographic evidence indicates that lateral transport of regolith components over distances of much greater than 10 km is relatively inefficient; it is suggested that vertical mixing of a highland substrate underlying the basaltic fill may have had a primordial role in generating the observed mare width distributions and high concentrations of exotic components in intrabasin regoliths.

  3. Seasonal serum concentrations of melatonin in cycling and noncycling mares.

    PubMed

    Diekman, M A; Braun, W; Peter, D; Cook, D

    2002-11-01

    To determine whether secretory patterns of melatonin change throughout the seasons in mares, blood samples were drawn byvenipuncture from nine mares at noon and midnight for five successive days at monthly intervals from August through July at the University of Missouri in Columbia, MO. In addition, during September, December, March, and June, blood samples were drawn from indwelling catheters at 2-h intervals for 48 or 72 h. Mares were predominantly Quarter Horses weighing approximately 450 kg and ranged from 3 to 12 yr of age. Mares were housed in outdoor paddocks with three-sided run-in sheds for shelter. During the noon and midnight bleeding period, mares were placed in a larger open-sided barn with outside runs. Mares remained outdoors with the barn being used as a shelter in the event of inclement weather. All lights in the shed were converted to red light. Often, moonlight provided enough illumination to collect blood samples. Mares were returned to their normal paddock after each sampling period. For analysis of data, a mare was considered to be cycling if serum concentrations of progesterone were greater than 1 ng/ mL. For a mare to be classified as exhibiting a nocturnal rise of melatonin, serum concentrations of melatonin had to be at least two times greater at midnight than at noon. By month, a relationship did not exist (chi2; P > 0.05) among mares that were exhibiting estrous cycles and exhibiting nocturnal rises of melatonin. Likewise, examination of serum profiles of melatonin taken at 2-h intervals for 48 h revealed considerable variation among mares throughout the seasons. A nocturnal rise in serum melatonin was observed only in June (P < 0.02). In March and December, serum melatonin was greater in cycling mares than noncycling mares, but the elevation was not associated with light-dark periods (P < 0.01). Two of the mares exhibited estrous cycles throughout the seasons but melatonin secretion in these two mares were similar to that observed in

  4. Mare volcanism and lunar crustal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.

    1975-01-01

    It is pointed out that the concept of hydrostatic head, the height to which a fluid at a given pressure will rise in a gravitational field, can be usefully applied to magmatic liquids and to a number of problems in volcanology. For the moon, hydrostatic head arguments are an essential ingredient to explanations of mascons and of the scarcity of farside maria. In the reported investigation, simple hydrostatic concepts are extended to synthesize results from experimental petrology, lunar chronology, thermal history models, seismology, and gravity. Attention is given to a scenario for early lunar history, the density of lunar rocks and basaltic liquids, the thickness of the lunar crust, the source depth of mare basalt versus time, hydrostatic considerations with respect to the occurrence of high-titanium and low-titanium mare basalts, the structure of mascons, and the extension of the concepts of hydrostatics to the parent liquids of other basaltic rocks returned from the lunar surface.

  5. Mare Orientale Prime Meridian lunar coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, B.; York, C.; McGown, R.; Billings, T.

    The Moon was the first extraterrestrial body to be mapped. From 1514 to 1840, navigators sailing the open seas needed accurate lunar maps to determine longitude by the "lunar-distance" method. For the convenience of early navigators, astronomers and selenographers, the lunar prime meridian was made to bisect the lunar disk as seen from Earth, formalized as the present Mean Earth / Polar Axis system. In 1961, the International Astronomical Union reversed lunar east and west to avoid confusion by astronauts and their controllers, so that now Mare Orientale -- the Eastern Sea -- lies on the Moon's western limb. By international agreement in 1974, lunar longitude was defined to increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees and prime meridians are generally defined by an observable feature. Examination of popular lunar maps indicates these newer standards are not widely accepted. Modern navigation no longer relies on the Moon. Lunar maps are now made by satellite imagery from lunar orbit. Today, humankind anticipates navigating the Moon itself. A relatively simple change to the lunar coordinate system could benefit upcoming lunar activities and promote acceptance of a 360 degree standard: move the lunar prime meridian. We propose the lunar prime meridian intersect some natural monument that most nearly represents the center longitude of Mare Orientale (perhaps crater Hohmann), and longitude increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees. Mare Orientale is a dramatic large "target," easily identifiable from space. Nearside traffic will use low longitude numbers from zero to r ughly 180 degrees,o and will not frequently cross this prime meridian. Earth's angle above the eastern horizon equals approximate longitude. Low and high longitude numbers will reflect the distinctive nearside and farside geological domains. The face of the Moon as seen from Earth will no longer be split in two. Calculations are simplified and sources of error eliminated. This system is more convenient and

  6. Sulfur isotope homogeneity of lunar mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Boswell A.; Farquhar, James

    2015-12-01

    We present a new set of high precision measurements of relative 33S/32S, 34S/32S, and 36S/32S values in lunar mare basalts. The measurements are referenced to the Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) scale, on which the international reference material, IAEA-S-1, is characterized by δ33S = -0.061‰, δ34S ≡ -0.3‰ and δ36S = -1.27‰. The present dataset confirms that lunar mare basalts are characterized by a remarkable degree of sulfur isotopic homogeneity, with most new and published SF6-based sulfur isotope measurements consistent with a single mass-dependent mean isotopic composition of δ34S = 0.58 ± 0.05‰, Δ33S = 0.008 ± 0.006‰, and Δ36S = 0.2 ± 0.2‰, relative to V-CDT, where the uncertainties are quoted as 99% confidence intervals on the mean. This homogeneity allows identification of a single sample (12022, 281) with an apparent 33S enrichment, possibly reflecting cosmic-ray-induced spallation reactions. It also reveals that some mare basalts have slightly lower δ34S values than the population mean, which is consistent with sulfur loss from a reduced basaltic melt prior to eruption at the lunar surface. Both the sulfur isotope homogeneity of the lunar mare basalts and the predicted sensitivity of sulfur isotopes to vaporization-driven fractionation suggest that less than ≈1-10% of lunar sulfur was lost after a potential moon-forming impact event.

  7. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare Island; restricted area. 334.1100... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1100 San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare Island; restricted area. (a) The area. The...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare Island; restricted area. 334.1100... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1100 San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare Island; restricted area. (a) The area. The...

  9. Ascending placentitis in the mare: A review.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Carrington, S; Fitzpatrick, E; Duggan, V

    2008-01-01

    Ascending placentitis is a condition that occurs late in pregnancy when bacteria enter the sterile uterus from the lower reproductive tract. It leads to abortion or the birth of premature and weakened foals. Early detection and treatment of this condition is vital for ensuring the production of a viable foal.Mares with ascending placentitis often present in late term pregnancy with signs of premature udder development and premature lactation. There may be a vulvar discharge. Early detection of placental problems is possible using trans-abdominal or trans-rectal ultrasonography. Hormones such as progesterone and relaxin may be measured as indicators of foetal stress and placental failure. Postpartum foetal membranes may be thickened and contain a fibronecrotic exudate. The region most affected is the cervical star. Definitive diagnosis of ascending placentitis is by histopathological examination of the chorioallantoic membrane.Ideal treatment strategies are aimed at curing the infection and prolonging the pregnancy to as close to term as possible and consist of anti-microbials, anti-inflammatories and hormonal support.Swabs are taken from affected mares to determine antibiotic sensitivity and to aid in treatment of foals born from these mares which are at risk of becoming septic. If detected early enough, the chances of producing a viable foal are greatly increased. PMID:21851713

  10. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-11-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  11. Thicknesses of Mare Basalts from Gravity and Topograhy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GONG, S.; Wieczorek, M.; Nimmo, F.; Kiefer, W.; Head, J.; Smith, D.; Zuber, M.

    2015-10-01

    Mare basalts are derived from partial melting of the lunar interior and are mostly located on the near side of the Moon [1, 2]. Their iron-rich composition gives rise to their dark color, but also causes their density to be substantially higher than normal crustal rocks. The total volume of mare basalts can provide crucial information about the Moon's thermal evolution and volcanic activity. Unfortunately, the thicknesses of the mare are only poorly constrained. Here we use gravity data from NASA's GRAIL mission to investigate the thickness of mare basalts.

  12. Influence of photoperiod on the pregnant and postpartum mare.

    PubMed

    Hodge, S L; Kreider, J L; Potter, G D; Harms, P G; Fleeger, J L

    1982-10-01

    Over a 2-year period, mares (n = 32) of predominantly Quarter Horse breeding and their foals were used to study the effects of photoperiod on reproduction during the periparturient period. Specific objectives of the study were (i) to evaluate the effects of an extended photoperiod regimen (16 hours' light) on gestation length, foal development, and postpartum reproductive performance, and (ii) to measure changes in plasma progesterone concentrations during the last trimester of gestation and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations after foaling until ovulation. Mares in the extended daylength treatment group had shorter (10 days) mean gestation length (P less than 0.01) than did control mares (exposed to normal daylight hours). Although foals of mares exposed to long photoperiod were carried for a shorter term, their birth weights tended to be heavier, but not significantly, than those of foals from control mares. Foal size, as determined by body measurements, was not affected by the photoperiod. Neither interval from parturition to 1st ovulation nor onset of estrus to ovulation were significantly affected by the extended photoperiod. Plasma progestogen concentrations increased from basal levels at prepartum weeks 4 and 5 to peak values a week before foaling in both mare groups. The LH profiles from parturition to ovulation were similar for both mare groups. However, mean plasma LH values during the 7 days before the 1st ovulation were higher (P less than 0.05) in mares exposed to extended daylength than in control mares. PMID:7149374

  13. Embryo transfer in competition horses: Managing mares and expectations

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M L H

    2014-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) is an accepted and successful technique for obtaining foals from mares without interrupting their competition careers. Recent research, however, suggests that the potential of factors including heat, exercise, repeated embryo flushing and repeated manipulation of the reproductive cycle using exogenous hormones to have a negative impact on fertility may have been underestimated. This paper reviews the evidence base for involvement of these factors in repeated failures to recover embryos from nongeriatric competition mares without obvious clinical or pathological indications of reproductive abnormalities. It concludes that, for some mares at least, a cessation of exercise for the periovulatory period and the period between ovulation and embryo flushing, combined with careful management of flushing-induced endometritis, and minimal hormonal manipulation of the reproductive cycle, may be necessary to optimise embryo recovery rates. Mare owners may have been encouraged to request ET for their mares following high-profile examples in the media of elite mares that have produced foals by ET whilst competing. The veterinarian should educate mare owners about the multiple factors that may affect the chances of recovering an embryo from their mares, and should manage the expectations of mare owners so that they do not approach ET programmes in the expectation that there will be no disruption to their training and competition plans. PMID:25977596

  14. Detail of main entrance; camera facing southwest. Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of main entrance; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. View of south elevation; camera facing northeast. Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. View of north elevation; camera facing southeast. Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north elevation; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of southeast corner; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. The Apollo 16 Mare Component: Petrography, Geochemistry, and Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The A16 (Apollo16) site in the lunar nearside highlands is 220 km from the nearest mare. Thus it is no surprise that mare basalt samples are uncommon at the site. Here, we present the petrography and geochemistry of 5 new mare basalt samples found at the A16 site. We also discuss possible provenances of all A16 mare basalt samples using high-resolution global data for the distribution of Fe and Ti on the lunar surface derived from Clementine UV-VIS data [1-2].

  20. Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING WEST Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING WEST - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING SOUTH Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION: CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING NORTH Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING NORTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS): The system impact of security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgregor, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses security issues as they relate to the NASA Electronic Library System which is currently in use as the repository system for AdaNET System Version 3 (ASV3) being operated by MountainNET, Inc. NELS was originally designed to provide for public, development, and secure collections and objects. The secure feature for collections and objects was deferred in the initial system for implementation at a later date. The NELS system is now 9 months old and many lessons have been learned about the use and maintenance of library systems. MountainNET has 9 months of experience in operating the system and gathering feedback from the ASV3 user community. The user community has expressed an interest in seeing security features implemented in the current system. The time has come to take another look at the whole issue of security for the NELS system. Two requirements involving security have been put forth by MountainNET for the ASV3 system. The first is to incorporate at the collection level a security scheme to allow restricted access to collections. This should be invisible to end users and be controlled by librarians. The second is to allow inclusion of applications which can be executed only by a controlled group of users; for example, an application which can be executed by librarians only. The requirements provide a broad framework in which to work. These requirements raise more questions than answers. To explore the impact of these requirements a top down approach will be used.

  6. Mechanisms behind intrauterine device-induced luteal persistence in mares.

    PubMed

    Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Reilas, T; Kindahl, H; Katila, T

    2008-08-01

    Intrauterine glass balls are used to prevent oestrous signs in sports mares, but the mechanism of action is unknown. It has been suggested that the glass ball can mimic an embryo or act via an induced chronic uterine inflammation and absent or continuous low-grade prostaglandin (PG) release. The purpose of this study was to induce prolonged luteal function in mares using a small intrauterine device (IUD) and to study the mechanisms behind prolonged IUD-induced luteal function. A uterine swab and a biopsy specimen were obtained in early oestrus. A water-filled plastic ball, diameter 20mm and weight 3.6g, was inserted into the uterus 2-4 days after ovulation; the control mares underwent similar cervical manipulation without ball insertion. The mares were examined three times per week until day 23 and twice weekly thereafter until they returned to oestrus (transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and progesterone determination). The location of the IUD was recorded and ultrasound scans were video-recorded to assess the frequency of uterine contractions. When the mare returned to oestrus, a uterine swab and biopsy specimen were obtained and the bacteriological, cytological and histological (inflammation and glandular dilation) results compared with the samples obtained before the IUD insertion. The PG F(2alpha) metabolite levels were measured in the plasma of four control mares and eight IUD mares on days 11-16. The IUD induced a prolonged luteal phase in 75% of the mares (9/12; IUD-P); the mean dioestrous length was 57.0 days. The three mares that did not respond to the IUD (IUD-N) showed a mean dioestrous length of 15.7 days and the 12 control mares 16.1 days. The inflammation and glandular dilation scores were not significantly different in pre- and post-manipulation biopsy specimens. Although locational changes of the IUD were observed, they occurred over very small distances and were mostly limited within the body-bifurcation area. The IUD-N and control mares showed

  7. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  8. Cecal vascular hamartoma causing recurrent colic in an Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Marie; Maninchedda, Ugo; Belluco, Sara; Lepage, Olivier; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-06-01

    A 5-year-old mare was treated for recurrent colic and weight loss by surgical removal of an intraluminal cecal mass. Microscopic examination revealed vascular hamartoma. A 6-month follow-up showed an improvement in the general condition of the mare. Vascular hamartoma should be one of the differential diagnoses for weight loss and colic. PMID:24891636

  9. Exposure to stallion accelerates the onset of mares' cyclicity.

    PubMed

    Wespi, B; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C; Burger, D

    2014-07-15

    Horses (Equus caballus) belong to the group of seasonally polyestrous mammals. Estrous cycles typically start with increasing daylight length after winter, but mares can differ greatly in the timing of onset of regular estrus cycles. Here, we test whether spatial proximity to a stallion also plays a role. Twenty-two anestrous mares were either exposed to one of two stallions (without direct physical contact) or not exposed (controls) under experimental conditions during two consecutive springs (February to April). Ovarian activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasound and stallion's direct contact time with each mare was determined three times per week for one hour each. We found that mares exposed to a stallion ovulated earlier and more often during the observational period than mares that were not exposed to stallions. Neither stallion identity nor direct contact time, mare age, body condition, size of her largest follicle at the onset of the experiment, or parasite burden significantly affected the onset of cyclicity. In conclusion, the timing of estrous cycles and cycle frequency, i.e., crucial aspects of female reproductive strategy, strongly depend on how the mares perceive their social environment. Exposing mares to the proximity of a stallion can therefore be an alternative to, for example, light programs or elaborated hormonal therapies to start the breeding season earlier and increase the number of estrous cycles in horses. PMID:24815602

  10. Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original located at Mare Island Archives). Original photographer unknown. Dry dock 2 with three submarines and one sailing ship; 1914. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, California Avenue, east side near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. REVIEW paper: mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, M M; Bernard, W V; Riddle, T W; Latimer, C R; Fitzgerald, T D; Harrison, L R

    2008-09-01

    An epidemic of early fetal loss (EFL), late fetal loss (LFL), fibrinous pericarditis, and unilateral uveitis which occurred during the spring of 2001, are together now known as the mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS). A similar epidemic with less intensity was reported during the same period of time from southern Ohio, West Virginia, and Tennessee. The same syndrome with lesser intensity recurred in 2002. The estimated economic loss from the syndrome in 2001 and 2002 together was approximately $500 million. Both EFL and LFL were characterized by the absence of specific clinical signs in aborting mares. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus spp. and Actinobacillus spp. accounted for 65% of the organisms isolated from fetuses submitted for a postmortem during the MRLS period in 2001 and 2002. The pathologic findings in fetoplacental units of LFL included bronchopneumonia and funisitis, and there were no findings in EFL. Epidemiologic studies conducted in 2001 suggested an association between the presences of eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) in pastures with MRLS. Experimental studies in pregnant mares by exposure to ETC, or administration by stomach tube or with feed material, reproduced EFL and LFL. Similar experimental studies in mouse, rats, and goats with ETC were unsuccessful. Currently, 2 hypotheses are proposed for MRLS. One hypothesis proposes that an ETC-related toxin with secondary opportunistic bacterial invasion of the fetus leads to MRLS. The second hypothesis suggests that a breach of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity by hairs of ETC leads to a bacteremia and results in MRLS. In 2004, a similar equine abortion storm was reported from Australia and caterpillar exposure was identified as a risk factor for the abortion. In 2006, the syndrome was observed in Florida and New Jersey. PMID:18725479

  12. Stratigraphic studies: Part A: basalt stratigraphy of southern Mare Serenitatis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Carr, M.H.; Muehlberger, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Mare Serenitatis has long been noted for its conspicuous dark border (fig. 29-1). The Apollo 17 metric photographs traverse this border in southern Mare Serenitatis and show clearly superposition relationships among the mare and mare-related stratigraphic units. These photographs, together with full-Moon photographs, albedo measurements, and color information (table 29-I), provide the basis for a revised stratigraphic framework for these presumedly basaltic rocks (figs. 29-2 and 29-3). In contrast to most previous studies, we conclude that the darker units are older than lighter ones. Similar conclusions have been reached by Bryan and Adams (part C of sec. 30) and Boyce and Dial (part C of this section). The relatively light-colored central part of Mare Serenitatis is thought to represent the youngest basalt in the region; a very dark unit that includes the Apollo 17 landing site is one of the oldest.

  13. Progestin withdrawal at parturition in the mare.

    PubMed

    Legacki, Erin L; Corbin, C J; Ball, B A; Wynn, M; Loux, S; Stanley, S D; Conley, A J

    2016-10-01

    Mammalian pregnancies need progestogenic support and birth requires progestin withdrawal. The absence of progesterone in pregnant mares, and the progestogenic bioactivity of 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP), led us to reexamine progestin withdrawal at foaling. Systemic pregnane concentrations (DHP, allopregnanolone, pregnenolone, 5α-pregnane-3β, 20α-diol (3β,20αDHP), 20α-hydroxy-5α-dihydroprogesterone (20αDHP)) and progesterone) were monitored in mares for 10days before foaling (n=7) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The biopotency of dominant metabolites was assessed using luciferase reporter assays. Stable transfected Chinese hamster ovarian cells expressing the equine progesterone receptor (ePGR) were transfected with an MMTV-luciferase expression plasmid responsive to steroid agonists. Cells were incubated with increasing concentrations (0-100nM) of progesterone, 20αDHP and 3α,20βDHP. The concentrations of circulating pregnanes in periparturient mares were (highest to lowest) 3α,20βDHP and 20αDHP (800-400ng/mL respectively), DHP and allopregnanolone (90 and 30ng/mL respectively), and pregnenolone and progesterone (4-2ng/mL). Concentrations of all measured pregnanes declined on average by 50% from prepartum peaks to the day before foaling. Maximum activation of the ePGR by progesterone occurred at 30nM; 20αDHP and 3α,20βDHP were significantly less biopotent. At prepartum concentrations, both 20αDHP and 3α,20βDHP exhibited significant ePGR activation. Progestogenic support of pregnancy declines from 3 to 5days before foaling. Prepartum peak concentrations indicate that DHP is the major progestin, but other pregnanes like 20αDHP are present in sufficient concentrations to play a physiological role in the absence of DHP. The authors conclude that progestin withdrawal associated with parturition in mares involves cessation of pregnane synthesis by the placenta. PMID:27568209

  14. NASA Electronic Library System (NELS) database schema, version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melebeck, Clovis J.

    1991-01-01

    The database tables used by NELS version 1.2 are discussed. To provide the current functional capability offered by NELS, nineteen tables were created with ORACLE. Each table lists the ORACLE table name and provides a brief description of the tables intended use or function. The following sections cover four basic categories of tables: NELS object classes, NELS collections, NELS objects, and NELS supplemental tables. Also included in each section is a definition and/or relationship of each field to other fields or tables. The primary key(s) for each table is indicated with a single asterisk (*), while foreign keys are indicated with double asterisks (**). The primary key(s) indicate the key(s) which uniquely identifies a record for that table. The foreign key(s) is used to identify additional information in other table(s) for that record. The two appendices are the command which is used to construct the ORACLE tables for NELS. Appendix A contains the commands which create the tables which are defined in the following sections. Appendix B contains the commands which build the indices for these tables.

  15. The violent side of mare volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Mckay, David S.; Hawke, B. Ray

    1991-01-01

    In the past 15 years it has become increasingly evident that lunar pyroclastic volcanism played an important role in the formation and resurfacing of portions of the Moon. Located on mare/highland boundaries, many of these deposits formed in association with mare volcanism. Based on recently acquired geologic and remote sensing data, two generally distinct types of pyroclastic mantling deposits have been identified: regional and localized. Both the regional dark mantling deposits (RDMD) and localized dark mantling deposits (LDMD) are widely distributed across the lunar nearside. The larger RDMD are typically located in lunar highland areas adjacent to many of the major lunar maria, while the smaller LDMD are found on the floors of pre-Imbrian and Inbrian craters. Both deposits are basaltic in composition and are presumed to have originated at great depth (approx. 300 km). The composition, geometry, and vent morphology of the pyroclastic deposits have been used to infer the eruption mechanisms and emplacement styles for both types of deposits.

  16. Mare volcanism: Reinterpretation based on Kaguya Lunar Radar Sounder data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshigami, Shoko; Watanabe, Shiho; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Yamaji, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takao; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ishiyama, Ken; Ono, Takayuki

    2014-05-01

    The Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) onboard Kaguya (SELENE) detected widespread horizontal reflectors under some nearside maria. Previous studies estimated that the depths of the subsurface reflectors were up to several hundreds of meters and suggested that the reflectors were interfaces between mare basalt units. The comparison between the reflectors detected in the LRS data and surface age maps indicating the formation age of each basalt unit allows us to discuss the lower limit volume of each basalt unit and its space and time variation. We estimated volumes of basalt units in the ages of 2.7 Ga to 3.8 Ga in the nearside maria including Mare Crisium, Mare Humorum, Mare Imbrium, Mare Nectaris, Mare Serenitatis, Mare Smythii, and Oceanus Procellarum. The lower limit volumes of the geologic units estimated in this study were on the order of 103 to 104 km3. This volume range is consistent with the total amount of erupted lava flows derived from numerical simulations of thermal erosion models of lunar sinuous rille formation and is also comparable to the average flow volumes of continental flood basalt units formed after the Paleozoic and calculated flow volumes of Archean komatiite flows on the Earth. The lower limits of average eruption rates estimated from the unit volumes were on the order of 10-5 to 10-3 km3/yr. The estimated volumes of the geologic mare units and average eruption rate showed clear positive correlations with their ages within the same mare basin, while they vary among different maria compared within the same age range.

  17. Variations in chemical composition of Apollo 15 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 30 different Apollo 15 mare basalts were examined to evaluate the effects of closure on the pearson moment correlation coefficient. It is shown possible to describe the Apollo 15 mare basalts in terms of an opaque, an olivine/pyroxene, an anorthite, and a KREEP component, if significant correlations are identified using the expected correlations as null values. Using Q-mode cluster analysis and nonlinear mapping, it is possible to recognize three groups of the mare basalts, groups 1 and 2 belonging to the olivine normative basalt cluster and group 3 to the quartz normative cluster.

  18. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (<130 kg) named Arne, that carries three flying microbots (or pit-bots) [5,6,7]. Key measurement objectives include decimeter scale characterization of the pit walls, 5-cm scale imaging of the eastern floor, determination of the extent of sublunarean void(s), and measurement of the magnetic and thermal environment. After landing and initial surface systems check Arne will transmit full resolution descent and surface images. Within two hours the first pit-bot will launch and fly into the eastern void. Depending on results from the first pit-bot the second and third will launch and perform follow-up observations. The primary mission is expected to last 48-hours; before the Sun sets on the lander there should be enough time to execute ten flights with each pit-bot. The pit-bots are 30-cm diameter spherical flying robots [5,6,7] equipped with stereo cameras, temperature sensors, sensors for obstacle avoidance and a laser rangefinder. Lithium hydride [5,6] and water/hydrogen peroxide power three micro-thrusters and achieve a specific impulse of 350-400 s. Each pit-bot can fly for 2 min at 2 m/s for more than 100 cycles; recharge time is 20 min. Arne will carry a magnetometer, thermometer, 2 high resolution cameras, and 6 wide angle cameras and obstacle avoidance infrared sensors enabling detailed characterization of extant sublunarean voids. [1] Haruyama et al. (2010) 41st LPSC, #1285. [2

  19. NELS 2.0 - A general system for enterprise wide information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephanie L.

    1993-01-01

    NELS, the NASA Electronic Library System, is an information management tool for creating distributed repositories of documents, drawings, and code for use and reuse by the aerospace community. The NELS retrieval engine can load metadata and source files of full text objects, perform natural language queries to retrieve ranked objects, and create links to connect user interfaces. For flexibility, the NELS architecture has layered interfaces between the application program and the stored library information. The session manager provides the interface functions for development of NELS applications. The data manager is an interface between session manager and the structured data system. The center of the structured data system is the Wide Area Information Server. This system architecture provides access to information across heterogeneous platforms in a distributed environment. There are presently three user interfaces that connect to the NELS engine; an X-Windows interface, and ASCII interface and the Spatial Data Management System. This paper describes the design and operation of NELS as an information management tool and repository.

  20. Endocardial fibroelastosis in a quarterhorse mare.

    PubMed

    Cushing, T L

    2013-01-01

    A 4-year-old crossbred Quarterhorse mare was submitted to the Clemson Veterinary Diagnostic Center for necropsy examination with a chronic history of inappetence, weight loss and lethargy. Prior to death the horse had developed mild diarrhoea and began showing evidence of colic. Necropsy examination revealed a markedly enlarged heart due predominantly to marked dilation of the right atrium, tortuous congested mesenteric blood vessels, marked ascites, pleural effusion and pulmonary oedema. Further examination of the heart showed the endocardium of the left side of the heart, including the mitral valve leaflets, to be diffusely thickened. Microscopically, the endocardial thickening was due to deposition of fibrous connective tissue and elastin fibres. These findings are consistent with a diagnosis of endocardial fibroelastosis. PMID:23651694

  1. Lead isotope studies of mare basalt 70017

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattinson, J. M.; Tilton, G. R.; Todt, W.; Chen, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium, thorium, and isotopic lead data for components of basalt 70017 are reported, and it is found that the whole rock, pyroxene, and ilmenite points in a concordia diagram plot along a chord intersecting the curve at 3.7 and 4.33 eons. The plagioclase data do not seem to lie on this line. The data for 70017 appear to plot along a distinctly different chord in a concordia diagram than do the data for 75055 and 75035, two other Apollo 17 mare basalts. The lead data are in accord with Sm-Nd results. A 3.7 eon crystallization age for 70017 would be consistent with the same kind of parentless lead that is indicated by previous studies of soils and soil breccias from stations at Taurus-Littrow. The Th/U ratio in ilmenite is 2.2, and the concentrations of these two elements are approximately twice those in pyroxene.

  2. Disposition of firocoxib in late pregnant and early postpartum mares.

    PubMed

    Giguère, S; Macpherson, M L; Benson, S M; Cox, S; McNaughten, J W; Pozor, M A

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy induces several physiologic changes that might impact the bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy on the disposition of oral firocoxib in mares. Seven pony mares received oral firocoxib paste at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg during late pregnancy and again 12 to 33 days postpartum. Firocoxib concentrations were measured in plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Maximum plasma concentrations were significantly lower in pregnant (50.0 ± 21.8 ng/mL) than in postpartum (73.7 ± 25.6 ng/mL) mares. Plasma concentrations 24 h after administration, time to maximum plasma concentrations, and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve were not significantly different between late pregnancy and the postpartum period in mares. PMID:26202842

  3. Mare ridges and lava lakes. [Apollo 17 investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The autointrusive hypothesis of the origin of several vagaries of prominent mare ridges is explained. Data are based on a comparison between the structure of a Hawaiian lava lake and the mare ridges. Resulting data suggest that these ridges may have formed as squeeze-ups and autointrusives in tension fractures over buried topography in the crust of luna lava lakes. Data also suggest that mare ridges may result from: (1) pressure ridges in flows, (2) compressional features resulting from subsidence of mare lava, (3) volcanic ring structures and extrusives, or loccoliths fed by lunar grid controlled dikes, (4) draped topography and fissure eruptives, (5) drag folds or tension-gash dikes caused by wrench faulting at depth, and (6) postmare thrust faults.

  4. Thicknesses and Volumes of Lunar Mare Basalt Flow Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W.; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    Reliable estimates of the flow thickness are crucial to our understanding of the vol- umes and the flux of lunar mare basalt volcanism. Previous work on basalt flow unit thicknesses was based on (1) shadow measurements in high-resolution images that were taken under low-sun conditions, (2) in situ observations, e.g. of Hadley Rille at the Apollo 15 landing site, and (3) on studies of the chemical kinetic aspects of lava emplacement and cooling. These studies revealed flow unit thicknesses between 1 and 96 m. Flow unit thicknesses derived from imaging data are on average ~21 m, in contrast to chemical kinetic considerations that yield thicknesses of less than 10 m. We used crater size-distribution measurements to estimate flow unit thicknesses. A large number (~60) of our crater counts show evidence for resurfacing events and these "irregularities" in the crater size distributions are used to infer the thickness of the resurfacing layer, that is the thickness of lava flows in several nearside basins. We find that the average minimum flow unit height of all investigated units is on the order of 34 m (+7/-6 m) and that the average maximum flow unit height is about 53 m (+9/- 9 m). On average the thinnest flow units were detected for units in Mare Insularum, Mare Cognitum, and Mare Nubium, thickest flows are exposed in Mare Tranquilli- tatis and Mare Humorum. Average thicknesses of flow units in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium are slightly larger than in Mare Insularum, Mare Cognitum, and Mare Nubium, but are smaller than in Mare Tranquillitatis and Mare Humorum. The minimum average volume of all investigated flow units is~590 km3 and the maximum average volume is~940 km3. Our data indicate that the most voluminous flow units are located in Mare Humorum and Mare Tranquillitatis. As crater counts for units in Mare Serenitatis do not exhibit prominent deflections we conclude that these units have not to been resurfaced with flows thick enough to be detected in the

  5. A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

    2000-01-01

    CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

  6. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait, within 100 yards of the shore of that part of the Navy Yard, Mare Island, south of the causeway between the City of Vallejo and Mare Island... Yard to its northwesterly limit on the waters of San Pablo Bay, and the waters within 50 yards of...

  7. Interpretation of the ethane deficiency in Ligeia Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Lunine, J. I.; Hayes, A. G.; Hofgartner, J.

    2015-10-01

    Absorption of Cassini's 2.2 cm radar by Ligeia Mare suggests that this north polar sea is dominated by methane. In order to explain this apparent ethane deficiency, we explore the possibility that Ligeia Mare is the visible part of an alkanofer that interacted with an underlying clathrate layer and investigate the influence of this inter action on an assumed initial ethane- methane mixture in the liquid phase.

  8. Evaluation of two treatments in superovulation of mares.

    PubMed

    Rosas, C A; Alberio, R H; Barañao, J L; Agüero, A; Chaves, M G

    1998-05-01

    The efficiency of superovulating mares with an enriched fraction of equine follicle-stimulating hormone (feFSH) and an equine pituitary extract (EPE) with similar FSH content but differing in the LH amount was compared. Mares were randomly assigned to an feFSH (n = 5) or EPE (n = 5) treatment. The experimental period was of 2 successive estrous cycles, with the first cycle as the control. At Days 6 and 7 of the estrous cycle, the mares received 250 micrograms i.m. cloprostenol. The treatments consisted of daily injections of 25 mg feFSH or EPE beginning on Day 6 post ovulation. Mares were inseminated every other day until the last ovulation was detected. When the mares in the control and treatment cycles developed at least 1 or 2 > or = 35-mm follicle, respectively, the treatment was interrupted, and a single injection of EPE (25 mg, i.v.) was administered to induce ovulation(s). Nonsurgical embryo recovery was performed 6 or 7 d after ovulation in both control and treatment cycles. The number of ovulations per mare was not significantly different (P > 0.05) between feFSH and EPE groups, but both were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the control cycle. The number of recovered embryos per ovulation was similar (P > 0.05) for control, feFSH and EPE groups. The high amount of LH presented in EPE did not affect the superovulatory response of the mares. Superovulatory treatments increased the ovulation rate of mares but did not affect the embryo recovery rate per ovulation. PMID:10732063

  9. Transport of spermatozoa in the reproductive tracts of mares.

    PubMed

    Katila, T; Sankari, S; Mäkelä, O

    2000-01-01

    A scintigraphic method was developed to study sperm migration in the reproductive tracts of mares. Mares (n=5) and stallions (n=2) were used to test various steps of the procedure and three other mares and a stallion were used to study sperm transportation. A radiolabelling solution was prepared from 99mTc (Technetium-99m) and hexamethyl propylene amine oxime. The highest labelling of spermatozoa (57-72%) was obtained by incubation of the spermatozoa with the radiolabelling solution for 20 min at 20 degrees C. Radioactivity outside the spermatozoa was removed by centrifugation and by two subsequent washings with skimmed milk extender. The labelled spermatozoa were inseminated into the uterine bodies of detomidine-sedated mares undergoing oestrus and scintigraphic images were obtained for 4.5 h after insemination. Both dynamic (two pictures s(-1), 2 min multiple scans, 64 x 64 matrix) and static scans (20 s, 64 x 64 matrix) were used to image the mares. The attenuation of gamma radiation in the vagina and uterus was determined for each mare. Radioactive spermatozoa were found in the tips of the uterine horns for the first time at about 8-20 min after insemination. The frequency of uterine contractions varied considerably among mares and ranged from five to 65 contractions during the first 30 min after insemination. Within 1 h after insemination most of the sperm activity was in the uterus. At 2.5 h after insemination, most of the spermatozoa had left the uterus and were either in the vagina or had escaped into the vulva and been discharged. At 4.5 h after insemination there was hardly any sperm activity in the uterus and a small amount of activity only in the vagina; most spermatozoa had been eliminated from the mares. PMID:20681171

  10. A high-resolution radar and CCD imaging study of crater rays in Mare Serenitatis and Mare Nectaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Bell, James F., III; Zisk, Stanley H.; Hawke, B. R.; Horton, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    Radar and spectral image processing techniques are reviewed and their application to the rays in Mare Serenitatis and Mare Nectaris is discussed. Analysis of data for Mare Serenitatis shows that the ray that passes west of the Bessel Crater is characterized by up to 40 percent highland ejecta. Radar data show that optically bright ray deposits are characterized by enhanced 1-50 cm scale roughness within the upper meter of the regolith, but not by enhanced 1-10 m blockiness. Stokes vector analysis of the 3.0 cm radar echoes shows that the western portion of the Bessel ejecta blanket is characterized by an anomalously high nondiffuse depolarized return. The ray analyzed in Mare Nectaris passes close to Rosse Crater and is characterized by a cluster of bright secondary craters within a radar-rough halo downrange of Tycho. This downrange deposit is attributed to excavation of local fragmental material by a secondary debris surge.

  11. Radar remote sensing of pyroclastic deposits in the southern Mare Serenitatis and Mare Vaporum regions of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael C.

    2009-11-01

    We use polarimetric radar observations to study the distribution, depth, and embedded rock abundance of nearside lunar pyroclastic deposits. Radar images were obtained for Mare Vaporum and the southern half of Mare Serenitatis; the imaged areas contain the large Rima Bode, Mare Vaporum, Sulpicius Gallus, and Taurus-Littrow pyroclastic deposits. Potential pyroclastic deposits at Rima Hyginus crater, the Tacquet Formation, and a dome in Mare Vaporum are also included. Data were acquired at S band (12.6 cm wavelength) using Arecibo Observatory and the Green Bank Telescope in a bistatic configuration. The S band images have resolutions between 20 and 100 m/pixel. The pyroclastic deposits appear dark to the radar and have low circular polarization ratios at S band wavelengths because they are smooth, easily penetrable by radar waves, and generally contain few embedded blocks. Changes in circular polarization ratio (CPR) across some of the pyroclastic deposits show areas with increased rock abundance as well as deposits that are shallower. Radar backscatter and CPR maps are used to identify fine-grained mantling deposits in cases where optical and near-infrared data are ambiguous about the presence of pyroclastics. The Tacquet Formation in southern Serenitatis, areas near Hyginus crater, and a dome in Mare Vaporum have lower-backscatter cross sections than would be expected for mare basalts of similar estimated titanium content. Combined with very low CPR values, this is strong evidence that these areas are covered in fine-grained pyroclastic mantling material.

  12. Processionary caterpillar setae and equine fetal loss: 1. Histopathology of experimentally exposed pregnant mares.

    PubMed

    Todhunter, K H; Cawdell-Smith, A J; Bryden, W L; Perkins, N R; Begg, A P

    2014-11-01

    Six pregnant Standardbred mares aged between 6 and 14 years were gavaged with 50 g or 100 g of suspended emulsified whole Processionary caterpillars (Ochrogaster lunifer) for 5 days during 2 experiments undertaken to study the etiology of equine amnionitis and fetal loss (EAFL). The 6 treated mares and 1 untreated mare were between 128 and 252 days gestation. Mare 1 (untreated) was euthanized on day 5 of the treatment period, while the treated mares were euthanized on days 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, and 24 days from their first treatment. Caterpillar setae were not found in the untreated mare. Setal fragments were present in all regions of the gastrointestinal tracts in all treated mares, the uteri and mesenteric lymph nodes of 5 mares, and the liver of 4 mares. Acute gastroenteritis of varying severity was present in all treated mares, and 5 of 6 mares had acute colitis and endometritis. Focal hyperplastic serositis was found in the duodenum, cecum, dorsal colon, and uteri of various mares occasionally with embedded setal fragments. Setal invasion of the mucosa evoked a range of lesions including superficial erosion to deep ulceration. Inflammation in deeper tissues ranged from unapparent to neutrophilic (microabscesses), eosinophilic, or mononuclear (microgranulomas). The finding of setal fragments within the uterus of experimental mares suggests that direct migration of setal fragments acting as a bacterial vector is a likely mechanism for the bacterial abortions that characterize equine amnionitis and fetal loss. PMID:24379221

  13. Effect of photoperiod on reproductive activity and hair in mares.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, L H; Ginther, O J

    1975-10-01

    The effects of photoperiod on reproductive activity and hair changes in pony mares were studied in 2 experiments. In experiment I, the effect of a fixed daily photoperiod on the onset of the breeding season was studied in 36 mares from Nov 13, 1973, to June 13, 1974. The 4 treatment groups were as follows: daily photoperiod equivalent to the normal day length (control group); constant light 24 hours a day with no dark (L24:D0 group); 16-hour daily photoperiod with 8 hours of dark (L16:D8 group); and 9-hour daily photoperiod with 15 hours of dark (L9:D15 group). The intervals from beginning of experiment to 1st ovulation of breeding season, to shedding of hair in tufts, and to appearance of a smooth coat were shorter (P less than 0.05) for L16:D8 group (107.1 +/- 11.1, 56.0 +/- 0, and 145.8 +/- 4.0 days, respectively) than for control, L24:D0, and L9:D15 groups and were shorter (P less than 0.05) for L24:D0 group (less than 156.1 +/- 12.2, 99.5 +/- 9.5, and 173.9 +/- 9.9 days, respectively) than for control group (192.1 +/- 3.3, 134.9 +/- 8.9, and 205.0 +/- 0 days, respectively) or L9:D15 group (less than 200.3 +/- 5,8, 150.6 +/- 12.9, and 201.7 +/- 3.3 days, respectively). These intervals were not significantly different between the control group and the L9:D15 group, but fewer (P less than 0.05) mares in the L9:D15 group had at least 1 ovulation by termination of the project. In experiment II, the effect of photoperiod on onset of anestrus was studied in 3 groups of 7 mares each. Mares in group A, as part of a previous experiment, were induced to enter the breeding season earlier than normal by a gradual increase in daily photoperiod beginning on Oct 13, 1972. From Feb 16, 1973, to June 22, 1973, group A mares were maintained at a fixed daily photoperiod of 15 hours 23 minutes. Mares in group B, as part of a previous experiment, were kept under environmental conditions simulating normal conditions in southern Wisconsin. On June 22, 1973 (beginning of the present

  14. Endocrine profiles of periparturient mares and their foals.

    PubMed

    Berg, E L; McNamara, D L; Keisler, D H

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize concentrations of leptin, IGF-I, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood serum of mares pre-and postpartum, in the milk serum of mares postpartum, and in the blood serum of their foals. Nine pregnant Quarter Horse mares and their offspring were used in this study. Once weekly between 1000 and 1200 h for 2 wk before their predicted parturition date, mares were weighed, assigned a BCS, and blood was sampled via jugular venipuncture. Within 2 h of parturition and before the foals nursed (d 0), blood samples were obtained from the mares and foals, and a milk sample was collected from the mares. Blood from the foals and blood and milk from the mares were collected again at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, and 61 d postpartum. Mares and foals also were weighed and assigned a BCS on d 0, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, and 61. Additionally, on d 5, 33, and 61, ultrasound images of fat depth and area of the LM immediately cranial to and parallel with the last rib on the left side of the foals were measured to characterize changes in fat depth and LM area over time. There were no changes in mare blood concentrations TSH (P = 0.15), nor were there any changes in foal blood concentrations of leptin (P = 0.54) or TSH (P = 0.10) during the trial period. Mare blood concentrations of IGF-I tended to change over time (P = 0.07), whereas leptin changed over time (P < 0.001), initially decreasing and then remaining relatively stable after d 5. Foal blood concentrations of IGF-I increased initially, peaked at d 19, and stabilized thereafter (P < 0.001). Milk concentrations of leptin and TSH were greatest on d 0 and decreased over time (P < 0.007), reaching nadir concentrations at d 61. Milk concentrations of IGF-I also changed over time (P = 0.02), being greatest on d 0 and undetectable by d 12. There was no difference in BCS (P = 0.94) in mares over time, but there was a difference between pre- and postpartum BW (P < 0

  15. Hematological and biochemical features of postpartum fever in the heavy draft mare.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takahiro; Kimura, Yuki; Oya, Anna; Chiba, Akiko; Ishii, Mitsuo; Nambo, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Heavy draft mares potentially have a higher risk of suffering from postpartum fever (PF) than light breed mares. The purpose of this study was to compare hematological and biochemical features between clinically healthy mares (n=40) and PF-affected mares (n=16). Mares were classified as having PF when their rectal temperature rose to >38.5°C within 96 hr of foaling. The numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils and the serum magnesium level were significantly lower in PF-affected mares. The serum SAA and NEFA levels were significantly higher in PF-affected mares. Strong inflammation responses, fat mobilization associated with negative energy balance and possibly endotoxin participate in hematological and biochemical features of PF in heavy draft mares. PMID:27073331

  16. Hematological and biochemical features of postpartum fever in the heavy draft mare

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takahiro; KIMURA, Yuki; OYA, Anna; CHIBA, Akiko; ISHII, Mitsuo; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heavy draft mares potentially have a higher risk of suffering from postpartum fever (PF) than light breed mares. The purpose of this study was to compare hematological and biochemical features between clinically healthy mares (n=40) and PF-affected mares (n=16). Mares were classified as having PF when their rectal temperature rose to >38.5°C within 96 hr of foaling. The numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils and the serum magnesium level were significantly lower in PF-affected mares. The serum SAA and NEFA levels were significantly higher in PF-affected mares. Strong inflammation responses, fat mobilization associated with negative energy balance and possibly endotoxin participate in hematological and biochemical features of PF in heavy draft mares. PMID:27073331

  17. A chemical model for lunar non-mare rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Nearly all rocks returned from the moon are readily divided into three broad categories on the basis of their chemical compositions: (1) mare basalts, (2) non-mare rocks of basaltic composition (KREEP, VHA), and (3) anorthositic rocks. Only mare basalts may unambiguously be considered to have original igneous textures and are widely understood to have an igneous origin. Nearly all other lunar rocks have lost their original textures during metamorphic and impact processes. It is shown that for these rocks one must work primarily with chemical data in order to recognize and define rock groups and their possible modes of origin. Non-mare rocks of basaltic composition have chemical compositions consistent with an origin by partial melting of the lunar interior. The simplest origin for rocks of anorthositic chemical composition is the crystallization and removal of ferromagnesian minerals. It is proposed that the rock groups of anorthositic and non-mare basaltic chemical composition could have been generated from a single series of original but not necessarily primitive lunar materials.

  18. A chemical model for lunar non-mare rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Nearly all rocks returned from the moon are readily divided into three broad categories on the basis of their chemical compositions: (1) mare basalts, (2) non-mare rocks of basaltic composition (KREEP, VHA), and (3) anorthositic rocks. Only mare basalts may unambiguously be considered to have original igneous textures and are widely understood to have an igneous origin. Nearly all other lunar rocks have lost their original textures during metamorphic and impact processes. For these rocks one must work primarily with chemical data in order to recognize and define rock groups and their possible modes of origin. Non-mare rocks of basaltic composition have chemical compositions consistent with an origin by partial melting of the lunar interior. The simplest origin for rocks of anorthositic chemical composition is the crystallization and removal of ferromagnesian minerals. It is proposed that the rock groups of anorthositic and non-mare basaltic chemical composition could have been generated from a single series of original, but not necessarily primitive, lunar materials.

  19. MARE-l in Milan: Status and Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, E.; Arnaboldi, C.; Ceruti, G.; Faverzani, M.; Gatti, C.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessini, G.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M.

    2012-01-01

    The international project MARE (Microcalorimeter Array for a Rhenium Experiment) aims at the direct and calorimetric measurement of the electron neutrino mass with sub-eV sensitivity. Although the baseline of the MARE project consists in a large array of rhenium based thermal detectors, a different option for the isotope is also being considered. The different option is Ho-163. The potential of using Re-187 for a calorimetric neutrino mass experiment has been already demonstrated. On the contrary, no calorimetric spectrum of Ho-163 has been so far measured with the precision required to set a useful limit on the neutrino mass. The first phase of the project (MARE-1) is a collection of activities with the aim of sorting out both the best isotope and the most suited detector technology to be used for the final experiment. One of the MARE-1 activities is carried out in Milan by the group of Milano-Bicocca in collaboration with NASA/GSFC and Wisconsin groups. The Milan MARE-l arrays are based on semiconductor thermistors, provided by the NASA/GSFC group, with dielectric silver perrhenate absorbers, AgReO4. The experiment, which is presently being assembled, is designed to host up to 8 arrays.

  20. On the connection between mare basalts and picritic volcanic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, John

    1987-01-01

    The liquid lines of descent were calculated for low-pressure equilibrium and fractional crystallization of mare basaltic liquids in order to examine the postulated link between picritic volcanic glasses and mare basalts. The models of Longhi (1977, 1982) were modified by including expressions for the armalcolite/ilmenite surface boundary and the Cr-spinel liquidus surface, average molar partition coefficients for armalcolite/liquid pairs, and new experimental data of Longhi and Pan (1987). The results indicate that, with two exceptions, mare basalts and picritic volcanic glasses are not related by simple, linear-surface crystallization processes. However, the compositions of Luna 24 ferrobasalt and Apollo 11 high-K basalts could be closely matched with the lines of liquid descent of certain green and orange picritic glasses, respectively. The calculations also show that the picritic magmas would have fractionated to produce basalts with bulk and mineral compositions similar to those of mare basalts, supporting the hypothesis that mare basalts have fractionated compositions and that the small number of observed linkages between basalts and picritic parents is a consequence of limited sampling.

  1. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  2. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  4. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  5. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  6. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1991-11-01

    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  7. Lunar ferroan anorthosites and mare basalt sources - The mixed connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1991-01-01

    Global overturn of a hot, gravitationally unstable lunar mantle immediately following the solidification of a magma ocean explains several characteristics of lunar petrology. Lunar mare basalt sources are inferred to be depleted in europium and alumina. These depletions are consensually attributed to complementary plagioclase floating from a magma ocean. However, in contrast to the mare basalt source parent magma, the ferroan anorthosite parent magma was more evolved by virtue of its lower Mg/Fe ratio and Ni abundances, although less evolved in its poverty of clinopyroxene constituents, flat rare earth pattern, and lower incompatible element abundances. The europium anomaly in mare sources is inferred to be present at 400 km depth, too deep to have been directly influenced by plagioclase crystallization. Massive overturning of the post-magma ocean mantle would have carried down clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and phases containing fractionated rare earths, europium anomalies, and some heat-producing radionuclides.

  8. Induction of haemorrhagic anovulatory follicles in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Gastal, M O; Gastal, E L; Jacob, J C; Beg, M A

    2008-01-01

    A follicular wave and luteolysis were induced in mares by ablation of follicles > or =6 mm and treatment with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF) on Day 10 (where ovulation = Day 0). The incidence of haemorrhagic anovulatory follicles (HAFs) in the induced waves (20%) was greater (P < 0.007) than in preceding spontaneous waves (2%). Hormone and follicle dynamics were compared between induced follicular waves that ended in ovulations (ovulating group; n = 36) v. HAFs (HAF group; n = 9). The day of the first ovulation or the beginning of HAF formation at the end of an induced wave was designated as post-treatment Day 0. The mean 13-day interval from Day 10 (PGF and ablation) to the post-treatment ovulation was normalised into Days 10 to 16, followed by Day -6 to Day 0 relative to the post-treatment ovulation. Concentrations of LH were greater (P < 0.05) in the HAF group than in the ovulating group on Days 10, 11, 12, 14, -3 and -2. The HAF group had greater (P < 0.003) LH concentrations on Day 10 of the preceding oestrous cycle with spontaneous ovulatory waves. The diameter of the largest follicle was less (P < 0.05) in the HAF group on most days between Day 13 and Day -1 and this was attributable to later (P < 0.002) emergence of the future largest follicle at 6 mm in the HAF group (Day 12.4 +/- 0.5) than in the ovulating group (Day 11.3 +/- 0.1). The results indicate that the high incidence of HAFs after PGF and ablation was associated with later follicle emergence and immediate and continuing greater LH concentration after PGF treatment, apparently augmented by an inherently high pretreatment LH concentration. PMID:19007559

  9. Structure-function analysis of Nel, a thrombospondin-1-like glycoprotein involved in neural development and functions.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ritsuko; Nakamoto, Chizu; Obama, Hiroya; Durward, Elaine; Nakamoto, Masaru

    2012-01-27

    Nel (neural epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like molecule) is a multimeric, multimodular extracellular glycoprotein with heparin-binding activity and structural similarities to thrombospondin-1. Nel is predominantly expressed in the nervous system and has been implicated in neuronal proliferation and differentiation, retinal axon guidance, synaptic functions, and spatial learning. The Nel protein contains an N-terminal thrombospondin-1 (TSP-N) domain, five cysteine-rich domains, and six EGF-like domains. However, little is known about the functions of specific domains of the Nel protein. In this study, we have performed structure-function analysis of Nel, by using a series of expression constructs for different regions of the Nel protein. Our studies demonstrate that the TSP-N domain is responsible for homo-multimer formation of Nel and its heparin-binding activity. In vivo, Nel and related Nell1 are expressed in several regions of the mouse central nervous system with partly overlapping patterns. When they are expressed in the same cells in vitro, Nel and Nell1 can form hetero-multimers through the TSP-N domain, but they do not hetero-oligomerize with thrombospondin-1. Whereas both the TSP-N domain and cysteine-rich domains can bind to retinal axons in vivo, only the latter causes growth cone collapse in cultured retinal axons, suggesting that cysteine-rich domains interact with and activate an inhibitory axon guidance receptor. These results suggest that Nel interacts with a range of molecules through its different domains and exerts distinct functions. PMID:22157752

  10. Extreme radiation damage in soil from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phakey, P. P.; Price, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    High-voltage electron microscopy has been used to compare radiation effects in micron-size soil grains from the Luna 16 site (Mare Fecunditatis) and the four Apollo landing sites. Radiation damage by heavy solar particles is strikingly greater in the Luna 16 sample than in the other four samples. It is suggested that less movement of the soil at Mare Fecunditatis has taken place, perhaps because of its proximity to the limb and consequent lower exposure to energetic electrons in the earth's magnetospheric tail, which would cause electrostatic agitation of fine particles.

  11. Mares with delayed uterine clearance have an intrinsic defect in myometrial function.

    PubMed

    Rigby, S L; Barhoumi, R; Burghardt, R C; Colleran, P; Thompson, J A; Varner, D D; Blanchard, T L; Brinsko, S P; Taylor, T; Wilkerson, M K; Delp, M D

    2001-09-01

    Persistent, postmating endometritis affects approximately 15% of mares and results in reduced fertility and sizable economic losses to the horse-breeding industry. Mares that are susceptible to postmating endometritis have delayed uterine clearance associated with reduced uterine contractility. Unfortunately, the mechanism for reduced uterine contractility remains an enigma. The present study examined the hypothesis that mares with delayed uterine clearance have an intrinsic contractile defect of the myometrium. Myometrial contractility was evaluated in vitro by measuring isometric tension generated by longitudinal and circular uterine muscle strips in response to KCl, oxytocin, and prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) for young nulliparous mares, older reproductively normal mares, and older mares with delayed uterine clearance. In addition, intracellular Ca(2+) regulation was evaluated using laser cytometry to measure oxytocin-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) transients of myometrial cells loaded with a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye, fluo-4. For all contractile agonists, myometrium from mares with delayed uterine clearance failed to generate as much tension as myometrium from older normal mares. Oxytocin-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) transients were similar for myometrial cells from mares with delayed uterine clearance and from older normal mares, suggesting that the contractile defect did not result from altered regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Furthermore, no apparent age-dependent decline was observed in myometrial contractility; KCl-depolarized and oxytocin-stimulated longitudinal myometrium from young normal mares and older normal mares generated similar responses. However, circular myometrium from young normal mares failed to generate as much tension as myometrium from older normal mares when stimulated with oxytocin or PGF(2alpha), suggesting possible age-related alterations in receptor-second messenger signaling mechanisms downstream

  12. Persistent breeding-induced endometritis after hysteroscopic insemination in the mare.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M S; Lyle, S K; Paccamonti, D L; Eilts, B E; Hosgood, G; Godke, R A

    2012-10-01

    Low-dose insemination has been proposed to reduce persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) in mares with delayed uterine clearance (DUC). Others proposed that hysteroscopic insemination induces an exaggerated inflammatory response and should be avoided in DUC mares. The objectives here were to evaluate presence and severity of PBIE in normal and DUC mares after hysteroscopic insemination with fresh semen, and to determine if hysteroscopy could be used in DUC mares without inducing excessive inflammation. Reproductively normal (n = 4) and DUC (n = 5) mares received four treatments in random order: uterine body insemination (UB, 1 × 10(9) spermatozoa, 20 ml), hysteroscopic insemination (HYST, 5 × 10(6) spermatozoa, 0.5 ml), sham hysteroscopic insemination (SHAM, semen extender, 0.5 ml) and hysteroscopic infusion of seminal plasma (SP, 0.5 ml). Significantly more DUC (50%) mares than normal (14%) mares accumulated intrauterine fluid 24 h post-treatment. The difference in fluid accumulation between DUC (40%) mares and normal (7%) mares was also significant 48 h post-treatment. Fluid scores were not significantly different between treatments in normal mares. However, treatments HYST and SHAM resulted in significantly higher fluid scores 24 h but not 48 h post-treatment in DUC mares. There was no effect of treatment or mare group on the percentage and total number of neutrophils in uterine fluid 48 h post-treatment. Percentage of neutrophils was correlated with duration of hysteroscopy in normal mares, with procedures lasting ≥ 9 min associated with PBIE. There was no effect of mare group, treatment or duration of hysteroscopy on pregnancy rate. Hysteroscopy induces a transient inflammation that is not more severe than that after conventional artificial insemination, suggesting no contraindication to its use in DUC mares. PMID:22117796

  13. The Role of Source Confusion in Cultivation Effects May Depend on Processing Strategy: A Comment on Mares (1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    States M.L. Mares presents evidence that source confusions play a role in the cultivation effect. Clarifies some of Mares' findings that have implications for the heuristic model of cultivation effects and shows that Mares' findings are compatible with and can be integrated into the heuristic processing model. Discusses implications of Mares'…

  14. Remote sensing and photogrammetric studies: Part A: remote sensing of Mare Serenitatis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.W.; Howard, K.A.; Shorthill, R.W.; Tyler, G.L.; Zisk, S.H.; Whitaker, E.A.; Schaber, G.G.; Moore, H.J.

    1973-01-01

    Mare Serenitatis is a circular mare approximately 600 km in diameter in the northeast quadrant of the lunar near side. It occupies an old multi-ringed basin (refs. 33-1 and 33-2) and is the site of a prominent mascon (ref. 33-3). A conspicuous dark annulus in this mare prompted subdivision of the mare materials into different stratigraphic units (refs. 33-2 and 33-4). A revised stratigraphic sequence for the southern part of Mare Serenitatis, based on photogeologic interpretation of Apollo 15 and 17 photographs, is summarized as follows after Howard et al.

  15. Wrinkle-ridges as deformed surface crust on ponded mare lava

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The morphological features of Mare Imbrium and Mare Serenitatis are discussed on the basis of Apollo, Ranger, and Orbiter photography. It is suggested that the mare basins were filled relatively slowly by interdigitating, overlapping lava flows, over an extended period of time. Mare wrinkle ridges were formed by localized compression of a relatively thin crust which is effectively decoupled from underlying topography and structure. Since the deformation took place shortly after the time the mare filling was completed, it is possible that this thin crust was underlain by still liquid lava.

  16. Composition, mineralogy, and petrology of 28 mare basalts from Apollo 15 rake samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty-eight mare basalts from three Apollo 15 rake sample sections are divided into five rock groups which are considered to represent at least five rock units. Three of these groups (pyroxene-phyric basalt, olivine-phyric basalt, and olivine microgabbro) are from the mare area and are probably near-surface local mare rock units. The remaining groups (feldspathic peridotite and feldspathic microgabbro) are found outside the mare, in Spur Crater at the foot of the Apennines; they may come from deeper levels of the local mare or from a more distant source.

  17. Reproductive Performance of Arabian and Thoroughbred Mares under Subtropical Conditions of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Warriach, H. M.; Memon, M. A.; Ahmad, N.; Norman, S. T.; Ghafar, A.; Arif, M.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding records of 57 Arabian and 66 Thoroughbred mares were analysed to assess their reproductive performance under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan. The Arabian mares showed significantly higher conception rates (p<0.05) in second mated oestrus and foal heat mated oestrus compared to Thoroughbred mares. However, conception rates for first lifetime mated oestrus were similar in both breeds of mares. Age at first mating (1,301±40 vs 1,500±32 days) was significantly (p<0.05) less in Arabian compared to Thoroughbred mares. Both breeds of mares showed significantly (p<0.05) higher frequencies of oestrous cycles and conception rates during the winter (October to March) compared to summer (June to August) months. Age of mares affected the conception rates, as mares at ages 3 to 7 and 8 to 12 years of ages had significantly higher conception rates (p<0.05) than those ≥18 years old in both breeds. This study demonstrates that i) reproductive performance in Arabians is better than Thoroughbred mares under the subtropical conditions of Pakistan, ii) mares remain cyclic throughout the year and iii) conception rates were higher in mares bred during winter compared to summer months. PMID:25050033

  18. Non-Cognitive Abilities and Early School Dropout: Longitudinal Evidence from NELS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Michael; Sheikh, Hammad

    2009-01-01

    Educational success is often synonymous with attainment of academic qualifications. However for some students, simply continuing to attend school rather than dropping out may represent an important attainment, and completion of secondary school significantly reduces chances of subsequent chronic poverty. The longitudinal US NELS dataset was…

  19. Effects of a protein deficient diet and urea supplementation on lactating mares.

    PubMed

    Martin, R G; McMeniman, N P; Dowsett, K F

    1991-01-01

    Six lactating mares were fed either a low protein diet or the same diet with added urea ad libitum over 71 days. The quantity consumed by the mares, milk intakes of their foals, milk composition, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), mare liveweight changes and foal growth rates were measured. The mares were unable to consume sufficient quantities of either diet to meet their nitrogen requirements and all lost weight. Adding urea to the diet significantly increased PUN in mares and foals, raised urea concentrations in the milk, decreased the mares' feed intake and significantly increased their weight loss. Low concentrations of protein were measured in milk from mares on both diets. Milk intakes of all the foals were reduced and they showed poor growth rates. PMID:1795297

  20. Microscopic examination of endometrial biopsies of retired sports mares: an explanation for the clinically observed subfertility?

    PubMed

    Kilgenstein, Helen J; Schöniger, Sandra; Schoon, Doris; Schoon, Heinz-Adolf

    2015-04-01

    After their retirement from sports, performance mares often show a poor breeding success. The objective of this study was the microscopic evaluation of endometrial biopsies of retired sports mares (n = 189) to search for alterations that may explain subfertility. Mares of this study aged 3-23 years showed endometritis (30%) and endometrosis (77%); mild forms predominated. In regard to those mares biopsied during the breeding season (n = 99), 50% had glandular differentiation disorders, i.e. glandular inactivity (8%) or irregular glandular differentiation (42%). Compared to literature data retrieved from mainly non-performance mares, the sports mares of this study showed a similar prevalence of endometrosis and endometritis, but a much higher prevalence of glandular differentiation disorders. The most common cause of the latter is an ovarian dysfunction. Results of this study indicate an association between glandular maldifferentiation of the endometrium and the clinically observed reduced fertility of retired sports mares. PMID:25639692

  1. Reproductive management of mares without detection of oestrus.

    PubMed

    Palmer, E

    1979-01-01

    The use of photoperiod, progestagen, prostaglandin and hCG treatments was investigated to obtain mating of mares at predetermined times. The objectives were: (1) synchronization of oestrus at an early time of the year, (2) simplification of treatment schedules by use of vaginal sponges, and (3) use of several controlled cycles by successive synchronization. The following conclusions were reached. First, after a 16 h photoperiod was applied beginning on 25 November, hormonal synchronization of oestrus and ovulation followed by cyclicity were obtained on 1 February; i.e. 2 months of light are essential as hormonal synchronization of ovulation was not obtained by 10 January. Second onset of oestrus was well synchronized after vaginal application of progestagens (3.75 days +/- 0.98 s.d. after withdrawal) and in spite of vaginal irritation, fertility was high (71%, N = 24) after mating every 48 h of the induced oestrus. Third, for synchronization of return to oestrus in mated non-conceiving mares, oral progestagens were given from Days 7 to 21 after mating. Predetermined mating (Days 27 and 29) and hCG injection (day 28) for non-pregnant animals were decided after a progesterone assay of Day 21 blood plasma. After 3 controlled mating periods, the cumulative fertility was 88% (N = 24) in non-lactating mares and 58% (N = 19) in lactating mares. Programmed reproductive management is possible in the horse. PMID:289799

  2. Follicular dynamics in mares treated with an equine pituitary extract.

    PubMed

    Woods, G L; Ginther, O J

    1985-02-01

    The follicular dynamics of 112 mares treated with an equine pituitary extract were studied. Follicles >10 mm in diameter at day 15 post-ovulation appeared to represent the follicles which were induced with pituitary extract to grow and ovulate. This was shown by the greater number of >10 mm follicles in mares which subsequently had higher ovulation rates and by the subsequent decrease in number of small follicles (<20 mm) which corresponded with the increase in number of large follicles (>/=20 mm). The difference in diameter (mm) between the largest and second largest follicle on day 15 post-ovulation was greater (P<0.05) for extract-treated mares which subsequently had single ovulations than for extract-treated mares which subsequently had multiple ovulations (7.7 +/-1.5 vs 2.8 +/-0.6). The observed ratio of bilateral to unilateral multiple ovulations was not different (P>0.1) from the expected ratio which was calculated on the assumption that side of ovulation occurred independently (59:19 vs 62:16, observed vs expected). PMID:16725999

  3. Headshaking in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare was presented with a 2.5-week history of headshaking. Based on a thorough physical examination, blood analysis, and a fine needle aspirate of an enlarged thyroid gland, a tentative diagnosis of seasonal idiopathic headshaking was made. Treatment with cyproheptadine was attempted. PMID:15025153

  4. Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts in a mare

    PubMed Central

    Marryatt, Paige A.

    2003-01-01

    Two subcutaneous masses were removed from the elbow of a mare. Histologically they were composed of islands of polygonal to plump spindlelioid cells with large nuclei, coarsely stippled chromatin, and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Findings were diagnostic for a malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts, a rare tumor with a fair prognosis. PMID:14524631

  5. Observations of Mare Serenitatis from lunar orbit and their interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.; Evans, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Visual observations are investigated of color differences of Serenitatis mare materials from orbit complement photography and other remotely sensed data. The light tan gray inner fill of the Serenitatis basin is younger than the dark blue gray annulus; the latter continues into and appears to be contemporaneous with the fill of Mare Tranquillitatis. Mare ridges occur in both the inner basin fill and the dark annulus of Serenitatis. Ridges are interpreted as the result of structural deformation and up-doming after the solidification of the basaltic lavas. On the southeastern rim of the Serenitatis basin is the darkes blue gray unit within which Apollo 17 landed. Highland massifs surrounding this unit have unstable slopes which are believed to be the result of localized tectonic activity. On the southwest rim of the basin are the dark tan to brown gray mantling materials of the Sulpicius Gallus Formation. Farther west on the rim are dark blue grap patches which resemble the mare material of the Serenitatis dark annulus.

  6. The Nature of Mare Basalts in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    2000-01-01

    Unlike Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, many mare lavas of the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) have Th concentrations of 2.5-6 ppm and perhaps greater, as well as high TiO2. Lunar "picritic" volcanic glasses from the PKT have a similar range.

  7. Hematologic and biochemical profiles in Standardbred mares during peripartum.

    PubMed

    Mariella, Jole; Pirrone, Alessandro; Gentilini, Fabio; Castagnetti, Carolina

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine physiological changes occurring in hematologic and biochemical parameters in mares between the last month of gestation and the first week after parturition. If a significant change was observed with respect to the reference interval of an adult horse, a further aim of the study was to establish different reference intervals. Blood samples were collected from 62 healthy pregnant Standardbred mares. Seventeen nonpregnant and nonlactating mares were used as a control group. In pregnant mares, blood sampling was conducted every three days from 1 month before the expected foaling date (335 days after the last mating), at parturition, and 7 days after foaling. The barren mares in the control group were sampled once. Results from samples collected 20 and 10 days before parturition, at parturition, and 7 days after were considered in the statistical analysis. A parametric method for all the parameters studied was used to establish reference intervals. Results were compared by repeated measures ANOVA. When significant differences were observed in relation to sampling time, a post hoc analysis was performed (Tukey test). The one-way ANOVA test followed by Dunnett's test was performed to evaluate the presence of a significant difference between each sampling time and the control group. Any significant difference in the blood count parameters at different sampling times was observed by repeated measure ANOVA. Hemoglobin (P < 0.01) and hematocrit (P < 0.01) 7 days after parturition and white blood cell count (P < 0.01) at parturition were significantly different from the control group. Erythrocyte indices and platelet count were within the normal reference intervals as established in the control group. In the biochemical panel, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, glucose, biliar acids, total protein, albumin-to-globulin ratio, and calcium were significantly different at different sampling times. Moreover, serum concentration of

  8. Fault Dislocation Modeling of Tectonic Landforms in Mare Frigoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. R.; Bell, J. F., III; Robinson, M. S.; Shirzaei, M.; Watters, T. R.; Banks, M. E.; Henriksen, M.; Burns, K.; Mattson, S.; Mueting, J.

    2014-12-01

    Previous work suggested that large-scale nearside basin-localized extensional tectonism on the Moon ended ~3.6 billion years ago and mare basin-related contractional deformation ended ~1.2 billion years ago. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) high resolution (50-200 cm/pixel) images enable the detailed study of lunar tectonic landforms and further insight into the evolution of stresses. Populations of landforms are now observed at scales much smaller than previously recognized, and their morphology and stratigraphic relationships imply a complex deformational history. The most common tectonic landforms in mare basins are sinuous wrinkle ridges that have up to hundreds of meters of relief and are interpreted as folded basalt layers overlying thrust faults. They consist of a narrow, asymmetric ridge atop a broad arch and sometimes occur radial to or concentric with the centers of some mare basins. Wrinkle ridges with these patterns have previously been associated with mascons - dense concentrations of mass identified by positive gravity anomalies. Loading of the crust by lunar mascons causes flexure and subsidence to form wrinkle ridges. However, some basins including western Mare Frigoris are not associated with mascons, yet wrinkle ridges deform the mare. The origin of compressional stresses in non-mascon environments remains an outstanding question. A key step to better understanding the occurrence of wrinkle ridges in non-mascon basins is characterizing the behavior of the underlying faults. We expand upon methods used in Williams et al. [2013] and apply fault dislocation modeling to estimate geometries and displacements for selected wrinkle ridge faults in Mare Frigoris. Digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from LROC NAC stereo pairs are used to constrain fault models. Using the system of analytical equations for deformation of a half-space defined by Okada [1985, 1992], we apply inverse methods to model ridge relief for fault

  9. Reproductive seasonality in the mare: neuroendocrine basis and pharmacologic control.

    PubMed

    Williams, G L; Thorson, J F; Prezotto, L D; Velez, I C; Cardoso, R C; Amstalden, M

    2012-08-01

    Reproductive seasonality in the mare is characterized by a marked decline in adenohypophyseal synthesis and secretion of LH beginning near the autumnal equinox. Thus, ovarian cycles have ceased in most mares by the time of the winter solstice. Endogenous reproductive rhythms in seasonal species are entrained or synchronized as a result of periodic environmental cues. In the horse, this cue is primarily day length. Hence, supplemental lighting schemes have been used managerially for decades to modify the annual timing of reproduction in the mare. Although a full characterization of the cellular and molecular bases of seasonal rhythms has not been realized in any species, many of their synaptic and humoral signaling pathways have been defined. In the mare, neuroendocrine-related studies have focused primarily on the roles of GnRH and interneuronal signaling pathways that subserve the GnRH system in the regulatory cascade. Recent studies have considered the role of a newly discovered neuropeptide, RF-related peptide 3 that could function to inhibit GnRH secretion or gonadotrope responsiveness. Although results that used native peptide sequences have been negative in the mare and mixed in all mammalian females, new studies that used an RFRP3 antagonist (RF9) in sheep are encouraging. Importantly, despite continuing deficits in some fundamental areas, the knowledge required to control seasonal anovulation pharmacologically has been available for >20 yr. Specifically, the continuous infusion of native GnRH is both reliable and efficient for accelerating reproductive transition and is uniquely applicable to the horse. However, its practical exploitation continues to await the development of a commercially acceptable delivery vehicle. PMID:22579068

  10. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Endometrium of Mares Infused with Gentamicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bagdadi, F. K.; Eilts, B. E.; Richardson, G. F.

    2004-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the endometrium of nine 1-year-old thoroughbred mares after twice intrauterine infusions of gentamicin, on 2 consecutive days. Five mares were infused on 2 consecutive days with 40 ml gentamicin (50 mg/ml) mixed with 80 ml of normal saline. Four mares served as controls and were infused with 120 ml of saline on 2 consecutive days. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from all mares 3 days after the second intrauterine infusion. Each biopsy was processed for SEM by standard methods. The endometrial epithelium of the gentamicin-infused mares had more cellular perforations than the saline-infused mares. The gentamicin-infused mares had less and shorter microvilli. The ciliated cells were fewer and some ciliated cells had disrupted and some had drooping cilia. The endometrial epithelium of the gentamicin-infused mares had a considerable number of endometrial cells that lost their luminal surfaces and some that lost their microvilli, compared to the saline-infused mares. We suggest that the information gathered in this pilot study should be used as basis for further investigation, on a larger scale basis, of the effects of repeated intrauterine infusion of gentamicin on the endometrial mucosa of mares.

  11. Improved Digitization of Lunar Mare Ridges with LROC Derived Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, J. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Watters, T. R.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Enns, A. C.; Lawrence, S.

    2011-12-01

    Lunar wrinkle ridges (mare ridges) are positive-relief structures formed from compressional stress in basin-filling flood basalt deposits [1]. Previous workers have measured wrinkle ridge orientations and lengths to investigate their spatial distribution and infer basin-localized stress fields [2,3]. Although these plots include the most prominent mare ridges and their general trends, they may not have fully captured all of the ridges, particularly the smaller-scale ridges. Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) global mosaics and derived topography (100m pixel scale) [4], we systematically remapped wrinkle ridges in Mare Serenitatis. By comparing two WAC mosaics with different lighting geometry, and shaded relief maps made from a WAC digital elevation model (DEM) [5], we observed that some ridge segments and some smaller ridges are not visible in previous structure maps [2,3]. In the past, mapping efforts were limited by a fixed Sun direction [6,7]. For systematic mapping we created three shaded relief maps from the WAC DEM with solar azimuth angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and a fourth map was created by combining the three shaded reliefs into one, using a simple averaging scheme. Along with the original WAC mosaic and the WAC DEM, these four datasets were imported into ArcGIS, and the mare ridges of Imbrium, Serenitatis, and Tranquillitatis were digitized from each of the six maps. Since the mare ridges are often divided into many ridge segments [8], each major component was digitized separately, as opposed to the ridge as a whole. This strategy enhanced our ability to analyze the lengths, orientations, and abundances of these ridges. After the initial mapping was completed, the six products were viewed together to identify and resolve discrepancies in order to produce a final wrinkle ridge map. Comparing this new mare ridge map with past lunar tectonic maps, we found that many mare ridges were not recorded in the previous works. It was noted

  12. Induction of reproductive function in anestrous mares using a dopamine antagonist.

    PubMed

    Besognet, B; Hansen, B S; Daels, P F

    1997-01-15

    We investigated the role of dopamine in the regulation of seasonal reproductive activity in mares. Nine seasonal anestrous mares, maintained under a natural photoperiod, were treated daily with a dopamine D2 antagonist, [-]-sulpiride (200 mg/mare, im), beginning February 5 (day of year = 36) until the first ovulation of the year or for a maximum of 58. Nine untreated anestrous mares were maintained under the same conditions. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography twice a week, and blood was collected three times a week for progesterone, LH, FSH and prolactin determinations. Mean day of first ovulation was significantly advanced for [-]-sulpiride-treated mares than control mares (mean day of year +/- SEM = 77.3 +/- 7.9 and 110.0 +/- 6.8, respectively; P < 0.01). Eight mares ovulated during [-]-sulpiride treatment while one mare failed to ovulate. Ovulation occurred 91 d after the start of treatment or on Day 127. All mares continued to have normal estrous cycles after the first ovulation. First cycle length and luteal progesterone concentrations did not differ between [-]-sulpiride-treated and control mares. Plasma prolactin concentrations were significantly increased at 2 and 9 h after [-]-sulpiride administration (P < 0.05), and had returned to basal levels by 24 h. At the time of the LH surge associated with the first ovulation, mean LH and FSH secretion was significantly higher in [-]-sulpiride-treated mares than in control mares (P < 0.05). These results suggest that dopamine plays a role in the control of reproductive seasonality in mares and exerts a tonic inhibition on reproductive activity during the anovulatory season. PMID:16727999

  13. Influence of the dopamine antagonist domperidone on the vernal transition in seasonally anoestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Brendemuehl, J P; Cross, D L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of prolonged administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone on follicular development, ovulation and endocrine profiles in anoestrous mares. Anoestrous mares (n=16) were maintained under natural photoperiod and ambient temperature. Eight of the mares were treated with domperidone each day from 15 January until the first ovulation of the year. The mean number and size of follicles > or =20 mm in diameter were significantly greater in domperidone-treated mares than in control mares by day 14 of treatment. The day of first ovulation was significantly earlier in domperidone-treated mares than in control mares (mean +/- SEM: 51 +/- 8.2 and 129 +/- 13.6 days, respectively; P < 0.01). The eight domperidone-treated mares all ovulated during treatment and the mean interval from the start of treatment to the day of first ovulation was 27 days (range 15-55 days). Six of the eight domperidone-treated mares underwent normal cycles after the first ovulation, whereas there was a prolonged interval (mean = 67 days) before the second ovulation in the other two mares. Domperidone administration resulted in significantly higher plasma prolactin concentrations measured at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h on day 7 of treatment compared with untreated controls (25.5 +/- 15.8 versus 2.5 +/- 3.0 ng ml(-1)). The concentrations of LH and oestrogen conjugates were significantly higher in domperidone-treated mares compared with control mares by day 28 of treatment. There were no differences in FSH concentrations in domperidone-treated and control mares. The significant increases in follicular development and concentrations of oestrogen conjugates that were observed to occur without concurrent increases in FSH concentration indicate that either domperidone or prolactin may have a direct effect on the ovary. PMID:20681130

  14. Effect of age and endometrial degenerative changes on uterine blood flow during early gestation in mares.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J C; Canesin, H S; Ignácio, F S; Rocha, N S; Pinto, C R; Meira, C

    2015-10-15

    The present experiment was divided into three studies to investigate the effect of age and endometrial degeneration on uterine blood flow of mares. In study 1, the influence of semen infusion and conception was evaluated using noninseminated (non-AI), inseminated nonpregnant (AI-NP), and inseminated pregnant (AI-P) mares (n = 7 mares/group). In study 2, the effect of age was investigated using young (≤6 years), adult (from 8 to 12 years), and old (≥15 years) pregnant mares (n = 7 mares/group). In study 3, uterine blood flow was also characterized in pregnant mares (n = 7 mares/group) with minimal, moderate, or severe endometrial degenerative changes (GI, GII, and GIII, respectively). Uterine vascular perfusion and pulsatility index from mesometrium attachment arteries were recorded daily from Day 0 (day of ovulation) to Day 12 and between Days 0 and 20 in nonpregnant and pregnant mares. Analysis according to the position of the embryo (uterine horn with embryo vs. opposite horn) was performed from Day 12 until Day 20. In study 1, increased uterine vascular perfusion and decreased pulsatility index were detected (P < 0.001) between Days 3 and 5 in non-AI and AI-P mares, whereas the uterine vascular perfusion of AI-NP mares did not change (P > 0.05) throughout the experiment. In study 2, the vascular perfusion of the uterine horn with embryo was higher (P < 0.001) than in the opposite uterine horn from Day 12 until Day 20 in both young and adult mares. With exception of Day 15, both uterine horns of old mares showed similar (P > 0.1) vascular perfusion from Day 12. In study 3, vascular perfusion of both uterine horns was lower (P < 0.001) in GIII mares than in GI and GII mares. After Day 15, the scores for uterine vascular perfusion were consistently greater (P < 0.001) in the uterine horn with embryo than in the opposite horn in GI mares. Results showed, for the first time, the reduced blood flow of the gravid uterus during early gestation in older mares and in

  15. Consortium reports on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757, a new type of mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanai, Keizo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Lindstrom, M. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Torigoe, N.; Misawa, K.; Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Koeberl, C.; Kojima, H.

    1993-01-01

    Consortium studies on lunar meteorites Yamato 793169 and Asuka 881757 (formerly Asuka-31) were performed to characterize these new samples from unknown locations in the lunar mare. Both meteorites are coarse-grained mare rocks having low Mg/Fe ratios (bulk mg'=30-35) and low TiO2 (1.5-2.5 percent in homogenized bulk samples). They are intermediate between VLT and low-Ti mare basalts. Although these meteorites are not identical to each other, their mineral and bulk compositions, isotopic systematics, and crystallization ages are remarkably similar and distinct from those of all other mare basalts. They appear to represent a new type of low-Ti mare basalt that crystallized at about 3.9Ga. These meteorites are inconsistent with the canonical correlation between the TiO2 contents and ages of mare basalts and suggest that our knowledge of lunar volcanism is far from complete.

  16. Mare Crisium - Regional stratigraphy and geologic history. [from spectral reflectivities of Lunik 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. B.; Head, J. W., III; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements of five Luna 24 samples and new telescopic reflectance spectra of 10-20 km areas of seven sites in Mare Crisium have been used to calibrate multispectral images of mare units. Based on these data, three major mare units are defined in the Crisium basin and their stratigraphy is interpreted. The oldest mare unit is exposed in the ejecta of the craters Picard and Peirce and along the outer edge of the southeastern part of the basin. The next younger unit includes the Luna 24 site and generally follows a topographic annulus along the basin margin. The youngest mare unit occupies the central part of the basin. It is concluded that subsidence occurred throughout the emplacement of mare units, including extensive warping and downfaulting of the inner part of the Crisium basin.

  17. Composition of milk from pony mares fed various levels of digestible energy.

    PubMed

    Pagan, J D; Hintz, H F

    1986-04-01

    Twenty-two pony mares were fed one of three diets that provided 93.0, 74.8 or 57.2 kcal of digestible energy (DE) per kg body weight per day. Milk samples were taken at 14 day intervals. A total of five samples were taken from each mare. The samples were analyzed for total solids, crude protein, lactose, total lipids, ash, calcium and phosphorus. Gross energy was calculated from composition data. Increases in energy intake decreased the concentration of total solids, protein, fat and gross energy of mare's milk. Energy intake had a greater influence on the mare's body condition than on milk energy production. It was concluded the objective of a feeding program for a lactating mare should be to keep the mare in a desirable body condition rather than to influence milk composition or production. PMID:3698598

  18. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a postpartum mare concurrent with encephalopathy in the neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Charles E; Gould, Daniel H; Davidson, Ann H; Avery, Paul R; Legare, Marie E; Hyatt, Doreene R; DebRoy, Chitrita

    2008-03-01

    A postpartum mare and foal were presented for evaluation of fever and lethargy in the mare. The mare was diagnosed with endometritis and initially responded well to treatment. On the second day of hospitalization, the mare developed renal insufficiency characterized by oliguria, azotemia, hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia. Concurrently, the foal developed rapidly progressive central nervous system signs culminating in refractory seizures. Both animals failed to respond to treatment and were euthanized. Thrombotic microangiopathy involving glomeruli was evident on microscopic examination of the mare's kidneys. Microscopic evidence of brain edema was the principal postmortem finding in the foal. No specific etiology was confirmed in either case. Notably, Escherichia coli 0103:H2 was isolated from the mare's uterus and the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in which an organism implicated as a cause of hemolytic-uremic syndrome was isolated from an animal with clinical signs and postmortem findings consistent with the disease. PMID:18319442

  19. Behavior, milk yield, and milk composition of machine-and hand-milked Murgese mares.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, M; Albenzio, M; Marino, R; Muscio, A; Zezza, T; Sevi, A

    2007-06-01

    A 25-d trial was performed to assess the effects of machine and hand milking on behavior, and milk yield and composition of mares; the trial involved 8 Murgese mares. Milk yield was higher (7.69 vs. 4.91 kg) and milking time was shorter (1.80 vs. 5.40 min) in machine-milked than in hand-milked mares. Machine milking of mares also resulted in a greater fat content of milk (1.63%) than did hand milking (1.06%). Milking system did not affect casein content, nitrogen fractions, or somatic cell counts. No differences in behavioral activities and in response to humans emerged. Results indicate that machine milking of mares could improve the yield and gross composition of horse milk, without adverse consequences on mare behavior and response to humans. PMID:17517717

  20. Effect of prolonged use of altrenogest on behaviour in mares.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, David; Howe, Stephanie; Jeffcott, Leo; Reid, Stuart; Mellor, Dominic; Higgins, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Oral administration of altrenogest for oestrus suppression in competition horses is believed to be widespread in some equestrian disciplines, and can be administered continuously for several months during a competition season. To examine whether altrenogest has any anabolic or other potential performance enhancing properties that may give a horse an unfair advantage, we examined the effect of oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg), given daily for a period of eight weeks, on social hierarchy, activity budget, body-mass and body condition score of 12 sedentary mares. We concluded that prolonged oral administration of altrenogest at recommended dose rates to sedentary mares resulted in no effect on dominance hierarchies, body mass or condition score. PMID:15683772

  1. Effect of prolonged use of altrenogest on behaviour in mares.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, David; Howe, Stephanie; Jeffcott, Leo; Reid, Stuart; Mellor, Dominic; Higgins, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    Oral administration of altrenogest for oestrus suppression in competition horses is believed to be widespread in some equestrian disciplines, and can be administered continuously for several months during a competition season. To examine whether altrenogest has any anabolic or other potential performance enhancing properties that may give a horse an unfair advantage, we examined the effect of oral altrenogest (0.044 mg/kg), given daily for a period of eight weeks, on social hierarchy, activity budget, body-mass and body condition score of 12 sedentary mares. It was concluded that prolonged oral administration of altrenogest at recommended dose rate to sedentary mares had no effect on dominance hierarchies, body-mass or condition score. PMID:15912604

  2. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The moon’s surface last saw a controlled landing from a U.S. spacecraft on December 11, 1972 with Apollo 17. Since that time, there has been an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. In addition to the scientific value of measuring the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides the first U.S. soft lunar landing since the Apollo Program and the first ever robotic soft lunar landing employing an autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system, a system that promises to enhance crew safety and survivability during a manned lunar (or other) landing. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  3. On the natural remanent magnetism of certain mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, M.; Meshkov, E.; Cisowski, S. M.; Hale, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and magnetic properties of five fine-grain mare basalts were investigated. The NRM of two vitrophyres has a large soft component, and the directional stability during AF demagnetization is poor. The remaining samples have NRM which is too soft to be of thermal origin and yet too hard to be simply isothermal contamination. It is suggested that the NRM of the samples could be shock remanent magnetization.

  4. Vermiculation patterns in Coiba Mare cave, Bihor Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Guja, Ovidiu; Stefanescu, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Vermiculation patterns developing on cave surfaces are certainly a spectacular feature. Sometimes vermiculation cover hundreds of square meters, like for example in Coiba Mare cave, which is situated in the Bihor Mountains, Romania. The Coiba Mare Cave is located at 1020 m altitude, on the Gardisoara Valley, not far from the Casa de Piatra Hamlet, in the Apuseni Natural Park (Bihor Mountains) situated in the western part of Romania. The first written document concerning the cave dates back to 1929, when R. Jeannel and E. Racovitza presented a brief description. Speleological investigations, which were started by I. Viehmann, D. Coman and M. Bleahu in 1953, were continued by several speleological clubs during 1975-1976. In this study, we are investigating the mineralogy, stable isotope distribution and patterns of vermiculations in the Coiba Mare cave. Material from the vermiculations developed on cave wall was analysed using Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive analyses (EDS). The material consists mainly of calcite with traces of quartz, muscovite, chlinochlore, kaolinite, potassium feldspar and organic material. In Coiba Mare, the general look of the vermiculation pattern is that of a "pelli de leopardo" (Leopard's spots), a term used by Bini et al. (1978) for large vermiculations composed of clay. In the light of previous literature and according, to the own field and laboratory data a mechanism responsible for the formation of vermiculations is proposed. Evaporation and water film rupture cause the concentration of the loose particles. Evaporation is also associated with the formation of calcite microcrystals at the water-air interface. Concentration of the particle in vermiculations patterns and crystallisation is the result of evaporation and shrinking water spots.

  5. A study of Lusitano mare lactation curve with Wood's model.

    PubMed

    Santos, A S; Silvestre, A M

    2008-02-01

    Milk yield and composition data from 7 nursing Lusitano mares (450 to 580 kg of body weight and 2 to 9 parities) were used in this study (5 measurements per mare for milk yield and 8 measurements for composition). Wood's lactation model was used to describe milk fat, protein, and lactose lactation curves. Mean values for the concentration of major milk components across the lactation period (180 d) were 5.9 g/kg of fat, 18.4 g/kg of protein, and 60.8 g/kg of lactose. Milk fat and protein (g/kg) decreased and lactose (g/kg) increased during the 180 d of lactation. Curves for milk protein and lactose yields (g) were similar in shape to the milk yield curve; protein yield peaked at 307 g on d 10 and lactose peaked at 816 g on d 45. The fat (g) curve was different in shape compared with milk, protein, and lactose yields. Total production of the major milk constituents throughout the 180 d of lactation was estimated to be 12.0, 36.1, and 124 kg for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively. The algebraic model fitted by a nonlinear regression procedure to the data resulted in reasonable prediction curves for milk yield (R(a)(2) of 0.89) and the major constituents (R(a)(2) ranged from 0.89 to 0.95). The lactation curves of major milk constituents in Lusitano mares were similar, both in shape and values, to those found in other horse breeds. The established curves facilitate the estimation of milk yield and variation of milk constituents at different stages of lactation for both nursing and dairy mares, providing important information relative to weaning time and foal supplementation. PMID:18218764

  6. A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

  7. Effects of melatonin implants in pony mares. 2. Long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Peltier, M R; Robinson, G; Sharp, D C

    1998-04-15

    The effects of melatonin implant treatment over a 4 wk period at the summer solstice on the transition into and out of the following anovulatory season were evaluated in ovary-intact and ovariectomized mares. Melatonin implants tended to delay the timing of the final ovulation of the breeding season (P = 0.0797) in the ovary-intact mares. Although the decline in LH secretion associated with the end of the breeding season was parallel between treatments and ovarian statuses, the rate of LH secretion, as expressed by its mathematical accumulation, was lower in ovariectomized, melatonin-treated mares than in ovariectomized, control mares suggesting that melatonin administration advanced the offset of the breeding season in ovariectomized mares (P = 0.0001). The first ovulation of the subsequent breeding season was significantly delayed in the melatonin-treated mares as compared with that of control mares (P = 0.0031). During reproductive recrudescence, the time of the onset of the increase in LH secretion was similar among all 4 groups but the patterns of LH secretion were different for each treatment and ovarian status combination (P = 0.0112). Mares with melatonin implants had a slower rate of increase in LH secretion than control mares (P = 0.0001), and ovariectomized mares had a faster rate of LH increase than intact mares (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that melatonin implants during the summer solstice can alter the annual reproductive rhythm in mares and support the concept that endocrine patterns of reproductive recrudescence are not entirely independent of the ovary. PMID:10732051

  8. Fertility after fetotomy: a clinical study focusing on heavy draft mares.

    PubMed

    Raś, A; Rapacz-Leonard, A; Raś-Noryńska, M; Barański, W

    2014-04-19

    Although fetotomy is recommended for all mares when the fetus is dead and difficult to extract, little has been written about fetotomy and heavy draft mares. This lack includes indications for fetotomy in heavy draft mares, differences in treatment and prognosis of heavy mares kept by farmers of low socioeconomic status, and how this procedure affects the mare's further fertility. The literature on mares, in general, also differs on the survival rate of mares that undergo fetotomy, the prevalence of postpartum complications, and further fertility. To answer these questions, we reviewed the medical records of 102 mares that underwent fetotomy, mostly heavy draft mares (n=93). Head malposture (62.7 per cent) was the most common fetal maldisposition, which required fetotomy in all cases. The survival rate was 84.3 per cent (n=86). The most common postpartum complications were endometritis puerperalis (32.5 per cent) and retained placenta (27.9 per cent). 61 mares (70.9 per cent) both showed foal heat and cycled regularly in the first season after fetotomy. Out of 45 mares that were bred in the first season, 14 became pregnant (31.1 per cent). Survival rate and further fertility were reduced by delayed requests for veterinary assistance due to the difficult economic situation of the owners. Fetotomy is the method of choice for serious maldispositions, especially head malpostures, because in contrast with cesarean sections, it has a higher survival rate and allows the mare to return to breeding in the same season. PMID:24570408

  9. Caesarean in mare by Marcenac incision under local anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Ninu, A. R; Saxena, A. C; Sivanarayanan, T. B; Remya, V; Binsila, B. K; Maiti, S. K; Zama, M. M. S

    2015-01-01

    A nulliparous non-descript mare was presented with a complaint of dystocia. The mare was recumbent and physical examination revealed that the animal was in shock. There was no straining and foetal forelimbs were visible outside the vulva. The foetus was dead as there was no pedal reflex. Vaginal examination revealed anterior presentation with dorso-sacral position and rigid lateral head deviation. Pre-operatively, the mare was given 5 ml Tetanus toxoid and 3 g Ceftriaxone as intramuscular injection, and 5 ml Dexamethasone in 15 L of 5% Dextrose Normal Saline (DNS) as intravenous (i/v) infusion. As pelvic space was inadequate and the mal posture was not correctable, manual correction or foetotomy could not be attempted and therefore caesarean section was planned. Condition of the animal warranted the use of local anaesthetic infiltration instead of general anesthesia. Post-operative care included intravenous fluids, anti-inflammatory/analgesics and daily antiseptic dressing. The owner reported uneventful recovery. The authors would like to conclude the case as a rare emergency caesarean in equine where the surgery was done with animal in lateral recumbency employing a Marcenac incision under local anaesthesia. PMID:27175164

  10. [Lysozyme activity in the milk of sucking mares during lactation].

    PubMed

    Hatzipanagiotou, A; Rieland, E; Enbergs, H

    1998-04-01

    It was the aim of this project to investigate the changes of the lysozyme activity in the milk of mares during the lactation period. Further on the influence of race, date of conception and foaling, age and number of lactations on the lysozyme activities in milk was analysed. Milk samples were collected from 44 mares (trotters, warmblood, quarter horses) from eight farms between the 1st and 90th day p. p. The activity of the lysozyme was measured by a turbidometric method. Summarizing the following results are obtained: Lysozyme activities in mare milk of the 1st and 3rd day p. p. were higher than in mature milk. On average the highest lysozyme activity (Xa = 113.600 +/- 25.171 U/ml) was measured on the 3rd day p. p. Until the 9th day p. p. the activity decreased about 25%, afterwards there was only a slight decrease. The lowest activity (Xa = 57.509 +/- 14.606 U/ml) was measured at the 83rd day p. p. The influence of race and conception time proved to be statistically significant resp. highly significant. PMID:9618986

  11. Shock compression and adiabatic release of a titaniferous mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Jackson, I.; Jeanloz, R.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented regarding the dynamic properties of a rock indigenous to the mare basins of the moon. The reported data were obtained in a study of sample 70215, a very titanium-rich basalt (58% pyroxene, 18% ilmenite, 15% plagioclase, 6% olivine, and 3% quartz by weight). This rock is probably representative of a class of the earliest mare-filling extrusive rocks which are exposed on the present lunar surface. Two series of experiments were performed. One set of experiments involved the measuring of Hugoniot and release adiabats to 15.7 GPa with a propellant gun apparatus. In the second set of experiments, a light-gas gun was employed to yield Hugoniot data at about 120 GPa and release states at about 90 GPa. Lunar basalt 70215 appears to be among the densest rocks in the present lunar sample collection, having a crystal density of 3.38 g/cu cm and a porosity of about 1.3%. The results of the experiments have important implications for both the degree of shock metamorphism expected for impact processes and the extent of ejecta transport on mare surfaces with high-titanium basalt composition.

  12. When to refer an infertile mare to a theriogenologist.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, M M

    2008-08-01

    Most equine infertility cases can be solved with a methodical, thorough physical and reproductive examination and appropriate diagnostic laboratory aids. Repeated examinations may be needed in some cases to identify subtle anatomical abnormalities or irregularities between hormonal and physiological relationships of the reproductive tract. For pregnancy to occur, hormonal signaling must be exquisitely synchronized with physical changes of the reproductive tract and deposition of fertile semen in the uterus. Asynchrony of these events, infection, inflammation, previous trauma to the reproductive tract or "stress" can interfere with conception or maintenance of pregnancy. Infertile mares are presented for three common problems: (1) accumulation of intra-uterine fluid during or immediately after estrus; (2) long standing infection and/or chronic inflammation; or (3) irregular or no estrous cycles. By defining the problem, diagnostics can be chosen to determine the cause. Treatment protocols should be designed around the diagnosis and antibiotics, ecbolics or steroids should not be used indiscriminately. In all cases of mare infertility, semen quality needs to be determined to be satisfactory as a subfertile stallion bred to a subfertile mare greatly decreases the likelihood of pregnancy. PMID:18514809

  13. Effect of increased daylight during late pregnancy on the reproductive performance of mares after parturition.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, M; Tischner, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of prolonged photoperiod during late pregnancy on subsequent ovarian activity and fertility in mares. Pregnant mares (n=13) due to give birth in January and February were stimulated by a fixed photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) from 15 November (during the last 2-3 months of gestation) until up to 1 month after parturition. A control group of mares (n=9) due to give birth at the same time were kept in the same stable and management regimen, but under natural light conditions. Light-treated mares ovulated during foal oestrus approximately 3 days earlier than did the control mares (P < 0.05). The incidence of winter ovarian inactivity in foaling mares was 7.6% in the treatment group and 33% in the control mares. The processes of involution and uterine fluid expulsion were similar in both groups. The final pregnancy rate was high in both the experimental and control groups, being 92 and 89%, respectively. However, the duration of the open period (period from parturition to next pregnancy) was significantly shorter in the mares that received the light treatment compared with the untreated control mares. PMID:20681183

  14. Trace-element modelling of mare basalt parental melts: Implications for a heterogeneous lunar mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallis, L. J.; Anand, M.; Strekopytov, S.

    2014-06-01

    The heterogeneous-source model of mare basalt formation indicates that Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) overturn produced an uneven mixture of early-formed olivine and pyroxene, and late-formed, ilmenite-rich cumulates, which subsequently partially melted to give rise to mare magmas. These heterogeneous cumulate source regions would not only have been characterised by different mineral modal abundances, but also by different trace element compositions. The aim of this work was to investigate the petrology and geochemistry of a diverse suite of Apollo mare basalts, and utilise trace-element modelling in order to understand their petrogenetic history. Chemical modelling confirms that the mare basalts were produced by relatively small degrees of partial melting (<10%) of the LMO cumulates, and that the dominant melting type (batch vs. fractional) varies among different basalt groups. Similarly, single-source mineralogy cannot be applied to all mare basalt types, confirming that the lunar mantle was heterogeneous at the time of generation of mare magmas. Plagioclase is not required in the source of most mare basalts, with the notable exception of the Apollo 14 high-Al basalts. Addition of more than 1% plagioclase to the source of other basalts produces weaker negative Eu anomalies than those observed in the samples. AFC calculations demonstrate the compositional differences between materials assimilated into the Apollo 14 high-Al and Apollo 11 high-K mare basalt partial melts, highlighting the complexities of mare basalt petrogenesis.

  15. The Concentrations of Circulating Plasma Oxytocin and the Pattern of Oxytocin Release in Mare during Oestrus and after Ovulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung Eun

    Mares susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) accumulate intrauterine fluid after mating. One of the factors causing delayed uterine clearance is thought to be impaired uterine contractility. Oxytocin is central in controlling myometrial contractility. The objective of the present study was to describe peripheral oxytocin release during estrus and in the early postovulatory period in reproductively-normal mares and to compare the baseline circulating oxytocin concentrations in reproductively-normal mares and mares with PMIE. Blood samples were collected from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) from day -5 of estrus to day 2 postovulation and every 5 min for 30 min from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) and mares with PMIE (n=5) on day 3 of estrus. Pulsatile secretion of oxytocin was observed in all mares. Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in estrus (day -5 to day -2) than on the day of ovulation (day 0). After ovulation, plasma oxytocin concentrations tended to increase. On day 3 of estrus, plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in reproductively-normal mares than in mares with PMIE. The results showed there is a significant difference in plasma oxytocin concentrations between mares to PMIE. The low plasma oxytocin concentrations in mares with PMIE may contribute to predisposing factors in their poor uterine clearance in these mares.

  16. Study of Mare Moscoviense based on orbital NIR hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Megha; Wöhler, Christian; Bhardwaj, Anil; Mall, Urs; Grumpe, Arne; Rommel, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The Moscoviense basin is an important lunar farside impact basin. Previous studies of this region suggest compositional variations across the mare basalts, and significant positive gravity anomaly within the basin [1, 2]. In the highlands immediately west of the mare regions inside the Moscoviense basin, unusual spectral signatures indicating small deposits of orthopyroxene, olivine and spinel have been detected [3]. A detailed study of the Moscoviense basin thus allows for an examination of lunar farside highland materials and mare basalts of varying composition and age, providing insights into the lunar mantle composition and magmatic history. We present a geological study of Mare Moscoviense based on near-infrared high-resolution hyperspectral data obtained by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) [4] and the near-infrared spectrometer, SIR-2 [5]. An M3 reflectance mosaic of the region has been prepared after applying corrections for thermal emission and topography. Two SIR-2 orbits recorded from 100 km spacecraft altitude have also been used for mineralogical study of the region. Elemental abundance maps of Ti, Ca and Mg as well as a petrologic map have been prepared based on the method described in [6]. Furthermore, we utilized the three different algorithms described in [6, 7, 8] for estimating Fe abundances using the 1-µm and/or 2-µm absorption band parameters. This comparative study aims to identify and map the major morphological and compositional units within the Mare Moscoviense region. References: [1] Gillis et al. (1998) Ph.D. thesis, 248 pp., Rice Univ., Houston, Texas; [2] Kramer et al. (2008) JGR 113, E01002, doi:10.1029/2006JE002860; [3] Pieters et al. (2011) JGR 116, E00G08, doi:10.1029/2010JE003727; [4] Pieters C. M. et al. (2009) Current Science 96, 500-505; [5] Mall, U. et al. (2009) Current Science 96, 506-511; [6] Wöhler C. et al. (2014) Icarus 235, 86-122; [7] Lucey P. G. et al. (2000) JGR 105, 20297-20306; [8] Bhatt M. et al. (2015) Icarus 248

  17. Markers of the uterine innate immune response of the mare.

    PubMed

    Nash, D M; Sheldon, I M; Herath, S; Lane, E A

    2010-05-01

    Reproductive efficiency in mares is low and persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) is an important cause of subfertility. Mating-induced endometritis (MIE) an obligate precursor to PMIE, is a ubiquitous, transient inflammatory response to the presence of sperm, seminal components and pathogens. However, the specific inflammatory pathways that derive from MIE and that may also be precursors to PMIE are not clear. The ability to identify and measure robust, repeatable markers of inflammation integral to MIE may be key to understanding the progression to PMIE. The aim of the study was to (i) refine a protocol for inducing MIE and in doing so test a range of cellular and molecular parameters as valid markers of MIE to facilitate future studies of mares susceptible to PMIE (ii) concurrently identify those parameters with potential as inflammatory indicators during MIE to inform and enhance early treatment regimens in practice. Mating-induced endometritis was induced in pony mares using a stringent protocol; mares were treated intrauterine with frozen/thawed semen (n = 5; FTS) or frozen/thawed extender (n = 6: FTEx). The parameters tested were measured before treatment were compared to samples collected at strategic time points after treatment: uterine cytology using cytological (at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment) or histological analysis (at 24 and 72 h); uterine bacteriology (at 24 and 72 h); secretion of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h); peripheral concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA; at 24h); endometrial mRNA gene expression, focussing upon IL8 and TLR4, as examples of genes pertinent to inflammation (at 24 h). Uterine neutrophil cell numbers in both treatment groups increased at 8 (P < 0.001), 16 (P < 0.01) and 24 (P < 0.01) h after insemination, indicative of MIE and distinguished between different treatments because neutrophil numbers were greater from FTS mares than FTEx mares 8h after challenge. Uterine

  18. Defective secretion of Prostaglandin F2α during development of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Castro, T; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Santos, V G

    2016-04-01

    Five mares that developed idiopathic persistent corpus luteum (PCL) were compared with 5 mares with apparently normal interovulatory intervals (IOIs). Progesterone (P4) and a metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PGFM) were assayed daily beginning on the day of ovulation (Day 0). Transition between the end of an initial progressive P4 increase and the beginning of a gradual decrease in P4 occurred on mean Day 6. The gradual decrease in P4 between Days 6 and 12 was less (approached significance, P < 0.06) in the PCL group than in the IOI group. The P4 concentration on Day 12 (before luteolysis in IOI group) was greater (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than in the IOI group. In a post hoc comparison, an interaction (P < 0.04) of group by day for Days 4 to 7 indicated that the end of the progressive increase in P4 was temporally associated with a transient increase in concentration of PGFM in IOI mares but not in PCL mares. Complete luteolysis (P4 < 1 ng/mL) occurred in the IOI mares on Days 13 to 15. Partial luteolysis (mean P4 decrease, 62%) occurred in 3 of the 5 PCL mares. Normalization to the day at the end of the most pronounced P4 decrease in the IOI mares and in the 3 PCL mares with partial luteolysis resulted in a day-by-group interaction (P < 0.05) for PGFM concentration. The interaction was partly from lower PGFM concentration on the day at the end of the pronounced P4 decrease in the 3 PCL mares than in the IOI mares. The peak of a transient PGFM increase and the day at the end of the most pronounced decrease in P4 were synchronized in each IOI mare but not in any of the 3 PCL mares. In the other 2 PCL mares, partial luteolysis did not occur, and a transient increase in PGFM was not apparent. Results tentatively indicated that the relationship between P4 and PGFM may be altered as early as Day 6 in PCL mares and supported the hypothesis that prostaglandin F2α secretion is defective in mares with idiopathic PCL. PMID:26773369

  19. Proteomics of endometrial fluid after dexamethasone treatment in mares susceptible to endometritis.

    PubMed

    Arlas, T R; Wolf, C A; Petrucci, B P L; Estanislau, J F; Gregory, R M; Jobim, M I M; Mattos, R C

    2015-09-01

    Corticotherapy is a common treatment in mares susceptible to endometritis. Isoflupredone improves pregnancy rates and affects the protein profile of endometrial fluid in comparison to untreated mares. Dexamethasone decreases postbreeding fluid accumulation and uterine edema; however, its effects on the protein profile of the endometrial fluid have not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of dexamethasone on the protein profile of endometrial fluid, in the presence or absence of infection, from mares susceptible to persistent postbreeding endometritis. Nine susceptible mares aged between 7 and 18 years were used. After checking for signs of estrus, mares were subjected to four treatments: C: mares received no treatment and served as control; D: mares received 40-mg dexamethasone at breeding, with collection of samples after 6 hours; I-6 and I-24: intrauterine infusion of 1 × 10(9)Streptococcus zooepidemicus/mL and samples collected after 6 and 24 hours; I/D-6 and I/D-24: intrauterine infusion of 1 × 10(9)S zooepidemicus/mL and 40-mg dexamethasone, collecting the sample after 6 and 24 hours. All mares were subjected to all treatments. Samples were collected and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for the identification of relevant protein spots. Corticotherapy altered the protein profile of the endometrial fluid of susceptible mares, characterized by an increase and/or decrease in the optical density of inflammatory acute-phase proteins. We conclude that the use of dexamethasone in mares with and without infection alters the protein profile of endometrial fluid of susceptible mares. PMID:25998273

  20. Timing and Characteristics of Mare Volcanism on the Farside and in the Central Region of the PKT Revealed by Kaguya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morota, T.; Haruyama, J.; Ohtake, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Cho, Y.; Kato, S.; Hiesinger, H.; LISM Working Group

    2016-05-01

    Unraveling the timing of mare volcanism on the Moon is essential for understanding its thermal evolution. Using Kaguya data, we have performed crater counting on mare basalts on the farside and in the PKT. Here we review our findings.

  1. The Transport of Magma from the Mare Source to the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, M. A.; Phillips, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    Although it has been known from the beginnings of the space age that the lunar mare basalts are primarily located on the nearside of the Moon, the definitive cause of this phenomenon has remained a mystery. One popular explanation is that the hydrostatic pressure of the mare source controls the eruption of mare basalts. In this scenario, the depth of the mare source controls the maximum height that magma can rise in the crust. If the maximum depth of the mare source was globally uniform, then mare basalts would only be able to erupt at the surface below a critical elevation. Following the discovery of the Moon's 2-km center-of-mass/center-of-figure offset, many have suggested that the higher elevations of the lunar farside could have prevented farside magmas from reaching the surface due to their lack of the necessary pressure in their source. Recent data obtained from the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions suggest that this scenario may be a bit simplistic. Using Clementine altimetry data, the full topographic extent of the South Pole Aitken Basin has been determined. Even though the lowest elevations of the Moon were found to occur within this basin's floor, mare flows in this basins are volumetrically insignificant when compared to the nearside basins and Oceanus Procellarum. If elevation was the only factor controlling the eruption of basalts, then this basin should surely have been completely flooded . Gamma-ray data from the Lunar Prospector mission also suggest that elevation is not the only factor that controls the eruption of mare basalts to the surface. Based on the surface distribution of KREEP, as well as results from previous studies, it has recently been argued that the Procellarum and Imbrium region of the Moon is a unique geochemical crustal province enriched in incompatible and heat-producing elements (named the "Procellarum KREEP terrane," or PKT). Wieczorek and Phillips have noted that more than 60% of the Moon's mare basalts reside within

  2. Immunization with stallion lymphocytes for treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion in thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    Mathias, S; Allen, W R

    2000-01-01

    The incidence of recurrent spontaneous abortion within the human population in the Western world is low (2-5%) but significant, and a proportion of these pregnancy losses are thought to have an underlying immunological cause. Immunization of women who have a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion with lymphocytes isolated from their husband or a third party donor is one of several forms of immunotherapy used to treat the problem. Early pregnancy loss in Thoroughbred mares is also significant and, as in women, a small number of mares undergo repeated pregnancy losses. Two trials have been performed in which Thoroughbred mares suffering from recurrent spontaneous abortion before day 150 of gestation were immunized with lymphocytes isolated from the mating stallion or from an unrelated stallion. The first trial, which was conducted without control mares, resulted in a very high live birth rate (97%) for the mares (n=24) treated. Therefore, a second controlled double-blinded trial was established in which randomly selected mares (n=17) were treated with stallion (heterologous) lymphocytes and control mares (n=13) were injected with their own (autologous) lymphocytes. The live birth rates after these treatments were 88 and 77%, respectively. Thus, immunization with stallion lymphocytes had no effect on the incidence of abortion in mares suffering from recurrent spontaneous abortion. PMID:20681180

  3. The Mare Island Mutiny: Pressure To Desegregate the U.S. Armed Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olwell, Russell

    2001-01-01

    Presents a lesson on the Mare Island Mutiny, in which 258 African American soldiers refused to load ammunition during World War II. Students participate in a simulation of a present-day congressional trial to evaluate whether justice prevailed in the original Mare Island mutiny trial. Includes handouts. (CMK)

  4. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1170 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; gunnery range, Naval Inshore Operations Training Center, Mare Island...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... range, Naval Inshore Operations Training Center, Mare Island, Vallejo. 334.1170 Section 334.1170... Operations Training Center, Mare Island, Vallejo. (a) The Danger Zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay delineated... regulations. The Commanding Officer, Coastal River Division Eleven, Department of the Navy, Mare...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1170 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; gunnery range, Naval Inshore Operations Training Center, Mare Island...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... range, Naval Inshore Operations Training Center, Mare Island, Vallejo. 334.1170 Section 334.1170... Operations Training Center, Mare Island, Vallejo. (a) The Danger Zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay delineated... regulations. The Commanding Officer, Coastal River Division Eleven, Department of the Navy, Mare...

  8. Inflammatory responses to induced infectious endometritis in mares resistant or susceptible to persistent endometritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to evaluate the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist [ra] and serum amyloid A (SAA) in endometrial tissue and circulating leukocytes in response to uterine inoculation of 105 colony forming units (CFU) Escherichia coli in mares. Before inoculation, mares were classified as resistant or susceptible to persistent endometritis based on their uterine inflammatory response to infusion of 109 killed spermatozoa and histological assessment of the endometrial quality. Endometrial biopsies were obtained 3, 12, 24 and 72 hours (h) after bacterial inoculation and blood samples were obtained during the 7 day period post bacterial inoculation. Expression levels of cytokines and SAA were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Compared to levels in a control biopsy (obtained in the subsequent estrous), resistant mares showed an up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α at 3 h after E. coli inoculation, while susceptible mares showed increased gene expression of IL-6 and IL-1ra. Susceptible mares had a significant lower gene expression of TNF-α,IL-6 and increased expression of IL-1ra 3 h after E. coli inoculation compared to resistant mares. Susceptible mares showed a sustained and prolonged inflammatory response with increased gene expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-1ra and IL-1β:IL-1ra ratio throughout the entire study period (72 h), whereas levels in resistant mares returned to estrous control levels by 12 hours. Endometrial mRNA transcripts of IL-1β and IL-1ra were significantly higher in mares with heavy uterine bacterial growth compared to mares with no/mild growth. All blood parameters were unaffected by intrauterine E. coli infusion, except for a lower gene expression of IL-10 at 168 h and an increased expression of IL-1ra at 48 h observed in susceptible mares compared to

  9. Inflammatory response in chronic degenerative endometritis mares treated with platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Reghini, Maria Fernanda S; Ramires Neto, Carlos; Segabinazzi, Lorenzo G; Castro Chaves, Maria Manoela B; Dell'Aqua, Camila de Paula F; Bussiere, Maria Clara C; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio; Papa, Frederico O; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio

    2016-07-15

    Degenerative changes of the endometrium are directly related to age and fertility in mares. Chronic degenerative endometritis (CDE) is correlated with uterine fluid retention and reduced ability to clear uterine inflammation. Recent research in the areas of equine surgery and sports medicine has shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment acts as an immunomodulator of the inflammatory response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if the uterine infusion of PRP could modulate the local inflammatory response and modify the intrauterine NO concentrations after artificial insemination (AI) in both normal mares and those with CDE. Thirteen mares with endometrium classified as grade III on the histology (mares with CDE) and eight mares with endometrial histological classification I or II-a normal mares were selected to investigate the effect of PRP therapy. The mares were inseminated with fresh semen in two consecutive cycles in a crossover study design. Thereby, each mare served as its own control and the treatment was performed with intrauterine PRP infusion four hours after AI. The percentage of neutrophils in uterine cytology (CIT, %), uterine fluid accumulation observed on ultrasonography (FLU, mm) and nitric oxide concentration of uterine fluid (NO, μM) were analyzed before and 24 hours after AI. The results reported that mares with CDE (CIT, 68.3 ± 3.27, FLU, 10.7 ± 1.61) have a higher (P < 0.05) intrauterine inflammatory response after AI than normal mares (CIT, 24.4 ± 3.56, FLU, 0), but NO concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between categories of mares. In treated cycles with PRP, the intrauterine inflammatory response decrease (P < 0.05) in CDE mares (CDE: CIT, 31.4 ± 6.48, FLU, 5.5 ± 1.28; normal mares: CIT, 13.5 ± 4.31, FLU, 0) when compared with nontreated cycle (CDE: CIT, 68.3 ± 3.27, FLU, 10.7 ± 1.61; NM: CIT, 24.4 ± 3.56, FLU, 0), but did not modify NO concentrations in uterine fluid. Thus, we can

  10. Baia Mare accident--brief ecotoxicological report of Czech experts.

    PubMed

    Soldán, P; Pavonic, M; Boucek, J; Kokes, J

    2001-07-01

    On 30 January 2000, following the breach in the tailing dam of the Aurul SA Baia Mare Co., a major spill of about 100,000 m(3) of cyanide and metal-rich liquid waste was released into the river system near Baia Mare in northwest Romania. The pollutants flowed via different tributaries into the Tizsa (Tisa) river and finally through the Danube river into the Black Sea. Along the way pollutants (especially cyanides) caused rapid death of aquatic organisms and animals living close to the poisoned rivers. Following request from the governments of Romania, Hungary, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, United Nations sent international mission experts to the area of accident. The Czech team of four experts took very active part in this mission. Samples of surface water collected by this team 3 weeks after the accident showed high toxicity in the rivers on the Romanian territory. Due to this impact, water from the Szamos river and a large area of the Tisza river in Hungarian territory was still medially toxic. Improvement of this situation was detected only in downstream areas of the Tisza/Tisa river. The high toxicity of surface water from the locality of the Lapos river upstream of the accident indicated the possibility of toxic pollution from other sources in the area. Aquatic sediments were highly toxic only in the Aurul reservoir and its surrounding area. Rapid decline of their toxicity indicated more limited adverse impact of the "Aurul pollution" in comparison with surface water. From ecotoxicological results it is evident that there is an urgent need to start abatement activities in the Baia Mare area because the possibility of future accidents still exists (this hypothesis was proved by further accidents on 10.3.2000 and the beginning of May 2000). PMID:11440479

  11. Distribution, morphology, and origin of ridges and arches in Mare Serenitatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, T. A.; Ward, S. H.; El-Baz, F.

    1975-01-01

    Lunar mare ridges and arches in Mare Serenitatis were mapped to understand better their mode of formation. Maps of these features indicate that several pre-mare impacts in the Serenitatis area may be responsible for the localization of the circular ridge systems and that the subsurface, pre-mare topography is more complex than previously recognized. Apollo Lunar Sounder cross sections of ridge systems in southern Serenitatis indicate 50 to 100 m of local relief on these features. Small-scale features of ridges, such as medial lineations and lobate margins, do not conclusively define the origin of the ridges. However, estimates of crustal shortening from Lunar Sounder data and the coincidence of the major ridge system with the Serenitatis mascon suggest that ridges and arches were formed by gravitational readjustments of the mare fill along four probable impact structures and along a north-trending fracture pattern.

  12. Electrical conductivity anomaly beneath Mare Serenitatis detected by Lunokhod 2 and Apollo 16 magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanian, L. L.; Vnuchkova, T. A.; Egorov, I. V.; Basilevskii, A. T.; Eroshenko, E. G.; Fainberg, E. B.; Dyal, P.; Daily, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic fluctuations measured by the Lunokhod 2 magnetometer in the Bay Le Monnier are distinctly anisotropic when compared to simultaneous Apollo 16 magnetometer data measured 1100 km away in the Descartes highlands. This anisotropy can be explained by an anomalous electrical conductivity of the upper mantle beneath Mare Serenitatis. A model is presented of anomalously lower electrical conductivity beneath Serenitatis and the simultaneous magnetic data from the Lunokhod 2 site at the mare edge and the Apollo 16 site are compared to the numerically calculated model solutions. This comparison indicates that the anisotropic fluctuations can be modeled by a nonconducting layer in the lunar lithosphere which is 150 km thick beneath the highlands and 300 km thick beneath Mare Serenitatis. A decreased electrical conductivity in the upper mantle beneath the mare may be due to a lower temperature resulting from heat carried out the magma source regions to the surface during mare flooding.

  13. Oxygen Isotope Variations in Lunar Mare Basalts through Fractional Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Spicuzza, M.; Day, J. M.; Valley, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mare basalts, derived from partial melts from the lunar mantle, provide information on the early differentiation and evolution of the Moon. Highly precise and accurate oxygen isotope ratios were obtained on mg-size samples of low-Ti and high-Ti mare basalts from the Apollo 11, 12, 15 and 17 missions. Low-Ti basalts studied include Apollo 12 pigeonite and ilmenite basalts, Apollo 15 olivine- and quartz-norm basalts. High-Ti mare basalts studied include seven chemical groups (Apollo 11 Types A, B1, B3, and Apollo 17 Types A, B1, B2 and C) largely defined on the basis of trace elements, indicative of different mantle sources. High-Ti basalts display significant variation in δ18O, correlating with major elements. Values of δ18O in these high-Ti basalts increase by ~0.3‰ from Mg# = 53 to Mg# = 34, suggesting a fractional crystallization control. The variation within a given chemical group can be successfully modeled by mass-balance involving ~32% fractionation of olivine+ armalcolite + pyroxene + ilmenite+ plagioclase. This model demonstrates that high-Ti basalts with >12 wt% TiO2 and high Mg# are more primitive than those with 7-12 wt% TiO2. A weaker correlation of oxygen isotopes with major elements in low-Ti basalts is also observed. From Mg# of 48 to 38, values of δ18O increase by up to 0.1‰, consistent with removal of a minor quantity of olivine. Low-Ti mare basalts with the highest Mg# (55) have slightly lower 18O values than those with Mg# of 48, consistent with possible olivine accumulation. More primitive samples in low-Ti and high-Ti groups still display distinct δ18O values.18O versus major-element plots. This implies that low- and high-Ti basalts are derived from separate sources, each with homogeneous oxygen isotopic compositions. The hypothesis that high-Ti basalts were generated from the assimilation of ilmenite-bearing rocks by low-Ti basalts is not supported by oxygen isotope compositions. The major-element and δ18O variations of low- and high

  14. Proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid during late follicle development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Follicular fluid accumulates into the antrum of follicle from the early stage of follicle development. Studies on its components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying follicular development and oocyte quality. With this objective, we performed a proteomic analysis of mare follicular fluid. First, we hypothesized that proteins in follicular fluid may differ from those in the serum, and also may change during follicle development. Second, we used four different approaches of Immunodepletion and one enrichment method, in order to overcome the masking effect of high-abundance proteins present in the follicular fluid, and to identify those present in lower abundance. Finally, we compared our results with previous studies performed in mono-ovulant (human) and poly-ovulant (porcine and canine) species in an attempt to identify common and/or species-specific proteins. Methods Follicular fluid samples were collected from ovaries at three different stages of follicle development (early dominant, late dominant and preovulatory). Blood samples were also collected at each time. The proteomic analysis was carried out on crude, depleted and enriched follicular fluid by 2D-PAGE, 1D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Results Total of 459 protein spots were visualized by 2D-PAGE of crude mare follicular fluid, with no difference among the three physiological stages. Thirty proteins were observed as differentially expressed between serum and follicular fluid. Enrichment method was found to be the most powerful method for detection and identification of low-abundance proteins from follicular fluid. Actually, we were able to identify 18 proteins in the crude follicular fluid, and as many as 113 in the enriched follicular fluid. Inhibins and a few other proteins involved in reproduction could only be identified after enrichment of follicular fluid, demonstrating the power of the method used. The comparison of proteins found in mare follicular fluid

  15. Calibrazioni a terra e prestazioni in volo di spettrometri ad immagine nel visibile e nel vicino infrarosso per l'esplorazione planetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, Gianrico

    2006-10-01

    Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio l’esplorazione planetaria ha potuto beneficiare dei dati prodotti dagli spettrometri ad immagine: grazie a questa nuova classe di strumenti, realizzati per l’osservazione in remoto di superfici ed atmosfere planetarie, è possibile acquisire dati iperspettrali con elevati poteri risolutivi spaziali e spettrali. Il principale vantaggio offerto dagli spettrometri ad immagine, rispetto alle camere ed agli spettrometri puntuali, è rappresentato dalla capacità di misurare, identificare e mappare le unità composizionali delle superfici planetarie; queste informazioni permettono di investigare sia l’evoluzione geochimica delle superfici sia la dinamica e la composizione delle atmosfere. Sebbene i primi spettrometri ad immagine siano stati francesi (Phobos/ISM, Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) e statunitensi (Galileo/NIMS, Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer), il nostro paese nel corso degli ultimi anni è stato in grado di proporre alla com unità spaziale internazionale degli strumenti dalle elevate prestazioni che sono stati infatti accettati come payload scientifici su diverse missioni interplanetarie: dai canali visibili di VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Cassini (Nasa, JPL, ESA, ASI) e di OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l’Eau, les Glacies et l’Activitè de Mars) su MarsExpress (ESA) ai due VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) su Rosetta (ESA) e VenusExpress (ESA) fino a VIR-MS (Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) su Dawn (Nasa). In questo momento inoltre altri due spettrometri sono in avanzata fase di studio: JIRAM (Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper) su Juno (missione New Discovery Nasa) e VIHI (Visible and Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) integrato nel payload italiano di remote sensing SIMBIO-SYS di BepiColombo (missione cornerstone ESA). La realizzazione di uno spettrometro ad immagini da utilizzare su una missione interplanetaria richiede un’accurata analisi in fase

  16. Exercise affects both ovarian follicular dynamics and hormone concentrations in mares.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D E; Gibbons, J R; Smith, R; Vernon, K L; Pratt-Phillip, S E; Mortensen, C J

    2011-09-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of exercise on ovarian folliculogenesis and related hormones in mares. Mares (n = 11) were randomly assigned into a control (non-exercised) or treatment (exercised) group. Treatment mares (n = 5) were moderately exercised for 30 min, 6 d/wk. All mares underwent daily transrectal ultrasonographic examinations and ovarian follicles > 6 mm were measured. Blood samples were collected during the first (Cycle 1) and last (Cycle 4) cycle, and serum concentrations of cortisol, LH, and FSH were determined. Mean cortisol concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05) in exercised mares, 6.29 ± 0.22 compared with 5.62 ± 0.16 ng/dL (mean ± SEM), 30 min post exercise. There were no significant differences between groups in mean FSH concentrations; however, exercised mares had lower (17.3 ± 6.4 vs 41.1 ± 5.5 ng/mL; P < 0.05) peak LH concentrations. Furthermore, exercised mares experienced a longer (24.7 ± 0.8 vs 22.2 ± 0.8 d; P < 0.05) mean interovulatory interval for all cycles combined, fewer (P < 0.05) follicles 6 to 20 mm in diameter, and an increased (P < 0.05) number of follicles >20 mm following deviation. The dominant and largest subordinate follicle in exercised mares had a greater (P < 0.05) mean diameter on the day of deviation, suggesting delayed deviation. Exercised mares also tended (P = 0.06) to have an increased number of cycles with at least two dominant follicles compared to control (62 vs 36%, respectively), indicating a decreased ability of the largest follicle to assert dominance. Under the conditions of this study, moderately exercising mares induced higher cortisol concentrations, lowered peak LH concentrations, and altered ovarian follicular dynamics. PMID:21497892

  17. New trends and applications of optical fiber sensing technologies at the NEL-FOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minghong; Huang, Chujia; Yuan, Yinquan; Ding, Liyun; Zhou, Ciming

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the recent development of optical fiber sensors at the National Engineering Laboratory for Optic Fiber Sensing Technologies (NEL-FOST) at Wuhan University of Technology. Integration of optical fiber with sensitive thin films will new possibilities for industry application, such as optical fiber hydrogen sensors based on Pt-doped WO3 coatings, fiber humidity sensors with porous oxide coating and high-temperature sapphire fiber sensors based on multilayer coating on fiber tip. Ultra-weak FBG array with thousand of FBGs with on-line draw tower technology will enable FBG sensing network with large capacity, also improved sensing performance and mechanical stability.

  18. Impact of moderate exercise on ovarian blood flow and early embryonic outcomes in mares.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Vernon, K L; Kelley, D E; Gibbons, J R; Mortensen, C J

    2012-11-01

    The advent of embryo transfer has allowed horses to continue to train and compete during the breeding season. However, the associated stress of exercise may be detrimental to reproduction. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differing exercise protocols on reproductive blood flow and embryonic outcomes in mares. Light-horse mares were randomized into control (n = 4), partial-exercised (n = 6), and full-exercised (n = 6) groups. Partial-exercised mares were moderately exercised 30 min daily during the periovulatory period and rested after ovulation for 7 d. Full-exercised mares were exercised for 30 min daily throughout the reproductive cycle. Mares were artificially inseminated during estrus and subjected to uterine flush for embryo recovery on d 7 post ovulation. Blood flow through both ovarian arteries and vascular perfusion of the wall of the preovulatory follicle were examined by color Doppler ultrasonography. Results indicated exercise induced greater serum cortisol concentrations (P < 0.05). Embryo recovery rates were reduced in exercised (20/46, 43%) compared with control (14/21, 67%) mares (P < 0.10). When examined separately, embryo recovery rates for partial-exercised (11/25, 44%) and full-exercised (9/21, 43%) mares were not significantly different. Additionally, fewer quality Grade 1 embryos were recovered from partial-exercised mares compared with both control and full-exercised mares (P < 0.05). Blood flow through both ovarian arteries was greater in both exercised groups in the days leading up to ovulation (P < 0.05). However, vascular perfusion of the wall of the preovulatory follicle on the day before ovulation was less in both partial-exercised (45.9 ± 3.0%) and full-exercised (44.8 ± 3.4%) mares vs. control (54.9 ± 3.6%; P < 0.05). In exercised mares, vascular perfusion of the follicle wall was greater when an embryo was recovered (P < 0.01). No differences were found in follicle ovulatory diameter among exercised and non

  19. Experimental exposure of pregnant mares to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T; Henton, M M; van der Lugt, J J

    1997-06-01

    Clinical, virological and serological responses were evaluated in 10 pregnant mares after different challenge exposures to the asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV). The outcome of maternal infection on the progeny was also investigated. Mares were inoculated intranasally (n = 4), intramuscularly (n = 2), intravenously (n = 1), or contract-exposed (n = 3). All inoculated mares developed pyrexia, 5 showed mild clinical signs related to EAV infection and 2 remained asymptomatic. Viraemia was detected in all the inoculated animals and shedding of virus from the respiratory tract occurred in 6. Five mares were re-challenged intranasally 7 and 15 weeks after inoculation. Clinical signs of the disease in these mares were limited to mild conjunctivitis. After re-challenge, virus was recovered from buffy coat cultures of 2 mares 2-6 days after re-infection. EAV was not recovered from colostrum and milk samples during the 1st week post partum. All inoculated mares seroconverted to EAV 8-12 days post inoculation and also seroconverted after re-challenge. No clinical signs of EAV infection were observed in the 3 mares kept in close contact during the post-inoculation and re-challenge periods. Serum neutralising antibody to the virus was detected in 1 in-contact mare only, while a detectable concentration of specific IgG was found by ELISA in the colostrum of 1 of the other in-contact mares. Eight of the mares gave birth to clinically normal foals, although 1 was born prematurely. Shortly after birth, 7 foals developed fever and variable clinical signs; 5 foals became septicaemic and 3 of them died 2-5 days after birth, while the remaining 2 were euthanased at 1 month of age. EAV was not recovered from the placenta, from buffy coat fractions of blood collected from foals immediately after birth and 1-3 days later, or from a range of tissues taken from the 3 foals that died and 2 that were euthanased. Virus was not isolated from tissues collected from 1 mare and her

  20. Petrologic models of 15388, a unique Apollo 15 mare basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Dasch, E. J.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    Mare basalt 15388, a feldspathic microgabbro from the Apennine Front, is chemically and petrographically distinct from Apollo 15 picritic, olivine-normative (ON), and quartz-normative basalts. The evolved chemistry, coarse texture, lack of olivine, and occurrence of cristobalite in 15388 argue for derivation by a late-stage magmatic process that is significantly removed from parental magma. It either crystallized from a magma evolved from the more mafic Apollo 15 basalts, or it crystallized from a currently unrepresented magma. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics yield isochron ages of 3.391 plus or minus 0.036 and 3.42 plus or minus 0.07 Ga, respectively, and epsilon(sub Nd) = 8.6 plus or minus 2.4, which is relatively high for Apollo 15 mare basalts. In contrast to chemical patterns of average Apollo 15 ON basalts and Apollo 15 picritic basalt, 15388 has a strongly positive LREE slope, high Ti, shallower HREE slope and a slightly positive Eu anomaly. These features argue against 15388 evolution by simple olivine fractionation of a parental ON or picritic basalt magma, although olivine is a dominant liquidus phase in both potential parents.

  1. Dark and baryonic matter in the MareNostrum Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlöber, S.; Yepes, G.; Khalatyan, A.; Sevilla, R.; Turchaninov, V.

    2006-11-01

    We report some results from one of the largest hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of large scale structures that has been done up to date. The MareNostrum Universe SPH simulation consists of 2 billion particles (2 × 10243) in a cubic box of 500 h-1 Mpc on a side. This simulation has been done in the MareNostrum parallel supercomputer at the Barcelona SuperComputer Center. Due to the large simulated volume and good mass resolution, our simulated catalog of dark matter halos comprises more than half a million objects with masses larger than a typical Milky Way galaxy halo. From this dataset we have studied several statistical properties such as the halo mass function, the distribution of shapes of dark and gas components within halos, the baryon fraction, cumulative void volume etc. This simulation is particularly useful to study the large scale distribution of baryons in the universe as a function of temperature and density. In this paper we also show the time evolution of the gas fractions at large scales.

  2. Pre-mare cratering and early solar system history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of the high extralunar flux in pre-mare times to more general problems of early solar system history is attempted by combining the results of dynamic studies with lunar chronological data. There is a twofold to fourfold contrast in the integral impact flux between the Apollo 14 and 16 sites and the older mare surfaces. This is judged insufficient to account for the contrasting lithology between these two sites: basalts and soil breccias in the maria, annealed breccias and impact melts in the highlands. Therefore, these rocks and their ages (3.9-4.0 b.y.) are thought to predate the surfaces in which they are found. Estimation of the flux needed to produce these lithologies, and difficulties associated with extrapolating this further back in lunar history give support to the "cataclysm" hypothesis of Tera, Papanastassiou, and Wasserburg. Dynamical studies permit separate evaluation of the possible sources for both the "normal" flux during the first 600 million years of lunar history and the "peak" that apparently occurred 4.0 billion years ago. The most likely sources for the normal flux are comets from the vicinity of Uranus and Neptune. The most promising source for the peak is tidal disruption by Earth or Venus of a Ceres-size asteroid initially in a Mars-crossing orbit. Alternative possibilities are suggested.

  3. Lunar volcanic glasses and their constraints on mare petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.; Livi, K.

    1981-01-01

    The compositional properties of volcanic glasses from the Apollo 11, 14, 15 and 16 landing sites are examined and implications of the results for mare basalt petrogenesis and deep lunar structures are discussed. Major-element and nickel analyses were performed on the glasses using electron probe techniques, and R-mode principal component analysis was performed on the 19 different compositions of glass distinguished. The glasses are found to form two distinct chemical arrays based on the major elements and Ni. The presence of two chemically isolated cumulate systems in the mantle at different depths is thus inferred, and a model is developed for mare petrogenesis in which each system was itself composed of two lithologic components that underwent hybridization, assimilation or mixing to generate the large compositional range of magmas represented by the lunar volcanic glasses. The surface-correlated elements associated with the volcanic glasses are attributed to another reservoir in the deep interior which may be responsible for gas emissions causing lunar transient phenomena. The model developed allows predictions to be made concerning the liquidus phase relations, trace and radiogenic element distributions, nonradiogenic isotope compositions and sample ages.

  4. Control of ovulation in mares in the early breeding season with ovarian steroids and prostaglandin.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T B; Pemstein, R; Loy, R G

    1982-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to (1) determine the degree of control of ovulation achieved by treating mares in late winter with progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta combined after prior exposure to an artificially increased photoperiod, and (2) to examine the effectiveness of such a procedure incorporated into equine breeding farm management systems. Following a 15-day treatment of 150 mg progesterone and 10 mg oestradiol-17 beta daily with 10 mg PGF-2 alpha on the last day of steroid treatment, 27 of 31 mares ovulated on Days 8-14 after the last injection in one trial. Conception rate for mares mated during that period was 77%, compared with 50% in untreated mares mated at first oestrus following the treatment period. In a second, larger field trial involving the same treatment for a 10-day period, 103 of 128 mares ovulated on Days 9-16 after the last injection and 62% of the mares mated on those days conceived. These results indicate that the combined steroid treatment provided reasonably precise and practical control of ovulation time in mares adequately stimulated by increased photoperiod without detrimental effect on fertility. PMID:6962856

  5. Effects of artificial light on the oestrous cycle of the mare.

    PubMed

    Sharp, D C; Kooistra, L; Ginther, O J

    1975-10-01

    Two groups, each of seven pony mares, were maintained from 17 October to 15 February (120 days) in the University Biotron where temperature and daily photoperiod were regulated to simulate normal conditions for that period (control group) or those normally applicable from 1 March to 1 July (treated group). Follicular growth, ovulation rate and oestrous behaviour were determined daily by rectal palpation, and by teasing with a stallion. By Day 69 of treatment, all ovarian end-points (number of follicles greater than 10 mm, number of follicles greater than 20 mm, average follicle diameter and diameter of the largest follicle) were significantly greater in treated than control mares. Oestrous behaviour was evident in all the mares in the treated group, but was not recorded in any of the control group mares; two of the treated mares ovulated. After removal from the environmental control chambers, the experimental and control mares first ovulated on an average of 147 days and 227-6 days, respectively, after the beginning of the project. Mares in both groups cycled regularly after the first ovulation and were in anoestrus again at about the same time in the following winter. PMID:1060785

  6. Photoperiodic versus metabolic signals as determinants of seasonal anestrus in the mare.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, B P; McManus, C J

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the timing and mechanisms controlling the onset of anestrus in young and mature mares treated either continuously with melatonin and in those that remained untreated. Changes in body weight, subcutaneous body fat measured to provide an estimate of total body fat, and circulating concentrations of leptin were compared throughout the 1-yr experimental period. The results demonstrate that in young mares the timing of anestrus occurs significantly earlier in the year than in mature mares and that mature mares are more likely to exhibit continuous reproductive activity during the nonbreeding season. The propensity of mature mares to exhibit this phenomenon is not modified by continuous treatment with melatonin but is associated with higher mean circulating concentrations of leptin, body weight, and estimated percent of body fat. In both young and mature mares, body weight, percent of body fat, and circulating concentrations of leptin are higher during summer than winter months. We conclude that, in the mare, the reproductive response to a decrease in photoperiod or a presumptive inhibitory melatonin signal is modified by energy availability, which may be signaled to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis via a change in the circulating concentration of leptin. An additional observation confirmed that the prolactin axis is responsive to continuous treatment with melatonin but that a suppression of prolactin secretion is limited to the spring months. PMID:10859276

  7. The effect of isosorbide dinitrate on uterine and ovarian blood flow in cycling and early pregnant mares: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zoller, D; Lüttgenau, J; Steffen, S; Bollwein, H

    2016-06-01

    Poor uterine perfusion has been proposed as a cause of infertility in mares. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), a nitric oxide donor, on uterine and ovarian blood flow resistance during diestrus and early pregnancy in mares. Six Trotter mares, aged 7 to 14 years, were examined daily during the first 11 days of three diestrous periods, and five of those mares were also examined during the first 11 days of two pregnancies. Six mares randomly received a placebo, a low dose (30 mg, ISDN30), or a high dose of ISDN (60 mg, ISDN60) through three nonconsecutive cycles. The treatments were administered orally, every 12 hours from Day 1 to 11 of the cycle (Day 0 = ovulation). Five of the 6 mares received a placebo or 60 mg of ISDN orally every 12 hours from Day 1 to 11 of pregnancy. The mares were short cycled on Day 12 of each trial. Transrectal color Doppler was used to determine blood flow resistance semiquantitatively and expressed as pulsatility index. Mean pulsatility index of both uterine arteries combined and of the dominant (ipsilateral to the CL) ovarian artery was lower (treatment effects: P ≤ 0.01; time effects: P ≤ 0.002) in mares receiving 30 mg or 60 mg of ISDN compared with placebo-treated mares. Blood flow resistance in the dominant ovarian artery was lower in ISDN-treated pregnant mares than in placebo-treated pregnant and cycling mares (treatment effect: P = 0.04; time effect: P = 0.003). Isosorbide dinitrate increases uterine and ovarian perfusion in cycling mares and ovarian perfusion in early pregnant mares. Further studies are needed to investigate these effects in relation to fertility of the mare. PMID:26879997

  8. Temporal feeding pattern may influence reproduction efficiency, the example of breeding mares.

    PubMed

    Benhajali, Haifa; Ezzaouia, Mohammed; Lunel, Christophe; Charfi, Faouzia; Hausberger, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares), night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares). The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets). Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002) and more fertility (p = 0.024) in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares). Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding. PMID:24098636

  9. Pregnancy disruption in artificially inseminated domestic horse mares as a counterstrategy against potential infanticide.

    PubMed

    Bartoš, L; Bartošová, J; Pluháček, J

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study, we suggested that the common practice of transporting a mare for mating and then bringing her back to an environment that also contains males that did not sire the fetus may be a major cause of high percentages of pregnancy disruption in domestic horses. In this study, we tested whether disruption of pregnancies induced by AI occurs as frequently as after mating with a strange stallion away from home and is affected by the same factors in the home social environment. Based on 77 records, the probability of pregnancy disruption after AI depended on the social environment in which the mare was maintained after mating and the number of foals the mare had delivered in the past. Also after AI, as with natural matings away from home, the probability of pregnancy disruption was higher when the mare had no male company in her enclosure but stallions or geldings were present in an adjacent enclosure than when the mare was sharing the enclosure with geldings (generalized linear mixed model = 8.68, = 0.007, odds ratio = 8.17). These data support the prediction that the mare perceives conception after AI equally to natural mating with a strange stallion. The results suggested pregnancy disruption may be stimulated by the social circumstances of the home environment in mares artificially inseminated as in mares mated naturally away from home. The practical implications of this result is that after AI, to reduce risk of pregnancy disruption and improve welfare, horse breeders should place the pregnant mare into an environment with no stallion or stallions/gelding or geldings or to an enclosure together with the male or males. PMID:26641065

  10. Management Strategies Aiming to Improve Horse Welfare Reduce Embryonic Death Rates in Mares.

    PubMed

    Malschitzky, E; Pimentel, A M; Garbade, P; Jobim, Mim; Gregory, R M; Mattos, R C

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of management strategies aiming to improve animal well-being on pregnancy and embryonic death (ED) rates. Breeding records of a cohort of 1206 Thoroughbred mares brought to a stallion station facility, to be bred with the stallions housed there, were evaluated during ten breeding seasons. Mares were blocked according to management strategies in two groups: Stress and Relax. Strategies used to improve animal well-being (Relax group) were as follows: stopping the teasing routine, reducing or eliminating stall confinement, reducing the number of mares per group and maintaining herd stability during the breeding season. In barren mares, the pregnancy rate was higher in the Relax group (91.8%) when compared to the observed in Stress group (84.7%). However, no difference in pregnancy rates were observed (Stress = 85.2% vs. Relax = 86.2) in foaling mares. ED rate was higher in barren and foaling mares of the Stress group mares (25.5% and 26.8%, respectively) compared with the Relax group (16.1% and 14.7%, respectively). No significant differences were observed on foal heat pregnancy rate between groups; yet, the embryo loss on foal heat was significant reduced in Relax mares (Relax = 8.7% vs Stress = 24.5%). In conclusion, management strategies aimed to reduce social stress can reduce early pregnancy losses and the average cycles per pregnancy, improving reproductive performance in mares. PMID:25981406

  11. Real-time characterization of the uterine blood flow in mares before and after artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J C; Ignácio, F S; Rocha, N S; Thompson, D L; Pinto, C R; Meira, C

    2015-09-01

    The present experiment was divided into two studies to investigate the effect of age and endometrial degeneration on uterine blood flow of mares throughout the immediate post-breeding period. In study 1, uterine blood flow was characterized in mares (n = 7 mares/group) with minimal, moderate or severe endometrial degenerative changes (GI, GII and GIII, respectively). In study 2, the effect of age was investigated using young (≤ 6 years) and old (≥ 15 years) mares (n = 7 mares/group). Uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial pulsatility index (PI) were evaluated every hour from H0 (moment immediately before AI) to H12. In study 1, a pronounced and transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was detected (P < 0.001) between H1 and H3 in the three endometrial groups. In addition, GIII mares had greater (P < 0.05) mesometrial PI than GI mares during the post-breeding period, denoting reduced uterine blood flow. In study 2, a transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was also observed in both age groups during the first hour after mating. However, mesometrial PI of young and old mares was similar (P > 0.05) and constant (P > 0.7) through the first 12h after AI. Results demonstrated, for the first time, the immediate changes on uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial PI in response to semen infusion. Moreover, reduced blood flow of the uterus during the post-breeding period was strongly associated with endometrial degenerative changes in mares, regardless of age. PMID:26277047

  12. Temporal Feeding Pattern May Influence Reproduction Efficiency, the Example of Breeding Mares

    PubMed Central

    Benhajali, Haifa; Ezzaouia, Mohammed; Lunel, Christophe; Charfi, Faouzia; Hausberger, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares), night and day for the “continuous feeding” group (CF mares). The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets). Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002) and more fertility (p = 0.024) in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares). Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding. PMID:24098636

  13. Effects of estradiol on uterine perfusion in anesthetized cyclic mares affected with uterine vascular elastosis.

    PubMed

    Esteller-Vico, A; Liu, I K M; Vaughan, B; Steffey, E P; Brosnan, R J

    2016-01-01

    Uterine vascular elastosis in mares is characterized by degeneration of uterine vasculature through thickening of the elastin layers. Factors commonly associated with this degeneration include age, parity, and chronic uterine endometritis. Affected mares have also been shown to exhibit decreases in uterine blood flow and perfusion of the uterus. Due to the increased thickness of the elastin layers, we hypothesize that vasodilatation of the uterine vasculature is also impaired. To test the functionality of these vessels, we evaluated the vasodilatory effects of estradiol on the uterine vascular bed in mares with normal vasculature and mares with severe elastosis. Both groups were tested in estrus and diestrus. Fluorescent microspheres were used to determine basal blood perfusion, followed by the intravenous administration of 1.0 μg/kg of 17β-estradiol. After 90 min, perfusion was measured once again to determine the vascular response to estradiol. Control mares in estrus displayed a significant increase in total uterine blood flow after the administration of estradiol when compared to baseline levels. No other group had a significant increase in total blood flow and perfusion after estradiol administration. The administration of estradiol in control mares induced regional increases in perfusion in the uterine horns and uterine body during estrus and only in the uterine horns during diestrus. Mares affected by elastosis exhibited no regional differences in perfusion levels post-estradiol administration. The difference in the vasodilatory response induced by estradiol between reproductively healthy mares and mares affected with elastosis indicates that the functionality of the affected vessels is compromised. PMID:26642749

  14. Plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in mares treated with gondotropin-releasing hormone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M C; Ginther, O J

    1975-11-01

    Three experiments were performed to study the luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulatory responses to various doses and methods of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in estrous pony mares and the influence of estradiol-17beta (E2-17beta) on LH response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, single injections of synthetic GnRH were subcutaneously given to 5 groups of estrous (day 2) mares (3 mares/group) on a body weight basis as follows: group A--isotonic saline solution; group B--GnRH, 0.14 mug/kg; group C--GnRH, 0.28 mug/kg; group D--KGnRH, 0.59 mug/kg; and group E--GnRH, 2.37 mug/kg. Significant increase of plasma LH concentration lasting for approximately 2 hours occurred only in mares of group E given the largest dose of GnRH (2.37 mug/kg). Plasma LH concentration increase at 1 hour after treatment approached significane (P less than 0.10) in mares of group D given the next smaller dose. In experiment 2, GnRH (2.37 mug/kg) was intravenously infused for 24 hours to a group of 6 mares (group F); 6 other mares (group G) were given saline solution infusion. Mean plasma LH concentration was increased at 3 hours, continued to increase until 6 hours, and remained at approximately the 6-hour concentration throughout the period of GnRH infusion. In the 3rd experiment, 3 groups of mares (4 mares/group) were subcutaneously given the following treatments on days 2 and 3 of estrus, respectively: group H--corn oil and saline solution; group I--corn oil and GnRH, 0.59 mug/kg; and group J--estradiol-17beta, 0.5 mg, and GnRH, 0.59 mug/kg. Plasma LH response was not seen in group H mares given corn oil and saline solution. Mean plasma LH concentration at 1 hour after administration of GnRH approached significance (P less than 0.10) in group I mares given corn oil and GnRH. For the mares in group J given E2-17beta and GnRH, E2-17beta pretreatment increased plasma LH after 24 horus; significnat increases of plasma LH concentration were seen from 1 to 6 hours after

  15. Correlation of deep moonquakes and mare basalts: Implications for lunar mantle structure and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chuan; Muirhead, Alicia C.; Zhong, Shijie

    2012-07-01

    The genesis of mare basalts and deep moonquakes are important events that have major implications for understanding the thermal evolution and interior dynamics of the Moon. The eruption of mare basalts predominantly from 3.9 Ga to 3 Ga ago represents one of the most important events in lunar geological history. Deep moonquakes recorded by the Apollo Seismic Network show the dynamic nature of the present-day lunar mantle. In this study, we have correlated the presence of the mare basalts, using FeO concentration as a proxy, with the epicenters of 52 well-located deep moonquake (DMQ) clusters. We determine FeO concentrations of 13 wt.% or higher to be representative of the mare basalt deposits. Our analysis shows that over 63% of the DMQs occur within 1° from the mare basalt deposits, while over 80% of the DMQs are within 5° from the mare basalt deposits. Our analysis also shows that for the same amount of randomly distributed DMQs within a spherical cap on the nearside that encompasses all the nearside DMQs, the probability of over 80% of the DMQs occurring within 5° from the mare basalt deposits is about 0.01, thus rejecting a random distribution of the DMQs with respect to the mare basalts. The correlation between mare basalts and the DMQs from our analysis suggests that the mare basalts may be derived from melting processes at relatively large depths, consistent with previous petrology and geodynamic studies. We propose that the water and volatiles in the mare basalt source material (i.e., a mixture of ilmenite cumulates and olivine orthopyroxene, together called MIC) play an important role in causing the DMQs and that the DMQs delineate the present-day locations of MIC in the deep mantle. Since the mare basalts are predominately distributed on the nearside, our results further suggest that the DMQs may indeed be largely nearside features, which is a prediction that can be tested in future lunar seismic exploration.

  16. Clinical use of dopamine antagonist sulpiride to advance first ovulation in transitional mares.

    PubMed

    Panzani, D; Zicchino, I; Taras, A; Marmorini, P; Crisci, A; Rota, A; Camillo, F

    2011-01-01

    Artificial photoperiod treatment is currently the best method to hasten the first ovulation of the breeding season in winter anoestrus mares. However, this is not easy to apply in large herds of mares and, to be effective, has to be planned in the northern hemisphere in December at the latest. Pharmacological treatments have been proposed as alternatives: GnRH agonists, progesterone or its synthetic agonist Altrenogest, and dopamino-antagonists, as pherphenazine, domperidone or sulpiride. Dopamino-antagonists protocols, beginning at a given day of the year, gave controversial results in terms of hastening ovulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an up-to-21-d long dopamine antagonist (sulpiride) treatment on mares at the beginning of the spring transition for its ability to hasten estrous cyclicity. In Study 1, 49 seasonally-acyclic standardbred mares, maintained in paddocks under natural photoperiod, were treated with 1 mg/kg/d sulpiride at the evidence of the first follicle with of 25 mm in diameter until ovulation for a maximum of 21 d (Group S(1); n = 34) or left untreated (Group C(1); n = 15). Group S(1) and C(1) mares showed a follicle of 35 mm in diameter after 8 and 22 d (median; P < 0.05) and ovulated after 18 and 43 d, respectively (median; P < 0.05). Twenty-two/26 and 6/15 mares of the Group S(1) and C(1) ovulated within 30 d from the beginning of the treatment, respectively (P < 0.05). All the mares of the study cycled until Autumn, unless they became pregnant. In Study 2, pregnancy rates after the first ovulation of the year of 22 acyclic standardbred mares maintained in paddocks under natural photo-period, treated following the same protocol as Study 1 (S(2)), and 47 untreated mares (C(2)) were compared. In Groups S(2) and C(2,) 63.6% and 61.7% of the mares became pregnant after the first cycle (P > 0.05) and 50.0% and 61.1% of the remaining became pregnant in the following cycles (P > 0.05), respectively. Beginning with

  17. Follicle and endocrine dynamics during experimental follicle deviation in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Meira, C; Beg, M A; Bergfelt, D R

    2002-09-01

    Deviation during a follicular wave in mares begins when the largest follicle (F1) reaches a mean diameter of 22.5 mm and is characterized by continued growth of F1 to become the dominant follicle and regression of F2 to become the largest subordinate follicle. In the present study, F1 was ablated at the expected beginning of deviation (Hour 0) to provide a reference point for characterizing the intrafollicular changes preceding experimental deviation between F2 and F3. Diameters and concentrations of follicular fluid factors in F2 and F3 were determined in F1-ablated mares at Hours 0, 12, 24, 48, or 72 (n = 8 mares/group). Circulating FSH concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in the Hour 72 ablation group than in controls 12 h after ablation and then progressively decreased. The diameters of F2 and F3 increased (P < 0.05) during Hours 0 to 24. Thereafter, F2 continued to increase but F3 did not, indicating that experimental deviation began at Hour 24. The diameter of F2 and circulating FSH concentration at Hour 24 were similar (P > 0.1) to the diameter of F1 and FSH concentration at Hour 0, respectively. A differential change between F2 and F3 was not detected in follicular fluid concentrations of estradiol, inhibin-A, and activin-A by the beginning of experimental deviation. However, estradiol was higher in F2 at Hours 0 and 12 and inhibin-A was higher in F2 throughout the experiment, and both factors could have been involved in experimental deviation. Free insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased (P < 0.05) in F2 beginning at Hour 12 and was higher (P < 0.05) in F2 than in F3 by the beginning of experimental deviation. Temporally, this result indicated that intrafollicular IGF-1 was involved in conversion of F2 from a destined subordinate follicle to a dominant follicle. PMID:12193395

  18. An "Ideal" Home for Care: Nel Noddings, Thomas Hill Green, and an Ontological Support for a Phenomenology of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decoste, Jordan; Boyd, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    This paper is grounded in a deep appreciation of Nel Noddings' "ethics of care" as an important contribution to moral philosophy and moral education. We seek to offer some philosophical reflections that have the potential to strengthen this important alternative to mainstream ethics and to how moral education might be conceived and practiced…

  19. Mares Prefer the Voices of Highly Fertile Stallions

    PubMed Central

    Lemasson, Alban; Remeuf, Kévin; Trabalon, Marie; Cuir, Frédérique; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that stallion whinnies, known to encode caller size, also encoded information about caller arousal and fertility, and the reactions of mares in relation to type of voice. Voice acoustic features are correlated with arousal and reproduction success, the lower-pitched the stallion’s voice, the slower his heart beat and the higher his fertility. Females from three study groups preferred playbacks of low-pitched voices. Hence, females are attracted by frequencies encoding for large male size, calmness and high fertility. More work is needed to explore the relative importance of morpho-physiological features. Assortative mating may be involved as large females preferred voices of larger stallions. Our study contributes to basic and applied ongoing research on mammal reproduction, and questions the mechanisms used by females to detect males’ fertility. PMID:25714814

  20. Regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W., III; Adams, J. B.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing and Luna 24 sample data are used to develop a summary of the regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium. Laboratory spectra of Luna 24 samples, telescopic reflectance spectra in the 0.3 to 1.1 micron range and orbital X-ray data have identified three major basalt groups in the region. Group I soil is derived from iron- and magnesium-rich titaniferous basalts and was apparently emplaced over the majority of the basin, however is presently exposed as a shelf in the southwest part. Group II soils, derived from very low titanium ferrobasalts, were emplaced in two stages subsequent to Group I emplacement and now appear as part of the outer shelf and topographic annulus. Subsidence of the basin interior preceded and continued after the emplacement of the third basalt group, a soil derived from a low titanium ferrobasalt. The Luna 24 site is found to be within a patch of Group II material.

  1. Pre-mare cratering and early solar system history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of the high extra-lunar flux in pre-mare times to more general problems of early solar system history is attempted by combining the results of dynamic studies with lunar chronological data. Dynamical studies permit separate evaluation of the possible sources for both the normal flux during the first 600 m.y. years of lunar history as well as the peak which apparently occurred 4.0 b.y. ago. Dynamical studies have been carried out in order to determine the extent to which a heliocentric flux could be confined to the Moon (and Earth). A Monte Carlo method has been used to calculate the relative impact rates of planet-crossing bodies with the moon and the terrestrial planets. It is concluded that the time-variation of the flux on these planets is closely related to that on the moon.

  2. Mars at Ls 176o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 March 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176o occurs in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  3. Mars at Ls 230o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurs in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  4. Mars at Ls 160o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 February 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 160o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 160o occurs in mid-February 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o--the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  5. Mars at Ls 306o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Mars at Ls 211o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurred in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  7. Mars at Ls 269o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  8. Mars at Ls 107o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurred in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  9. Mars at Ls 249o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurred in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  10. Mars at Ls 39o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  11. Mars at Ls 25o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurred in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  12. Mars at Ls 249o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  13. Mars at Ls 306o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurred in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  14. Mars at Ls 193o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 April 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193o occurred in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  15. Mars at Ls 12o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    28 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurred in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  16. Mars at Ls 53o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    23 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  17. Mars at Ls 12o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  18. Mars at Ls 324o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  19. Mars at Ls 66o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  20. Mars at Ls 357o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurred in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  1. Mars at Ls 93o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    8 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  2. Mars at Ls 230o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurred in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  3. Mars at Ls 160o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 160o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 160o occurred in mid-February 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o--the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  4. Mars at Ls 39o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurred in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  5. Mars at Ls 288o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    13 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurs in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Mars at Ls 341o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurred in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  7. Mars at Ls 79o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    25 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurred in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  8. Mars at Ls 211o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    10 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurs in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  9. Mars at Ls 25o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  10. Mars at Ls 66o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurred in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  11. Mars at Ls 324o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurred in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  12. Mars at Ls 79o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  13. Mars at Ls 288o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    27 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  14. Mars at Ls 107o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  15. Mars at Ls 269o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurred in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  16. Mars at Ls 357o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  17. Mars at Ls 53o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    9 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  18. Very high potassium (VHK) basalt - Complications in mare basalt petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The first comprehensive report on the petrology and geochemistry of Apollo 14 VHK (Very High Potassium) basalts and their implications for lunar evolution is presented. The reported data are most consistent with the hypothesis that VHK basalts formed through the partial assimilation of granite by a normal low-Ti, high-Al mare basalt magma. Assimilation was preceded by the diffusion-controlled exchange of alkalis and Ba between basalt magma and the low-temperature melt fraction of the granite. Hypotheses involving volatile/nonvolatile fractionations or long-term enrichment of the source regions in K are inconsistent with the suprachondritic Ba/La ratios and low initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of VHK basalt. An important implication of this conclusion is that granite should be a significant component of the lunar crust at the Apollo 14 site.

  19. Lu-Hf AND Sm-Nd EVOLUTION IN LUNAR MARE BASALTS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unruh, D.M.; Stille, P.; Patchett, P.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data for mare basalts combined with Rb-Sr and total REE data taken from the literature suggest that the mare basalts were derived by small ( less than equivalent to 10%) degrees of partial melting of cumulate sources, but that the magma ocean from which these sources formed was light REE and hf-enriched. Calculated source compositions range from lherzolite to olivine websterite. Nonmodal melting of small amounts of ilmenite ( less than equivalent to 3%) in the sources seems to be required by the Lu/Hf data. A comparison of the Hf and Nd isotopic characteristics between the mare basalts and terrestrial oceanic basalts reveals that the epsilon Hf/ epsilon Nd ratios in low-Ti mare basalts are much higher than in terrestrial ocean basalts.

  20. A preliminary analysis of lunar extra-mare basalts - Distribution, compositions, ages, volumes, and eruption styles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitford-Stark, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Extra-mare basalts occupy 8.5% of the lunar basalt area and comprise 1% of the total mare basalt volume. They are preferentially located where the crust is thin and topographically low. In terms of age, eruption style, and composition they are as variable as the mare basalts. In some instances extrusion in extra-mare craters was preceded by floor-fracturing whereas in other cases it apparently was not. The volume of lava erupted may have been controlled more by the volume of magma produced than by hydrostatic effects. A minimum of nearly 1300 separate basalt eruptions is indicated; the true value could be nearer 30,000 separate eruptions.

  1. Pleural effusion secondary to thoracic metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma in a mare.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H; Weidner, J P; Parry, B W; Hargis, A

    1990-11-01

    A 17-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined nearly 3 years after excision and cryotherapy of a papillary mammary gland adenocarcinoma. The mare had been used for pleasure riding since surgery, but had recently developed progressive dyspnea. The mare had clinical evidence of pleural effusion, but died before further clinical examination and treatment were instituted. Necropsy revealed deep mammary masses with similar nodules in the deep inguinal, renal, and mediastinal lymph nodes and in the lungs, pericardium, visceral and parietal pleurae, and left ovary. The masses were identified as papillary mammary gland adenocarcinoma. Large volumes of free pleural and peritoneal fluid were detected. The pleural fluid contained similar neoplastic cells that could have been readily detected by exfoliative cytologic examination had the mare survived. PMID:2254151

  2. Composition of a Cryogenic Sea Studied by the Titan Mare Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Stofan, E.; Trainer, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) mission that proposes to operate from the surface of Ligeia Mare (Fig. 1) is one of the finalists in the latest Discovery small mission competition. One of the TiME instruments is a Neutral Mass Spectrometer that would sample gas from a volatilized sample of this cryogenic sea. Although this Titan sea may be principally ethane (Cordier et al., 2009), the mixing ratios of methane, ethane, propane, and more complex hydrocarbons and nitriles in Ligeia Mare is unknown and their measurement is one of the motivations for this mission. We will describe the approach to securing these measurements including methods developed and tested to robustly sample the cryogenic fluid. Figure 1. Ligeia Mare (credit NASA/JPL). References: Cordier, D., Mousis, O., Lunine, J.I., Lavvas, P., and Vuiton, V. The Astrophysical Journal 707 (2009) L128.

  3. D-Poor Hydrogen in Lunar Mare Basalts Assimilated from Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.; Boyce, J. W.; Greenwood, J. P.; Eiler, J. M.; Gross, J.; Guan, Y.; Ma, C.; Stolper, E. M.

    2016-05-01

    D/H in apatites in mare basalts decreases with Fe-Mg homogenization of their pyroxenes. This suggests that the low D/H represents hydrogen from lunar regolith, which masquerading as an igneous component.

  4. Deciphering Solar System Chronology with Lunar In-situ Dating: The MARE Discovery Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, F. S.; Draper, D.; Christensen, P. R.; Olansen, J.; Devolites, J.; Harris, W.; Whitaker, T. J.; Levine, J.

    2015-10-01

    We have proposed a discovery mission called the Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) that will land southwest of the Aristarchus Plateau, providing new measurements of age and petrology, addressing major questions of lunar and solar system chronology.

  5. Surgical repair of rectovaginal fistulae in mares: Twelve cases (1983-1991)

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Marc R.; Trout, Donald R.; Little, Christopher B.

    1993-01-01

    The case records of 12 mares at the Ontario and Atlantic Veterinary Colleges were reviewed to evaluate the success rates of surgical techniques used to repair rectovaginal fistulae. A modified horizontal perineal technique was used in eight mares; it was unsuccessful in one mare, but the fistula was subsequently successfully repaired using the same technique. One rectovaginal fistula that was converted to a third-degree perineal laceration was successfully repaired on the third attempt, using the suture principles of the modified horizontal perineal technique. A modified transvaginal technique was used in three mares, in two of which it failed; their fistulae were subsequently converted to third-degree perineal lacerations and repaired using a one-stage closure. We conclude that the modified horizontal perineal technique is a one-stage procedure that is technically easy to perform, results in less tension on the suture lines, and is effective in modifying poor vulvar conformation. PMID:17424200

  6. Assessment of pregnancy in Kiang mares (Equus hemionus holdereri ) using estrogen determination in feces.

    PubMed

    Kuckelkorn, B

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of fecal estrogens was used to diagnose pregnancy in 6 Kiang mares (Equus hemionus holdereri ) that were kept at Tierpark Berlin. Three extraction methods were compared and were followed by an established RIA for total estrogen. Extraction of desiccated feces with chloroform/n-hexane and KOH, with and without enzyme hydrolysis showed better results than extraction with diethylether without hydrolysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by observation of foaling in 2 mares that showed estrogen concentrations between 800 and 1800 ng/g and in 1 mare that showed widely fluctuating values between 500 and 1300 ng/g of feces. Two mares with estrogen concentrations below 500 ng/g were not seen to foal. The method using chloroform/n-hexane and KOH without enzyme hydrolysis seems practical for non-invasive evaluation of the endocrine status in this endangered Equidae species. PMID:16727510

  7. 12. PWD Drawing 10,0005(463AE1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. PWD Drawing 10,000-5(463A-E-1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. IV - Deconvolution of the Mare Imbrium, Aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Hawke, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    Several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data have been deconvolved in order to model the distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track, which in combination with a prior study of the Apenninus region covers a continuous swath from 10 deg E to 60 deg W in the northwest quadrant. The crater of the Aristarchus region dominates the Th distribution, with a concentration of 20 ppm, and substantial enhancements are also found in the mare regions around Brayley and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  9. Is plagioclase removal responsible for the negative Eu anomaly in the source regions of mare basalts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The nearly ubiquitous presence of a negative Eu anomaly in the mare basalts has been suggested to indicate prior separation and flotation of plagioclase from the basalt source region during its crystallization from a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Are there any mare basalts derived from a mantle source which did not experience prior plagioclase separation? Crystal chemical rationale for REE substitution in pyroxene suggests that the combination of REE size and charge, M2 site characteristics of pyroxene, fO2, magma chemistry, and temperature may account for the negative Eu anomaly in the source region of some types of primitive, low TiO2 mare basalts. This origin for the negative Eu anomaly does not preclude the possibility of the LMO as many mare basalts still require prior plagioclase crystallization and separation and/or hybridization involving a KREEP component.

  10. XO-gonadal dysgenesis in the mare (report of two cases).

    PubMed

    Hughes, J P; Kennedy, P C

    1975-04-01

    TWo cases of XO-gonadal dysgenesis in the mare are presented. Case No 1 was a pure 63, XO, while Case No 2 was a mosaic with a preponderance of XX cells. The clinical picture was one of phenotypically normal female mares with small uteri and infantile ovaries. The ovaries lacked germ cells, and consisted of stroma only. This study emphasizes the importance of chromosome analysis in providing information concerning the mechanisms involved is some cases of equine infertility. PMID:1140189

  11. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with presumed autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome in a mare

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Jill K.; Magdesian, K. Gary; Gaffney, Patricia M.

    2011-01-01

    A 5-year-old Thoroughbred-cross mare was diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Partial glycemic control and clinical improvement were achieved with daily insulin administration for 18 mo. The mare subsequently developed evidence of hypoadrenocorticism and died. Necropsy findings included lymphocytic infiltration of the pancreas, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, and thyroid glands, suggestive of an immune-mediated polyendocrinopathy. PMID:22043070

  12. Photogeology: Part S: mare ridges and arches in southern Oceanus Procellarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colton, George W.; Howard, Keith A.; Moore, Henry J.

    1972-01-01

    Low-relief mare features such as ridges and arches are best studied by using stereoscopic photographs taken at low Sun angles. Apollo 16 metric camera photography of the southern Oceanus Procellarum east of Letronne Crater reveals a diversity of subtle features (fig. 29-125) and adds significantly to an understanding of the forms of mare ridges and arches their relative ages, and their association with fractures and sinuous rilles.

  13. Mare ridges and related studies: Part C: lunar thrust faults in the Taurus-Littrow region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Muehlberger, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    "Wrinkle ridges" in the Taurus-Littrow region along the eastern margin of the Mare Serenitatis appear very fresh and are probably among the youngest on the Moon. They include both mare ridges and similar-looking one-sided scarps. Evidence will be presented here to suggest that these ridges and scarps may be anticlines and thrust faults that resulted from sliding on a décollement surface. Alternative interpretations are presented by Scott (part D) and Hodges (part B).

  14. Subclinical fungal endometritis in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical endometritis are leading causes of reduced reproductive efficiency in the mare. Clinical endometritis is relatively easy to diagnose during routine physical and ultrasonographic reproductive examinations, whereas the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis requires a more detailed work-up. The goal of this paper is to review the various options, and describe the regimen chosen in a mare with subclinical fungal endometritis. PMID:22851785

  15. Subclinical fungal endometritis in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Gregory J

    2012-02-01

    Clinical and subclinical endometritis are leading causes of reduced reproductive efficiency in the mare. Clinical endometritis is relatively easy to diagnose during routine physical and ultrasonographic reproductive examinations, whereas the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis requires a more detailed work-up. The goal of this paper is to review the various options, and describe the regimen chosen in a mare with subclinical fungal endometritis. PMID:22851785

  16. Ilmenite mapping of the lunar regolith over Mare Australe and Mare Ingenii regions: An optimized multisource approach based on Hapke radiative transfer theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, Myriam; Morisset, Caroline-Emmanuelle; Germain, Mickaël.; Hipkin, Victoria; Goïta, Kalifa; Lucey, Paul G.

    2013-12-01

    model lunar ilmenite abundances over Mare Australe and Mare Ingenii regions using a new approach; we integrate Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Clementine UV-visible/near-infrared (UVVIS/NIR) data to obtain a 14-band mosaic (320-2000 nm). We use Hapke's radiative transfer equations to compute spectra for various mixtures of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, and ilmenite, with varying grain size, chemistry, and degree of maturity, and find the closest match between the modeled spectra and the spectra of the less mature pixels (optical maturity ≥ 0.2) in the 14-band mosaic. We calculate a "maximum stoichiometrically possible ilmenite content", using Clementine-derived TiO2 abundances and the amount of TiO2 in stoichiometric ilmenite, and use it as a constraint in our model. We validate our methodology with lunar soil spectra of known composition. Our results show that the integrated WAC-UVVIS/NIR data and the UVVIS/NIR data overestimate ilmenite abundances by 8.80 wt % and 7.97 wt %, respectively, when a fixed maximum of 20 wt % ilmenite is used. When the maximum stoichiometrically possible ilmenite content is used as a constraint, the integrated WAC-UVVIS/NIR data give slightly more accurate ilmenite abundance estimation (±2.87 wt %) than when using only UVVIS/NIR data (± 3.04 wt %). We find ilmenite concentrations of 0-11 wt % in Mare Australe and 0-6 wt % in Mare Ingenii region. Ilmenite abundances between 4 and 7 wt % are exposed in Mare Australe, whereas ilmenite abundances between 7 and 11 wt % are found on the walls of 0.6-11.8 km diameter craters within Mare Australe.

  17. Effects of cycle stage and sampling procedure on interpretation of endometrial cytology in mares.

    PubMed

    Kozdrowski, Roland; Sikora, Monika; Buczkowska, Justyna; Nowak, Marcin; Raś, Andrzej; Dzięcioł, Michał

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if (1) the stage of reproductive cycle influences cytological results, (2) cytology obtained from an endometrial biopsy is more accurate than cytology derived using the cytobrush, and (3) different methods used for evaluation of cytological samples produce similar diagnostic results. Material was collected from 46 mares in estrus, 48 in diestrus and from 33 mares in anestrus. Smears were evaluated using two criteria. In criterion I, a total of 300cells were counted and the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells was recorded. In criterion II, the number of polymorphonuclear cells/high power field was determined. Endometrial biopsy samples were also examined histologically, and comparisons were made between cytological and histological results. Regardless of the method used for sample collection, endometritis was diagnosed significantly more frequently if smears were evaluated according to criterion I. The agreement between the number of polymorphonuclear cells infiltrated into the endometrial luminal epithelium and stratum compactum and the cytology results for smears evaluated according to criterion I was fair for anestrous mares, poor for diestrous mares, and moderate for mares in estrus. When cytological smears were evaluated according to criterion II the agreement between the histological and cytological and results was always poor. In summary, cytological evaluation of the mare endometrium should be based on counting the numbers of polymorphonuclear cells in relation to epithelial cells rather than counting the number of polymorphonuclear cells in relation to high power field. PMID:25660623

  18. Stratigraphy and structural evolution of southern Mare Serenitatis - A reinterpretation based on Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Head, J. W., III

    1983-01-01

    Two subsurface reflecting horizons have been detected by the Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) in the southern Mare Serenitatis which appear to be regolith layers more than 2 m thick, and are correlated with major stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present analysis implies that the lower horizon represents the interface between the earliest mare unit and the modified Serenitatis basin material below. The depth of volcanic fill within Serenitatis is highly variable, with an average thickness of mare basalts under the ALSE ground track of 1.6 km. Comparisons with the Orientale basin topography suggests that a major increaae in load thickness could occur a few km basinward of the innermost extent of the traverse. The history of volcanic infilling of Mare Serenitatis was characterized by three major episodes of volcanism.

  19. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares.

    PubMed

    Bower, M A; Campana, M G; Whitten, M; Edwards, C J; Jones, H; Barrett, E; Cassidy, R; Nisbet, R E R; Hill, E W; Howe, C J; Binns, M

    2011-04-23

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to 'A Royal Mare'). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized. PMID:20926431

  20. The use of dexamethasone administered to mares at breeding time in the modulation of persistent mating induced endometritis.

    PubMed

    Bucca, S; Carli, A; Buckley, T; Dolci, G; Fogarty, U

    2008-10-15

    The present study describes the effect of a single dose of dexamethasone administered to mares at time of breeding. In an initial experiment, the authors investigated safety of treatment. In a second experiment the effect of treatment on the uterine environment, fetal development and pregnancy outcome was examined. In the final part of the study, mares susceptible to persistent mating induced endometritis were identified, by means of a risk factor score system and the effect of treatment evaluated. Results indicated that dexamethasone administered at breeding time did not negatively impact on mares medical and reproductive traits. A reduced inflammatory response was observed post-mating in treated versus control mares and mares with multiple risk factors for susceptibility to persistent mating induced endometritis showed improved pregnancy rates following treatment. The authors concluded that a single dose of dexamethasone administered at the time of breeding is safe and can be used to modulate the uterine inflammatory response to breeding in susceptible mares. PMID:18649933

  1. Oscillatory Thermochemical Convection as a Cause for the Episodic Mare Basalt Volcanism in the PKT Region of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Zhong, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon possesses a number of hemispheric asymmetries including crustal thickness and mare basalt volcanism. Lunar mare volcanism, which lasted from about 4.0 to 1.5 Ga and occurred mostly on the nearside, is crucial in understanding the evolutionary history of the Moon. Recently, we analyzed the mare basalt age distribution for major mare basins, based on the latest mare basalt dating results from the crater size-frequency distribution measurements. Our analysis shows that most mare basalt eruptions are peaked at ~3.6 Ga and end at ~2.8 Ga, while mares Oceanus Procellarum, Imbrium, and Insularum in the Procelluram KREEP Terrane (PKT) feature episodic volcanism with reducing activities in the late stage. In this study, we propose that the episodic mare basalt volcanism is caused by oscillatory thermochemical convection, and has a strong correlation with the KREEP-enriched PKT. We formulate 3-D spherical thermochemical mantle convection models to investigate the genesis of episodic mare volcanism in one hemisphere, and the role of PKT in inducing and maintaining mare eruptions within its region. A MIC (mixture of ilmenite-rich cumulates and olivine-pyroxene) layer, which is rich in radiogenic elements and has a larger intrinsic density than the ambient mantle, is proposed to be the mare basalt source material. MIC is heated up due to radiogenic heating to become thermally buoyant and rise to the mare basalt source region, causing melting. When the heat is released to the extent that MIC becomes negatively buoyant, MIC sinks back to depth. Such a process may occur repetitively, causing episodic volcanism. On the other hand, the heating from KREEP materials in the PKT may maintain a high temperature anomaly in the nearside mantle that favors very long wavelength (i.e., degree 1) upwellings in the PKT region. This process may control the long-term evolution of the lunar interior and have implication for the present-day lunar mantle structure and dynamics.

  2. Endometrial inflammatory markers of the early immune response in mares susceptible or resistant to persistent breeding-induced endometritis.

    PubMed

    Woodward, E M; Christoffersen, M; Campos, J; Betancourt, A; Horohov, D; Scoggin, K E; Squires, E L; Troedsson, M H T

    2013-03-01

    Transient endometritis after breeding is necessary for clearance of bacteria and spermatozoa; however, in a subpopulation of mares, the inflammation fails to resolve in a timely fashion. The objective of this study was to describe the uterine inflammatory response in mares susceptible or resistant to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) during the first 24 h after induction of uterine inflammation.Twelve mares were classified as susceptible (nZ6) or resistant (nZ6) to PBIE. Mares were inseminated over five estrous cycles and endometrial biopsies were collected at one time point per cycle before (0) and 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after insemination. qPCR analysis for IL1B, IL6, IL8, IFNG, TNF (TNFA), IL10, and IL1RN was performed, and endometrial inflammatory cells were counted for each sample. Relative quantification values reported fold changes in mRNA expression from 0 h values. A general pattern of expression post insemination was observed in both groups of mares. Cytokine mRNA increased at 2 h, peaked between 2 and 12 h, and then decreased.Differences were detected between groups of mares 6 h after challenge; resistant mares had higher mRNA expression of IL6, IL1RN,and IL10 than susceptible mares. Susceptible mares had an increased number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the endometrium 2 and 12 h after breeding when compared with resistant mares. These findings describe an inherent difference in the initial immune response to insemination and may help explain the transient nature of inflammation in resistant mares, whereas susceptible mares develop a persistent inflammation. PMID:23580950

  3. Effect on fertility of human chorionic gonadotrophin and uterine lavage with oxytocin performed after mating in Arabian barren mares.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of hCG injected immediately after mating in Arabian barren mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin. Arabian barren mares (n=36) with PMIE were subjected to detailed clinical examinations including palpation per rectum, vaginoscopy, and cytological examination. After mating the 36 mares were randomly divided into four groups. The mares in group 1 (n=10) were immediately after breeding injected with hCG 3,000 IU IM. Uterine lavage with 1L of N-saline containing 4 million IU of crystalline penicillin and 4 g of streptomycin sulphate was performed 4h after breeding. Then mares received two injections of oxytocin 40 IU IM 2h apart after 6h of mating. Mares in group 2 (n=10) treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin as group 1. While mares in group 3 (n=10) received uterine lavage only. A control group (n=6) as group 4 did not received any treatment. The results of clinical examination indicated that 69.4% of PMIE mares were harboring severe endometritis and 30.6% with a moderate form of endometritis. Significant (P<0.01) increase in lymphocytes were founded in barren mares included in this study. Higher pregnancy rate (P<0.01) was founded in Arabian barren mares 80% injected with hCG immediately after breeding and uterine lavage and oxytocin. No significant difference was found in mares received uterine lavage and oxytocin and uterine lavage only. In a conclusion, administration of hCG immediately after mating and intrauterine lavage containing antibiotics performed 4h and two injections of oxytocin 40 IU IM 2h apart after 6h of mating had improved fertility of Arabian barren mares. PMID:17681436

  4. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  5. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of milk production after pharmaceutical induction of lactation in the mare.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, P; Arnaud, G; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Brosse, L; Bougel, S; Daels, P; Guillaume, D; Clément, F; Palmer, E

    2002-01-01

    The induction of lactation is performed in ruminants by steroidogenic impregnation, followed by drugs intended to increase prolactin secretion. The aim of this study was to induce lactation in barren mares and to evaluate milk production. Five treated and 5 control mares were used in June and September in year 1, and 12 mares were used in year 2. Mares were administered a vaginal pessary (500 mg altrenogest and 50 mg estradiol benzoate) for 1 week. The 2nd week, another sponge with 100 mg estradiol benzoate was administered, together with 50 mg/100 kg body weight (BW) sulpiride in oil (IM q12h). All mares were milked by hand. Drug treatment was stopped after I L was obtained. Milk production and composition and plasma prolactin concentration were measured. In year 2, the same steroid treatment was applied, but mares received sulpiride (n = 6) or domperidone (1.1 mg/kg PO q12h) (n = 6). A milking machine and oxytocin injections 1 minute before the start of milking were used. In year 1, all treated mares started milking within 1-5 days after sulpiride treatment. Mean daily milk production was 0.88 +/- 0.52 L/500 kg BW. Milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) contents increased in all mares (IgG concentration range, 14-92 g/L). Plasma prolactin increased during sulpiride treatment (range. 27.7 +/- 2.9 to 43.7 +/- 6.7 ng/mL [before] to 289.0 +/- 7.8 ng/mL during treatment, P < .001). In year 2, results were similar to those in year 1, with peak IgG concentrations ranging from 4.2 to 106.7 g/L and a larger daily milk production (3.13 +/- 0.75 with sulpiride and 3.45 +/- 0.51 L/500 kg BW with domperidone). In conclusion, lactation can be induced in mares within 2 weeks, and some mares produce good-quality colostrum. PMID:12141311

  6. Some volcanic and structural features of Mare Serenitatis. [as determined by low angle lighting in Apollo 17 photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, W. B.; Adams, M.

    1973-01-01

    Relationships between volcanic and structural features along the southern edge of Mare Serenitatis as determined from low angle lighting in Apollo 17 photographs are discussed. Observational summaries are given of: (1) contact relations between the dark border material and the central mare fill, (2) a late stage lava flow with associated cinder cones, and (3) certain structural features related to the development of the mare basin and its associated volcanic landforms. A chronologic summary is given of volcanic and structural events believed to be critical to understanding the development of Mare Serenitatis.

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic utility, safety considerations, and effect on fertility of transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovarian biopsy in mares.

    PubMed

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nairn, Dawne; Manning, Steve; Dedden, Ilse; Ripley, Elinorah; Nielsen, Kayla; Card, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound-guided biopsies of corpora lutea have been previously used for research purposes in the mare and cow. However, the health effects and fertility after transvaginal luteal biopsies (TVLB) or transvaginal ovarian biopsies (TVOB) obtained for diagnostic purposes in cases of suspected ovarian tumors have not been previously evaluated in the horse. The aim of this study was to determine the effects on health and fertility of TVLB and TVOB in mares; 53 mares were included in the study (11 control non-biopsied mares, 37 TVLB mares biopsied on one or more of the following Days 8, 10, 12, 15, 21, and 5 TVOB mares with ovarian abnormalities), resulting in a total of 108 TVLB and TVOB cycles and 183 procedures. Mares were divided into Groups 1 to 3 by the number of TVLB per estrous cycle (mare in Group 1 had 1 TVLB procedure, mares in Group 2 had 2 TVLB procedures, and mares in Group 3 had 3 TVLB procedures). Group 4 comprised TVOB mare cycles with ovarian abnormalities (n = 5). Mares were examined to determine day of ovulation (Day 0) and the presence of a corpora lutea using transrectal ultrasonography. Mares were sedated, and an ultrasound-guided transvaginal biopsy was performed of luteal or ovarian tissue. Health effects of TVLB or TVOB were assessed by daily rectal temperatures, appetite, and general demeanor for 72 hours post-procedure, and 3 mares were examined at necropsy. Fertility was not significantly different in control and TVLB Groups 1 to 3 (P = 0.7648) and in the first or subsequent cycles where the ovulation was from an ovary that had a previous TVLB (P = 0.7147). A TVLB on Day 8 post-ovulation may induce an early return to estrus. In conclusion, the TVLB or TVOB procedure had no effect on health and fertility in this study if the procedure was correctly performed with good technique. Because of the low number of cycles (n = 37), the fertility data should be interpreted with caution. The TVOB may be applied in the diagnosis of mares with

  8. Origin and evolution of high-titanium mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Patrick H.

    The Moon is the sole known locality of exposed high-titanium (high-Ti) basalts in the solar system, but their occurrence has implications for the early evolution of the terrestrial planets. High-Ti basalts derive from partial melts of cumulates in the lunar upper mantle. The ilmenite, clinopyroxene, and olivine cumulates from which these basalts form are late-stage products of crystallization of the lunar magma ocean, a planetary-scale melting event that also likely occurred early on in the evolution of Venus, Mercury, the Earth and Mars. Fortunately, despite the ancient nature of mare volcanism, pristine high-Ti basalts are preserved on the relatively inert lunar surface, and the lunar sample collection contains abundant high-Ti basaltic material. Crystals are quantifiable components of the basaltic system, and are a record of the compositional and temporal history of magmatic evolution. Complementary techniques of textural and in-situ trace element geochemical analyses comprise the crystal stratigraphy method used to investigate this history. I use crystal size distributions and spatial distribution profiles to identify crystal populations and quantitatively evaluate rock textures. I use EPMA and LA-ICP-MS analysis of major crystallizing phases to identify processes affecting evolving magmas. I first show that LA-ICP-MS can determine accurate and precise trace elements for ilmenite, which is a major crystallizing phase in high-Ti basalts. The Taurus-Littrow Valley on the Moon contains high-Ti basalts from multiple distinct magmatic source regions. I propose multiple flow events of some regions were sampled during the Apollo missions, and magma partially crystallized for short residence times at shallow depths. Textural characterization of a high-Ti olivine cumulate shows no other samples experienced crystal accumulation. Finally, I investigate two rocklets found in the lunar highlands that were recently classified as basalts. I confirm their basaltic nature

  9. Seasonal variation in the estrous cycle of mares in the subtropics.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, K F; Knott, L M; Woodward, R A; Bodero, D A

    1993-03-01

    Data on the estrous cycles and sexual receptivity scores of 7 maiden Australian Stock Horse mares were used to study seasonal variation from December until the following November. Mares were grazed in paddocks containing both native and improved tropical pasture species. The study was conducted in South-East Queensland (27 degrees 27' South latitude). There were no differences between either the sexual receptivity or the lengths of natural (Mean=7.5 days, SEM=0.4) and PGF-induced estruses (Mean=7.6 days, SEM=0.4). Plasma estrogens were not related to differences in sexual receptivity scores between mares. The lowest incidence of estrus occurred at the time of the winter solstice (June 22) in the Southern Hemisphere. Winter estruses (Mean=9.3 days, SEM=0.8) were longer than those of summer (Mean=6.6 days, SEM=0.5) and autumn (Mean=6.6 days, SEM=0.9). Approximately 30% of estruses were anovulatory. Most of these occurred in autumn and winter (P<0.05). There was considerable variation in the occurrence of anovulatory estrus between mares. There were no differences between the lengths of ovulatory and anovulatory estruses. Ovulatory estruses were significantly longer in spring than in summer (P<0.05). There were no seasonal differences between the lengths of anovulatory estruses. The length of diestrus (Mean=16.6 days, SEM=0.3) was not affected by mare or season. Only 3 of the 7 mares did not cycle during winter (anestrus), as confirmed by progesterone concentrations of less than 1 ng/ml. Finally, there was no evidence of mares having 2 breeding seasons per year in this study. PMID:16727242

  10. [The endocrine status of clinically conspicuous mares during the peripartum period].

    PubMed

    Meinecke, B; Gips, H

    1990-10-01

    The aim of the present investigations was to characterize the endocrine changes in the peripheral plasma during the periparturient phase of mares with a known history of obstetrical disorders. Blood plasma samples from 9 mares (8 mares during parturition, 1 mare during abortion) were collected and the following steroid hormones were radioimmunologically determined: progesterone (P4), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone (E1), estrone sulfate (E1-S), estradiol-17 beta (E2), estriol (E3), cortisol and transcortin. In general, with the exception of cortisol, DHEA and transcortin, all steroid hormone levels declined significantly after parturition. Mean plasma concentrations of DHEA-S, the direct fetal precursor of estrone, were 6 times higher than DHEA. However, DHEA-S levels varied considerably between all mares as well as between daily values of the same mare. Levels of E1-S were found to be about thousand times higher than those of E1, E2, and E3. The rather low concentrations of E3 suggest that this hormone is mainly produced by peripheral conversion and that in the horse fetus the 16 alpha-hydroxylation of DHEA-S is lacking. Despite the fact that most of the examined mares showed signs of severe disease none of the investigated steroid hormones indicated any disturbances of gestation. It is concluded that, from the clinical point of view, serial determinations of E1-S plasma levels are the best way to prove the fetal well-being. However, it should be stressed, that even the E1-S values are no indicators for the onset of parturition or abortion. PMID:2264056

  11. Effects of Intrauterine Devices in Mares: A Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Klein, V; Müller, K; Schoon, H A; Reilas, T; Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Katila, T

    2016-02-01

    Oestrous suppression by intrauterine devices (IUDs) is caused by prolongation of luteal function, but the biological mechanism is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate mechanisms which could explain the action of IUDs. Thirty mares were age-matched and either inseminated (AI, n = 15) or fitted with an IUD (IUD, n = 15) and subsequently divided into four groups: AI-P, pregnant (n = 8); AI-N, non-pregnant (n = 7); IUD-P, prolonged luteal phase (n = 7); and IUD-N, normal luteal phase (n = 8). The median ages were 5.5 and 7 years in AI-P and IUD-P groups and 14 and 11 years in AI-N and IUD-N groups, respectively. On Day 15 after ovulation, an endometrial biopsy was obtained to study histomorphological and immunohistochemical expression patterns of uterine proteins (uteroferrin, UF; uterocalin, UC; uteroglobin, UG), oestrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR), proliferation marker Ki-67 and content of inflammatory cells. Expression of UF was higher in IUD mares; the difference between pregnant and IUD-P mares was significant. Mares exhibiting a prolonged luteal phase (AI-P, IUD-P) showed only mild angiosclerosis and lower expression of both ER and PR than mares with a normal luteal phase (AI-N, IUD-N). No significant differences were detected in the numbers of inflammatory cells, with the exception of macrophages, which were more numerous in AI-P than AI-N mares. Although inflammatory cells were not detected in IUD mares, increased UF levels may indicate chronic inflammation. Young age and normality of the endometrial blood vessels may improve the efficacy of IUDs. PMID:26661561

  12. Equine alpha-fetoprotein levels in Lipizzaner mares with normal pregnancies and with pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Boglárka; Gáspárdy, András; Kulcsár, Margit; Baska, Ferenc; Bálint, Ádám; Hegedűs, György Tamás; Szenci, Ottó

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein has proved to be a good indicator of fetal well-being in human medicine for decades. Although this molecule is present in most of the mammalian species including horses, reference values in healthy and high-risk pregnant mares have not yet been published. The aim of the present study was to determine whether equine alpha-fetoprotein (eqAFP) is a good indicator of complicated pregnancies in Lipizzaner mares. A total of 111 serum samples from 30 mares have been analyzed for eqAFP levels throughout gestation (Days 60-325). After the pregnancy was confirmed, 23 mares had normal pregnancies with viable foals, six had late embryonic loss, and one of the mares aborted in the ninth gestational month. Equine alpha-fetoprotein concentrations significantly differed in the normal group (72.93 ± 49.25 pg/mL; mean ± standard deviation) and in the complicated pregnancy loss group (152 ± 36.48 pg/mL; mean ± standard deviation). The mares' age, gestational age, and the conception rate significantly affected the alpha-fetoprotein concentrations in the normal group. Furthermore, notable individual differences occurred in eqAFP concentrations between mares. Equine alpha-fetoprotein seems to be an important indicator of fetal well-being in horses, but there are still some unanswered questions (levels in foals of different age, ponies, and draft horses) regarding this serum protein. Large-scale studies are needed to assess the specificity, sensitivity, and reliability of this test as a possible future diagnostic tool for fetal well-being in horses. PMID:26359849

  13. Mars at Ls 176o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 March 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176o occurred in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Location near: 79.1oN, 228.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  14. Mars at Ls 193o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    12 April 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193o occurs in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Location near: 47.3oN, 294.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  15. Mars at Ls 145o: Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 January 2004 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 145o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 145o occurs in mid-January 2005.

    This picture shows the Acidalia/Mare Erythraeum face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day.

    Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o--the start of northern spring and southern summer. In January 2005, it is northern summer and southern winter. The seasons on Mars occur according to Ls, described in thefollowing table:

    Ls Season 0 - 90 northern spring, southern autumn 90 - 180 northern summer, southern winter 180 - 270 northern autumn, southern spring 270 - 360 northern winter, southern summer

  16. Mars at Ls 93o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    22 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurred in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Location near: 86.1oN, 208.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  17. Mars at Ls 145o: Elysium/Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 145 during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looked similar, as Ls 145 occurred in mid-January 2005.

    This picture shows the Elysium/Mare Cimmerium face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year were posted for MOC Picture of the Day.

    Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360 around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0 -- the start of northern spring and southern summer. In January 2005, it is northern summer and southern winter. The seasons on Mars occur according to Ls, described in the following table:

    Ls Season 0 - 90 northern spring, southern autumn 90 - 180 northern summer, southern winter 180 - 270 northern autumn, southern spring 270 - 360 northern winter, southern summer

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of mare lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Kathikeyan, S; Kaur, P; Singh, T P; Yadav, M P

    1996-11-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 80 kDa. The protein has two iron binding sites. It has two structural lobes, each housing one Fe(3+) and the synergistic CO(3)(2-) ion. The protein was isolated from the colostrum/milk of mares maintained at National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, India. The purified samples of the protein were crystallized using a microdialysis method. The protein was dialysed against low ionic strength buffer solution. Several crystal forms were obtained, out of which three were characterized which have cell dimensions as follows. Form I a = 79.8, b = 103.5, c = 112.0 A, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with one protein molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 57%. Form II a = 84.9, b = 99.7, c = 103.5 A, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with one molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 55%. Form III a = 151.0, b = 151.0, c = 240.6 A, space group P4(1)2(1)2 with three molecules in the asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 57%. The intensity data up to 3.8 A resolution for form I, 2.9 A resolution data for form II and 6 A resolution data for form III have been collected. Further calculations are in progress. PMID:15299585

  19. Placental localization of relaxin in the pregnant mare.

    PubMed

    Klonisch, T; Mathias, S; Cambridge, G; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Ryan, P L; Allen, W R

    1997-01-01

    In situ hybridization employing a cRNA probe derived from a 428-bp fragment of equine relaxin was used to localize relaxin mRNA, and immunocytochemistry was used to localize relaxin itself, in tissues of the placenta-endometrium interface recovered between 33 and 153 days of gestation from mares carrying intraspecific horse, interspecific mule and extraspecific donkey conceptuses. Immunocytochemical staining was also used to localize trophoblast-specific and class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on some specimens. Relaxin mRNA and relaxin were both present in the single-cell non-invasive trophoblast layer of the allantochorion between 45 and 153 days of gestation in all three types of equine pregnancy examined. Both, however, were absent from the invasive trophoblast cells of the progenitor chorionic girdle and the differentiated trophoblast cells of the endometrial cups throughout the latters' 60-80-day period of development and regression. Discrete and irregularly spaced clusters of elongated pseudostratified trophoblast cells on the allantochorion remained negative for relaxin mRNA and ligand, but stained strongly for equine trophoblast-specific antigens. These areolae-like structures of the mature horse placenta overlie the mouths of endometrial glands between adjacent microcotyledons and they are clearly involved with the uptake of uterine milk for fetal sustenance. It is speculated that their loose attachment to the endometrium and weak expression of class 1 MHC antigens may serve to tolerize the mother to the paternally-inherited histocompatibility antigens of the fetus. PMID:9089772

  20. Oocyte transfer and gamete intrafallopian transfer in the mare.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, E M

    2004-07-01

    Methods for the collection and transfer of equine oocytes have been developed, and uses of these techniques have resulted in new clinical and research possibilities. Because oocyte transfer avoids reproductive problems associated with the oviduct, uterus, and cervix, pregnancies can be produced from many mares that cannot carry a pregnancy or produce embryos. Oocytes for clinical transfers are usually collected from preovulatory follicles and cultured for a short interval or transferred directly into a recipient's oviduct. For oocyte transfer, the recipient is inseminated within the uterus. A large number (1 x 10(9) to 2 x 10(9)) of motile sperms are preferred for inseminations. In contrast, sperm and oocyte are transferred into the oviduct during gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). Therefore, a lower number (1 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(5)) of sperm can be used. Potentially, GIFT could be used in situations where sperm numbers are limited. Use of oocyte transfer and GIFT in clinical and research settings will aid us in understanding the interactions between oocyte, sperm, and oviduct in the equine. PMID:15271484

  1. The consanguinity of the oldest Apollo 11 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. P.; Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    The textural, mineralogical, and chemical relationships between three of the oldest dates lunar mare basalt samples returned by Apollo 11 (10003, 10029 and 10062) were investigated. Very strong resemblances were noted between the modal minerologies of 10003 and 10029. Significantly more modal olivine and cristobalite was observed in 10062 than in the other basalt samples. A detailed examination of mineral-chemical relationships among the samples revealed similarities between 10003 and 10062 and differences between these two rocks and 10029, the most significant of which is the presence of akaganeite in 10029, implying that lawrencite was present in the pristine sample of 10029 but not in 10003 and 10062. Results of a Wright-Doherty mixing program used to test various fractional crystallization schemes show that 10062 can be derived from a liquid with the composition of either 10003 or 10029 by removing 2-5% ilmenite and 5% olivine. By removing about 6% plagioclase, 10003 can be derived from a liquid with the bulk composition of 10062. It is concluded that 10003 and 10029 may have come from different basaltic flows, whereas it is possible that 10003 and 10062 were derived from the same parental magma by near-surface fractionation of olivine plus ilmenite or of plagioclase plus or minus olivine.

  2. Investigations on the endometrial response to intrauterine administration of N-acetylcysteine in oestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Melkus, E; Witte, T; Walter, I; Heuwieser, W; Aurich, C

    2013-08-01

    In mares, mating-induced persistent endometritis contributes to low fertility. The condition is in part related to delayed clearance of mucus accumulated within the uterine lumen. The objective of this study was to investigate the endometrial response of healthy mares to intrauterine (i.u.) treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Oestrous mares (n = 12) were randomly assigned to a treatment (TM) or control (C) group and received an i.u. infusion of 5% NAC and saline (total volume 140 ml), respectively. Endometrial biopsies were collected in five of the mares 24 h after treatment, in the remaining seven mares 72 h after treatment. Endometrial biopsies were evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The integrity of endometrial epithelial cells was not affected by treatment (no statistical differences between groups or times). At 24 h after treatment, the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies from NAC- and C-mares did not differ, but at 72 h after treatment, number of PMN was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in C (3.9 ± 0.6 PMN/field) compared with NAC-treated mares (2.3 ± 0.2 PMN/field). At 72 h after treatment, the intensity of staining for COX2 was significantly higher after saline than after NAC treatment (p < 0.05). In the epithelium, no differences in staining for the proliferation marker Ki-67 were seen with respect to time and treatment. Score for the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was slightly higher in NAC-treated mares than in C-mares 72 h after treatment (p < 0.05). Score for PAS staining of mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups at 24 h after treatment (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that NAC does not adversely affect the endometrial function. Moreover, an anti-inflammatory effect on the equine endometrium was

  3. Comparative Study of the Dynamics of Follicular Waves in Mares and Women1

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, O. J.; Gastal, E. L.; Gastal, M. O.; Bergfelt, D. R.; Baerwald, A. R.; Pierson, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Deviation in growth rates of the follicles of the ovulatory wave begins at the end of a common growth phase and is characterized by continued growth of the developing dominant follicle (F1) and regression of the largest subordinate follicle (F2). Follicle diameters during an interovulatory interval were compared between 30 mares and 30 women, using similar methods for collecting and analyzing data. Follicles were tracked and measured daily by ultrasonography. Diameter at follicle emergence (mares, 13 mm; women, 6 mm) and the required minimal attained diameter for assessment of follicles (mares, 17 mm; women, 8 mm) were chosen to simulate the reported ratio between the two species in mean diameter of F1 at the beginning of deviation (mares, 22.5 mm; women, 10.5 mm). F1 emerged before F2 (P < 0.02) in each species, and the interval between emergence of the two follicles was similar (not significantly different) between species. Growth rate for F1 and F2 during the common growth phase was similar within species, and the percentage of diameter increase was similar between species. Proportionality between species in diameter of F1 at deviation (2.2 times larger for mares than for women) and at maximum preovulatory diameter (2.1 times larger) indicated that relative growth of F1 after deviation was similar between species. A predeviation follicle was identified in 33% of mares and 40% of women and was characterized by growth to a diameter similar to F1 at deviation but with regression beginning an average of 1 day before the beginning of deviation. The incidence of a major anovulatory wave preceding the ovulatory wave was not different between species (combined, 25%). Results indicated that mares and women have comparable follicle interrelationships during the ovulatory wave, including 1) emergence of F1 before F2, 2) similar length of intervals between sequential emergence of follicles within a wave, 3) similar percentage growth of follicles during the common growth

  4. The effects of perphenazine and bromocriptine on follicular dynamics and endocrine profiles in anestrous pony mares.

    PubMed

    Bennett-Wimbush, K; Loch, W E; Plata-Madrid, H; Evans, T

    1998-03-01

    Nineteen anestrous pony mares were used in a project designed to determine the effects of altered prolactin concentrations on follicular dynamics and endocrine profiles during spring transition. The dopamine antagonist, perphenazine, was administered daily to mares (0.375 mg/kg body weight) in Group A (n = 6), while Group B mares (n = 7) received 0.08 mg/kg metabolic weight (kg75) dopamine agonist, 2-bromo-ergocriptine, intramuscularly twice daily. Mares in Group C (n = 6) received 0.08 mg/kg75, i.m., saline twice daily. Treatment began January 20, 1994, and continued until ovulation occurred. Mares were teased 3 times weakly with an intact stallion. The ovaries of the ponies were palpated and imaged weekly using an ultrasonic B-mode unit with a 5 Mhz intrarectal transducer until they either exhibited estrual behavior and had at least a 20-mm follicle, or had at least a 25-mm follicle with no signs of estrus. At this time, ovaries were palpated and imaged 4 times weekly. Blood samples were obtained immediately prior to ultrasonic imaging for measurement of prolactin, FSH and estradiol-17 beta. Perphenazine treatment advanced the spring transitional period and subsequent ovulation by approximately 30 d. Group A exhibited the onset of estrual behavior earlier (P < 0.01) than control mares. In addition, Group A mares developed large follicles (> 30 mm) earlier (P < 0.01) than Group B mares, with least square means for Groups A and B of 47.0 +/- 8.8 vs 88.1 +/- 8.2 d, respectively. Control mares developed 30-mm follicles intermediate to Groups A and B at 67.3 +/- 8.8 d. Bromocriptine decreased (P < 0.05) plasma prolactin levels throughout the study, while perphenazine had no significant overall effect. However, perphenazine treatment did increase (P < 0.05) mean plasma prolactin concentrations from Day 31 to 60 of treatment. There were no differences in mean plasma FSH or estradiol-17 beta between treatment groups. We concluded that daily perphenazine treatment

  5. Comparative study of the dynamics of follicular waves in mares and women.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Gastal, E L; Gastal, M O; Bergfelt, D R; Baerwald, A R; Pierson, R A

    2004-10-01

    Deviation in growth rates of the follicles of the ovulatory wave begins at the end of a common growth phase and is characterized by continued growth of the developing dominant follicle (F1) and regression of the largest subordinate follicle (F2). Follicle diameters during an interovulatory interval were compared between 30 mares and 30 women, using similar methods for collecting and analyzing data. Follicles were tracked and measured daily by ultrasonography. Diameter at follicle emergence (mares, 13 mm; women, 6 mm) and the required minimal attained diameter for assessment of follicles (mares, 17 mm; women, 8 mm) were chosen to simulate the reported ratio between the two species in mean diameter of F1 at the beginning of deviation (mares, 22.5 mm; women, 10.5 mm). F1 emerged before F2 (P < 0.02) in each species, and the interval between emergence of the two follicles was similar (not significantly different) between species. Growth rate for F1 and F2 during the common growth phase was similar within species, and the percentage of diameter increase was similar between species. Proportionality between species in diameter of F1 at deviation (2.2 times larger for mares than for women) and at maximum preovulatory diameter (2.1 times larger) indicated that relative growth of F1 after deviation was similar between species. A predeviation follicle was identified in 33% of mares and 40% of women and was characterized by growth to a diameter similar to F1 at deviation but with regression beginning an average of 1 day before the beginning of deviation. The incidence of a major anovulatory wave preceding the ovulatory wave was not different between species (combined, 25%). Results indicated that mares and women have comparable follicle interrelationships during the ovulatory wave, including 1) emergence of F1 before F2, 2) similar length of intervals between sequential emergence of follicles within a wave, 3) similar percentage growth of follicles during the common growth

  6. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Nutritional programming and the impact on mare and foal performance.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, J A; Hammer, C J; Walter, K W

    2015-07-01

    Many environmental factors can alter the phenotype of offspring when applied during critical periods of early development. In most domestic species, maternal nutrition influences fetal development and the fetus is sensitive to the nutrition of the dam during pregnancy. Many experimental models have been explored including both under- and overnutrition of the dam. Both nutritional strategies have yielded potential consequences including altered glucose tolerance, pancreatic endocrine function, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and colostrum quality. Although the impact of maternal nutrition on fetal development in the equine has not been thoroughly investigated, overnutrition is a common occurrence in the industry. Work in our laboratory has focused on effects of maternal overnutrition on mare and foal performance, mare DMI, foaling parameters, colostrum quality and passive transfer of immunity, and glucose and insulin dynamics. Over several trials, mares were fed either 100 or 140% of NRC requirements for DE, and supplemental Se and arginine were added to diets in an attempt to mitigate potential intrauterine growth retardation resulting from dams overfed during the last third of pregnancy. As expected, when mares were overfed, BW, BCS, and rump fat values increased. Foal growth over 150 d was also not influenced. Maternal nutrition did not alter colostrum volume but influenced colostrum quality. Maternal overnutrition resulted in lower colostrum IgG concentrations but did not cause failure of passive transfer in foals. Supplemental Se and arginine were unable to mitigate this reduction in colostrum IgG. Additionally, mare and foal glucose and insulin dynamics were influenced by maternal nutrition. Mare glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) increased with increased concentrate supplementation. Foal insulin AUC and peak insulin concentrations were increased when mares were fed concentrate and, in a later trial, foal peak glucose values were reduced

  7. Effects of vascular elastosis on uterine blood flow and perfusion in anesthetized mares.

    PubMed

    Esteller-Vico, A; Liu, I K M; Vaughan, B; Steffey, E P; Brosnan, R J

    2015-04-01

    In the uterus of the mare, data obtained using transrectal Doppler ultrasonography indicate that uterine blood flow (UBF) is dynamic and changes throughout the estrous cycle. Degenerative lesions in the uterus are associated with subfertility and infertility. Among these lesions, vascular elastosis has been reported in aged, multiparous, and infertile mares. Angiosis of the uterine vasculature could potentially compromise UBF. The objectives of this experiment are to determine levels of UBF and perfusion of reproductively healthy mares and compare them to levels of subfertile/infertile mares affected by uterine vascular elastosis. Twenty mares were classified on the basis of degree of vascular degeneration and stage of cycle. A fluorescent microsphere technique was used to measure reproductive organ perfusion, where microspheres were injected into the left ventricle of the heart and became trapped in capillary beds in proportion to blood flow and tissue perfusion. The reproductive tract was removed, sectioned, and the fluorescent intensity evaluated to measure blood flow and perfusion. Additionally, full-thickness samples of the uterine wall were examined postmortem to further assess the degree of vascular degeneration in all layers of uterine wall. The mean value of uterine perfusion for the control mares during estrus (n = 5) was higher (P < 0.01) than that during diestrus (n = 5); 17.6 and 11.9 mL/min/100g, respectively. For the subfertile/infertile mares, the mean value of tissue perfusion was not different (P > 0.05) during estrus (n = 5) and diestrus (n = 5); 5.9 and 7.2 mL/min/100g, respectively. Uterine perfusion in subfertile/infertile mares affected by elastosis was lower than that of control mares during both estrus (P < 0.01) and diestrus (P < 0.01). The differences in baseline levels of perfusion between the control and elastosis groups indicate that elastosis of the uterine vasculature is associated with decreased uterine perfusion

  8. Deep-seated thrust faults bound the Mare Crisium lunar mascon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Paul K.; Klimczak, Christian; McGovern, Patrick J.; Mazarico, Erwan; James, Peter B.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-10-01

    Mare Crisium is composed of a set of volcanic deposits situated in an impact basin on the Moon's near side. The topography of the mare is dominated by an annulus of elevated topography, the inner edge of which is delineated by basin-concentric wrinkle ridges. From a combination of remotely sensed image and topographic data and numerical modeling, we show that the thrust faults that underlie these ridges penetrate up to 20 km in depth, considerably below the base of the mare deposits themselves. Thrust faults of this scale have not heretofore been recognized on the Moon. Mare Crisium sits above a region of uplifted mantle, which contributes to a mass excess beneath the basin, and we demonstrate by comparison with free-air gravity anomaly and derived crustal thickness data for Crisium that the thrust faults structurally bound this elevated mantle material. By means of finite-element models of stresses induced by lithospheric loading within the basin, we argue that the deep-seated thrusts may have been localized by the boundary between the superisostatic mantle material and a sub-isostatic collar of thickened crust that resulted from basin formation and modification shortly after impact. Importantly, numerous other mare-filled mascon basins on the Moon share the same topographic and tectonic characteristics as Crisium, suggesting that they, too, are underlain by deep-seated thrust faults that formed in a similar manner.

  9. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface: IV. Deconvolution of the mare imbrium, aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M.I.; Metzger, A.E.; Haines, E.L.; Hawke, B.R.

    1983-02-15

    The distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track has been modeled by deconvolving several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data. Including a prior study of the Apenninus region, a continuous swath from 10/sup 0/E to 60/sup 0/W in the northwest quadrant has now been analyzed. In the Aristarchus region, the crater dominates the Th distribution with a concentration of 20 ppm. Other enhancements are seen on the Aristarchus Plateau and south of the plateau. The concentration across the Aristarchus Plateau is not uniform. The average Th concentration in Oceanus Procellarum is less to the west than to the east of the Aristarchus Plateau. Substantial enhancements are found in mare regions around Brayley, and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. Th in the Eratosthenian mare regions is generally low with one notable exception lying rouhgly between the craters Euler and Carlini. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  10. Determination of minimum light treatment required for photostimulation of winter anoestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, D; Duchamp, G; Nagy, P; Palmer, E

    2000-01-01

    Classical photostimulation of winter anoestrous mares consists of a light treatment with 14.5-16.0 h white light (100 lux), starting near the time of the winter solstice and ending around the time of the summer solstice. Cyclicity is obtained typically after about 70 days of treatment. The aim of the present study was to establish the minimum number of days of treatment, the lowest light intensity and the duration of light required per day to advance the onset of ovarian activity in winter anoestrous mares. In Expt 1 it was demonstrated that a 35 day exposure to a photoperiod (14.5 h light: 9.5 h dark, 100 lux) starting at about the winter solstice is sufficient to advance the onset of the breeding season of Pony mares undergoing winter anoestrus. In Expt 2 it was established that a light of only 3 lux intensity inhibits an increase in melatonin concentrations in the evening after the usual time of switching the lights off. In Expt 3, a low light intensity (10 lux) produced with a 25 W white incandescent bulb was sufficient for photostimulation of the mares. In Expts 4 and 5, 1 h light (10 lux) during the photosensitive phase for 35 days advanced the onset of the breeding season in only half of the mares treated. PMID:20681132

  11. Kisspeptin stimulates LH secretion but not ovulation in mares during vernal transition.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Briony M; Scott, Christopher J; Wynn, Peter C; Loy, Jaymie; Norman, Scott T

    2016-10-01

    Managing the return to regular cyclicity after the winter anestrous period in the mare has been a challenge for the equine breeding industry. Specifically, efforts have been made to shift or shorten the vernal transition period and to have it followed by a predictable first ovulation at the commencement of the breeding season. Intravenous administration of kisspeptin is known to stimulate an LH response in both reproductively active and inactive mares. This study examined the effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of kisspeptin on mares during vernal transition. Mares were given a 30 hours infusion of kisspeptin at a low and high rate (66 nmol [88 μg] and 100 nmol [130 μg] per hour, respectively) or saline, and the LH and follicular response tracked. Plasma samples were collected every 15 minutes for the first 6 hours to determine if there is an acute effect of kisspeptin infusion on LH secretion. Plasma samples were then collected every 3 hours for a total of 72 hours to examine the ability of kisspeptin to stimulate an LH surge. A CRI of kisspeptin increased LH secretion in these mares but was not able to stimulate an LH surge. To examine the effect of kisspeptin on ovarian activity, follicular measurements were collected ultrasonographically until ovulation occurred or the follicles regressed. CRI of kisspeptin at these rates was unable to induce ovulation earlier than controls. PMID:27349136

  12. Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.

    PubMed

    Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, β-lactoglobulin: 94%, β-casein: 93%, α-lactalbumin: 82%, α-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and κ-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems. PMID:25391267

  13. Earth-based and Galileo SSI multispectral observations of eastern mare serenitatis and the Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both the Apollo 17 and the Mare Serenitatis region were observed by Galileo during its fly-by in December 1992. We used earth-based multispectral data to define mare units which then can be compared with the results of the Galileo SSI data evaluation.

  14. Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J

    2011-08-01

    The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. PMID:21241377

  15. Correlations of unfavorable movement characteristics in warmblood foals and mares with routinely assessed conformation and performance traits.

    PubMed

    Becker, A-C; Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2013-01-01

    New movement traits reflecting unfavorable movement characteristics were defined on the basis of detailed movement evaluations (DME) of warmblood foals and mares performed in connection with regular breeding events of the Oldenburg horse breeding societies in 2009 and 2010. DME information was available for 3374 foals and 2844 mares and used for correlation analyses with conformation information on 1987 mares from studbook inspections (SBI) in 2009 and performance information on 2758 mares from mare performance tests (MPT) in 2000 to 2008. Analyses of variance revealed few significant differences between scores for SBI and MPT traits in mares without and with indications of imbalance (IMB) in general or specific findings like irregular tail tone or posture (TTP). SBI scores for general impression and development were significantly lower and MPT scores for trot under rider tended to be higher in IMB-positive mares. Genetic parameters were estimated in linear animal models with residual maximum likelihood. Additive genetic correlations and Pearson correlation coefficients between univariately predicted breeding values indicated unfavorable genetic correlations of IMB and TTP with dressage-related conformation and performance traits. For SBI and MPT traits, we found similarities between the correlation patterns for DME traits in foals and mares. The results implied that breeding of dressage horses may benefit from revision of current movement evaluation and consideration of specific movement characteristics. PMID:23031204

  16. Evaluation of dexamethasone on fetal maturation and delivery in mares when administered on days 305 to 307 of gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many species corticosteroids are administered to the dam to induce precocious fetal maturation when the pregnancy is at risk; however in the mare this has met with mixed results. Previously we showed that 24 mg betamethasone administered to pregnant mares on d305 to 307 of pregnancy tended to...

  17. Treatment of persistent mating-induced endometritis in mares with the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug vedaprofen.

    PubMed

    Rojer, H; Aurich, C

    2010-12-01

    Recently, successful treatment of mares with a history of persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) with dexamethasone has been reported. As systemic treatment of horses with glucocorticoids should be handled with caution, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) vedaprofen, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, may have comparative, positive effects on fertility. Barren mares with a history of repeated PMIE were treated with vedaprofen (n = 8; initially 2 mg/kg bodyweight followed by 1 mg/kg orally twice daily) from 1 day before the first insemination to 1 day after ovulation or left untreated (n = 9). All mares received oxytocin (20 I.E. s.c.) thrice daily. Uterine swabs were collected for bacteriology and cytology. The day after ovulation, fluid accumulation was detected in three control mares and four treated mares (n.s.). The percentage of neutrophils in uterine cytology was significantly increased in comparison to the day before ovulation irrespective of treatment. Pregnancy was confirmed in two of nine mares in the control group and seven of eight mares in the treatment group (p < 0.05). NSAIDs may positively affect fertility in mares with a history of PMIE. PMID:20074320

  18. Effects of oral supplementation with β-carotene on concentrations of β-carotene, vitamin A and α-tocopherol in plasma, colostrum and milk of mares and plasma of their foals and on fertility in mares.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, J; Aurich, J E; Wulf, M; Hurtienne, A; Schweigert, F J; Aurich, C

    2012-06-01

    In this study, effects of oral β-carotene supplementation to mares (β-carotene group: 1000 mg/day, n = 15; control group: n = 15) from 2 weeks before foaling until 6 weeks thereafter on concentrations of β-carotene, vitamin A and α-tocopherol in plasma, colostrum and milk and plasma of their foals were determined. In addition, effects on fertility were studied. Beta-carotene concentrations increased in plasma and colostrum of β-carotene-supplemented mares compared to control mares (p < 0.05). In mares of both groups, β-carotene concentrations were higher in colostrum than in milk (p < 0.05). In foals, β-carotene concentrations increased with colostrum uptake and were higher in foals born to supplemented mares (p < 0.05; control group: 0.0003 ± 0.0002 μg/ml on day 0, 0.008 ± 0.0023 μg/ml on day 1; β-carotene group: 0.0005 ± 0.0003 μg/ml on day 0, 0.048 ± 0.018 μg/ml on day 1). Concentrations of vitamin A and α-tocopherol were higher in colostrum than in milk (p < 0.05) but did not differ between groups. Concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma of mares decreased over time and in foals, increased markedly within 4 days after birth. All but one mare (control group) showed oestrus within 2 weeks post-partum. Occurrence of oestrus did not differ between groups. More mares of the control group (7/7 vs. 5/12 in the β-carotene group) became pregnant after being bred in first post-partum oestrus (p < 0.05). In conclusion, β-carotene supplementation to mares increased β-carotene concentrations in plasma, colostrum and milk of mares and plasma of their foals but had no positive effects on fertility. PMID:21545547

  19. Selected aspects of lunar mare geology from Apollo orbital photography. [of lunar craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. A.; Brennan, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Crater size-frequency distributions were studied (100-500 m) and are shown to provide significant integrated information concerning mare surface ages, subsurface stratigraphy, and surficial geology. Equilibrium cratering is discussed gradually reducing the relative numbers of craters smaller than 300-400 m in diameter as surfaces age and regolith thickens. Results for surface ages are in good agreement with other published crater ages. The existing correlations of large ring structures among various circular mare basins are shown to be based on criteria that are inconsistent and nonstandardized. A means of comparing equivalent ring structures in the different maria is proposed which takes into account the important characteristics of young unflooded basins (Orientale) as well as the progressive development of tectonic and volcanic features within the older flooded maria. Specific geologic aspects of several of the lunar maria are discussed and especially Mare Smythii, because of its great age and significantly different surface morphology. Lunar photographs and maps are shown.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Horizon MareNostrum cosmological run (Gay+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, C.; Pichon, C.; Le Borgne, D.; Teyssier, R.; Sousbie, T.; Devriendt, J.

    2010-11-01

    The correlation between the large-scale distribution of galaxies and their spectroscopic properties at z=1.5 is investigated using the Horizon MareNostrum cosmological run. We have extracted a large sample of 105 galaxies from this large hydrodynamical simulation featuring standard galaxy formation physics. Spectral synthesis is applied to these single stellar populations to generate spectra and colours for all galaxies. We use the skeleton as a tracer of the cosmic web and study how our galaxy catalogue depends on the distance to the skeleton. We show that galaxies closer to the skeleton tend to be redder but that the effect is mostly due to the proximity of large haloes at the nodes of the skeleton, rather than the filaments themselves. The virtual catalogues (spectroscopical properties of the MareNostrum galaxies at various redshifts) are available online at http://www.iap.fr/users/pichon/MareNostrum/catalogues. (7 data files).

  1. Volcanic studies: Part E: Eratosthenian volcanism in Mare Imbrium: source of youngest lava flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, Gerald G.

    1973-01-01

    Orbital photographs taken at low-Sun illumination during both the Apollo 15 (ref. 30-14) and Apollo 17 missions have provided excellent data on the lava flows in the southwestern Mare Imbrium. These photographs have been used recently to present a detailed photogeologic evaluation of these flows and their role in mare volcanism of Eratosthenian age in the basin (ref. 30-15). Eruption of these flood basalts apparently took place in at least three major episodes with suggested dates of 3.0 ± 0.4 billion years (phase I), 2.7 ± 0.3 billion years (phase II), and 2.5 ± 0.3 billion years (phase III) using the mare age-dating method described by Soderblom and Lebofsky (ref. 30-16) and recent data by Soderblom and Boyce (ref. 30-17).

  2. Effect of selenium supplementation and plane of nutrition on mares and their foals: foaling data.

    PubMed

    Thorson, J F; Karren, B J; Bauer, M L; Cavinder, C A; Coverdale, J A; Hammer, C J

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the maternal plane of nutrition and role of Se yeast on foaling variables and passive transfer of IgG, 28 Quarter Horse mares were used in a study with a randomized complete block design. Mares were blocked by expected foaling date and assigned randomly within block to dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with 2 planes of nutrition, pasture or pasture + grain mix (fed at 0.75% of BW on an as-fed basis) and 2 concentrations of Se yeast (0 or 0.3 mg/kg of DMI). This resulted in 4 treatments: pasture (PA), pasture + Se (PS), pasture + grain mix (PG), and pasture + grain mix + Se (PGS). Assuming DMI at 2% of BW, the mares fed PA and PS received approximately 100% of the calculated NRC (2007) DE requirements, whereas PG and PGS received 120%. Selenium supplementation began 110 d before the estimated foaling date, and all dietary treatments were terminated at parturition. At parturition, foaling variables were recorded. Additionally, placental weight was recorded and 2 samples from each placenta were collected for analysis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Colostrum was obtained for fat, protein, milk urea N, somatic cell count, and IgG analyses. Foal blood samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after parturition for IgG analysis. There was no effect (P >or= 0.21) of Se or plane of nutrition on foaling variables; however, foal BW as a percentage of mare BW tended (P = 0.10) to be reduced in foals from mares on grain mix (PG and PGS; 7.6%) compared with mares not fed grain mix (PA and PS; 8.0%). There was also no effect (P >or= 0.20) of Se or plane of nutrition on placental cell number (mg of DNA/g), potential cellular activity (RNA:DNA), expulsion time, or weight. However, mares fed supplemental Se (PS and PGS) had decreased (P = 0.02) placental cell size (24.1 mg of protein/mg of DNA) compared with mares not fed supplemental Se (PA and PG; 32.5 mg of protein/mg of DNA). There was also no effect (P >or= 0.18) of Se or

  3. Characteristics of Mare Deposits on the Eastern Limb of the Moon: Implications for Magma Transport Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Head, J. W.

    1996-03-01

    Lunar volcanic history has been examined in light of geomorphological and stratigraphic constraints placed upon the surface features. Compositional and petrological analyses have provided models for the conditions of mare parent magma generation . The connection between lunar magma source regions and volcanic surface features remains unclear, however, both conceptually and quantitatively with respect to our understanding of transport mechanisms. It has been suggested that mare emplacement was controlled by propagation of dikes driven by the overpressurization of diapir-like source regions stalled below the cooling lunar highland crust. Recent analyses of the characteristics of lava ponds in the South Pole/Aitken and Orientale/Mendel-Rydberg basins based on Clementine, Lunar Orbiter and Zond data have provided evidence that supports this theory. In this contribution we report on an analysis of the areas, volumes, modes of occurrence and crustal thicknesses for mare deposits in the Marginis and Smythii basins, and investigate implications for magma transport mechanisms.

  4. A geochemical anomaly contiguous with the Dorsa Geike wrinkle ridge in Mare Fecunditatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, C. G.; Adler, I.; Clark, P. E.; Weidner, J. R.; Philpotts, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The orbital Al/Si X-ray fluorescence data from Apollo 15 and 16 reveal a concentration of unusually low Al/Si intensity ratios associated with a 220-km long ray along the northeast-southwest trending wrinkle ridge, Dorsa Geike, of the Mare Fecunditatis. The paper describes in detail the analysis of the Al/Si X-ray fluorescence data by which this geochemical anomaly was discovered. Correlation with other remote sensing data also indicates that the ridge area is different from the rest of the mare. It is possible that the material associated with the low Al/Si intensity ratio is of different composition than the adjacent mare regolith. Downslope transport along the ridge and arch could expose basalts which contrast chemically with surrounding regolith. The anomaly could also be due to extrusion of a volcanic rock of different composition at the fracture system represented by the wrinkle ridge.

  5. Very low Ti /VLT/ basalts - A new mare rock type from the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Phaneritic fragments, vitrophyres, and glass beads of a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt are found in the Apollo 17 drill core. VLT lithic fragments are characterized by TiO2 content of approximately 0.5%, Mg/(Mg + Fe) of approximately 0.52, CaO/Al2O3 of approximately 0.9, and low alkali content. Although mineral systematics and modal composition of VLT basalt are similar to Apollo 12 and 15 low Ti basalts, VLT basalts cannot be related to these mare basalts by crystal fractionation. Since VLT basalt is isochemical with some of the less mafic green glasses, fractionation of VLT magma from a liquid of green-glass composition is a possibility. Spectral reflectance studies suggest that VLT-type basalts may be relatively common in mare basins.

  6. Induction of ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares under ambient lights using recombinant equine FSH (reFSH).

    PubMed

    Meyers-Brown, Geraldine A; McCue, Patrick M; Troedsson, Mats H T; Klein, Claudia; Zent, Walter; Ferris, Ryan A; Lindholm, Alicia R G; Scofield, David B; Claes, Anthony N; Morganti, Monica; Colgin, Mark A; Wetzel, Robert L; Peters, Andrew R; Roser, Janet F

    2013-09-15

    Traditionally, mares are put under artificial lights to advance the first ovulation of the year. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of recombinant equine FSH (reFSH) in stimulating follicular development and advancing the first ovulation of the year in seasonally anestrous mares compared with anestrous mares given a placebo. Both groups of mares were housed under ambient light conditions. Sixty deep anestrous mares of light horse breeds (follicular diameters ≤ 20 mm in diameter and progesterone <1 ng/mL) were maintained under a natural photoperiod at three different sites: University of California, Davis, Colorado State University, and University of Kentucky Gluck Centre. Twenty mares at each site were randomly allocated to receive either 0.65 mg of reFSH (group A: treatment; n = 10) or a placebo (group B: control; n = 10) twice daily by im beginning on January 31. Treatment continued until one or more preovulatory follicles developed or up to a maximum of 15 days. Randomized treatments were blinded. Follicular development was closely monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. When the largest follicle reached ≥ 35 mm in diameter, reFSH treatment was discontinued and an injection of 2500 international units of hCG was administered iv 36 hours later to induce ovulation. Jugular blood samples were collected daily from all mares at University of California, Davis, and processed for LH, FSH, progesterone, estradiol-17β, and immunoreactive-inhibin by RIA. All 30 mares receiving reFSH (group A) developed follicles ≥ 35 mm within 7.4 ± 1.6 days of treatment. Twenty-three of the 30 reFSH-treated mares (group A) ovulated within 72 hours after hCG administration. In contrast, mares in group B (placebo, control) did not exhibit significant follicular development and none ovulated within the 15-day observation period. Mares in group A had significantly higher plasma levels of FSH, estradiol-17β, and immunoreactive-inhibin during treatment but

  7. Titan Submarine: Exploring The Depths of Kraken Mare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I for 2014. The effort investigated what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon approximately 93 Kelvin (-180 degrees Centigrade) seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (approximately100 kilograms) it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive and exciting science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare The submerged science includes mapping using side looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the sea at all depths, as well as sampling of the sea's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 kilometers inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (approximately 2047) to allow for continuous lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth (DTE) communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid/sediment/chemical interactions. An estimated 25 megabits of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system. This paper discusses the results of Phase I as well as the plans for Phase II.

  8. Characterization of a photometric anomaly in lunar Mare Nubium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korokhin, Viktor; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Kaydash, Vadym; Basilevsky, Alexander; Rohachova, Larysa; Velikodsky, Yuri; Opanasenko, Nickolay; Videen, Gorden; Stankevich, Dmitry; Kaluhina, Olena

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach of constructing photometrically seamless mosaics of reflectance, color-ratios, and phase-curve slopes using LROC WAC images has been developed, which can be used to map the photometric parameters of the lunar surface. The approach takes into account both geometric corrections with data on local topography and photometric conjunctions using our simple photometric model. New mosaics obtained with the technique allow more reliable studies of structural and chemical characteristics of the lunar surface. This approach has been applied to analyze the photometric anomaly (21.6 S, 17.7 W, ~40 km in size) in Mare Nubium detected earlier with our Earth-based observations. For each point of the scene the parameters were calculated using the least-square method for several tens of source WAC images. Clementine mosaics also were used in the analysis, e.g., in order to estimate the parameter of maturity degree Is/FeO. The anomaly has low FeO and TiO2 abundance and reveals a higher slope of the phase function than surroundings. Thermal data from LRO Diviner measurements do not show anomalies in this region. We consider this area as a shallow flooding of an elevated formation of highland composition, the material of which could have been excavated and mixed up with upper layers of the lunar surface through meteoroid impacts. The anomalous behavior of the phase function can be explained by the difference of surface structure in the anomaly and surrounding regions on the scale of less than several centimeters. This may be due to larger quantities of small fragments of rocks and clumps on the surface and/or the presence of agglomerates having open structure.

  9. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares

    PubMed Central

    Bower, M. A.; Campana, M. G.; Whitten, M.; Edwards, C. J.; Jones, H.; Barrett, E.; Cassidy, R.; Nisbet, R. E. R.; Hill, E. W.; Howe, C. J.; Binns, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to ‘A Royal Mare’). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized. PMID:20926431

  10. The effect of an extended artificial photoperiod and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone infusions in inducing fertile oestrus in anoestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Lowis, T C; Hyland, J H

    1991-12-01

    The occurrence of fertile oestrus early in the breeding season is of paramount importance to the Thoroughbred industry to facilitate early conception. This paper compares 2 techniques for inducing fertile oestrus in anoestrous mares using either an extended photoperiod alone or together with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) infusions. Eleven mares were placed under conditions of 16 h light and 8 h darkness and 5 of these were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering approximately 100 ng GnRH/kg/h for 28 days (treated mares). The treated mares ovulated 27.7 days earlier than and conceived 32 days earlier than the 6 mares not given GnRH. GnRH-induced ovulations were followed by a competent luteal phase. The combination of GnRH pumps implanted 2 weeks before commencement of service together with extended photoperiod from July 1 has promise in assisting the stud breeder to improve reproductive efficiency on commercial stud farms. PMID:1807248

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment induces follicular growth and ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L

    1987-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse infusion to stimulate follicular development and induce ovulation in seasonally anestrous standardbred mares. Seventeen mares were selected for use in this experiment, on the basis of a previous normal reproductive history, and were housed under a photoperiod of 8L:16D beginning one week prior to the start of the experiment (second week in January). Mares were infused with 20 micrograms (n = 7) or 2 micrograms (n = 6) GnRH/h, or were subjected to photoperiod treatment only (controls, n = 4). Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone did not vary, and neither significant follicular development nor ovulation was observed in any control mare throughout the experimental period (greater than 60 days). By contrast, both groups of GnRH-treated mares showed elevated serum concentrations of LH and FSH within one day after the start of infusion. Mares infused with 20 micrograms GnRH/h had at least one follicle greater than or equal to 25 mm in 7.4 +/- 1.3 (mean +/- SEM) days following the start of infusion, and ovulated in 12.0 +/- 0.7 days. In the 2-microgram-GnRH/h treatment group, a 25-mm follicle was detected in 5.7 +/- 0.7 days, and ovulation occurred after 10.0 +/- 0.3 days of infusion. Ovulation in every instance was followed by a functional luteal phase, as indicated by the profiles of progesterone secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3113502

  12. Prevention of rotavirus diarrhoea in foals by parenteral vaccination of the mares: field trial.

    PubMed

    Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V; Lagos Mármol, M; Pont Lezica, F; Rivas, C; Valle, C; Fernandez, F

    1998-01-01

    Many countries have reported rotavirus diarrhoea in foals. In Argentina it causes important economic losses to the horse industry. In this work we present the results obtained using an experimental vaccine in a farm with enzootic infection of rotavirus. A hundred mares were vaccinated 60 and 30 days before foaling with inactivated rotavirus SA11 (G3P2), H2 (G3P12), Lincoln (G6P1), with aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant; 65 mares were included in the unvaccinated, control group. To evaluate the vaccine, morbidity, duration of the diarrhoea and rotavirus shedding were recorded. Antibody levels were established in serum, colostrum and milk of the vaccinated mares, and also in serum from the foals. In foals from vaccinated mares the morbidity was 30%, clinical signs were observed during 1.8 days, and rotavirus shedding was not detected. In the control group the morbidity reached 80%, the clinical signs lasted 7.3 days and rotavirus shedding was detected in 80% of the diarrhoeic foals. At foaling the serum antibody levels were 15 times higher with a mean neutralizing titre (NT) of 3.5 logs than before vaccination (2.4 logs), in colostrum 5.00 logs, and in milk at 90 days post partum 1.7 logs. In foals from vaccinated mares the level of neutralizing antibodies was 3.8 logs at 48 days of age, going down to 2.2 logs at 90 days of age. Immunization of the pregnant mare would be a good method for preventing diarrhoea in foals. PMID:9580371

  13. Lunar mare volcanism: Mixing of distinct, mantle source regions with KREEP-like component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Mare basalts comprise less than 1% of the lunar crust, but they constitute our primary source of information on the moon's upper mantle. Compositional variations between mare basalt suites reflect variations in the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the lunar mantle which formed during early lunar differentiation (4.5-4.4 AE). Three broad suites of mare basalt are recognized: very low-Ti (VLT) basalts with TiO2 less than 1 wt%, low-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, and high-Ti basalts with TiO2 = 10-14 wt%. Important subgroups include the Apollo 12 ilmenite basalts (TiO2 = 5-6 wt%), aluminous low-Ti mare basalts (TiO2 = 2-4 wt%, Al2O3 = 10-14 wt%), and the newly discovered Very High potassium (VHK) aluminous low-Ti basalts, with K2O = 0.4-1.5 wt%. The mare basalt source region has geochemical characteristics complementary to the highlands crust and is generally thought to consist of mafic cumulates from the magma ocean which formed the felsic crust by feldspar flotation. The progressive enrichment of mare basalts in Fe/Mg, alkalis, and incompatible trace elements in the sequence VLT basalt yields low-Ti basalt yields high-Ti basalt is explained by the remelting of mafic cumulates formed at progressively shallower depths in the evolving magma ocean. This model is also consistent with the observed decrease in compatible element concentrations and the progressive increase in negative Eu anomalies.

  14. Effect of oxytocin and flunixin meglumine on uterine response to insemination in mares.

    PubMed

    Risco, A M; Reilas, T; Muilu, L; Kareskoski, M; Katila, T

    2009-12-01

    The most probable reason for persistent postbreeding endometritis in mares is weak myometrial contractility. The influence of oxytocin (OT; an ecbolic agent) and flunixin meglumine (FLU; a prostaglandin inhibitor serving as a model for mares with decreased uterine contractility) on uterine response to artificial insemination (AI) was studied in mares with no history of reproductive failure. The mares were treated intravenously with 10 mL saline (Group C, n=10) or 0.01 IU/kg OT (Group OT, n=10) 2, 4, 8, and 25 h after AI. Group FLU (n=11) was treated with 1.1mg/kg FLU 2h after AI and with saline thereafter. The mares received the same treatments in the first and third cycles but were sampled either at 8 or 25 h. The amount of intrauterine fluid (IUF) and edema and the number of uterine contractions were recorded before AI and 10 min after the treatments using transrectal ultrasonography. At 8h after AI, the mares were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin, and, after 8-h or 25-h scans, a 500-mL uterine lavage and a biopsy were performed. Ovulation was confirmed at 48 h and pregnancy 14 to 17 d after AI. No manipulations were done during the second estrus. At 8h after AI, Group FLU had more polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the uterine lavage fluid than did Group OT (P<0.05), but uterine contractions did not differ significantly. At 25 h, the PMN concentrations were low in all groups. Group OT rarely showed IUF. The uterine biopsy specimens of Group FLU showed less inflammation of the stroma but more PMNs in the uterine lumen 8h after AI than that of the control group (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates did not differ between the groups (63% C, 53% OT, and 50% FLU). Oxytocin rapidly and effectively removed IUF and PMNs after AI and thereby shortened the duration of postbreeding inflammation. PMID:19783032

  15. Key Factors Affecting Reproductive Success of Thoroughbred Mares and Stallions on a Commercial Stud Farm.

    PubMed

    Lane, E A; Bijnen, Mlj; Osborne, M; More, S J; Henderson, Isf; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate factors contributing to fertility of thoroughbred mares, data from 3743 oestrous periods of 2385 mares were collected on a large thoroughbred farm in Ireland. Fourteen stallions (mean age 8.3 years; range 4-15 years) had bred 2385 mares (mean age 9.4 years; range 3-24 years). Maiden mares accounted for 12%, mares with a foal at foot for 64%, and barren, slipped or rested mares for 24% of the total. The mean pregnancy rate per cycle was 67.8% (68.6% in year 1 and 66.9% in year 2). Backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to develop two models to evaluate mare factors, including mare age, reproductive status, month of foaling, dystocia, month of cover, foal heat, cycle number, treatments, walk-in status and stallion factors including stallion identity, stallion age, shuttle status, time elapsed between covers and high stallion usage on the per cycle pregnancy rate and pregnancy loss. Old age (p < 0.001) and cover within 20 days post-partum (p < 0.003) were associated with lowered pregnancy rates. High mare age (p < 0.05) and barren, slipped or rested reproductive status (p = 0.05) increased the likelihood of pregnancy loss. Uterine inflammation or infection, if appropriately treated, did not affect fertility. Only high usage of stallions (used more than 21 times in previous week) was associated with lowered (p = 0.009) pregnancy rates. However, shuttle stallions were more likely to have increased (p = 0.035) pregnancy survival, perhaps reflecting a bias in stallion selection. In conclusion, mare age exerted the greatest influence on fertility; nonetheless, thoroughbreds can be effectively managed to achieve high reproductive performance in a commercial setting. PMID:26815482

  16. Maternal Lineage of Warmblood Mares Contributes to Variation of Gestation Length and Bias of Foal Sex Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, J.; Stock, K. F.; Wulf, M.; Aurich, C.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal lineage influences performance traits in horses. This is probably caused by differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transferred to the offspring via the oocyte. In the present study, we investigated if reproductive traits with high variability—gestation length and fetal sex ratio—are influenced by maternal lineage. Data from 142 Warmblood mares from the Brandenburg State Stud at Neustadt (Dosse), Germany, were available for the study. Mares were grouped according to their maternal lineage. Influences on the reproduction parameters gestation length and sex ratio of offspring were analyzed by simple and multiple analyses of variance. A total of 786 cases were included. From the 142 mares, 119 were assigned to six maternal lineages with n≥10 mares per lineage, and 23 mares belonged to smaller maternal lineages. The mean number of live foals produced per mare was 4.6±3.6 (±SD). Live foal rate was 83.5%. Mean gestation length was 338.5±8.9 days (±SD) with a range of 313 to 370 days. Gestation length was affected by maternal lineage (p<0.001). Gestation length was also significantly influenced by the individual mare, age of the mare, year of breeding, month of breeding and sex of the foal (p<0.05). Of the 640 foals born alive at term, 48% were male and 52% female. Mare age group and maternal lineage significantly influenced the sex ratio of the foals (p<0.05). It is concluded that maternal lineage influences reproductive parameters with high variation such as gestation length and foal sex ratio in horses. In young primiparous and aged mares, the percentage of female offspring is higher than the expected 1:1 ratio. PMID:26436555

  17. Invited review: the role of caterpillars in mare reproductive loss syndrome: a model for environmental causes of abortion.

    PubMed

    McDowell, K J; Webb, B A; Williams, N M; Donahue, J M; Newman, K E; Lindemann, M D; Horohov, D W

    2010-04-01

    A new abortigenic disease, now known as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), significantly affected the horse industry in the Ohio River Valley of the United States in late April and early May of 2001 and 2002. In 2001, approximately 25% of all pregnant mares aborted within several weeks (over 3,000 mares lost pregnancies), and abortion rates exceeded 60% on some farms. Mare reproductive loss syndrome struck hard and without warning, it was caused by something in the environment, it was not transmitted between animals, and it was not associated with any known abortigenic agent or disease. These experiments demonstrated that horses will inadvertently consume Eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) when the insects are present in the pasture or other feedstuffs, and MRLS-type abortions were induced in experimental animals (mares and pigs) by mixing ETC with the feed of the animals. Eastern tent caterpillars are hirsute (hairy) caterpillars, and the only part of the caterpillar that caused MRLS abortions was the cuticle. The experiments revealed that the setae (hairs) embed into the submucosa of the alimentary tract creating microgranulomatous lesions. It is hypothesized that the alimentary tract lesions allow bacteria from the alimentary tract of the mare, principally streptococci, actinobacilli, and to a lesser extent enterococci, to invade the circulatory system of the mare. The bacteria then establish infections in tissues where the immune surveillance of the mare is reduced, such as the fetus and placenta. Fetal and placental fluid bacterial infections lead to fetal death and abortion characteristic of MRLS. Inadvertent ingestion of ETC by pregnant mares causes MRLS. Currently the only known means to prevent MRLS is to avoid exposure of horses, particularly pregnant mares, to ETC and probably most hirsute caterpillars. PMID:20081071

  18. Estrus, ovulation, and serum progesterone, estradiol, and LH concentrations in mares after an increased photoperiod during winter.

    PubMed

    Oxender, W D; Noden, P A; Hafs, H D

    1977-02-01

    On December 11, 1974, 15 seasonally anestrous mares were assigned at random to 1 of 3 experimental groups: outdoor-control, indoor-control, or indoor light-treated (a 16-hour photo-period). This experiment was terminated on April 21, 1975. The five mares in the indoor light-treated group ovulated 59.0+/-6.9 days later, which was 74 days earlier (P less than 0.01) than 2 of the 5 outdoor-controls (the other 3 ovulated after April 21 during a subsequent experiment) and 50 days earlier (P less than 0.05) than the indoor-controls. Durations of the 1st estrus for the 3 groups of mares were 13.3+/-3.6, 8.4+/-2.0, and 6.0+/-1.0 days for the indoor light-treated, indoor-control, and outdoor-control groups, respectively. The indoor light-treated mares averaged 4.2 estrous cycles before April 21, the indoor-control mares averaged 1.4 estrous cycles, and 2 of 5 outdoor-control mares ovulated 1 time during the experiment. The peripheral blood luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were minimal during winter anestrous. The hormone changes normally associated with estrous cycle activity in mares--maximal estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations near ovulation and maximal progesterone concentration during diestrus--were observed in all mares beginning at the 1st estrus. Hair loss was observed earlier in the light-treated mares, than in either of the other groups. In conclusion, a 16-hour photo-period initiated in early December for anestrous brood mares caused endocrinologically normal estrous cycles to begin within 2 months. This may allow breeding and foaling considerably earlier than normally expected. PMID:557304

  19. Effects of maternally administered depot ACTH(1-24) on fetal maturation and the timing of parturition in the mare.

    PubMed

    Ousey, J C; Rossdalet, P D; Palmer, L; Grainger, L; Houghton, E

    2000-11-01

    The aims of this study were to ascertain 1) whether fetal maturation could be induced precociously by maternal administration with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and 2) whether maturation could be achieved without significant risk to mare or fetus. Twenty-two mares received either 1 mg (low dose, LD, n = 6) or 4 or 5 mg (higher dose, HD, n = 16) synthetic Depot ACTH(1-24) at 300, 301 and 302 days gestation. Because, during the course of the study, ACTH appeared to have a greater influence on mares mated during the later part of the breeding season, the HD group were divided retrospectively into those mated before (HDE, n = 6), or after (HDL, n = 10), 1st July. All LD mares were mated before 1st July. Control injections were not performed but gestational data were compared retrospectively with 64 untreated, spontaneously foaling pony mares mated between May and October. Plasma progestagen and cortisol concentrations increased significantly (P<0.05) following ACTH administration in all groups, but progestagens were higher and cortisol elevated for longer in HD mares. ACTH stimulated mammary development and milk electrolyte changes in HD mares. Mean +/- s.e. gestation period (days) was significantly (P<0.01) shorter in HDL mares (318 +/- 1.8) compared with LD (335 +/- 3.7), HDE (340 +/- 4.3) and untreated mares mated after 1st July (327 +/- 1.3). All foals were mature except 2 HDL foals which were stillborn. HDL foals had a higher MCV and lower mean bodyweight, indicating they were delivered before full term. In conclusion, maternal ACTH administration appears to accelerate fetal maturation and delivery in pony mares given high doses and mated late in the breeding season. Further work is required to establish the optimal gestational age and dosage for maternal ACTH administration before clinical recommendations can be given for this therapy. PMID:11093622

  20. Where was the 1898 Mare Island Earthquake? Insights from the 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake provides an opportunity to reconsider the Mare Island earthquake of 31 March 1898, which caused severe damage to buildings at a Navy yard on the island. Revising archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, I estimate a lower intensity magnitude, 5.8, than the value in the current Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) catalog (6.4). However, I note that intensity magnitude can differ from Mw by upwards of half a unit depending on stress drop, which for a historical earthquake is unknowable. In the aftermath of the 2014 earthquake, there has been speculation that apparently severe effects on Mare Island in 1898 were due to the vulnerability of local structures. No surface rupture has ever been identified from the 1898 event, which is commonly associated with the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system, some 10 km west of Mare Island (e.g., Parsons et al., 2003). Reconsideration of detailed archival accounts of the 1898 earthquake, together with a comparison of the intensity distributions for the two earthquakes, points to genuinely severe, likely near-field ground motions on Mare Island. The 2014 earthquake did cause significant damage to older brick buildings on Mare Island, but the level of damage does not match the severity of documented damage in 1898. The high intensity files for the two earthquakes are more over spatially shifted, with the centroid of the 2014 distribution near the town of Napa and that of the 1898 distribution near Mare Island, east of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek system. I conclude that the 1898 Mare Island earthquake was centered on or near Mare Island, possibly involving rupture of one or both strands of the Franklin fault, a low-slip-rate fault sub-parallel to the Rodgers Creek fault to the west and the West Napa fault to the east. I estimate Mw5.8 assuming an average stress drop; data are also consistent with Mw6.4 if stress drop was a factor of ≈3 lower than average for California earthquakes. I

  1. Experimentally reproduced textures and mineral chemistries of high-titanium mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usselman, T. M.; Lofgren, G. E.; Williams, R. J.; Donaldson, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Many of the textures, morphologies, and mineral chemistries of the high-titanium mare basalts have been experimentally duplicated using single-stage cooling histories. Lunar high-titanium mare basalts are modeled in a 1 m thick gravitationally differentiating flow based on cooling rates, thermal models, and modal olivine contents. The low-pressure equilibrium phase relations of a synthetic high-titanium basalt composition were investigated as a function of oxygen fugacity, and petrographic criteria are developed for the recognition of phenocrysts which were present in the liquid at the time of eruption.

  2. Comparison of three diagnostic methods to identify subclinical endometritis in mares.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, W; Witte, T S; Heuwieser, W

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of a uterine swab (US), a cytological brush (CB) and an endometrial biopsy (EB) to detect subclinical endometritis in mares. Cytological and bacteriological results of all three techniques were related to histological occurrence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the stratum compactum, commonly known as 'best standard'; to diagnose endometritis. Samples were taken from 55 mares of different breeds without clinical signs of endometritis. Samples for US, CB and EB were collected, smeared on a microscopic slide and cultured for bacterial growth. Endometrial biopsy samples were additionally stored in 4% formaldehyde for histological analysis. Bacteriological cultures and cytological samples of all techniques were classified as negative (no uterine pathogens in monoculture; < 2% PMNs) or positive (uterine pathogens in > 90% of the grown colonies; > 2% PMNs) for endometritis. Uterine pathogens were diagnosed in 20.0% of the mares. Isolation of pathogens was not associated with positive cytological findings (r = -0.23; P = 0.87). None of the six mares with an Escherichia coli infection (10.9%) showed a positive cytological result. In contrast, two of five mares infected with Streptococcus zooepidemicus had a positive cytological result. Histologically, the presence of PMNs in the stratum compactum was regarded as positive for endometritis when the mare was in diestrus at time of sampling. Compared to the 'best standard', sensitivity for cytology of CB, US and EB was 0.17, 0.00 and 0.25, respectively. Specificity for cytology of CB, US and EB was 0.83, 0.93 and 0.85, respectively. Sensitivity of uterine culture was 0.25, 0.33 and 0.25 for CB, US and EB, respectively. Specificity for culture of CB, US and EB was 0.80, 0.83 and 0.95, respectively. In conclusion, cytological or bacteriological examinations alone provide a high incidence of false negative results. Sensitivity of cytology combined with bacteriology

  3. The diagnosis and treatment of endometritis in the mare: yesterday and today.

    PubMed

    Liu, I K M; Troedsson, M H T

    2008-08-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of endometritis in the mare has been controversial and mostly empirical. The lack or inability of researchers to establish or develop a model that can serve as a standard or control makes this area of equine reproduction difficult to address scientifically. However, major advances have been made, particularly with the demonstration of the importance of uterine contractility in the elimination of bacteria, fluid, and inflammatory products from the uterus after breeding. This review provides a historical perspective of what has been done, and where we are now, in the approach to the diagnosis and therapy of endometritis in the mare. PMID:18513792

  4. Influence of maternal plane of nutrition on mares and their foals: determination of mare performance and voluntary dry matter intake during late pregnancy using a dual-marker system.

    PubMed

    Winsco, K N; Coverdale, J A; Wickersham, T A; Lucia, J L; Hammer, C J

    2013-09-01

    Thirty pregnant mares (538 to 695 kg BW; 4 to 19 yr of age) were used to evaluate the effects of plane of nutrition on DMI of hay and mare performance (BW, BCS, and rump fat) during the last third of pregnancy. Mares were divided into 4 blocks by their expected foaling date and randomly assigned within block to either a hay or concentrate plus hay diet (concentrate fed at 0.75% BW, as-fed basis) with 15 mares per treatment. Treatments began 110 d before expected foaling date (230 d of gestation) and terminated at parturition. Mares were housed by block and allowed ad libitum access to coastal Bermuda grass (C. dactylon) hay, and concentrate-supplemented mares were fed twice daily in individual stalls. Performance variables were recorded every 14 d, with the last measurements obtained before foaling being considered a prepartum measurement. To evaluate DMI of hay, a dual-marker system was used at 9, 10, and 11 mo of gestation. Titanium dioxide was dosed at 10 g for 14 d. Fecal grab samples were obtained on the last 4 d twice daily via rectal palpation at 12-h intervals with times advancing 3 h each day to account for diurnal variation and to ultimately represent a 24-h period. Fecal samples were analyzed for TiO2 using a colorimetric procedure. Fecal, concentrate, and hay samples were also analyzed for acid detergent insoluble ash. Treatment tended to influence prepartum BW (P = 0.09) and affected prepartum BCS (P < 0.01) and rump fat (P = 0.01), with hay-fed mares having decreased BW and BCS from d 0 (beginning of feeding trial or d 230 of gestation) until parturition, whereas mares fed concentrate gained BW and BCS (P < 0.01). Mares fed only hay consumed 2.3% BW of forage compared with 1.8% BW for concentrate-fed mares (P < 0.01). Regardless of treatment, month of gestation influenced forage intake (P < 0.06), with mares consuming less during the 10th month of gestation and more in the 11th month (1.9% and 2.2% BW, respectively). These data indicate that the

  5. Superovulation in the cow with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin: effects of dose and antipregnant mare serum gonadotrophin serum.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, A; Wang, H; Carruthers, T D; Murphy, B D; Mapletoft, R J

    1994-01-01

    The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) dose and PMSG antiserum on superovulation in crossbred beef cows were studied. In experiment I, three groups were treated with 1200, 2400 or 3600 IU of PMSG and 48 h later with prostaglandin (PGF). The mean numbers of corpora lutea (CL), unovulated follicles, and total ova/embryos collected increased as the PMSG dose increased. The percent of fertilized ova and transferable embryos was lowest in the highest dose group (p < 0.05). In experiment II, all cows received 2500 IU of PMSG; groups 1 and 2 were treated with sheep anti-PMSG serum at 48 h or 60 h after PGF; group 3 cows were PMSG-only controls. The number of CL was lowest and the number of unovulated follicles highest in the PMSG-only group (p < 0.05). The number of CL was higher in group 2 (anti-PMSG at 60 h) than in the control group, with the anti-PMSG at 48 h not different from the other groups. Numbers of total ova/embryos, fertilized ova, and transferable embryos were higher (p < 0.05) in both antiserum-treated groups relative to the PMSG-only group. We conclude that superovulation of beef cows with PMSG and treatment with PMSG antiserum will induce a higher superovulatory response and will result in higher CL numbers and fewer unovulated follicles. Further, the variability in the superovulatory response to PMSG treatment was still evident when PMSG antiserum was administered. PMID:8055430

  6. Inspiring our future citizens and scientists: follow the Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu)!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioni, Erika; Stroobant, Mascha; Merlino, Silvia; Traverso, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Very often we hear about scientific communication and education as separate and disconnected domains: in fact while the first one is seen more as a moment of disclosure for disseminating results and latest achievements and consequences (a look to our direct future), the second is, instead, identified as a formative moment in the long term, that often is based on obsolete and dated programs that refer to the past. What would happen if these two domains were, instead, considered as inseparable? As stated by Andrea Schleicher (OECD): "Schools have to prepare students for jobs that have not yet been created, technologies that have not yet been invented and problems that we don't know will arise." How to manage this challenge? The European Commission has proposed seven recommendations to follow for improving Science education and to bring more and more young people closer to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines. Especially three of them (Reccomendation n. 1, 4 and 7) pin out the to-do list for improving communication an education in Science, indicating that "a primary goal of science education across the EU should be to educate students both about the major explanations of the material world that science offers and about the way science works. Moreover teachers of science of the highest quality should be provided for students in primary and lower secondary school; moreover the emphasis in science education before 14 should be on engaging students with science and scientific phenomena (extended investigative work and 'hands-on' experimentation and not through a stress on the acquisition of canonical concepts). Last but not least: good quality teachers, with up to date knowledge and skills, are the foundation of any system of formal science education. Systems to ensure the recruitment, retention and continuous professional training of such individuals must be a policy priority in Europe". Blue Paths (Percorsi nel Blu) is a transversal

  7. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. PMID:27177966

  8. Alternative solutions to hCG induction of ovulation in the mare.

    PubMed

    Duchamp, G; Bour, B; Combarnous, Y; Palmer, E

    1987-01-01

    Injection of hCG (2000-2500 i.u., i.v.) to mares when a follicle reaches 35 mm induces ovulation between 24 and 48 h. However, repeated injections induce antibodies against hCG. We report attempts to induce ovulation without this inconvenience. We called 'response' an ovulation between 24 and 48 h after treatment. The typical response to hCG was obtained in 73% (N = 145) of treated mares. After immunization against hCG, the response (0%, N = 10) was less than in nonimmunized controls (100%, N = 9). Simultaneous injection of dexamethasone and hCG resulted in induction of ovulation (71%, N = 14). However, simultaneous hCG + dexamethasone resulted in antibody formation similar to that induced by hCG alone, when injected repeatedly every 21 days. Neither GnRH (2 mg i.m.) nor partly purified pig LH (26 mg i.v. or s.c.) induced ovulation consistently (40%, N = 30 and 31%, N = 16). Crude horse gonadotrophin (60 mg i.v. or s.c.) induced ovulation (86%, N = 14). Fertility was not different from control (61%, N = 13 vs 40%, N = 10). Crude horse gonadotrophin also induced ovulation in mares previously immunized against hCG (78%, N = 9): 50 or 25 mg gave satisfactory response (86%, N = 29 and 57%, N = 40). We conclude that crude horse gonadotrophin is a good alternative to hCG for the induction of ovulation in mares. PMID:3479577

  9. Seasonal changes in the red blood cell indices in Arabian brood mares and their foals.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Kompanowska-Jezierska, E

    1986-01-01

    In 34 pure-bred Arabian horses, divided into four groups (Gr. I, 10 pregnant mares; Gr. II, seven barren mares; Gr. III, 10 foals born in 1981; Gr. IV, seven foals born in 1982), seasonal changes in haemoglobin level, haematocrit value, sedimentation rate, red blood cell number and diameter, percentage of erythroblasts and reticulocytes, and index F were studied. Seasonal cyclicity was found in all groups in the haemoglobin level, haematocrit value and RBC diameter. It was also found in the sedimentation rate (PCV) and in index F, but not for the youngest foals (Gr. IV). For the RBC number the cyclicity is given in both groups of foals, and the erythroblast and reticulocyte percentage only in the older foals (Gr. III). Out of eight indices studied cyclicity was found in all foals in Gr. III, in five of the mares in Groups I and II, and in four of the youngest foals in Gr. IV. There is no difference in the cyclicity of indices studied between pregnant and barren mares. PMID:2870857

  10. Green glass vitrophyre 78526 - An impact of very low-Ti mare basalt composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Kiel, K.; Planner, H. H.; Nehru, C. E.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rake sample 78526 is an 8.77 g rock consisting primarily of vitrophyric pale green glass with subordinate mineral and lithic relics. Petrographic and compositional evidence leads to the following conclusions: (1) the bulk composition represents that of a mixture formed by impact melting of at least two different textural and compositional varieties of VLT mare basalt that are now present in the rock as lithic relics and a poorly defined low-Ti mare basalt component observed in thin section only in the form of isolated mineral relics; (2) the admixed VLT mare basalts had REE abundances lower than those found in other mare basalts (but probably higher than emerald green glass) and REE patterns showing significant enrichment of the heavy relative to light REE's, suggesting that they were derived by comparatively high degrees of partial melting of a clinopyroxene-rich source region; and (3) the impact melt supercooled to produce the vitrophyre, with rather sharply contrasting textural domains present in the vitrophyre resulting from differences in nucleation kinetics and degrees of supercooling in various portions of the sample.

  11. Is uterine blood flow influenced by hCG and mare age?

    PubMed

    Turna Yilmaz, Ozge; Gunduz, Mehmet Can; Evkuran Dal, Gamze; Kurban, Ibrahim; Erzengin, Omer Mehmet; Ucmak, Melih

    2014-12-30

    Doppler ultrasonography is a noninvasive technique which enables us to follow the physiologic and physiopathologic changes in blood flow in tissues. It is becoming an essential tool in veterinary medicine, especially in theriogenology. Twenty-seven Arabian mares were grouped by age ('young', 3-10 y, n=15; 'old', 19-23 y, n=12). The uterine arteries of the mares were examined using Doppler ultrasonography when an ovarian follicle ≥35mm was visible (Day -1). After these measurements, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 2500IU) was administered to 14 mares selected randomly. One day later (Day 0) Doppler ultrasonography was repeated and then the dominant follicles were aspirated to collect follicular fluid in all groups. On the next day (Day +1), Doppler indices of the uterine artery blood flow were measured again. Blood samples were also collected just prior to ultrasonography, for measuring serum estradiol and progesterone levels. We found that preovulatory hCG administration had no significant effects on uterine artery blood flow indices, or serum or follicular fluid estradiol concentrations. The uterine artery resistance index might decrease in young mares after ovulation, possibly because of increased uterine perfusion. PMID:25465361

  12. Exploring the Seas of Titan: The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, E. R.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R. D.; Aharonson, O.; Bierhaus, E.; Clark, B.; Griffith, C.; Harri, A.-M.; Karkoschka, E.; Kirk, R.; Kantsiper, B.; Mahaffy, P.; Newman, C.; Ravine, M.; Trainer, M.; Waite, H.; Zarnecki, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) is a Discovery-class mission that would constrain Titan’s active methane cycle as well as its intriguing prebiotic organic chemistry by providing in situ measurements from the surface of a Titan sea.

  13. Lava flows in mare imbrium: An evaluation of anomalously low earth-based radar reflectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Thompson, T.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar maria reflect two to five times less Earth-based radar power than the highlands, the spectrally blue maria surfaces returning the lowest power levels. This effect of weakening signal return has been attributed to increased signal absorption related to the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3). The surface of Mare Imbrium contains some of the most distinct red-blue colorimetric boundaries and depolarized 70 cm wavelength reflectivity variations on the near side of the Moon. The weakest levels of both 3.8 cm and 70 cm reflectivity within Imbrium are confined to regional mare surfaces of the blue spectral type that can be recognized as stratigraphically unique flow surfaces. Frequency distributions of the 70 cm polarized and depolarized radar return power for five mare surfaces within the basin indicate that signal absorption, and probably the ilmenite content, increases generally from the beginning of the Imbrian Period to the end of the Eratosthenian Period with slight reversal between the end of the Imbrian and beginning of the Eratosthenian. TiO2 calibrated radar reflectivity curves can be utilized for lunar maria geochemical mapping in the same manner as the TiO2 calibrated spectral reflectivity curves of Charette et al. (1974). The long wavelength radar data may be a sensitive indicator of mare chemical variations as it is unaffected by the normal surface rock clutter that includes ray materials from large impact craters. ?? 1975 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  14. Relative ages of flow units in Mare Imbrium and Sinus Iridum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, J. M.; Dial, A. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method for determining relative ages from low-resolution Lunar Orbiter photographs of lunar plains has been developed and applied to Mare Imbrium and Sinus Iridum. The method is an extension of previous ones and uses the shapes of craters and a small-impact erosion model to estimate the net accumulated impact flux. The net impact flux that has accumulated on a surface of uniform age is a measure of relative age of that surface and can be estimated by the largest diameters of craters that have been degraded by the net impact flux. Frequency distributions or relative ages indicate that there are four major units present in Mare Imbrium and Sinus Iridum. The older mare units are generally found along the edge of the basin and the younger units in the center. A similar distribution of ages of units in Mare Serenitatis shows the two basins have had similar filling histories. Filling histories for other circular basins may be similar to these two.

  15. Evolution and Depths of the High-Ti Mare Picrite Glass Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to examine the igneous evolution of the Moon with emphasis on the petrogenesis of Mare basalts, lunar troctolites and the Mg-rich suite and on the evolution of the crystallization products of the magma ocean.

  16. Evidence for a PGF2α auto-amplification system in the endometrium in mares.

    PubMed

    Kozai, Keisuke; Tokuyama, Shota; Szóstek, Anna Z; Toishi, Yuko; Tsunoda, Nobuo; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Sakatani, Miki; Takahashi, Masashi; Nambo, Yasuo; Skarzynski, Dariusz J; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kimura, Koji; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2016-05-01

    In mares, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) secreted from the endometrium is a major luteolysin. Some domestic animals have an auto-amplification system in which PGF2α can stimulate its own production. Here, we investigated whether this is also the case in mares. In an in vivo study, mares at the mid-luteal phase (days 6-8 of estrous cycle) were injected i.m. with cloprostenol (250 µg) and blood samples were collected at fixed intervals until 72 h after treatment. Progesterone (P4) concentrations started decreasing 45 min after the injection and continued to decrease up to 24 h (P < 0.05). In turn, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2α (PGFM) metabolite started to increase 4h after an injection and continued to increase up to 72 h (P < 0.05). PGF receptor (PTGFR) mRNA expression in the endometrium was significantly higher in the late luteal phase than in the early and regressed luteal phases (P < 0.05). In vitro, PGF2α significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) PGF2α production by endometrial tissues and endometrial epithelial and stromal cells and significantly increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2), an enzyme involved in PGF2α synthesis in endometrial cell. These findings strongly suggest the existence of an endometrial PGF2α auto-amplification system in mares. PMID:26908917

  17. In vitro screening of mare's milk antimicrobial effect and antiproliverative activity.

    PubMed

    Guri, Anilda; Paligot, Michele; Crèvecoeur, Sebastien; Piedboeuf, Benoit; Claes, Jonathan; Daube, Georges; Corredig, Milena; Griffiths, M W; Delcenserie, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effect of mare's milk on virulence gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium and observe its potential activity on proliferation of adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Different supernatants of mare's milk, raw or heat-treated at 65°C for 15 s or 30 min, were studied. The changes in hilA gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium in presence of mare's milk supernatants were assessed using a reporter luminescent strain. A significant decrease in hilA gene expression was observed with all tested supernatants. Virulence gene expression was then assessed using qPCR on a wild-type strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. A significant decrease of hilA and ssrB2 gene expression was observed with raw milk supernatants but not with heat-treated supernatants. The same supernatants were administered to Caco-2 cells to measure their proliferation rate. A significant reduction of proliferative effect was observed only with raw milk supernatants. This study reports that raw mare's milk was able to modulate virulence gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium and exerts antiproliferative effects on Caco-2 cells. These results may offer new approaches for promoting gastrointestinal health. PMID:26656278

  18. Application of Wood's model to lactation curve of Italian Heavy Draft horse mares.

    PubMed

    Centoducati, P; Maggiolino, A; De Palo, P; Tateo, A

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study, using Wood's model, the lactation curve in Italian Heavy Draft horse (IHDH) mares, both for milk yield and composition. Interest in mare's milk has grown for use in human nutrition, as a substitute for human and cow milk for premature newborns and allergic children. For this study, 7 IHDH mares were used. Milk yield was evaluated from d 15 to 180 postpartum (every 15 d). Wood's lactation model was used to describe milk yield, fat, protein, and lactose lactation curves in the first 180 d in milk (DIM), with a prediction to 210 DIM. Mean values recorded across the considered lactation period for milk yield and constituents were 16.11 kg of milk/d, 11.38 g of fat/kg, 15.54 g of protein/kg, and 69.72 g of lactose/kg. The lactation curve showed a peak at 69 DIM, with a persistence index of 6.26. Fat (g/kg) and protein (g/kg) lactation curves decreased during the lactation period; instead, the lactose (g/kg) curve increased from the first to the last DIM. The coefficient of determination values indicated a good model fit by Wood's model application to IHDH mare lactation. The research showed good aptitude of a heavy horse breed, such as IHDH, for milk production. PMID:22901483

  19. A Reflective Conversation with Kobus Maree, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy Lynne; Maree, Kobus

    2013-01-01

    Always regarded as somewhat of an "outsider" (the child of an English-speaking (Catholic) mother and an Afrikaans (Protestant) father in an exclusively Afrikaans milieu) and growing up extremely poor, seeing the hardship of others and realising how much talent was going to waste, Kobus Maree took a particular interest in gifted disadvantaged…

  20. Assessment of Pregnancy in the Late Gestation Mare Using Digital Infrared Thermography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate use of digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to determine whether surface temperature gradient differences exist between pregnant and nonpregnant mares as a noncontact method to determine pregnancy status. On the day measurements were collected, each ...

  1. Interovulatory intervals in mares receiving deslorelin implants in Ireland (2009 to 2010).

    PubMed

    Henderson, I S F; Brama, P; Osborne, M; Beltman, M E

    2012-05-26

    Deslorelin acetate implants, recently licensed in Ireland and the UK for ovulation induction in mares, have been associated with prolonged interovulatory intervals in USA studies, leading to the practice of removing implants postovulation. Trial data in Australia indicate a less pronounced effect on interovulatory intervals, suggesting possible geographical variation. Objectives of the current study were to assess the effect of deslorelin implants, with and without removal on oestrous cycle length in Irish- and UK-based Thoroughbred broodmares. Data were collected retrospectively from 88 oestrous cycles. A statistically significant difference (P=0.02) was found between interovulatory intervals in mares in which the deslorelin implant was not removed, compared with administration and removal of the implant or the use of human chorionic gonadotrophin. The results suggest that implant removal when possible is advisable. The delay in subsequent ovulations was less marked than that reported in some studies from the USA. This information is useful in deciding when to schedule subsequent breeding for mares which received a deslorelin implant during the previous oestrous period and provides evidence to counter-concerns that mares treated with deslorelin implants may experience a long delay in return to oestrus if the implant is not removed. PMID:22535750

  2. Experimentally Induced Placentitis with Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus in Late Gestation Mares: Prevention of Preterm Birth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Placental infection due to opportunistic pathogens is the most common cause of abortion and premature delivery in horses. However, current therapies used to treat mares with placentitis are based on clinical experience, anecdotal information or on case reports. Thus, the objective of this study was ...

  3. Histopathological Characteristics of Endometrosis in Thoroughbred Mares in Japan: Results from 50 Necropsy Cases

    PubMed Central

    HANADA, Michiko; MAEDA, Yousuke; OIKAWA, Masa-aki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uteri from 50 necropsied nonpregnant Japanese Thoroughbred brood mares (1–30 years of age) were investigated to clarify the histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in Japanese Thoroughbred mares and the distribution pattern of endometrosis lesions in the uterus as a whole. Endometrosis was observed in all animals over 6 years of age and in all of the 21 mares aged over 12 years of age. The affected mares showed elastofibrosis of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels in the uterine wall, atrophy of the uterine smooth muscle layers and hyperplasia of collagen fibers among the smooth muscle fascicles of the myometrium, in addition to pathomorphologic features of endometrosis such as stromal endometrial fibrosis accompanied by endometrial atrophy, periglandular fibrosis and reduction of uterine glands. The severity of the histopathological changes increased with advancing age. Lymphatic vessels with elastofibrosis showed marked lymph congestion, leading to lymphatic edema. With increasing age, the extent of the distribution of these lesions tended to expand from focal to diffuse involvement of the entire uterus. Based on these findings, we speculate that aging plays a role in the pathogenesis of endometrosis; circulatory disturbances due to intrauterine angiosis or angiopathy, particularly reduction of the arterial blood supply and disturbance of venous drainage, resulting in a reduction of lymphatic drainage (lymphatic edema), are closely related to the onset and progression of endometrial fibrosis and myometrial atrophy with fibroplasia may result in myometrial hypofunction during the peri-implantation or puerperal period. PMID:25013358

  4. The outcome of the first stages of pregnancy on mares' bloodstream thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Fazio, E; Medica, P; Trifiletti, C; Ferlazzo, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare in detail the total and free iodothyronines' pattern of mares from the first ovulation of the year over an extended period of 12 weeks. A total of 20 mares were used in the study. The mares were classified into two groups: mares mated at the ovulation (n = 10) used as observational group and mares unmated at the ovulation (n = 10) used as control group. Serum total and free triiodothyronine (T3, fT3) and thyroxine (T4, fT4) levels were measured in baseline conditions at the first ovulation of year and once a week until 12 weeks later. For the experimental group, the first week of postovulation mating was considered as the first week of gestation. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of time over 12 weeks for T3 (F = 2.44; P = 0.007) in pregnant mares, with the higher levels at the seventh and 12th weeks (P < 0.05) than baseline values, and for fT3 (F = 2.36; P = 0.009), with the higher levels at the 11th week (P < 0.05) than baseline values. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant pregnancy effect compared with nonpregnancy stage for T3 (F = 15.82; P = 0.009), with the higher levels at the seventh and 12th weeks (P < 0.05) of pregnancy than that in nonpregnant values. Thus, it appears that, under similar environment, management and nutritional regime, the first trimester of pregnancy plays a dynamic role on the thyroid patterns by their anabolic activity; therefore, significant effects of time points on the T3 and fT3 concentrations probably may contribute to the control of early embryonic growth and development, before the onset of fetal thyroid activity. Considerable additional research, outwith the aim of this study, will be required to elucidate the mechanisms by which gestational age affects the physiological thyroid function in mares and/or fetus ratio in the first pregnancy stage. PMID:27125693

  5. The Depth, Composition, and Sea State of Titan’s Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alexander; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Lorenz, Ralph; Hofgartner, Jason; Lunine, Jonathan; Zebker, Howard; Donelan, Mark; Wall, Stephen; Stofan, Ellen; Karatekin, Ozgur; Notarnicola, Claudia; Malaska, Michael; Le Gall, Alice; Mitchell, Karl; Paillou, Philippe; Encrenaz, Pierre; Lopes, Rosaly

    2014-11-01

    On August 21st, 2014, the Cassini spacecraft will perform its 104th flyby of Titan. The T104 fly-by will present a unique opportunity to sound the depth of Titan’s largest sea - Kraken Mare, and characterize the sea state of both Kraken and Ligeia Mare. Based on the recent May 2013 (T91) nadir observations of Ligeia Mare, which were used to construct a bathymetric profile and determined the sea’s loss tangent, we expect to detect echoes from both the surface and seafloor of Kraken with the opportunity to derive the depth and composition of this sea. In addition, the T104 observations will be interpreted in the context of wave activity. On Earth, it is rare to observe a body of water whose surface is not disturbed by some form of wave activity. On Titan, Cassini observations through the end of its Equinox Mission in Dec. 2010 showed no indication of waves. These observations are intriguing given the predominance of aeolian features at equatorial latitudes and have been attributed to the light winds predicted during the Titan winter. More recently, however, the previous series of upper limits and non-detections are giving way to indications that the expected freshening of winds in northern summer may be causing sporadic ruffling of the sea surfaces. Specifically, apparent sunglints offset from the geometric specular point has been observed by VIMS in Punga Mare and a transient radar signature, known as Titan’s “Magic Island”, has been observed over the surface of Ligeia Mare. The T104 observation will be acquired at an incidence angle that will either confirm or deny the Magic Island’s transient nature.We will present a summary of the discoveries made during the T104 flyby, which represents one of the most exciting Titan observations of the Cassini mission and has the potential to significantly enhance our understanding of Titan’s methane cycle. The discussion will address the total volume of liquid hydrocarbon contained in Titan’s lakes and seas, the

  6. Effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the endometrial inflammatory response to induced infectious endometritis in susceptible mares.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, M; Woodward, E M; Bojesen, A M; Petersen, M R; Squires, E L; Lehn-Jensen, H; Troedsson, M H T

    2012-09-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy (glucocorticoids (GC) and mycobacterium cell wall extract (MCWE)) on the endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in susceptible mares with induced infectious endometritis. Endometrial gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra), acute phase protein (APP) serum amyloid A (SAA) and clinical parameters were evaluated. Five mares were classified as susceptible to persistent endometritis based on their endometrial histopathology and ability to clear an induced uterine inflammation. To investigate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy, the mares were inoculated with 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) Escherichia coli in three consecutive estrus cycles in a modified cross-over study design. Thus, each mare served as its own control and the treatment type was performed in randomized order. The effect of treatment with MCWE (1.5 mg Settle IV), dexamethasone (0.1 mg per kg IV) or no treatment was investigated. All mares were free from uterine inflammation before each E. coli inoculation. Endometrial biopsies were recovered 3, 24 and 72 h post inoculation. Relative gene-expression analyses were performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was modulated by administration of GC. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and SAA was significantly lower in the GC treated group late in the study period (72 h) compared to "no treatment" and MCWE treatment. Increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed 3 and 24 h after E. coli infusion and GC treatment. A significant decrease of SAA expression was observed after MCWE treatment compared to "no treatment". MCWE and GC treatment had a significant effect on the clearance of uterine pathogens and number of

  7. Does Clinical Treatment with Phenylbutazone and Meloxicam in the Pre-ovulatory Period Influence the Ovulation Rate in Mares?

    PubMed

    Lima, A G; Costa, L C B; Alvarenga, M A; Martins, C B

    2015-10-01

    The presence of anovulatory haemorrhagic follicles during the oestrous cycle of mares causes financial impacts, slowing conception and increasing the number of services per pregnancy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as meloxicam and phenylbutazone are used in the treatment of several disorders in mares, and these drugs can impair the formation of prostaglandins (PGs) and consequently interfere with reproductive activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment with NSAIDs on the development of pre-ovulatory follicles in mares. In total, 11 mares were studied over three consecutive oestrous cycles, and gynaecological and ultrasound examinations were performed every 12 h. When 32-mm-diameter follicles were detected, 1 mg of deslorelin was administered to induce ovulation. The first cycle was used as a control, and the mares received only a dose of deslorelin. In the subsequent cycles, in addition to receiving the same dose of deslorelin, each mare was treated with NSAIDs. In the second cycle, 4.4 mg/kg of phenylbutazone was administered, and in the third cycle, 0.6 mg/kg of meloxicam was administered once a day until ovulation or the beginning of follicular haemorrhage. All of the mares ovulated between 36 and 48 h after the induction in the control cycle. In the meloxicam cycle, 10 mares (92%) did not ovulate, while in the phenylbutazone cycle, nine mares (83%) did not ovulate. In both treatments, intrafollicular hyperechoic spots indicative of haemorrhagic follicles were observed on ultrasound. Thus, our results suggested that treatment with meloxicam and phenylbutazone at therapeutic doses induced intrafollicular haemorrhage and luteinization of anovulatory follicles. PMID:26280558

  8. The relationship between constructivist supervisory practices, school climate, and student proficiency in reading, mathematics, and science: Evidence from NELS:88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, John Alexander

    In an effort to improve instruction and student learning, school reform efforts have become prevalent. School reformers have examined many aspects of the school experience, including learning theories such as behaviorism and constructivism, the changing roles of teachers and supervisors, and even the concept of the school itself. The theoretical framework for this study centered around constructivist learning theory. The study itself focused on the application of constructivist learning theory to the supervisory process. The study examined five areas of interest: (a) teachers' perceptions of constructivist supervisory behavior; (b) teachers' perceptions of efficacy and control in the classroom; (c) teachers' perceptions of school climate; (d) teachers' perceptions of job satisfaction, and (e) the influences of each of the aforementioned on student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science. Data for the study was drawn from the first follow-up survey of the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88). NELS: 88 investigated a wide variety of factors that influence the educational process. The first follow-up focuses on environmental factors that affect teachers and students. Variables were selected from the NELS:88 data set that represented the areas to be examined. Factor analysis and correlational analysis were applied to ensure that the variables were measuring distinct constructs and to determine ways they could be grouped for analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine relationships among the individual and composite variables, controlling for student and teacher demographic factors. The results of the study suggest that varying relationships do exist between constructivist supervisory practices and the constructs measuring school climate and job satisfaction. The results also suggest that varying relationships exist between each of these factors and student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science

  9. Tectonic Mapping of Mare Frigoris Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. R.; Bell, J. F.; Watters, T. R.; Banks, M. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional wisdom has been that extensional tectonism on the Moon largely ended ~3.6 billion years ago and that contractional deformation ended ~1.2 billion years ago. New NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) high resolution images are forcing a re-assessment of this view. Mapping in Mare Frigoris and the surrounding area has revealed many tectonic landforms enabling new investigations of the region's structural evolution. Sinuous wrinkle ridges with hundreds of meters of relief are interpreted as folded basalt layers overlying thrust faults. They have often been associated with lunar mascons identified by positive free-air gravity anomalies where thick basaltic lava causes flexure and subsidence to form ridges. No mascon-like gravity anomaly is associated with Mare Frigoris, yet large ridges deform the mare basalts. Lobate scarps are also found near Frigoris. These asymmetric linear hills inferred to be surface expressions of thrust faults are distributed globally and thought to originate from cooling and radial contraction of the lunar interior. Clusters of meter-scale extensional troughs or graben bounded by normal faults also occur in Frigoris. Tectonic landforms are being mapped in and around Mare Frigoris using LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images. Preliminary results show that wrinkle ridges in Frigoris occur both near and distal to the basin perimeter, trend E/W in western and central Frigoris, and form a polygonal pattern in the eastern section. Several complex wrinkle ridges are observed to transition into morphologically simpler lobate scarps at mare/highland boundaries, with the contrast in tectonic morphology likely due to the change from layered (mare) to un-layered (highlands) substrate. Lobate scarps in Frigoris occur primarily in the highlands, tend to strike E/W, and often but not always follow the boundary between mare and highlands. Small graben mapped in Frigoris occur in several clusters adjacent to or atop ridges and scarps, and

  10. Coleophoranepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, a new species of the C.lixella group (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) from France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Baldizzone, Giorgio; Nel, Jacques; Landry, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Coleophoranepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, sp. n. is described from the southern Alps (Italy and France). It belongs to the Coleophoralixella species group. Its host plants are Nepetanepetella L. (Lamiaceae) and an unidentified Poaceae. The fifth instar larva, its case, the adult habitus, and genitalia are illustrated. The species is compared to Coleophoranevadella Baldizzone, 1985, here newly confirmed from France and whose larvae feed on Nepetalatifolia DC. in the Eastern Pyrénées. DNA barcodes are shown to be distinct and congruent with morphological differences among species of the lixella group. Barcodes revealed that Coleophoratricolor Walsingham, 1889, formerly known only from Great Britain, is also present in France and Greece. PMID:25561856

  11. Presence of leptospires on genital tract of mares with reproductive problems.

    PubMed

    Hamond, Camila; Pestana, Cristiane P; Rocha-de-Souza, Cláudio Marcos; Cunha, Luis Eduardo R; Brandão, Felipe Z; Medeiros, Marco Alberto; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2015-09-30

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance, and has a worldwide distribution. Equine leptospirosis is commonly manifested by recurrent uveitis, reproductive disorders, as abortions, embryonic absorption, stillbirth and the birth of weak foals. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Leptospira sp or its DNA in genital tract of mares with reproductive problems. A total of 38 mares with reproductive problems were studied. All the mares were sampled for blood (for serology), urine (for culturing and qPCR), vaginal fluid-VF and endometrial biopsy-EB (for culturing, qPCR and indirect immunofluorescence). PCRs products were sequenced for secY gene. Seventeen (44.7%) serum samples were reactive, predominantly against serogroups Australis (76.4%) and Pomona (23.6%). No positive culture was obtained, but DNA was detected by qPCR on urine samples (26.3%), VF (44.7%) and EB (18.4%) collected 2 months or longer following diagnosis of early fetal death and endometritis. Leptospira cell aggregations were visible by indirect immunofluorescence on 57.1% (4/7) EBs and 17.6% (3/17) VFs. A total of 18 amplicons showed interpretable sequences. Out of those 18 amplicons, 15 presented 100% of identity with the species L. interrogans (sv Bratislava and Pomona), while three were L. borgpertersenii. This study suggests the presence of leptospires in the uterus of mares with reproductive problems. Moreover, serology was shown not to be indicated for the diagnosis of presumptive Leptospira infection in early gestation. The most common agent of the genital infection in those mares was L. interrogans, most probably sg Australis. PMID:26211968

  12. Neutrophil extracellular traps formation by bacteria causing endometritis in the mare.

    PubMed

    Rebordão, M R; Carneiro, C; Alexandre-Pires, G; Brito, P; Pereira, C; Nunes, T; Galvão, A; Leitão, A; Vilela, C; Ferreira-Dias, G

    2014-12-01

    Besides the classical functions, neutrophils (PMNs) are able to release DNA in response to infectious stimuli, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and killing pathogens. The pathogenesis of endometritis in the mare is not completely understood. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro capacity of equine PMNs to secrete NETs by chemical activation, or stimulated with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (Szoo), Escherichia coli (Ecoli) or Staphylococcus capitis (Scap) strains obtained from mares with endometritis. Ex vivo endometrial mucus from mares with bacterial endometritis were evaluated for the presence of NETs. Equine blood PMNs were used either without or with stimulation by phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA), a strong inducer of NETs, for 1-3h. To evaluate PMN ability to produce NETs when phagocytosis was impaired, the phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin (Cyt) was added after PMA. After the addition of bacteria, a subsequent 1-h incubation was carried out in seven groups. NETs were visualized by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and anti-histone. Ex vivo samples were immunostained for myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. A 3-h incubation period of PMN + PMA increased NETs (p < 0.05). Bacteria + 25 nM PMA and bacteria + PMA + Cyt increased NETs (p<0.05). Szoo induced fewer NETs than Ecoli or Scap (p < 0.05). Ex vivo NETs were present in mares with endometritis. Scanning electron microscopy showed the spread of NETs formed by smooth fibers and globules that can be aggregated in thick bundles. Formation of NETs and the subsequent entanglement of bacteria suggest that equine NETs might be a complementary mechanism in fighting some of the bacteria causing endometritis in the mare. PMID:25218891

  13. Activation of persistent Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in mares with subclinical endometritis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M R; Skive, B; Christoffersen, M; Lu, K; Nielsen, J M; Troedsson, M H T; Bojesen, A M

    2015-08-31

    Endometritis in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) may be underdiagnosed due to traditional diagnostic methods lacking sensitivity and specificity. We serendipitously identified a bacterial growth medium (bActivate) that appeared capable of inducing growth of dormant S. zooepidemicus, which subsequently allowed detection by standard diagnostics. To assess the effect of bActivate we compared its ability to activate dormant S. zooepidemicus in a group of potentially infected subfertile mares with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All mares had to test negative for S. zooepidemicus on a low-volume uterine lavage, be negative on endometrial cytology and without clinical signs of endometritis to be included in the investigation. The mares were instilled with bActivate or PBS in the uterus. Growth of S. zooepidemicus was induced by bActivate in 64% (16/25) and PBS in 8% (1/12) of the mares, respectively (p<0.002). In vitro studies supported that some strains of S. zooepidemicus were able to form persister cells tolerating 32-times of the minimal inhibitory concentration of penicillin compared to normal growing cells. Persister cells had not acquired penicillin resistance, but seemed to tolerate the antimicrobial due to dormancy. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of controlled growth induction of dormant bacteria from a subclinical infection. Moreover we demonstrated how endometritis can origin from a reservoir of dormant bacteria residing within the endometrium, and not only as an ascending infection. Further studies should aim at determining the prevalence of dormant S. zooepidemicus, impact of activation on diagnostic and treatment efficacy, uterine health and mare fertility. PMID:26123371

  14. [Follicular dynamics after treatment with hCG for ovulation induction in mares].

    PubMed

    Bollwein, H; Braun, J

    1999-02-01

    In this study the use of hCG for induction of ovulation is described. Factors such as follicle diameter at the time of administration of hCG (3000 IE hCG i.v.), follicular growth after hCG and the rate of double ovulations were evaluated. A total of 168 mares presented for artificial insemination were used. In 249 estrous periods hCG was given to mares exhibiting standing estrous when a minimum follicle diameter of 30 mm and a well developed edema of the endometrium could be detected by ultrasonography. In nine estrous periods ovulation occurred within 24 hours after hCG. The majority of mares (216; 86.7%) ovulated 24 to 48 hours after hCG and in 24 cases ovulation was delayed beyond 48 hours. Follicle size at the time of hCG administration (30-34 mm, 35-39 mm, > or = 40 mm) had no influence on the percentage of mares ovulating 24 to 48 hours after hCG (89.2%, 87.9%, and 83.7%, respectively). Double ovulations could be observed in 17.7% of estrous periods. The one cycle pregnancy rate was not influenced by follicle size (small 45.9%; medium 41.6%; large 47.5%). Repeated treatments with hCG during successive estrous cycles within one year did not influence the rate of responding to hCG. Mares in standing estrous respond well to hCG if a minimum follicle size of 30 mm and a well developed endometrial folding is present. PMID:10077815

  15. Effect of corticotherapy on proteomics of endometrial fluid from mares susceptible to persistent postbreeding endometritis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C A; Maslchitzky, E; Gregory, R M; Jobim, M I M; Mattos, R C

    2012-04-15

    The objective was to determine the effects of corticotherapy, in the presence and absence of uterine inflammation, on proteomics of endometrial fluid from mares susceptible to endometritis. In 11 mares, estrus was induced seven times with 5 mg PGF(2α) given at 14-day intervals. The first estrus was a control (no treatment). During the third estrus, mares received glucocorticoid (GC) treatment (20 mg isoflupredone acetate) every 12 h, for three consecutive days. The fifth estrus was the Infected treatment (intrauterine infusion of 1 × 10(9) colony-forming unit/mL Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus). Finally, the seventh was a combination of GC + Infected treatment (infusion of bacteria 24 h after the first GC treatment). At 12 h after the end of each treatment, uterine samples were collected and submitted to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) for protein separation and mass spectrometry. Both GC treatment and uterine lumen infection induced proteomic alterations in the endometrial fluid of susceptible mares, characterized by an increase, decrease, or both in the relative optic density and/or frequency of inflammatory acute phase proteins (APP), with major alterations occurring when corticotherapy was applied in the presence of an infectious process. Corticotherapy in the presence of infection increased α(1)-antitrypsin (AAT), transthyretin (TT), and actin, but reduced immunoglobulin G, whereas intrauterine infection increased haptoglobin (Hp) and apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) and decreased transferrin (TF). Infection reduced levels of α(1)-antitrypsin and transthyretin, whereas corticotherapy in the presence of infection increased their frequency. We concluded that GC influenced the immune response, not only as suppressors, but also as enhancers of local defense mechanisms, through an immunomodulatory action. Short-term corticotherapy could be beneficial for treatment of uterine infectious processes in the mare. PMID:22225686

  16. A chemical model for generating the sources of mare basalts - Combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of the lunar magmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Neal, Clive R.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical model for simulating the sources of the lunar mare basalts was developed by considering a modified mafic cumulate source formed during the combined equilibrium and fractional crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO). The parameters which influence the initial LMO and its subsequent crystallization are examined, and both trace and major elements are modeled. It is shown that major elements tightly constrain the composition of mare basalt sources and the pathways to their creation. The ability of this LMO model to generate viable mare basalt source regions was tested through a case study involving the high-Ti basalts.

  17. Cassini RADAR Observes Titan's Kraken Mare, The Largest Extraterrestrial Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging by Cassini's RADAR instrument beginning in 2006 revealed the presence of hundreds of hydrocarbon lakes and three large seas in Titan's north polar region [1,2]. Kraken Mare appeared to be the largest sea in IR images [3] but only the northern end was imaged by RADAR prior to 2012. High altitude SAR (HiSAR) observations on recent Titan flybys T84, T91, and T92 now provide complete coverage of Kraken and environs to ~50°N, at resolutions of 2-10 km. Backscatter statistics of the sea are 0.002 × 0.04, i.e., any return is substantially less than the noise and much less than typical dry land cross sections of 0.1-1.5. We conclude that Kraken is liquid filled to substantial depth over its entire extent. A surprising result is that the major seas all lie within a 1800 x 900 km 'box' (Fig.1). A third of the area inside this box (0.6 M km2) is sea, whereas the largest lake outside the box is only 0.005 M km2. Kraken's overall shape is complex (lobateness 4.4 vs 2.1 for Ligeia) but its 0.44 M km2 is divided by 20 to 160 km wide straits into 5 sub-basins that are elongated E-W across the box. Numerous straight shoreline segments parallel the edges of the box. Others parallel the 10°, 80°, and 170°W meridians, as do the rectangular drainage patterns mapped by [4]. These alignments suggest a key role for tectonics in creating the depressions occupied by the northern seas. Fensal and Aztlan (the 'lazy H' of dune-filled lows straddling the equator at longitudes 0°-70°W) form a similar pattern of elongated depressions connected by a narrow strait within a rectangular box. In contrast, Titan's small lakes are widely distributed. Multiple depressions with radar-dark floors have been identified near the south pole and hypothesized as former seabeds [5], but though similar in size to the northern seas, they are not aligned with one another or tightly clustered. Thus, the geography of the north and south poles will remain distinct even if

  18. The uniform K distribution of the mare deposits in the Orientale Basin: Insights from Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meng-Hua; Chang, Jin; Xie, Minggang; Fritz, Jörg; Fernandes, Vera A.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Ma, Tao; Xu, Aoao

    2015-05-01

    The composition of mare basalt units in the Orientale Basin are investigated by using the potassium (K) map derived from Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (CE-2 GRS) and FeO map derived from Clementine UV-Vis data set. Together with crater retention ages of the mare basalts from literature data, we aim to investigate possible magma sources underneath the Orientale Basin and their chemical evolution over time. Analyses of the chemical composition of the resurfaced mare basalts together with the reported eruption ages suggest a unique magma generating process for the resurfaced mare deposits. The early mare basalts in the central Mare Orientale and the later resurfaced mare deposits probably derived from magma generated by heat release due to high radioactive element concentrations. Based on forward modeling, the similar K abundances observed in the small mare deposits of the SW polygon area, Lacus Veris, and Lacus Autumni and those in the central Mare Orientale imply the same heat source for these lava eruptions. The chemical similarities (e.g., K, FeO, and TiO2) of these regions suggest that mare basalts within the Orientale Basin are a result of multiple eruptions from a relatively homogeneous source underneath the Basin.

  19. Formation and reactivation ages of a lunar mare ridge in northern Imbrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daket, Yuko; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi; Morota, Tomokatsu; Haruyama, Junichi; Ohtake, Makiko; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2013-04-01

    Mare ridges and lobate scarps are the manifestations of ancient or recent horizontal compression in the shallow part of the Moon. Regional and global stress fields have been controlled possibly by mascon loading (e.g., Solomon and Head, 1980) and/or global cooling, the latter of which is affected by the origin of the Moon (e.g., Prichard and Stevenson, 2000). On the other hand, mascon loading results in tectonic deformations immediately after the deposition of mare fills (Mohit and Phillips, 2006). Therefore, the timing of deformations is a clue to distinguish the mechanisms. We constrained the formation age of a mare ridge in northern Mare Imbrium as follows. Mare basalts were so inviscid that their lava fields have level surfaces. And, lava flows would have been dammed by pre-existing mare ridges. Therefore, the depositional ages of the mare units-the one involved in the ridge and the other dammed by the ridge, indicate the range of the formation age of the ridge. Using images taken by SELENE (Kaguya), we found such an ENE-WSW trending ridge in northern Imbrium with the height, width and length of 300-400 m, 30 km and ~150 km, respectively. We defined spectrally distinctive two basaltic units in this area: Ti-poor basalt makes up the ridge, and relatively Ti-rich one lies on the plain at the foot of the ridge. Their boundary runs along the southern foot of the ridge. There are no fissures along the boundary that could have fed the Ti-rich basalt. Their model ages were estimated by crater-size frequency distribution measurements using craters of 250 m to 1 km in diameter. As a result, the Ti-poor and Ti-rich units gave the ages at 2.97 +0.16/-0.23 and 2.07 +0.17/-0.17 Ga, respectively, indicating the ridge was formed between ~3.0 and ~2.0 Ga. The majority of mare basalts in mare Imbrium were deposited before ~3.0 Ga (Solomon and Head, 1980), indicating that the ridge formation is explained as a latest event of the mascon loading. However, the unit boundary does

  20. A preliminary study on the induction of dioestrous ovulation in the mare – a possible method for inducing prolonged luteal phase

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Ylva; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Santesson, Malin; Kindahl, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Background Strong oestrous symptoms in the mare can cause problems with racing, training and handling. Since long-acting progesterone treatment is not permitted in mares at competition (e.g. according to FEI rules), there is a need for methods to suppress unwanted cyclicity. Spontaneous dioestrous ovulations in the late luteal phase may cause a prolongation of the luteal phase in mares. Methods In this preliminary study, in an attempt to induce ovulation during the luteal phase, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (3000 IU) was injected intramuscularly in four mares (experimental group) in the luteal phase when a dioestrous follicle ≥ 30 mm was detected. A fifth mare included in this group was not treated due to no detectable dioestrous follicles ≥ 30 mm. Four control mares were similarly injected with saline. The mares were followed with ultrasound for 72 hours post injection or until ovulation. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice weekly for one month and thereafter once weekly for another two to four months. Results Three of the hCG-treated mares ovulated within 72 hours after treatment and developed prolonged luteal phases of 58, 68 and 82 days respectively. One treated mare never ovulated after the hCG injection and progesterone levels fell below 3 nmol/l nine days post treatment. Progesterone levels in the control mares were below 3 nmol/l within nine days after saline injection, except for one mare, which developed a spontaneously prolonged luteal phase of 72 days. Conclusion HCG treatment may be a method to induce prolonged luteal phases in the mare provided there is a dioestrous follicle ≥ 30 mm that ovulates post-treatment. However, the method needs to be tested on a larger number of mares to be able to draw conclusions regarding its effectiveness. PMID:16987391

  1. [Sublimation-dried mare's milk and the possibility of its use in creating infant and dietary food products].

    PubMed

    Stoianova, L G; Abramova, L A; Ladodo, K S

    1988-01-01

    The main biological parameters were studied in sublimated mare's milk: protein fraction composition, amino-acid spectrum, fatty-acid composition of lipids and the content of vitamins and mineral substances. A high biological value of the sublimated mare's milk has been proved, as well as significant proximity of its composition to human milk. Preliminary data have evidenced expediency of mare's milk use for the development of adapted milk mixtures for baby foods. However, the fatty component of the mixtures needs certain correction by addition of vegetable oil. The sublimated mare's milk can be used for the production of kumiss, that would extend its application in dietotherapy by removing season and territory limitations. PMID:3388813

  2. 14. NAVFAC Drawing 1,174,311(463AM3)(1970), 'Alterations for Laboratory FacilityMechanical' Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. NAVFAC Drawing 1,174,311(463A-M-3)(1970), 'Alterations for Laboratory Facility-Mechanical' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, lyzozyme activity and cortisol level in Arabian brood mares and their foals.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Kompanowska-Jezierska, E; Jakubow, K; Kott, A; Szumska, D

    1985-01-01

    In 34 pure-breed Arabian horses divided into four groups (Gr. I, ten pregnant mares; Gr. II, seven barren mares; Gr. III, ten foals born in 1981; Gr. IV, seven foals born in 1982) seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, cortisol level and lyzozyme activity were studied. Seasonal periodicity was found in all groups for the number of lymphocytes, segmented neutrophils and eosinophils and cortisol level. Leukocyte periodicity was found in three groups, but not in the barren mares. In lyzozyme activity there was periodicity in three groups but not in the youngest foals. In the stab neutrophils, basophils and monocytes no cycle was observed. The behaviour of the indices studied showed the influence of age of the horses (mature vs young) and the physiological state of the mares (pregnancy or barrenness). PMID:2863038

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 406 Isolated from the Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Tuv Aimag, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Nguyen, Tien Thi Thuy; Wulijideligen; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides406 was isolated from the traditional fermented mare milk airag in Tuv Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces an antilisterial bacteriocin. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. PMID:27013047

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 213M0, Isolated from Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Bolormaa, Tsognemekh; Burenjargal, Sedkhuu; Nguyen, Co Thi Kim; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides 213M0 was isolated from traditional fermented mare milk airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces a listericidal bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. PMID:27034488

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 213M0, Isolated from Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Bolormaa, Tsognemekh; Burenjargal, Sedkhuu; Nguyen, Co Thi Kim; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides213M0 was isolated from traditional fermented mare milk airag in Bulgan Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces a listericidal bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. PMID:27034488

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 406 Isolated from the Traditional Fermented Mare Milk Airag in Tuv Aimag, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Nakano, Akiyo; Hano, Chihiro; Yoshida, Saki; Nguyen, Tien Thi Thuy; Wulijideligen; Tashiro, Kosuke; Arakawa, Kensuke; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides 406 was isolated from the traditional fermented mare milk airag in Tuv Aimag, Mongolia. This strain produces an antilisterial bacteriocin. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. PMID:27013047

  8. Laboratory measurements of cryogenic liquid alkane microwave absorptivity and implications for the composition of Ligeia Mare, Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Karl L.; Barmatz, Martin B.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2015-03-01

    The complex dielectric constants of liquids methane and ethane were measured at 90 K and 14.1 GHz, close to the frequency of the Cassini RADAR. The liquid ethane loss tangent is far greater than that of liquid methane, facilitating discrimination by remote sensing. The results suggest a methane-dominated composition for the northern sea, Ligeia Mare, on the basis of a recent loss tangent determination using Cassini RADAR altimetry. This contrasts a previous far higher loss tangent for the southern lake, Ontario Lacus, which is inconsistent with simple mixtures of methane and ethane. The apparent nonequilibrium methane-to-ethane ratio of Ligeia Mare can be explained by poor admixture of periodically cycled methane with a deeper ethane-rich alkanofer system, consistent with obliquity-driven volatile cycling, sequestration of ethane from the hydrocarbon cycle by incorporation into crustal clathrate hydrates, or periodic flushing of Ligeia Mare into adjacent Kraken Mare by fresh rainfall.

  9. Recent Radar Imaging Observations of the Moon: New Views of Pyrocastics, Mare Basalts, Impact Crater Deposits, and the Lunar Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. M.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G. A.; Ghent, R. R.; Neish, C. D.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, radars with different wavelengths have provided polarimetric imaging of the lunar surface. These data sets have yielded new information about topics such as pyroclastics, mare basalts, cryptomare, and impact ejecta and melt flows.

  10. Effect of progesterone on the in vitro response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Escherichia coli in mares.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yousuke; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Tomioka, Michiko; Tanabe, Taishi; Nambo, Yasuo; Uematsu, Haruki; Oikawa, Masa-aki

    2012-05-01

    Escherichia coli(E. coli) isolated from the uterus of a Thoroughbred mare with bacterial endometritis was used to evaluate the effect of progesterone (P(4)) on the immune response of mares. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 10 nonpregnant clinically healthy adult mares (range, 4-12 years) during diestrus, four Thoroughbreds and six Hokkaido native horses. Cell proliferation and expression of cytokine mRNA, including interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, of PBMCs stimulated with E. coli and P(4) were examined in vitro. P(4) was shown to have significantly inhibited E. coli induced proliferation and expression of IFN-γ in PBMCs. These results indicate that P(4) inhibits the immune response to E. coli in mares. PMID:22167103

  11. Seasonal thyroid and lipid profiles in Thoroughbred pregnant and nonpregnant mares (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Cravana, Cristina; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which physiological seasonal thyroid and lipid panel (triglyceride, [TG], total cholesterol, [tCho], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, [HDL Cho], LDL cholesterol, phospholipids, [PDs]) changes occur in 12 Thoroughbred pregnant and six nonpregnant mares over a period of 12 months, from April to March, by into account the lactation stage. Serum total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were measured using immunoenzymatic assay kits; the serum lipid panel was analyzed using the enzymatic colorimetric method. One-way ANOVA reported a significant effect of time over 12 months for T3 (F = 5.46; P < 0.001) and T4 (F = 3.98; P < 0.001), in both pregnant and nonpregnant mares, and for triglyceride (F = 2.57; P < 0.01), tCho (F = 2.32; P < 0.01), HDL Cho (F = 5.60; P < 0.0001), and PDs (F = 7.01; P < 0.0001) in pregnant mares. Two-way ANOVA repoted a significant lactating effect compared with nonlactating stage for T3 (F = 8.33; P = 0.006), T4 (F = 6.43; P = 0.003), tCho (F = 10.38; P = 0.0078), HDL Cho (F = 7.64; P = 0.020), and PDs (F = 5.07; P = 0.048). Thus, it appears that under similar environmental condition, nutrition regime, and management system, lactation stage plays a significant role in the seasonal thyroid and lipid profiles in Thoroughbred pregnant mares, with higher T3, T4, and PDs values, and lower tCho and HDL Cho in lactating than nonlactating mares. The physiological values obtained in this study may be used as additional resources to evaluate thyroid and lipid profiles in Thoroughbred pregnant and nonpregnant mares, generating a wished numbers of observation, especially when the additional breed and physiological conditions are considered. PMID:26920797

  12. eCG concentrations, luteal structures, return to cyclicity, and postabortion fertility in embryo transfer recipient mares.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Aguilar, J J; Vettorazzi, M L; Martínez-Boví, R

    2015-10-01

    The present study characterizes the relationship between the levels of eCG, ovarian morphology, resumption of cyclicity, and fertility in postaborted embryo transfer recipient mares. A total of 32 pregnant recipient mares carrying a male fetus were aborted at approximately 65 days of gestation by single transcervical administration of cloprostenol. In addition, 25 gestation age-matched mares were used as nonaborted controls. The concentration of progesterone, but not of eCG, differed significantly between controls and aborted mares 48 hours after abortion. Of treated mares, 84.4% (27 of 32) expelled the fetus within 48 hours of treatment. The eCG concentration and the number of supplementary luteal structures were lower in mares aborted in November (equivalent to May in Northern Hemisphere) than in January. A total of 6.2%, 37.5%, and 56.2% of the mares entered anestrus, ovulated normally, and had 1 to 2 consecutive anovulatory cycles, respectively. The mean interval from abortion to the first ovulation was 28.5 ± 3.3 days (range, 5-65 days). The correlation between the levels of eCG at abortion and the interval to the first ovulation was poor (r = 0.38; P = 0.03). Of aborted mares, 90% (18 of 20) were reused and became pregnant after embryo transfer at a mean of 57.6 ± 4.4 days after abortion (range, 19-103 days) and eCG concentration of 0.9 ± 0.3 IU/mL (range, 0.1-3.6 IU/mL). In conclusion, the levels of eCG at the time of abortion were extremely variable and did not correlate well with the number of luteal structures or the interval from abortion to the first ovulation. PMID:26143362

  13. Study of the continuum removal method for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and its application to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xun-Yu; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Ao-Ao; Tang, Ze-Sheng; Wu, Yun-Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The absorption band center of visible and near infrared reflectance spectra is a key spectral parameter for lunar mineralogical studies, especially for the mafic minerals (olivine and pyroxene) of mare basalts, which have two obvious absorption bands at 1000 nm (Band I) and 2000nm (Band II). Removal of the continuum from spectra, which was developed by Clark and Roush and used to isolate the particular absorption feature, is necessary to estimate this parameter. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data are widely used for lunar mineral identification. However, M3 data show a residual thermal effect, which interferes with the continuum removal, and systematic differences exist among optical data taken during different optical periods. This study investigated a suitable continuum removal method and compared the difference between two sets of M3 data taken during different optical periods, Optical Period 1B (OP1B) and Optical Period 2A (OP2A). Two programs for continuum removal are reported in this paper. Generally, a program respectively constructs two straight lines across Band I and Band II to remove the continuum, which is recommended for locating band centers, because it can find the same Band I center with different right endpoints. The optimal right endpoint for continuum removal is mainly dominated by two optical period data at approximately 2480 and 2560nm for OP1B and OP2A data, respectively. The band center values derived from OP1B data are smaller than those derived from OP2A data in Band I but larger in Band II, especially for the spectra using longer right endpoints (>2600 nm). This may be due to the spectral slopes of OP1B data being steeper than those of OP2A data in Band I but gentler in Band II. These results were applied to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium, and the measurements were found to mainly vary from intermediate- to high-Ca pyroxene.

  14. Effects of a commercial canine gonadotropin releasing hormone vaccine on estrus suppression and estrous behavior in mares.

    PubMed

    Donovan, C E; Hazzard, T; Schmidt, A; LeMieux, J; Hathaway, F; Kutzler, M A

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effect of immunization against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) using a commercial canine GnRH vaccine on estrus suppression and unwanted estrous behavior in mares. In experiment 1, mares were immunized (n = 6) twice with vaccine (5 mL) given intramuscularly 4 weeks apart or received a control diluent (n = 5). Transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tracts was performed three days a week for 40 weeks after initial vaccination. Blood samples were collected weekly for GnRH antibody titer and progesterone concentration determination. In experiment 2, privately-owned mares (n = 12) were immunized twice with vaccine (1 mL) given intramuscularly 4 weeks apart. Blood samples were collected prior to each vaccination as well as 12 and 20 weeks after initial treatment, and transrectal ultrasonographic examinations of the reproductive tracts were performed 12 weeks after the first vaccination. Vaccinated mares in experiment 1 responded with a GnRH antibody titer, progesterone concentrations significantly lower than controls, and cessation of ovarian activity. Vaccinated mares in experiment 2 also responded with a GnRH antibody titer, progesterone concentrations that remained basal for the duration of the study, and cessation of ovarian activity. Owners of vaccinated mares in experiment 2 reported that the number of unwanted estrous behaviors present before vaccination significantly decreased following vaccination. In conclusion, GnRH immunization using a canine GnRH vaccine is an effective method for suppressing estrus and unwanted estrous behavior. PMID:24083943

  15. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  16. Constructed Response Tests in the NELS:88 High School Effectiveness Study. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 Second Followup. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Judith M.; And Others

    This report describes an experiment in constructed response testing undertaken in conjunction with the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). Constructed response questions are those that require students to produce their own response rather than selecting the correct answer from several options. Participants in this experiment…

  17. Postsecondary Attainment, Attendance, Curriculum, and Performance: Selected Results from the NELS:88/2000 Postsecondary Education Transcript Study (PETS), 2000. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford; Daniel, Bruce; Berkovits, Ilona

    This report presents selected results from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88/2000). Most of the participants in this study were eighth graders in 1988, graduates from high school in 1992, and at the time of the postsecondary transcript data collection in the year 2000 were around the age of 26 or 27. Of all likely…

  18. Implications of lithospheric bending and faulting in lunar mare-terra tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, Jouko

    1987-01-01

    A qualitative model of lithospheric flexure and faulting is proposed which accounts for certain rille fault features around mare regions of the moon. It is suggested that the subsidence of lunar mare basins may be due to the existence of their mascons and their volcanic fills as loads that flexed the lithosphere, in addition to the effects of drying up and cooling of internal hot volumes. Differences in the internal attack against the lunar crust from above and below the mean surface are considered. The rille formation is shown to be characterized by peripheral bulging and bending, and it is suggested that asthenosphere-related effects in lunar tectonics may have been very important.

  19. Energy supplementation and herbage allowance effects on daily intake in lactating mares.

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Dumont, B; Delagarde, R; Martin-Rosset, W; Fleurance, G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about how to manage grazing horses, including the thresholds under which energy supplementation is required. Here we investigated the effects of daily herbage allowance (DHA) and energy supplementation (ES) on daily herbage intake in lactating mares of light breeds grazing high-quality regrowth during summer. Three contrasting DHA, low (LOW), medium (MED), and high (HIGH), that is, 35.0, 52.5, and 70.0 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1), respectively, were obtained by adjusting pasture strip width. Eighteen Anglo-Arab and French Saddle lactating mares were either supplemented with 2.6 kg DM barley/d (SUP group; n= 9) or left nonsupplemented (NSUP group; n = 9) throughout the experiment. For 3 successive 2-wk periods, 3 groups of SUP mares (n = 3) and 3 groups of NSUP mares (n = 3) grazed each DHA according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) was similar between treatments (26.6 cm), but postgrazing SSH differed significantly between each DHA (2.9, 4.4, and 5.7 cm for LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively; P < 0.001). Herbage DMI (HDMI) increased linearly from 18.5 to 23.4 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) with increasing DHA (i.e., 0.13 kg DM eaten/kg DM of herbage offered; P < 0.001) independently of ES and with no significant ES × DHA interaction. This increase in HDMI resulted from an increase in grazing time between LOW (961 min/d) and MED and HIGH (1,021 min/d; P < 0.01) and from an increase in intake rate between LOW and MED (11.8 g DM/min) and HIGH (13.6 g DM/min; P < 0.01). Total digestible DMI (TDDMI) and NE intake (NEI) increased linearly from 12.3 to 15.2 g DM∙kg BW∙(-1)d(-1) and from 136.6 to 165.8 kJ∙kg BW(-1)∙d (-1)with increasing DHA (P < 0.001), respectively. Total digestible DMI and NEI were significantly lower for NSUP than for SUP mares: 12.5 vs. 14.9 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) (P < 0.01) and 134.6 vs. 166.5 kJ∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) (P < 0.001), respectively. Whereas SUP mares always met their energy requirements

  20. Mare ridges and related studies: Part D: small structures of the Taurus-Littrow region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David H.

    1973-01-01

    Apollo 17 permission geologic studies of the Taurus-Littrow region of the Moon revealed numerous small structures, in both mare and terra, having somewhat similar morphologies and variously resembling fault scarps, flow fronts, and mare ridges. Many of these features are too small to be identified on Lunar Orbiter IV photographs, which provided the most comprehensive, high-resolution coverage of this area before the later Apollo missions. The panoramic- and metric-camera photographs of Apollo 17 were taken at lower Sun angles than those of Apollo 15, which were used for the geologic mapping (refs. 31-40 and 31-41), and thus more clearly reveal fine details of texture and relief. In the illustrations of this part, several of these small structures are compared. It is concluded that they probably developed as lava extrusions from fractures and fissures; they cannot be easily explained by faulting.

  1. Magnetic beneficiation of highland and hi-Ti mare soils - Rock, mineral, and glassy components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Oder, Robin R.

    1990-01-01

    The exploitation of lunar soil can provide valuable raw materials for in situ resource utilization at a lunar base. A study of magnetic characterization was undertaken of three mare and two highland soils obtained from NASA. Beneficiation of mare and highland soils by sizing and magnetic separation can effectively concentrate the important components of the soils (e.g., ilmenite, native Fe, plagioclase, and aggluminates). As a soil matures and the impact melts consume additional minerals and rocks, the modal percentage of the minerals will decrease. The 'normative' percentage will become much greater than the modal percentage. Therefore, greater efficiency of separation can be realized with the proper selection of maturity of the soil, as well as by secondary grinding to further liberate specific minerals from lithic fragments (e.g., ilmenite and plagioclase).

  2. Apollo 17 KREEPy basalt - A rock type intermediate between mare and KREEP basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The Apollo 17 KREEPy basalt is a unique lunar volcanic rock, observed only as clasts in the light friable breccia matrix (72275) of Boulder 1, Station 2 at Taurus-Littrow. Its status as a volcanic rock is confirmed by the absence of any meteoritic contamination, a lack of cognate inclusions or xenocrystal material, and low Ni contents in metal grains. The basalt was extruded 4.01 + or - 0.04 b.y. ago, approximately contemporaneously with the high-alumina mare basalts at Fra Mauro; shortly afterwards it was disrupted, probably by the Serenitatis impact, and its fragments emplaced in the South Massif. The basalt, which is quartz-normative and aluminous, is chemically and mineralogically intermediate between the Apollo 15 KREEP basalts and the high-alumina mare basalts in most respects. It consists mainly of plagioclase and pigeonitic pyroxene in approximately equal amounts, and 10-30% of mesostatis.

  3. Titan's lakes and Mare observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. H.; Soderblom, L. A.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Hayes, A. G.; Lawrence, K. J.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Soderblom, J. M.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Jaumann, R.; Nicholson, P. D.; Stephan, K.

    2012-04-01

    Titan is the only place, besides Earth, that holds stable liquid bodies at its surface. The large Kraken Mare, first seen by ISS [1], was then observed by the radar instrument that discovered a large number of small lakes as well as two other Mare [2]. The liquid nature of these radar-dark features was later confirmed by the specular reflection observed by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) over Kraken Mare [3] and by the very low albedo at 5-micron over Ontario Lacus [4]. The three largest lakes are called Mare and are all located in the North Pole area. It is remarkable that most of these lakes have been observed on the North Pole with only one large lake, Ontario lacus, located in the South Pole area. This observation suggests the influence of orbital parameters on the meteorology and the occurrence of rainfalls to refill the depressions [5]. Ethane was detected by the VIMS instrument as one component of Ontario lacus [4]. These lakes and Mare play a key role in Titan's meteorology as demonstrated by recent global circulation models [6]. Determining the composition and the evolution of those lakes has become a primary science objective of the Cassini extended mission. Since Titan entered northern spring in August 2009, the North Pole has been illuminated allowing observations at optical wavelengths. On June 5, 2010 the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the northern pole area with a pixel size from 3 to 7 km. These observations demonstrate that little of the solar flux at 5-micron is scattered by the atmosphere, which allowed us to build a mosaic covering an area of more than 500,000 km2 that overlaps and complements observations made by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in 2007. We find that there is an excellent correlation between the shape of the radar dark area, known as Ligeia Mare and the VIMS 5-micron dark unit. Matching most of the radar shoreline, the 2010 VIMS observations suggest

  4. Diapirism and the origin of high TiO2 mare glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    High TiO2 mare picritic glasses are derived from cumulate source regions that are only modestly endowed with ilmenite-enriched crystallization products. These sources are mobilized by the heat derived from the primitive interior and evolve into diapirs which rise adiabatically from depths in excess of 700 km. As these diapirs undergo pressure-release melting, they also stir in significant portions of the surrounding mantle.

  5. X-Ray Digital Imaging Petrography of Lunar Mare Soils: Modal Analyses of Minerals and Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Dong-Hwa S.; Chambers, John G.; McKay, David S.

    1996-12-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses,sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 μm size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO ≅ 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L. A. Taylor and D. S. McKay (1992,Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd,pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  6. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding. PMID:24304759

  7. Mare Crisium area topography - A comparison of earth-based radar and Apollo mapping camera results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    An earth-based radar topography (ERT) map has been constructed of the Mare Crisium area. Systematic and random sources of error are discussed. A comparison between the ERT map and Lunar Topographic Orthophotomaps shows a random mean discrepancy of less than 100 m between the two maps, except for small-scale (20 km or less in diameter) features, where systematic smoothing reduces the ERT elevation contrast

  8. A preovulatory rise of dehydroepiandrosterone in the mare measured by radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Rance, T A; Park, B K; Rowe, P H; Dean, P D

    1976-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay procedure was developed for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) in peripheral serum in nonpregnant mares. The synthesis and conjugation of 3beta-hydroxy-5-androsten-19-al-17-one 19(0-carboxymethyl) oxime is described. Antisera were developed against this antigen and characterized. The most specific antiserum was used to measure DHA. Concentrations of DHA were greatest immediately before ovulation. PMID:135887

  9. The Titan Mare Explorer Mission (TiME): A Discovery mission to a Titan sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, E. R.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R. D.; Aharonson, O.; Bierhaus, E.; Boldt, J.; Clark, B.; Griffith, C.; Harri, A.-M.; Karkoschka, E.; Kirk, R.; Mahaffy, P.; Newman, C.; Ravine, M.; Trainer, M.; Turtle, E.; Waite, H.; Yelland, M.; Zarnecki, J.

    2011-10-01

    The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) is a Discovery class mission to Titan, and would be the first in situ exploration of an extraterrestrial sea. The mission is one of three recently chosen by NASA for a Phase A study; one mission will be downselected for launch in the summer of 2012. TiME is a lake lander, which would float on the surface of a sea, performing chemical, meteorological and visual observations.

  10. X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Patchen, A.; Taylor, D. H.; Chambers, J. G.; McKay, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  11. Oral L-arginine supplementation impacts several reproductive parameters during the postpartum period in mares.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Dale E; Warren, Lori K; Mortensen, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    L-arginine is an amino acid which can alter pituitary function and increase blood flow to the reproductive tract. The objective was to determine the effect of supplementing 100g of L-arginine on plasma arginine concentrations, follicular dynamics and ovarian and uterine artery blood flow during the estrus that occurs subsequent to foaling. In Experiment 1, mares were fed 100g L-arginine for 1 day during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy and plasma samples taken for every hour for the first 4h and every other hour until 12h.L-arginine supplementation elevated plasma arginine concentrations from 1 to 8h post feeding; arginine peaked at 6h (arginine: 515±33μmol/L; control: 80±33μmol/L). In Experiment 2, mares received either 100g L-arginine or control diets beginning 21 d before the expected foaling date and continued for 30 d postpartum. The reproductive tract was evaluated by transrectal Doppler ultrasonography from Day 1 postpartum through Day 30. There were no differences in ovarian follicular dynamics, ovarian or uterine resistance indices between groups. Vascular perfusion of the F1 follicular wall was greater in L-arginine supplemented mares (37.3±2.6%) than controls (25.4±2.7%; P<0.05). L-arginine supplemented mares had a smaller uterine body and horns and accumulated less uterine fluid than controls (P<0.05). The combination of reducing uterine fluid accumulation, while not altering follicular development, raises the possible use of L-arginine supplementation as a breeding management tool during the postpartum period to increase reproductive success. PMID:23523236

  12. The mare: a 1000-pound guinea pig for study of the ovulatory follicular wave in women.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J

    2012-03-15

    The mare is a good comparative model for study of ovarian follicles in women, owing to striking similarities in follicular waves and the mechanism for selection of a dominant follicle. Commonality in follicle dynamics between mares and women include: (1) a ratio of 2.2:1 (mare:woman) in diameter of the largest follicle at wave emergence when the wave-stimulating FSH surge reaches maximum, in diameter increase of the two largest follicles between emergence and the beginning of deviation between the future dominant and subordinate follicles, in diameter of each of the two largest follicles at the beginning of deviation, and in maximum diameter of the preovulatory follicle; (2) emergence of the future ovulatory follicle before the largest subordinate follicle; (3) a mean interval of 1 day between emergence of individual follicles of the wave; (4) percentage increase in diameter of follicles for the 3 days before deviation; (5) deviation 3 or 4 days after emergence; (6) 25% incidence of a major anovulatory follicular wave emerging before the ovulatory wave; (7) 40% incidence of a predeviation follicle preceding the ovulatory wave; (8) small but significant increase in estradiol and LH before deviation; (9) cooperative roles of FSH and insulin-like growth factor 1 and its proteases in the deviation process; (10) age-related effects on the follicles and oocytes; (11) approximate 37-hour interval between administration of hCG and ovulation; and (12) similar gray-scale and color-Doppler ultrasound changes in the preovulatory follicle. In conclusion, the mare may be the premier nonprimate model for study of follicle dynamics in women. PMID:22115815

  13. The role of relaxin in mare reproductive physiology: A comparative review with other species.

    PubMed

    Klein, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Relaxin is a peptide hormone best known for its action during the latter half of pregnancy, in particular for its softening effect on pelvic ligaments that aids in preparation of the birth canal for the impending delivery of the fetus. The source of relaxin during early pregnancy varies across species, with the CL being the main source in a number of species. The main source of relaxin during late equine pregnancy is the placenta. In mares with impaired placental function, circulating relaxin levels decline before abortion. During early pregnancy, relaxin promotes endometrial angiogenesis through upregulating endometrial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. The horse is unique in that the equine conceptus expresses relaxin messenger RNA as early as 8 days after ovulation, with levels increasing as conceptus development proceeds. Although secretion of functional relaxin has not been verified, it is likely, given that the embryo also expresses transcripts coding for enzymes processing the prohormone to yield the mature hormone. Furin, an enzyme which belongs to the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family known to process preprorelaxin, appears to be the foremost convertase expressed by equine conceptuses. Conceptus-derived relaxin could drive endometrial angiogenesis and also act in an autocrine fashion to promote the embryo's own development. Relaxin is also expressed by ovarian structures during the nonpregnant estrous cycle. In the mare, follicular expression of relaxin is comparable among follicles of varying size and has been localized to granulosa and theca cells. In women and pigs, relaxin appears to promote follicular development. In the rat, multiple lines of evidence indicate that relaxin is involved in the ovulatory process. In the mare, relaxin might play a similar role in the ovulatory process, as in equine ovarian stromal cells relaxin promotes the secretion of gelatinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases; local proteolysis

  14. Changes in glutamine metabolism indicate a mild catabolic state in the transition mare.

    PubMed

    Manso Filho, H C; McKeever, K H; Gordon, M E; Costa, H E C; Lagakos, W S; Watford, M

    2008-12-01

    Glutamine is the most abundant free alpha-AA in the mammalian body, and large amounts of glutamine are extracted by both the fetus during pregnancy and the mammary gland during lactation. The work presented here addressed the hypothesis that there would be major changes in glutamine metabolism in the mare during the transition period, the time between late gestation, parturition, and early lactation. Eight foals were born to Standardbred mares provided with energy and protein at 10% above NRC recommendations, and foals remained with mares for 6 mo. During lactation, lean body mass decreased by 1.5% (P < 0.05), whereas fat mass was unchanged throughout gestation and lactation. There was a sharp increase in the concentration of most plasma metabolites and hormones after birth, which was due in part to hemoconcentration because of fluid shifts at parturition. Plasma glutamine concentration, however, was maintained at greater concentrations for up to 2 wk postpartum but then began to decrease, reaching a nadir at approximately 6 wk of lactation. Skeletal muscle glutamine content did not change, but glutamine synthetase expression was decreased at the end of lactation (P < 0.05). Free glutamine was highly abundant in milk early in lactation, but the concentration decreased by more than 50% after 3 mo of lactation and paralleled the decrease in plasma glutamine concentration. Thus, lactation represents a mild catabolic state for the mare in which decreased glutamine concentrations may compromise the availability of glutamine to other tissues such as the intestines and the immune system. PMID:19036697

  15. Effect of sperm numbers and concentration on sperm transport and uterine inflammatory response in the mare.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Sandra Mara; Pimentel, Cláudio Alves; Mattos, Ana Luiza Gelpi; Gregory, Ricardo Macedo; Mattos, Rodrigo Costa

    2007-02-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the concentration of cooled sperm inseminated influenced sperm transport and intensity of the uterine inflammatory reaction 2, 4 and 24h after insemination. Experimental subjects were 189 estrous mares with a dominant follicle > or =35 mm in diameter and no bacterial growth or neutrophils detected in uterine smears. Each mare was randomly assigned to receive one of the following intrauterine treatments (volume, 20 mL): insemination with 5x10(6) mL(-1) or 25x10(6) mL(-1) or 50x10(6) mL(-1) sperm diluted in 3 mL seminal plasma (SP) and 17 mL skim milk; seminal plasma or skim milk extender. Mares in a control group received no intrauterine treatment. Mares were slaughtered 2, 4 or 24h after insemination or infusion. Oviducts were separated from the uterus, and uterus and oviducts were then flushed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). After flushing, an endometrial sample was collected for further histopathological examination. The grade of uterine fibrosis and the amount of neutrophils in the stratum compactum were evaluated. A sample of each tubal flushing was examined for sperm count, and a sample of each uterine flushing was examined for PMN count. It was concluded that compounds in the insemination dose provoked a uterine inflammatory response, which was more rapid and intense as sperm concentration increased. In contrast, sperm transport through 4h after insemination was not influenced by sperm concentration. PMID:17034841

  16. The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare basalt 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at saturation, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.

  17. Comparison of the biopsy and cytobrush techniques for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in mares

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometritis is a major cause of infertility in the mare. Therefore, the diagnosis of this disease is very important in veterinary practice. The objective of this study was to compare bacteriological and cytological results obtained from the mare uterus using biopsy (EB) and cytobrush (CB) techniques and relating these findings to the presence of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in endometrial tissue as the gold standard for detection of endometritis. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that endometrial cytology and microbiology data obtained from material collected using the EB and CB techniques are similar, so that the CB technique could preferentially be used to detect subclinical endometritis in clinical practice. Methods A total of 69 mares suspected of subclinical endometritis because of previous reproductive history and 15 maiden mares were enrolled in this study. Material collected from both EB and CB was smeared on sterile glass slides for cytological examinations and on culture media for microbiological examinations. Bacteriological cultures and cytological samples were classified as negative (no growth or mixed cultures of more than three microorganisms; <2% PMNs) or positive (pure growth of microorganisms; >2% PMNs) for endometritis. Results Positive growth was observed in 43% of CB samples and in 54% of EB samples (difference not significant). The growth of β-hemolytic streptococci was always connected with positive cytology. This relationship was not observed for growth of E. coli or for non-pathogenic flora. The sensitivity of bacterial growth and cytology from EB was 0.63 and 0.73 respectively. The sensitivities of bacterial growth and cytology from CB were 0.50 and 0.71 respectively. Conclusion Microbiological and cytological results obtained from CB are similar to those obtained from EB and based on these findings the CB technique may be recommended for collection of materials from the mare’s uterus in clinical practice. PMID

  18. Lunar Meteorites: What They Tell us About the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.

    2010-01-01

    Here we analyze the chronology and statistical distribution of lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ antmet/ lmc/contents.cfm cited hereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter, NASA Johnson Space Center, and from the associated literature. The Compendium was last modified on May 12, 2008.

  19. Risk factors associated with the incidence of foal mortality in an extensively managed mare herd.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, S D; Bristol, F; Card, C E

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal mortality in a large, extensively managed mare herd and what risk factors were involved in foal mortality. For a 6 wk period between April 18, 1994, and May 31, 1994, 334 foals were born, of which 74 died before reaching 10 d of age, giving an overall mortality of 22% for this period. Seventy four percent of the foal deaths occurred within 48 h of parturition. The major causes of foal mortality included starvation/exposure 27%, septicemia 26%, and dystocia 20%. Weekly incidences varied significantly, ranging from 67% for week 1 to 14% for week 5 (P < 0.01). Other risk factors that were associated with foal death included failure of passive transfer (P < 0.0001), poor mothering ability (P < 0.0001), the presence of dystocia (P < 0.0001), low birth weight (p < 0.05), lack of rainfall (P < 0.01), and low temperatures (P < 0.1). The effect of sire, mare age, mare body condition, and foal sex were not significant risk factors for foal survival (P > 0.1). Further studies are required to determine if changing management procedures will be effective in reducing the incidence of neonatal foal mortality in this extensively managed herd. PMID:8640655

  20. Abortion in a thoroughbred mare associated with an infection with avirulent Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Nishi, H; Katayama, Y; Niwa, H; Matsumura, T; Anzai, T; Ohtsu, Y; Tsukano, K; Shimizu, N; Takai, S

    2007-09-01

    An eight-year-old thoroughbred mare with no previous history of illness aborted a fetus at 196 days of gestation, and its internal tissues were examined immunohistologically and bacteriologically. The placenta was not examined, but specimens of the intrauterine fluids and the dam's faeces were collected four days after the abortion and examined bacteriologically. No significant histological lesions were found in the fetus but the amnion and the umbilical cord were oedematous and had petechial haemorrhages. Rhodococcus equi was isolated in pure culture from the lung, heart and stomach contents of the fetus and from an intrauterine specimen and faeces of the dam. The anti-R equi antibody titre of the mare was high after the abortion. The diagnosis was confirmed in the lung of the fetus by immunohistochemical staining with R equi-specific antibodies. Isolates from the fetus and mare were identified as avirulent R equi by pcr and the mouse pathogenicity test. The avirulent isolates were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, which yielded only one VspI profile in all the isolates from the fetus and its dam. PMID:17827474

  1. Photogeology of the multi-ringed crater Haldane in Mare Smythii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. W.; El-Baz, F.

    1976-01-01

    Haldane is a 40 km multi-ringed crater that occurs along with similar structures in a belt within the Smythii Basin. It is the best developed structurally of all craters in this belt and displays examples of all materials units of Mare Smythii. In addition to the outer rim, the crater displays a sharp-crested, nearly complete inner ring, and a complex central peak of round hills that are 300-600 m higher than the floor. There are two fracture systems associated with Haldane, one annular and the other radial. The annular fractures seem to control the deposition of mare basalts and dark mantle units in and around the crater. Topographic evidence and flow scarps indicate that the crater was the source of mare basalts and associated dark mantle, rather than its being flooded by such deposits. There are numerous indications that most of the features in and around Haldane are attributable to volcano-tectonic modifications of an original crater-form.

  2. The Status of the MARE Experiment with 187Re and 163Ho Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Bagliani, D.; Biasotti, M.; Ceruti, G.; Corsini, D.; Faverzani, M.; Gatti, F.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Kling, A.; Maino, M.; Manfrinetti, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Pessina, G.; Pizzigoni, G.; Gomes, M. Ribeiro; Sisti, M.

    Neutrino oscillation experiments have proved that neutrinos are massive particles but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. The laboratory experiments dedicated to effective electron-neutrino mass determination are the ones based on the study of single beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay. Exploiting only on energy-momentum conservation, this kinematic measurement is the only one which permits to estimate neutrino masses without theoretical assumptions on neutrino nature and it is truly model-independent. To date the most competitive isotopes for a calorimetric measurement of the neutrino mass are 187Re and 163Ho. While the first decays beta, the latter decays via electron capture, and both have a Q-value around 2.5 keV. The measurement of 163Ho EC is an appealing alternative to the 187Re beta decay measurement because few nuclei are needed and it is a self-calibrating measurement. In this context the MARE project, based on rhenium thermal detectors has been born. We report here the status of MARE in Milan with Rhenium and the activity concerning the production of radioactive 163Ho isotope in the framework of MARE.

  3. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution in lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Stille, P.; Patchett, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Existing cumulate remelting models for mare basalt genesis are evaluated in light of Lu-Hf, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd data and overall REE characteristics in order to determine the simplest model that can account for these data. A data base for comparing Lu-Hf evolution in the lunar mantle as inferred from Lu-Hf analyses of oceanic basalts is presented along with a preliminary comparison of Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution betwee mare basalts and terrestrial oceanic basalts. It is found that Lu/Hf characteristics of mare basalts cannot be explained in terms of modal melting of cumulate sources formed from a magma ocean with chondritic Lu/Hf. The data are consistent with a model in which the cumulate sources formed from a light REE + HF-enriched magma ocean. Nonmodal melting of ilmenite in the sources is also required. The Lu-Hf data suggest that even the high-Ti basalt sources contained no more than about 3 percent ilmenite.

  4. Abortions in Thoroughbred mares associated with consumption of bulbosus buttercups (Ranunculus bulbosus L).

    PubMed

    Swerczek, Thomas W

    2016-03-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION Unexplained clinical signs of weight loss and emaciation were reported in a herd of Thoroughbred horses grazing spring pastures on a central Kentucky farm, even though supplemental grain and hay were provided. CLINICAL FINDINGS A buttercup plant, Ranunculus bulbosus L, was abundantly present in all pastures and paddocks on the farm. All horses, especially lactating mares and their foals, had mild to severe weight loss as assessed by body condition. Seven mares on the farm had been confirmed pregnant between 30 and 45 days of gestation, but were later found to have aborted. Two 2-year-old fillies developed severe diarrhea, incoordination, recumbency, and paralysis and were euthanized. Necropsy of these horses revealed ulcers and erosions in the stomach and large intestine. The findings were considered consistent with buttercup toxicosis. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The horses were moved from the buttercup-infested pastures to a farm free of the weed. All horses made an uneventful recovery, and clinical signs resolved after the horses were transferred to buttercup-free pastures. Mares that had aborted conceived successfully in the next breeding season. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The buttercup plant is toxic for all classes of livestock. The clinical signs associated with buttercup toxicosis may mimic other disease syndromes affecting the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores. On-farm epidemiological investigations are an essential part of the diagnosis of this condition. Consumption of buttercups has previously been associated with abortions in cattle, but to the author's knowledge, this has not previously been described in horses. PMID:26953921

  5. Induction of ovulation in anestrous mares with pulsatile administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L

    1986-05-01

    Four seasonally anestrous mares (Standardbred), housed under a nonstimulatory photoperiod of 8 hours light:16 hours dark, were administered gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in a pulsatile pattern (50 or 250 micrograms of GnRH/hour) for 8 to 18 days during February and March 1985. Treatment with GnRH, irrespective of dose or month, induced an increase in serum luteinizing hormone from a mean pretreatment value typical of anestrus (0.58 +/- 0.02 ng/ml +/- SE) to 10.84 +/- 1.27 ng/ml on day 8 of GnRH treatment. Ovulation in the 4 mares occurred 8.8 +/- 0.7 days after the initiation of pulsatile GnRH administration. In each instance, ovulation was followed by a functional corpus luteum, as indicated by a luteal phase (defined as the number of days on which serum levels of progesterone were greater than 1.0 ng/ml) which lasted 14.5 +/- 0.6 days. These results indicate that infusion of GnRH in a pulsatile pattern is effective in inducing follicular development and ovulation in anestrous mares in the absence of a stimulatory photoperiod. PMID:3521408

  6. Effects of interrupted photoperiods on the induction of ovulation in anestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Johnson, A L; Scanes, C G

    1985-10-01

    The ability of interrupted photoperiods to induce early estrus and ovulation was examined. Horse mares were exposed to long (16 h light) or short (10 h light), noninterrupted photoperiods, ambient light, or various interrupted photoperiod treatments from December 1 to April 15 (135 d). Follicular development was assessed by rectal palpation and estrous behavior was determined by teasing with a stallion. Serum concentrations of progesterone were used as an indicator of corpus luteum function. Differences among the light treatment groups were compared for the following behavioral and ovarian characteristics: days to first detectable 3-cm follicle, days to first estrous behavior, days to first ovulation, the number of mares ovulating within the treatment period, and the number of ovulations within the treatment period per mare. Compared with the ambient and 10L:14D (L = h of light and D = h of darkness) photoperiod treatments, ovulation was advanced to the greatest extent by a photoperiod of 16L:8D and the interrupted photoperiod 10L:8D:2L:4D. These two stimulatory photoperiod treatments were characterized by the presence of light 8 to 10 h after dusk. Therefore, the present data are consistent with an external coincidence model for the induction of seasonal breeding in horses, with the photoinducible phase occurring within the period 8 to 10 h after dusk. PMID:4066545

  7. Heritability and repeatability of insect bite hypersensitivity in Dutch Shetland breeding mares.

    PubMed

    Schurink, A; van Grevenhof, E M; Ducro, B J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2009-02-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal recurrent allergic reaction of horses to the bites of certain Culicoides spp. and is found throughout the world. The aim of our study was to estimate the heritability and repeatability of IBH in the Dutch Shetland pony population. A total of 7,924 IBH scores on 6,073 mares were collected during foal inspections in 2003, 2005, and 2006. Mares were scored for clinical symptoms of IBH from June until February by 16 inspectors. Of all mares, 74.4% (n = 4,520) had a single observation, 20.7% (n = 1,255) had 2 observations, and 4.9% (n = 298) had 3 observations in different years. The overall mean IBH prevalence was 8.8%. Heritability was 0.08 (SE = 0.02) on the observed binary scale and 0.24 (SE = 0.06) on the underlying continuous scale. Repeatability was 0.30 (SE = 0.02) and indicates that including repeated observations of the clinical symptoms of IBH will improve the accuracy of breeding values for IBH. We conclude that IBH, based on clinical symptoms, is a heritable trait in the Dutch Shetland pony population. Therefore, the IBH prevalence in this population can be decreased by selection. PMID:18791140

  8. Thicknesses of mare basalts on the Moon from gravity and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shengxia; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Nimmo, Francis; Kiefer, Walter S.; Head, James W.; Huang, Chengli; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-05-01

    A new method of determining the thickness of mare basalts on the Moon is introduced that is made possible by high-resolution gravity data acquired from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Using a localized multitaper spherical-harmonic analysis, an effective density spectrum is calculated that provides an estimate of the average crustal density as a function of spherical harmonic degree. By comparing the observed effective density spectrum with one generated from a theoretical model, the thickness of mare basalts can be constrained. We assume that the grain density of the basalts is known from remote sensing data and petrologic considerations, we assign a constant porosity to the basalts, and we let both the thickness of the basalts and the density of the underlying crust vary. Using this method, the total thickness of basalts was estimated on the nearside hemisphere, yielding an average of 0.74 km with 1σ upper and lower bounds of 1.62 km and 100 m, respectively. The region of Marius Hills, which is a long-lived volcanic complex, is found to have the thickest basalts, with an average of 2.86 km and 1σ limits of 3.65 and 1.02 km, respectively. The crust beneath the Mare Imbrium basalts is found to have an atypically high density of about 3000 kg m-3 that we interpret as representing a mafic, unfractured, impact melt sheet.

  9. Geological and geophysical field investigations from a lunar base at Mare Smythii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Hood, Lon L.

    1992-01-01

    Mare Smythii, located on the equator and east limb of the Moon, has a great variety of scientific and economic uses as the site for a permanent lunar base. Here a complex could be established that would combine the advantages of a nearside base (for ease of communications with Earth and normal operations) with those of a farside base (for shielding a radio astronomical observatory from the electromagnetic noise of Earth). The Mare Smythii region displays virtually the entire known range of geological processes and materials found on the Moon; from this site, a series of field traverses and investigations could be conducted that would provide data on and answers to fundamental questions in lunar geoscience. This endowment of geological materials also makes the Smythii region attractive for the mining of resources for use both on the Moon and in Earth-Moon space. We suggest that the main base complex be located at 0, 90 deg E, within the mare basalts of the Smythii basin; two additional outposts would be required, one at 0, 81 deg E to maintain constant communications with Earth, and and the other, at 0, 101 deg E on the lunar farside, to serve as a radio astronomical observatory. The bulk of lunar surface activities could be conducted by robotic teleoperations under the direct control of the human inhabitants of the base.

  10. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares.

    PubMed

    Witte, T S; Melkus, E; Walter, I; Senge, B; Schwab, S; Aurich, C; Heuwieser, W

    2012-10-01

    Persistent breeding-induced endometritis is ranked as the third most common medical problem in the adult mare and leads to enormous economic loss in horse breeding. In mares suffering from persistent breeding-induced endometritis, increased amounts of intrauterine (i.u.) fluid or viscous mucus in estrus or after breeding may act as a barrier for sperm and can contribute to low fertility. Current therapies of these mares aim to eliminate i.u. fluid and mucus by uterine lavage and/or administration of ecbolic drugs. Recently, i.u. administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to support therapy in mares with endometritis. It was the objective of the present study to investigate effects of an oral administration of NAC on the viscosity of i.u. fluid in estrous mares. It was hypothesized that oral treatment with NAC reduces the viscosity of i.u. fluid and has a positive effect on the inflammatory response of the endometrium. Mares (n = 12) were included in the study as soon as estrus was detected (ovarian follicle >3.0 cm and endometrial edema), which was defined as Day 1. They were randomly assigned to a treatment (10 mg/kg NAC on Days 1-4) or a control group (no treatment). On days 1 and 5 i.u. mucus was collected and its rheologic properties were accessed. On Day 5, endometrial biopsies were obtained and evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the treatment group, viscosity of i.u. mucus increased significantly between Days 1 and 5 (P < 0.05), while no differences were found in control mares (n.s.). At no time were significant differences between treated and control mares seen. Integrity of epithelium was not affected. After NAC treatment the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies was significantly lower compared to mares of the control group (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4; P < 0

  11. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  12. Influence of the uterine inflammatory response after insemination with frozen-thawed semen on serum concentrations of acute phase proteins in mares.

    PubMed

    Tuppits, U; Orro, T; Einarsson, S; Kask, K; Kavak, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of measuring blood concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and fibrinogen (Fib) in horse reproductive management, and changes in response to artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen. Standardbred mares (n=18) with different reproductive status (eight healthy mares in first postpartum oestrus, five healthy barren mares and five mares with endometritis) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. Endometritis was evaluated during oestrus by bacteriological culture, cytology and presence of ultrasonically visible intrauterine fluid during oestrus. Concentrations of SAA, Hp and Fib were analysed in the blood in every 48h during oestrus and until 5, 6 or 7 days after AI. The day of sampling and number of blood samples varied between mares because of length of the oestrus and time of AI. Changes in concentrations of SAA, Hp and Fib were evaluated based on the day of sampling regard to AI and classification of the mares. There were no differences in SAA, Hp and Fib concentrations over time before or after AI or between the groups of mares. The insemination of mares with frozen-thawed semen did not increase the plasma concentrations of SAA, Hp and Fib above clinical threshold concentration and there were no differences between susceptible or healthy mares. PMID:24636940

  13. Mini-RF and LROC observations of mare crater layering relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickle, A. M.; Patterson, G. W.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Bussey, D. B. J.

    2016-07-01

    The lunar maria cover approximately 17% of the Moon's surface. Discerning discrete subsurface layers in the mare provides some constraints on thickness and volume estimates of mare volcanism. Multiple types of data and measurement techniques allow probing the subsurface and provide insights into these layers, including detailed examination of impact craters, mare pits and sinuous rilles, and radar sounders. Unfortunately, radar sounding includes many uncertainties about the material properties of the lunar surface that may influence estimates of layer depth and thickness. Because they distribute material from depth onto the surface, detailed examination of impact ejecta blankets provides a reliable way to examine deeper material using orbital instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, or imaging radars. Here, we utilize Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) data to investigate the scattering characteristics of ejecta blankets of young lunar craters. We use Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) information from twenty-two young, fresh lunar craters to examine how the scattering behavior changes as a function of radius from the crater rim. Observations across a range of crater size and relative ages exhibit significant diversity within mare regions. Five of the examined craters exhibit profiles with no shelf of constant CPR near the crater rim. Comparing these CPR profiles with LROC imagery shows that the magnitude of the CPR may be an indication of crater degradation state; this may manifest differently at radar compared to optical wavelengths. Comparisons of radar and optical data also suggest relationships between subsurface stratigraphy and structure in the mare and the block size of the material found within the ejecta blanket. Of the examined craters, twelve have shelves of approximately constant CPR as well as discrete layers outcropping in the subsurface, and nine fall along a trend line when comparing shelf-width with thickness of subsurface layers. These

  14. Lunar Mare Dome Identification and Morphologic Properties Analysis Using Chang'E-2 Lunar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xingguo; Mu, Lingli; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    Identify the lunar mare dome and study the morphologic properties to know more knowledge about the structure will enhance the study of lunar volcanism. Traditionally, most lunar domes are identified by the scientists from exploring the images or topographic maps of the lunar surface with manual method, which already found out a bunch of lunar domes in specific local areas. For the purpose of getting more knowledge about global lunar dome, it is necessary to identify the lunar dome from the global lunar mare. However, it is hard to find new lunar domes from the global lunar mare only with manual method, since in that case, the large volume lunar data is needed and such work is too time consumed, so that, there are few researchers who have indentified and study the properties of the lunar dome from the perspective of lunar global scale. To solve the problem mentioned above, in this approach , CE-2 DEM, DOM data in 7m resolution were used in the detection and morphologic analysis of the lunar domes and a dome detection method based on topographic characteristics were developed.We firstly designed a method considering the morphologic characteristics to identify the lunar dome with Chang'E2(CE-2) lunar global data, after that, the initial identified result with properties is analyzed, and finally, by integrating the result with lunar domes already found by former researchers, we made some maps about the spatial distribution of the global lunar mare dome. With the CE-2 data covering the former lunar domes and the new found lunar domes, we surveyed and calculated some morphologic properties, and found that, lunar domes are circular or eclipse shaped, obviously different from background in topography,which has a average diameter between 3-25km, circular degree less than 1.54, with a average slope less than 10°, average height less than 650m and diameter/height less than 0.065. Almost all of the lunar domes are located in the extent of 58°N~54°S,167°W~180°E,and nearly

  15. The effect of endotoxin administration on the secretory dynamics of oxytocin in follicular phase mares: relationship to stress axis hormones.

    PubMed

    Alexander, S L; Irvine, C H G

    2002-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to define the secretory dynamics of oxytocin and vasopressin in pituitary venous effluent from ambulatory horses during acute endotoxaemia, a stimulus that may release both hormones. Our secondary aim was to investigate the role of oxytocin in regulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion by comparing oxytocin, vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and ACTH secretory profiles during endotoxaemia and by monitoring the ACTH response to oxytocin administration. Pituitary venous blood was collected nonsurgically continuously and divided into 1-min segments from eight follicular phase mares. Four mares were sampled for 30 min before and 3.5 h after receiving an i.v. infusion of bacterial endotoxin (TOX). Four control mares were sampled for 2.5 h without infusion of TOX. Another three follicular phase mares were given 5 U of oxytocin to replicate the peak response to TOX and pituitary blood collected every 1 min for 10 min before and 15 min after injection. Endotoxin raised the secretion rates of all hormones measured. All hormones were released episodically throughout the experiment, with TOX increasing the amplitude of peaks in each hormone. Peaks in oxytocin and vasopressin were coincident in each treated mare. Similarly, ACTH peaks were coincident with peaks of oxytocin and vasopressin in each treated mare, and with peaks of CRH in three mares. However, oxytocin administration did not affect ACTH secretion. We conclude that during endotoxaemia in horses: (i) oxytocin and vasopressin are secreted synchronously; (ii) oxytocin is unlikely to be acting as an ACTH secretagogue since inducing peak oxytocin concentrations observed during TOX does not raise ACTH; and therefore (iii) the close relationship between oxytocin and ACTH secretion is circumstantial and due to the fact that oxytocin secretion is concurrent with that of vasopressin, a proven ACTH secretagogue in horses. PMID:12121490

  16. Use of mesenchymal stem cells or autologous conditioned serum to modulate the inflammatory response to spermatozoa in mares.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Ryan A; Frisbie, David D; McCue, Patrick M

    2014-07-01

    Current treatments for Persistent mating-induced endometritis such as uterine lavage and oxytocin therapy focus on aiding the uterus in removal of inflammatory products, but these treatments do not modulate the inciting inflammatory response. Biological treatments, such as autologous conditioned serum (ACS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been used in human and veterinary medicine for immunomodulation for over 10 years. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the ability of ACS or MSCs to modulate the inflammatory response to spermatozoa after breeding. Two experiments were performed with six normal mares in each study to evaluate the effects of intrauterine administration of ACS, dexamethasone, or a placebo (experiment 1), or allogeneic MSCs or a placebo (experiment 2) on the inflammatory response to spermatozoa using clinical and biochemical endpoints. Treatment with ACS and MSCs significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the number of neutrophils in the uterine lumen 6 hours after the sperm challenge. An increase (P < 0.05) in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra was observed after treatment with MSCs before exposure to spermatozoa. There was no difference in IL-1Ra concentration in mares treated with ACS, dexamethasone, or a placebo. Mesenchymal stem cells and ACS were able to modulate the immune response to spermatozoa in normal mares. The effect may be due to an increase in IL-1Ra in MSCs-treated mares, but other bioactive molecules may be responsible for the decrease in neutrophils in ACS-treated mares. Autologous conditioned serum and bone-derived culture expanded MSCs were able to modulate the uterine inflammatory response to spermatozoa in normal mares. Treatment with allogeneic stem cells may be beneficial if a similar modulation in inflammatory cytokines occurs in mares affected by persistent mating-induced endometritis. PMID:24681213

  17. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies of Meteorite Kalahari 009: An Old VLT Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Bischoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Kalahari 009 is a fragmental basaltic breccia contain ing various very-low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt clasts embedded in a fine-g rained matrix of similar composition. This meteorite and lunar meteorite Kalahari 008, an anorthositic breccia, were suggested to be paired mainly due to the presence of similar fayalitic olivines in fragment s found in both meteorites. Thus, Kalahari 009 probably represents a VLT basalt that came from a locality near a mare-highland boundary r egion of the Moon, as compared to the typical VLT mare basalt samples collected at Mare Crisium during the Luna-24 mission. The concordant Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar ages of such a VLT basalt (24170) suggest that the extrusion of VLT basalts at Mare Crisium occurred 3.30 +/- 0.05 Ga ag o. Previous age results for Kalahari 009 range from approximately 4.2 Ga by its Lu-Hf isochron age to 1.70?0.04 Ga of its Ar-Ar plateau ag e. However, recent in-situ U-Pb dating of phosphates in Kalahari 009 defined an old crystallization age of 4.35+/- 0.15 Ga. The authors su ggested that Kalahari 009 represents a cryptomaria basalt. In this r eport, we present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic results for Kalahari 009, discuss the relationship of its age and isotopic characteristics to t hose of other L-24 VLT mare basalts and other probable cryptomaria ba salts represented by Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, and discuss it s petrogenesis.

  18. Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, a new species of the C. lixella group (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) from France and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Baldizzone, Giorgio; Nel, Jacques; Landry, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, sp. n. is described from the southern Alps (Italy and France). It belongs to the Coleophora lixella species group. Its host plants are Nepeta nepetella L. (Lamiaceae) and an unidentified Poaceae. The fifth instar larva, its case, the adult habitus, and genitalia are illustrated. The species is compared to Coleophora nevadella Baldizzone, 1985, here newly confirmed from France and whose larvae feed on Nepeta latifolia DC. in the Eastern Pyrénées. DNA barcodes are shown to be distinct and congruent with morphological differences among species of the lixella group. Barcodes revealed that Coleophora tricolor Walsingham, 1889, formerly known only from Great Britain, is also present in France and Greece. PMID:25561856

  19. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P < 0.05. Data were first evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Differences between groups in days to luteolysis (DTL) were examined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni, and the effect of day and treatment on P4 levels were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's all pairwise test. There was a significant

  20. Mare Basaltic Magmatism: A View from the Sample Suite With and Without a Remote-Sensing Prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Gaddis, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the lunar-sample suite returned by the Apollo and Luna missions is biased with regard to its representation of lunar mare basalts. This sampling bias is reflected in both an incorrect portrayal of the volume of mare basalt types and the absence of many basalt groups known to exist from spectral data. This bias obviously affects models for the petrogenesis of mare basalts and the interior of the Moon. Here, we explore the implications of this bias and compare models for lunar magmatism that are derived solely from samples with potential models derived from combined sample and remote-sensing data. We focus on the implications of these contrasts in several areas: volume, distribution, and age of mare basalts, KREEP enrichment on the nearside of the Moon, heat sources for melting, and depth of mare basalt source regions. The mare basalt sample suite indicates that the TiO2 distribution of crystalline mare basalt samples is bimodal, with a majority of the mare basalts occurring in the range of 1.5-5.5 and 10-13 wt% TiO2. A compositional gap appears to exist between 6 and 9 wt% TiO2. Although the population of picritic mare glasses also exhibits a bimodal distribution with regard to Ti02, it is dominated by very low-Ti glasses (<1 wt% TiO2) and high-Ti glasses (8-16 wt% TiO2) and exhibits a very broad compositional gap between 1 and 8 wt% Ti02. The simplest interpretation of the bimodal Ti distribution is that two distinct sources were melted to produce the mare basalts: late, rather shallow, Ti-rich lunar magma ocean (LMO) cumulates and early, rather deep, Ti-poor LMO cumulates. More recently, on the basis of Galileo SSI and Clementine UV-VIS data, global TiO2 distribution has been interpreted to be continuous in the maria with no hint of biomodality and an abundance peak between I and 3.5 wt% TiO2. These new observations indicate a mare source model in which a small volume of late, ilmenite-bearing LMO cumulates mixed with a large

  1. Systemic concentrations of hormones during the development of follicular waves in mares and women: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, O J; Beg, M A; Gastal, E L; Gastal, M O; Baerwald, A R; Pierson, R A

    2010-01-01

    Changes in systemic concentrations of FSH, LH, oestradiol and progesterone during the ovulatory follicular wave were compared between 30 mares and 30 women. Based on a previous study, the emergence of the future ovulatory follicle was defined as occurring at 13.0 mm in mares and 6.0 mm in women, and deviation in diameter between the two largest follicles was expected to begin at 22.7 mm in mares and 10.3 mm in women. Mean FSH concentrations were high in mares during the luteal phase, resulting from statistically identified FSH surges occurring in individuals on different days and in different numbers (mean, 1.5 ± 0.2 surges/mare); the internadir interval was 3.9 ± 0.3 days. In contrast, mean FSH in women was low during the luteal phase and increased to a prolonged elevation during the follicular phase. The prolonged elevation was apparent in each individual (internadir interval, 15.2 ± 0.4 days). Changes in LH or oestradiol concentrations encompassing deviation were not detected in mares, but both hormones increased slightly but significantly between emergence and deviation in women. The hypothesis that a greater number of growing follicles causes a greater predeviation decrease in FSH was supported for mares (r, −0.39; P < 0.04), but a similar negative correlation (r, −0.36) was not significant in women. The hypothesis that the increase in oestradiol during the luteal phase in women was at least partly attributable to luteal-phase anovulatory follicular waves was not supported. Normalization of FSH concentrations to the day of emergence showed maximum value on the day of emergence with a significant increase and decrease on each side of emergence in both species. The day of expected deviation occurred 3 days after emergence during the decline in FSH in both species. These results indicated that the previously reported striking similarities in emergence and deviation between mares and women during the ovulatory follicular wave are associated with species

  2. A potpourri of pristine moon rocks, including a VHK mare basalt and a unique, augite-rich Apollo 17 anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Shirley, D. N.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The anorthosite fragment, 76504,18, the first of the Apollo 17's pristine anorthosites, was found to have: (1) a higher ratio of high-Ca pyroxine to low-Ca pyroxene, (2) higher Na in its plagioclase, (3) higher contents of incompatible elements, and (4) a higher Eu/Al ratio in comparison to ferroan anorthosites. With a parent melt having a negative Eu anomaly, 76504,18 closely resembles a typical mare basalt. This anorthosite was among the latest to be formed by plagioclase flotation above a primordial magmasphere; typical mare basalt regions accumulated at about the same time or even earlier. Another fragment 14181c, a very high potassium basalt, was studied and found to be similar to typical Apollo 14 mare basalt though it has a K/La ratio of 1050. It is suggested that this lithology formed after a normal Apollo 14 mare basaltic melt partially assimilated granite. New data for siderphile elements in Apollo 12 mare basalts indicate that only the lowest of earlier data are trustworthy as being free of laboratory contamination.

  3. Effect of a povidone-iodine intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels and endometrial steroid receptor expression in mares

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intrauterine infusions have been widely used for the treatment of endometritis in the mare. Nevertheless, their consequences on endocrine and endometrial molecular aspects are unknown. We studied the effect of a 1% povidone-iodine solution intrauterine infusion on progesterone levels, endometrial histology and estrogen (ERα) and progesterone (PR) receptor distribution by immunohistochemistry. Methods Fourteen healthy mares were used in this study. Estruses were synchronized and seven mares were treated with intrauterine infusions at days 0 and 2 post ovulation of two consecutive estrous cycles. Uterine biopsy samples were taken on days 6 and 15 post ovulation. Results The treatment did not induce an inflammatory response indicating endometritis, neither affected the ERα. However, it reduced the percentage of PR positive cells (PPC) on day 6 (deep glandular epithelium, control: 95.7 vs. infused: 61.5, P < 0.05). Treated mares tended to have lower progesterone levels on day 2 (3.9 ng/ml vs. 6.6 ng/ml, P = 0.07), and higher levels on day 15 compared with controls (4.4 ng/ml vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.07). Conclusion a 1% povidone-iodine infusion during days 0 and 2 post ovulation in healthy mares did not induce histological changes indicating endometritis, but altered progesterone concentrations and reduced the expression of endometrial PR at day 6 without affecting the ERα. These changes could reduce embryo survival. PMID:21162724

  4. Bimodal TiO2 Contents of Mare Basalts at Apollo and Luna Sites and Implications for TiO2 Derived from Clementine Spectral Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    A revised algorithm to estimate Ti contents of mare regions centered on Apollo and Luna sites shows a bimodal distribution, consistent with mare-basalt sample data. A global TiO2 map shows abundant intermediate TiO2 basalts in western Procellarum. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Mare Basaltic Magmatism: A View from the Sample Suite With and Without a Remote-Sensing Prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Gaddis, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the lunar-sample suite returned by the Apollo and Luna missions is biased with regard to its representation of lunar mare basalts. This sampling bias is reflected in both an incorrect portrayal of the volume of mare basalt types and the absence of many basalt groups known to exist from spectral data. This bias obviously affects models for the petrogenesis of mare basalts and the interior of the Moon. Here, we explore the implications of this bias and compare models for lunar magmatism that are derived solely from samples with potential models derived from combined sample and remote-sensing data. We focus on the implications of these contrasts in several areas: volume, distribution, and age of mare basalts, KREEP enrichment on the nearside of the Moon, heat sources for melting, and depth of mare basalt source regions. The mare basalt sample suite indicates that the TiO2 distribution of crystalline mare basalt samples is bimodal, with a majority of the mare basalts occurring in the range of 1.5-5.5 and 10-13 wt% TiO2. A compositional gap appears to exist between 6 and 9 wt% TiO2. Although the population of picritic mare glasses also exhibits a bimodal distribution with regard to Ti02, it is dominated by very low-Ti glasses (<1 wt% TiO2) and high-Ti glasses (8-16 wt% TiO2) and exhibits a very broad compositional gap between 1 and 8 wt% Ti02. The simplest interpretation of the bimodal Ti distribution is that two distinct sources were melted to produce the mare basalts: late, rather shallow, Ti-rich lunar magma ocean (LMO) cumulates and early, rather deep, Ti-poor LMO cumulates. More recently, on the basis of Galileo SSI and Clementine UV-VIS data, global TiO2 distribution has been interpreted to be continuous in the maria with no hint of biomodality and an abundance peak between I and 3.5 wt% TiO2. These new observations indicate a mare source model in which a small volume of late, ilmenite-bearing LMO cumulates mixed with a large

  6. A glass spherule of questionable impact origin from the Apollo 15 landing site: Unique target mare basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, G.; Delano, J.W.; Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 ??m-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the 40Ar/39Ar laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 ?? 11 Ma (2 ??); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the 39Ar released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; 38Ar cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50??C s-1 is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile abundances, and

  7. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  8. Enrofloxacin-based therapeutic strategy for the prevention of endometritis in susceptible mares.

    PubMed

    González, C; Moreno, L; Fumuso, E; García, J; Rivulgo, M; Confalonieri, A; Sparo, M; Sánchez Bruni, S

    2010-06-01

    Enrofloxacin (EFX) is often used empirically to prevent uterine infections in mares in order to improve efficiency on Commercial Embryo Transfer Farms. This study investigated the uterine distribution of EFX and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CFX) in mares and assessed the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of EFX against various common pathogens as a basis for establishing a rational dosing schedule. Plasma and uterine pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were performed in two groups (n = 5) of healthy mares following intravenous (i.v.) administration of EFX at either 2.5 and at 5 mg/kg bodyweight. Plasma and endometrial tissue samples, taken before for up to 48 h after treatment were analysed by Reverse Phase HPLC. MIC values for wild strains of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (beta-haemolytic streptococci) ranged from 0.25-2 and 1.5-3.0 microg/mL respectively. In terms of tissue distribution, the sum of the endometrial concentrations of the parent drug (EFX) and its active metabolite (CFX) (in terms of AUC), exceeded those in plasma by 249% and 941% following administration of EFX at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg respectively. After i.v. treatment with EFX at 5 mg/kg, endometrial concentrations of EFX and CFX above the MIC value were detected for 36-48 and 22-43 h posttreatment for Gram-negative and -positive isolates respectively. Concentrations above MIC were maintained for much shorter periods at the lower (2.5 mg/kg) treatment dose. Based on these results, a conventional dose (5 mg/kg) of EFX given prebreeding followed by two further doses at 36-48 h postbreeding are proposed as a rational strategy for using of EFX as a preventative therapy against a variety of common bacterial strains associated with equine endometritis. PMID:20557446

  9. Elephant Moraine 87521: The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W. )

    1989-12-01

    The trace-element chemistry and detailed petrography of brecciated Antarctic meteorite EET87521 reveal that it is not, as originally classified, a eucrite. Its Fe/Mn ratio and bulk Co content are fair higher than expected for a eucrite. Only one known type of extraterrestrial material resembles EET87521 in all important respects for which constraints exist: very-low-Ti (VLT) lunar mare basalts. Even compared to VLT basalts, EET87521 is enriched in REE. However, other varieties of high-alumina, low-Ti mare basalt are known that contain REE at even higher concentrations than EET87521. Several clasts in EET87521 preserve clear vestiges of coarse-grained igneous, possibly orthocumulate, textures. Mineralogically, these coarse-grained clasts are diverse; e.g., olivine ranges from Fo{sub 15} in one to Fo{sub 67} in another. One clast with an anomalously fine-grained texture is anorthositic and contains exceptionally Mg-rich pyroxene and Na-poor plagioclase, along with the only FeNi-metal in the thin section. Its FeNi-metals have compositions typical of metals incorporated into lunar soils and polymict breccias as debris from metal-rich meteorites. However, the low Ni and Ir contents of our bulk-rock analysis imply that the proportion of impact-projectile matter in our chip sample is probably small. The moderate degree of lithologic diversity among the lithic lasts and the bulk composition in general indicate that EET87521 is dominated by a single rock type: VLT mare basalt.

  10. Oxytocin induction of pulses of a prostaglandin metabolite and luteolysis in mares.

    PubMed

    Santos, V G; Castro, T; Bettencourt, E M; Ginther, O J

    2015-03-01

    A procedure for oxytocin (OT) administration on Day 13 postovulation was developed in mares for stimulation of a pulse of PGFM (a PGF2α metabolite) that mimics a natural PGFM pulse during luteolysis. Bolus treatment with each of five OT doses (1-10 IU/mare, n = 3) stimulated a burst of PGFM that was maximum in 4 minutes and was unlike a natural pulse. A 2-hour OT infusion of 1.25, 2.5, or 5 IU/100 kg (n = 4) induced a PGFM pulse similar to reported pulses; lower doses did not. The peak of an induced pulse (approximately 260-380 pg/mL) seemed similar to reported natural peaks (approximately 200-300 pg/mL), using the same assay system. The interval from nadir to nadir was 6.6 ± 0.2 hours. Percentage decrease in progesterone (P4) within 8 hours was greater (P < 0.05) for doses of 1.25, 2.5, or 5 IU/100 kg (43%-50%) than that for a vehicle group (11%). Treatment with flunixin meglumine (1.0 mg/kg), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, decreased (P < 0.008) P4 concentration, but treatment 2 hours before the beginning of OT infusion (2.5 IU/100 kg) did not prevent the OT-induced PGFM pulses and the decrease in P4. In conclusion, a PGFM pulse was simulated by infusion of OT during 2 hours but not by a single OT bolus, and an OT-simulated PGFM pulse stimulated a decrease in P4 that was not prevented by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. These are the first firm demonstrations that OT in mares as in other species has a role in luteolysis. PMID:25523835

  11. Composition, seasonal change, and bathymetry of Ligeia Mare, Titan, derived from its microwave thermal emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Malaska, M. J.; Lorenz, R. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Tokano, T.; Hayes, A. G.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Lunine, J. I.; Veyssière, G.; Encrenaz, P.; Karatekin, O.

    2016-02-01

    For the last decade, the passive radiometer incorporated in the Cassini RADAR has recorded the 2.2 cm wavelength thermal emission from Titan's seas. In this paper, we analyze the radiometry observations collected from February 2007 to January 2015 over one of these seas, Ligeia Mare, with the goal of providing constraints on its composition, bathymetry, and dynamics. In light of the depth profile obtained by Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2014) and of a two-layer model, we find that the dielectric constant of the sea liquid is <1.8, and its loss tangent is <3.6-2.1+4.3×10-5. Both results point to a composition dominated by liquid methane rather than ethane. A high methane concentration suggests that Ligeia Mare is primarily fed by methane-rich precipitation and/or ethane has been removed from it (e.g., by crustal interaction). Our result on the dielectric constant of the seafloor is less constraining (<2.9-0.9+0.9), but we favor a scenario where the floor of Ligeia Mare is covered by a sludge of compacted and possibly nitrile-rich organic material formed by the deposition of photochemical haze or by rain washing of the nearby shores. We use these results to produce a low-resolution bathymetry map of the sea. We also estimate the temperature variation of the bulk sea between February 2007 and July 2013 to be <2 K, which provides a constraint on its net evaporative cooling currently being explored in ocean circulation models. Lastly, we suggest a lag in the summer warming of the northern polar terrains.

  12. Effects of age on follicle and hormone dynamics during the oestrous cycle in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Gastal, M O; Gastal, E L; Jacob, J C; Siddiqui, M A R; Beg, M A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of age (young: 5-6 years; intermediate: 10-14 years; old: > or =18 years) on follicle and hormone dynamics during an interovulatory interval (IOI; n = 46) and on preovulatory oocytes and concentrations of follicular fluid factors (n = 44) were studied in mares. Old mares were not approaching senescence, as indicated by regular lengths of the IOI (19-27 days) during the period May-October. The IOI was 1 day longer (P < 0.05) in the old group than in the two younger groups and was associated with a slower (P < 0.05) growth rate of the ovulatory follicle. The old group had diminished follicle activity, as indicated by significantly smaller and fewer follicles. Concentrations of FSH did not differ among age groups, except that the maximum concentration was greater (P < 0.05) in the old group. Concentrations of LH were greater (age x day interaction; P < 0.03) in the young group throughout the ovulatory LH surge and may have played a role in a shorter (P < 0.05) interval from maximum diameter of the preovulatory follicle to ovulation. Maximum circulating concentrations of oestradiol during the preovulatory surge were greatest (P < 0.05) in the young group. No effects of age were detected on oocyte morphology. Concentrations of ovarian steroids in preovulatory follicular fluid were not affected by the age of the mares, but concentrations of free insulin-like growth factor-1 were greater (P < 0.05) in the old group. The results indicate the importance of considering the potential confounding effects of age in experimental protocols and for considering age in the development of theriogenology programmes. PMID:19007560

  13. [Determination of immunoglobulin G in mare colostrum by high-performance gel permeation chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lü, Yuewen; Wang, Hongjuan; Yang, Jie

    2011-03-01

    A direct high-performance gel permeation chromatographic (HPGPC) method for the determination of immunoglobulin G in mare colostrum was established. HPGPC separation was performed on a TOSOH TSK-G4000PW(XL) column (300 mm x 7.8 mm, 5 microm) with 0.05 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 25 degrees C. The injection volume was 20 microL. At the detection wavelength of 280 nm, the linear range was from 0.2 to 3.0 g/L (r2 = 0.999 5) with a detection limit of 0.08 mg/L (S/N = 10). The recovery was 97.47% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.22%. The RSDs of the peak area of stability, accuracy and reproducibility for the established method were 2.86%, 1.62% and 1.82%, respectively. Mare milk was collected from Zhaosu (China), a complete collection was stored in an ice box, then sent to a laboratory and stored in a low temperature refrigerator. The whey milk was prepared by centrifugation two times at 12 000 r/min and 4 degrees C for 30 min. The whey protein was obtained from the middle layer. A 2 mL volume of the whey milk was mixed with 23 mL of mobile phase. The average contents of IgG were from 35.0 g/L to 50.0 g/L at the first lactation (2 h), and the average contents of IgG were from 2.0 g/L to 4.0 g/L after 72 h. The relatively simple analytical method was proved to be accurate and precise in its application to mare colostrum. PMID:21657059

  14. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Apollo 14 very high potassium mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and Sm-Nd isotopic studies were undertaken for two Apollo 14 very high potassium (VHK) highly radiogenic mare basaltic clasts from breccias 14305 and 14168. Rb-Sr data indicate ages of 3.83 + or - 0.08 b.y., and 3.82 + or - 0.12 b.y. for samples 14305 and 14168 respectively, for lambda(Rb-87) = 0.0 139/b.y. Their corresponding initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios are nearly identical, as well as their Ar-39 to Ar-40 age spectra, and it is proposed that they were derived from the same flow. The Sm-Nd isotopic data of whole rock and mineral separates for the two VHK basalts define an internal isochrone age of 3.94 + or - 0.16 b.y. for lambda (Sm-147) = 0.00654/b.y. and an initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of 0.50673 + or - 21. The similarity in isotopic ages suggests that VHK basalts crystallized from a melt about 3.85 b.y. ago. VHK basalts show very large Rb/Sr fractionation but no significant Sm/Nd fractionation at the time of crystallization. The source material had a Rb/Sr ratio similar to those of Apollo 14 high-Al mare basalts and a nearly chrondritic Sm/Nd ratio. Basalt/granite interaction was found to be responsible for the extreme enrichments of Rb/Sr and K/La during the formation of VHK basalts. It is concluded that K, Rb-rich components of granitic wall rocks in the highland crust were selectively introduced into ascending hot high-Al mare basaltic magma upon contact.

  15. Association of antibodies against Neospora caninum in mares with reproductive problems and presence of seropositive dogs as a risk factor.

    PubMed

    Abreu, R A; Weiss, R R; Thomaz-Soccol, V; Locatelli-Dittrich, R; Laskoski, L M; Bertol, M A F; Koch, M O; Alban, S M; Green, K T

    2014-05-28

    Sera from 112 mares from 5 horse-breeding farms was examined for the presence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), as well as from dogs and cattle present on these properties for the presence of antibodies to N. caninum. Among the 112 mares, 35 had a history of reproductive problems in the last breeding season and 77 had no reproductive problems. The rates of seroprevalence of N. caninum in mares with and without a history of reproductive problems were 25.71% and 6.49% and from T. gondii 2.85% and 1.29%, respectively. In dogs and cattle, the rates of seroprevalence of N. caninum were 10.52% and 15.55%, respectively. A positive correlation was found between the presence of antibodies against N. caninum (p=0.010) in mares and the occurrence of reproductive problems using the Fisher's exact test. Significantly higher seroprevalence for N. caninum in mares was observed on the farm that had seropositive dogs (p=0.018). Cattle on this farm were also seropositive. No significant differences in seropositivity were found on farms where dogs were seronegative, or absent. This result suggests, for the first time, the presence of seropositive dogs as a risk factor for N. caninum in mares and the necessity for further investigation of the epidemiology of this parasite in horse-breeding farms with reproductive problems and the presence of cattle and dogs. This is the first report on the occurrence of antibodies against N. caninum in horses from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. PMID:24731383

  16. Dopamine antagonist-induced reproductive function in anoestrous mares: gonadotrophin secretion and the effects of environmental cues.

    PubMed

    Daels, P F; Fatone, S; Hansen, B S; Concannon, P W

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the dopamine antagonist sulpiride on FSH secretion and onset of reproductive activity in anoestrous mares under different environmental conditions was investigated. In Expt 1, sulpiride (0.5 mg (-)-sulpiride kg(-1) twice a day) had no affect on FSH pulse frequency, mean FSH concentration, basal FSH concentration or FSH pulse amplitude in anoestrous mares. These data do not support the hypothesis that dopamine inhibits reproductive activity by suppressing GnRH secretion, as it does in other species. In Expt 2, the interval to first ovulation (14.8 +/- 1.9 days; range 12-22 days) in five mares treated with sulpiride (0.5 mg (-)-sulpiride kg(-1) twice a day) housed indoors under extended daylength (16 h light: 8 h dark) was significantly shorter (P < 0.02) than in six untreated mares housed indoors under extended daylength (34.3 +/- 5.5; range 16-52 days and seven untreated mares housed outside under natural photoperiod (73 +/- 10; range 37-107 days). However, if the FSH secretion parameters at the start of treatment are treated as covariants, each has a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the interval to ovulation and sulpiride treatment does not have a significant effect. In Expt 3, the interval to first ovulation was not significantly different in sulpiride-treated (200 mg (-)-sulpiride twice a day) and untreated mares maintained outside under natural photoperiod. These results indicate that sulpiride treatment combined with increased temperature (indoor housing) and stimulatory photoperiod (extended daylength) results in a shorter interval to first ovulation and that a nonstimulatory environment decreases the effect of treatment on the interval to first ovulation. The role of FSH secretion at the time of treatment remains to be determined. PMID:20681129

  17. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  18. Distribution of 28 elements in size fractions of lunar mare and highlands soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Wasson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Four volatile, six siderophile and 18 generally lithophile elements were determined in six sieve fractions of mare soil 15100 (moderately mature) and seven sieve fractions of highlands soil 66080 (highly mature). Previous work (Boynton et al., 1976) showed that the volatile elements in lunar soils were enriched in the finest size fraction relative to the coarsest factors by up to about 20. The present investigation tests Boynton's interpretation that the distribution pattern of the volatiles indicates the presence of two components: a volume-correlated component having volatile concentrations independent of grain size and a surface-correlated component with concentration increasing with decreasing grain size.

  19. Elephant Moraine 87521 - The first lunar meteorite composed of predominantly mare material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of trace-element analyses and detailed petrography obtained for the Elephant Moraine 87521 meteorite (EET87521) found recently in Antarctica. Its high values found for the Fe/Mn ratio and the bulk-Co content indicate that the EET87521 is not, as was originally classified, a eucrite. Moreover, its low Ga/Al and Na/Ca ratios exclude the possibility that it is an SNC meteorite. These and other characteristics (e.g., a very low Ti content) of the EET87521 suggest its affinity with very-low-Ti high-alumina varieties of lunar mare basalt.

  20. Geochronology of high-K aluminous mare basalt clasts from Apollo 14 breccia 14304

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Bansal, B. M.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Dasch, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Two aluminous mare basalt clasts of high K abundances from Apollo 14 breccia 14304 (the 14304,127 and 14304,128 samples) were characterized with respect to the Rb and Sr concentrations and isotopic compositions, and the Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and Sm-Nd isotopic age determinations were carried out. The results suggest that these high-K basalts were melts derived from mantle material and that they have experienced about ten-fold Rb/Sr and K/La enrichments at approximately the time of crystallization.

  1. Igneous vs impact processes for the origin of the Mare lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornitz, V.

    1973-01-01

    The respective role of external vs internal processes is considered. The inner Orientale basin was formed by the explosive impact of an asteroidal body. Within minutes after the impact, the concentric fracture system developed as an adjustment to the stresses generated by the shock wave. Examples are presented to illustrate that the upwelling of lava in the center of Mare Orientale and several craters on its ejecta blanket occurred well after the asteroidal collision which generated the bulls-eye structure. Thus, the lavas were not strictly impact melts. However, a close relationship may have existed between the impact and subsequent volcanism.

  2. The mare as a model for luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome: intrafollicular endocrine milieu.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Tazawa, S P; Tarso, S G S; Hales, D B; Cuervo-Arango, J; Baerwald, A R; Gastal, E L

    2016-03-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is a recurrent anovulatory dysfunction that affects up to 23% of women with normal menstrual cycles and up to 73% with endometriosis. Mechanisms underlying the development of LUF syndrome in mares were studied to provide a potential model for human anovulation. The effect of extended increase in circulating LH achieved by administration of recombinant equine LH (reLH) or a short surge of LH and decrease in progesterone induced by prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on LUF formation (Experiment 1), identification of an optimal dose of COX-2 inhibitor (flunixin meglumine, FM; to block the effect of prostaglandins) for inducing LUFs (Experiment 2), and evaluation of intrafollicular endocrine milieu in LUFs (Experiment 3) were investigated. In Experiment 1, mares were treated with reLH from Day 7 to Day 15 (Day 0=ovulation), PGF2α on Day 7, or in combination. In Experiment 2, FM at doses of 2.0 or 3.0 mg/kg every 12 h and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (1500 IU) were administered after a follicle ≥32 mm was detected. In Experiment 3, FM at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg every 12 h plus hCG was used to induce LUFs and investigate the intrafollicular endocrine milieu. No LUFs were induced by reLH or PGF2α treatment; however, LUFs were induced in 100% of mares using FM. Intrafollicular PGF2α metabolite, PGF2α, and PGE2 were lower and the ratio of PGE2:PGF2α was higher in the induced LUF group. Higher levels of intrafollicular E2 and total primary sex steroids were observed in the induced LUF group along with a tendency for higher levels of GH, cortisol, and T; however, LH, PRL, VEGF-A, and NO did not differ between groups. In conclusion, this study reveals part of the intrafollicular endocrine milieu and the association of prostaglandins in LUF formation, and indicates that the mare might be an appropriate model for studying the poorly understood LUF syndrome. PMID:26647418

  3. Chemical and isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the large mare basalt clast in breccia 15459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.; Lindstrom, M.; Bansal, B.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate that the large mare basalt clast in Apollo 15 breccia 15459 may represent one or more independent magma types. The complex nonequilibrium pyroxene and plagioclase compositions and relatively abundant mesostasis suggest that the 15459 clast is not a slowly cooled crystal cumulate. The addition of about 40 percent olivine to an olivine-normative basalt parental magma is found to be necessary to explain the high MgO abundances of picritic basalts by the accumulation of olivine in the magma. The present clast has a slightly younger age and a slightly higher Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio than most Apollo 15 basalts.

  4. Magnetic beneficiation of highland and hi-Ti mare soils - Magnet requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, R. R.; Taylor, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic beneficiation of immature highland soil 67511 recovered 22 wt pct of the sample with an iron oxide content of 0.6 pct. Magnetic isolates of immature highland soils are candidates for the manufacture of silicon, aluminum, and other metals. Fifty-seven percent of the ilmenite in immature mare soil 71061 was recovered in magnetic processing. Ilmenite can be recovered by magnetic separation but may be difficult to 'high'grade'. A parametric description is given of magnetic separators suitable for supplying ilmenite for the production of 22.7 metric tons per year oxygen.

  5. Geochronology of high-K aluminous mare basalt clasts from Apollo 14 breccia 14304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Dasch, E. J.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.

    1987-12-01

    Two aluminous mare basalt clasts of high K abundances from Apollo 14 breccia 14304 (the 14304,127 and 14304,128 samples) were characterized with respect to the Rb and Sr concentrations and isotopic compositions, and the Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and Sm-Nd isotopic age determinations were carried out. The results suggest that these high-K basalts were melts derived from mantle material and that they have experienced about ten-fold Rb/Sr and K/La enrichments at approximately the time of crystallization.

  6. Indigenous nitrogen in the Moon: Constraints from coupled nitrogen-noble gas analyses of mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füri, Evelyn; Barry, Peter H.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Marty, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by step-wise CO2 laser-extraction, static-mass spectrometry analysis, are reported for bulk fragments and mineral separates of ten lunar mare basalts (10020, 10057, 12008, 14053, 15555, 70255, 71557, 71576, 74255, 74275), one highland breccia (14321), and one ferroan anorthosite (15414). The mare basalt sub-samples 10057,183 and 71576,12 contain a large amount of solar noble gases, whereas neon and argon in all other samples are purely cosmogenic, as shown by their 21Ne/22Ne ratios of ≈0.85 and 36Ar/38Ar ratios of ≈0.65. The solar-gas-free basalts contain a two-component mixture of cosmogenic 15N and indigenous nitrogen (<0.5 ppm). Mare basalt 74255 and the olivine fraction of 15555,876 record the smallest proportion of 15Ncosm; therefore, their δ15 N values of -0.2 to + 26.7 ‰ (observed at the low-temperature steps) are thought to well represent the isotopic composition of indigenous lunar nitrogen. However, δ15 N values ≤ - 30 ‰ are found in several basalts, overlapping with the isotopic signature of Earth's primordial mantle or an enstatite chondrite-like impactor. While the lowest δ15 N values allow for nitrogen trapped in the Moon's interior to be inherited from the proto-Earth and/or the impactor, the more 15N-enriched compositions require that carbonaceous chondrites provided nitrogen to the lunar magma ocean prior to the solidification of the crust. Since nitrogen can efficiently be incorporated into mafic minerals (olivine, pyroxene) under oxygen fugacities close to or below the iron-wustite buffer (Li et al., 2013), the mare basalt source region is likely characterized by a high nitrogen storage capacity. In contrast, anorthosite 15414 shows no traces of indigenous nitrogen, suggesting that nitrogen was not efficiently incorporated into the lunar crust during magma ocean differentiation.

  7. The effects of home computer access and social capital on mathematics and science achievement among Asian-American high school students in the NELS:88 data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Mark Declan

    The purpose of this researcher was to examine specific environmental, educational, and demographic factors and their influence on mathematics and science achievement. In particular, the researcher ascertained the interconnections of home computer access and social capital, with Asian American students and the effect on mathematics and science achievement. Coleman's theory on social capital and parental influence was used as a basis for the analysis of data. Subjects for this study were the base year students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) and the subsequent follow-up survey data in 1990, 1992, and 1994. The approximate sample size for this study is 640 ethnic Asians from the NELS:88 database. The analysis was a longitudinal study based on the Student and Parent Base Year responses and the Second Follow-up survey of 1992, when the subjects were in 12th grade. Achievement test results from the NELS:88 data were used to measure achievement in mathematics and science. The NELS:88 test battery was developed to measure both individual status and a student's growth in a number of achievement areas. The subject's responses were analyzed by principal components factor analysis, weights, effect sizes, hierarchial regression analysis, and PLSPath Analysis. The results of this study were that prior ability in mathematics and science is a major influence in the student's educational achievement. Findings from the study support the view that home computer access has a negative direct effect on mathematics and science achievement for both Asian American males and females. None of the social capital factors in the study had either a negative or positive direct effect on mathematics and science achievement although some indirect effects were found. Suggestions were made toward increasing parental involvement in their children's academic endeavors. Computer access in the home should be considered related to television viewing and should be closely

  8. Isotopic analysis of basaltic fragments from lunar breccia 14321 - Chronology and petrogenesis of pre-Imbrium mare volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. J.; Shih, C.-Y.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1987-01-01

    Internal (mineral) Rb-Sr isochrons were determined for six Apollo 14 mare basalts of lunar breccia 14321. The ages of these fragments, which represent the time of crystallization of the respective mafic lavas, range from about 4.05 to 4.24, and, possibly, to 4.33 Ga and are among the oldest dates reported for mare basalts. For three of the fragments, internal Sm-Nd isochron data were collected and initial Nd isotopic composition was determined. The results are discussed with reference to the original source of these different basaltic fragments.

  9. A Glass Spherule of Questionable Impact Origin from the Apollo 15 Landing Site: Unique Target Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Delano, John W.; Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 microns-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basaits. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the Ar-40/Ar-39 laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 +/- 11 Ma (2 sigma); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the Ar-38 released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; Ar-38 cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50 C/s is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile

  10. Lunar mare volcanism - Stratigraphy, eruption conditions, and the evolution of secondary crusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in the geological analysis of lunar mare volcanism are reviewed. Analysis of returned samples and photogeological and remote sensing studies shows that mare volcanism began prior to the end of heavy bombardment (the period of cryptomare formation), in pre-Nectarian times, and continued until the Copernical Period, the total duration approaching 3.5-4 Ga. Stratigraphic analysis shows that the flux was not constant, but peaked in early lunar history, during the Imbrian Period. Average volcanic output rate during this period was about 0.01 cu cm/a. Volcanic landforms indicate that many eruptions were of high volume and long duration. Some eruptions associated with sinuous rills may have lasted a year and emplaced 1000 cu km of lava, representing the equivalent in one year of about 70,000 yr at the average flux. The occurrence of farside maria within craters whose diameter is generally near to or less than the thickness of the crust may be accounted for by the difference between local and regional compensation.

  11. Melting of cognetic depleted and enriched reservoirs and the production of high Ti Mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1992-01-01

    Implicit in current understanding of the location of terrestrial enriched and depleted reservoirs is the notion that they are spatially separated. The depleted reservoir on Earth is situated in the upper mantle, and the complementary enriched reservoir is located in the crust. However, Earth reservoirs are continually being modified by recycling driven by mantle convection. The Moon is demonstrably different from Earth in that its evolution was arrested relatively early - effectively with 1.5 Ga of its formation. It is possible that crystallized trapped liquids (from the late stages of a magma ocean) have been preserved as LILE-enriched portions of the lunar mantle. This would lead to depleted (cumulate) and enriched (magma ocean residual liquid) reservoirs in the lunar upper mantle. There is no evidence for significant recycling from the highland crust back into the mantle. Therefore, reservoirs created at the Moon's inception may have remained intact for over 4.0 Ga. The topics discussed include the following: (1) radiogenic isotopes in high-Ti mare basalts; (2) formation of cogenetic depleted and enriched reservoirs; and (3) melting of the source to achieve high-Ti mare basalts.

  12. A reevaluation of spectral ratios for lunar mare TiO2 mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Larson, Stephen M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The empirical relation established by Charette et al. (1974) between the 400/560-nm spectral ratio of mature mare soils and weight percent TiO2 has been used extensively to map titanium content in the lunar maria. Relative reflectance spectra of mare regions show that a reference wavelength further into the near-IR, e.g., above 700 nm, could be used in place of the 560-nm band to provide greater contrast (a greater range of ratio values) and hence a more sensitive indicator of titanium content. An analysis of 400/730-nm ratio values derived from both laboratory and telescopic relative reflectance spectra suggests that this ratio provides greater sensitivity to TiO2 content than the 400/560-nm ratio. The increased range of ratio values is manifested in higher contrast 400/730-nm ratio images compared to 400/560-nm ratio images. This potential improvement in sensivity encourages a reevaluation of the original Charette et al. (1974) relation using the 400/730-nm ratio.

  13. Shock-metamorphic effects in the Luna-16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1971-01-01

    The results of intensive studies indicate that shock-metamorphic effects, characteristic of meteorite impact and virtually identical to those observed in Apollo samples, are common in fragments of the Luna-16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis. Two types of shock effects are present: (1) deformation and partial melting features in rock and mineral fragments (1-2 percent of fragments); and (2) heterogeneous glasses and glassy breccias produced by shock melting (70-80 percent of fragments). Shock effects were observed in pyroxene (deformation twin lamellae, multiple planar shock lamellae, extreme mosaicism, partial isotropization); in plagioclase (planar shock lamellae, complete isotropization to form maskelynite); and in basalt fragments (plagioclase isotropization, selective partial melting). The glasses exhibit several characteristics of shock melting, especially: (1) diversity in chemical composition; (2) association with shock mineral fragments and Ni-Fe spherules; and (3) heterogeneous schlieren and incipient fusion of mineral inclusions. Two types of source rocks are present in the Luna-16 sample; basaltic (85-90 percent) and feldspathic (10-15 percent). The basaltic rocks are predominant and generally occur as unshocked fragments, indicating that they form the bedrock underlying Mare Fecunditatis.

  14. Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting Mare Island, Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Wentworth, C.M.; Bakun, W.H.; Boatwright, J.; Brocher, T.E.; Çelebi, M.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Fletcher, J.P.B.; Geist, E.L.; Graymer, R.W.; Kayen, R.E.; Keefer, D.K.; Oppenheimer, D.H.; Savage, W.U.; Schwartz, D.P.; Simpson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    This report was prepared in response to a written request from the City of Vallejo, California, to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). By letter of October 4, 2002, the City requested that the USGS "provide advice to the City’s LNG Health and Safety Committee on its review of a potential liquid natural gas project" on the southern portion of Mare Island. The City specifically requested that the USGS advise the committee on potential hazards including fault rupture, earthquake ground motion, soil failure during earthquakes, tsunami and seiche, and landslides. The City requested that the USGS: (1) comment on these hazards, (2) describe its degree of confidence in its opinions, and (3) describe the scope of additional studies that will be needed if the City enters into an agreement with project sponsors. Advice was also requested on the selection of the safe shutdown and operating basis earthquakes as specified in the NFPA 59A standard (NFPA, 2001). This review of published reports and other publicly available information indicates that all of the hazards on which the USGS was asked to comment should be considered for the proposed project on the southern portion of Mare Island. Available information differs greatly for each of these potential hazards, and adequate understanding for design will require detailed site-specific investigations.

  15. Mare glasses from Apollo 17 - Constraints on the moon's bulk composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two previously unreported varieties of mare volcanic glass have been discovered in Apollo 17 samples. Twenty-three chemical types of volcanic glass have now been analyzed from the six Apollo landing sites. These volcanic glasses, which may be samples of primary magmas derived from the differentiated lunar mantle, define two linear arrays that seem to reflect regional, if not global, regularities among the source regions of these melts. Additional systematics among these glasses have been used to estimate the bulk composition of the moon. The results suggest that the refractory lithophile elements are present at abundances of 1.7 x chondrites. The silicate portion of the moon appears to have a major-element composition similar to a volatile (Si, Na, K)-depleted, earth's upper mantle. The theory involving an earth-fission origin of the moon can be tested further through trace element analyses on the volcanic glasses, and through determination of the N/Ar-36 ratio and noble gas isotopes from primordial lunar gas trapped within vesicles associated with mare volcanic glass.

  16. Should a doctor prescribe hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine?

    PubMed

    Cox, D

    1996-08-01

    Many clinicians are experiencing consumer resistance to the prescription of equine HRT (that is hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine). In this paper I consider the ethical implications of prescribing these preparations. I decide that patients should have a right to refuse such treatment but also ask whether a prescribing doctor should choose one preparation over another on moral grounds. I determine that there is prima facie evidence to suggest that mares may suffer and that prescription of equine HRT (instead of synthetic oestrogen-oestriol) would therefore have to be justified in terms of either offering greater benefits to the women or offering greater value for money to the health service. I find that there is no substantial evidence to suggest that equine HRT offers unique advantages over and above oestriol. I conclude that it would be preferable for a doctor to recommend the synthetic oestrogen to women who want relief from the symptoms of the menopause and protection from osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:8863143

  17. Immunolocalization of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 in the reproductive tract of the mare.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Hurtado, I; Stewart, A J; Wolfe, D F; Caldwell, F J; Harrie, M; Whitley, E M

    2011-01-15

    Hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan, is a major component of the pericellular matrix which envelopes mammalian cells. Binding of hyaluronan to one of its specific receptors, CD44, modulates transduction of intracellular signals which direct a variety of processes, including embryogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, and neoplasia. Since regulation of these processes is critical to equine reproductive success, localization of constitutive CD44 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods in ovarian, oviductal, and uterine tissues from healthy mares. Ovarian stroma contained thecal cells with varying CD44 immunopositivity. Follicular and granulosa cells of some antral and atretic follicles were positive for CD44. In the oviduct, the luminal epithelium was variably positive for CD44, with overall decreasing intensity of immunostaining from the infundibulum to the isthmus. The CD44 molecule was expressed strongly by surface epithelial cells of the uterine endometrium, but was present only rarely among cells of uterine glands. In addition, CD44 was expressed by smooth muscle cells of vascular walls, oviduct, and uterus. Since CD44 is known to modulate cell movement and differentiation, and was present at multiple sites in the reproductive tract of normal mares, we inferred there may be an important role for the HA-CD44 signaling pathway in reproductive function and inflammation. PMID:20932561

  18. Studies of composition and major protein level in milk and colostrum of mares.

    PubMed

    Pecka, Ewa; Dobrzański, Zbigniew; Zachwieja, Andrzej; Szulc, Tadeusz; Czyż, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the changes in composition and physicochemical features (pH, density, thermostability and acidity) of mare colostrum and milk, and of protein fraction contribution (serum albumin, β-casein, γ-casein, α-lactalbumin, G class immunoglobulins) depending on lactation stage. The research material was colostrum and milk samples from 12 Arabian mares. Colostrum samples were collected within 2 h after parturition and milk samples were collected twice, in the 3rd and 6th weeks of lactation. The level of basic milk components decreased significantly (only lactose content increased) as compared to colostrum. Total bacteria count and somatic cell count decreased significantly with an increase in resistance and urea level. The changes observed were connected to differentiated contribution of particular protein fractions and their relative proportions. Lower levels of γ-casein (P ≤ 0.05), β-casein, serum albumin as well as α-lactalbumin were observed in colostrum as compared to those in milk. Any relationship between lactation stage and β-casein content was observed. Serum albumin and α-lactalbumin content increased in subsequent milkings. The level of G class immunoglobulins decreased significantly and its highest level was noted in colostrum. Any significant differences between the 3rd and 6th lactation weeks were obtained. PMID:22339698

  19. Characterization of Lunar Swirls at Mare Ingenii: A Model for Space Weathering at Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Georgianna Y.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Harnett, Erika M.; Hawke, Bernard Ray; Noble, Sarah K.; Blewett, David T.; McCord, Thomas B.; Giguere, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of spectra from the Clementine ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared cameras of small, immature craters and surface soils both on and adjacent to the lunar swirls at Marc Ingenii has yielded the following conclusions about space weathering at a magnetic anomaly. (l) Despite having spectral characteristics of immaturity, the lunar swirls arc not freshly exposed surfaces. (2) The swirl surfaces arc regions of retarded weathering, while immediately adjacent regions experience accelerated weathering, (3) Weathering in the off-swirl regions darkens and flattens the spectrum with little to no reddening, which suggests that the production of larger (greater than 40 nm) nanophase iron dominates in these locations as a result of charged particle sorting by the magnetic field. Preliminaty analysis of two other lunar swirl regions, Reiner Gamma and Mare Marginis, is consistent with our observations at Mare Ingenii. Our results indicate that sputtering/vapor deposition, implanted solar wind hydrogen, and agglutination share responsibility for creating the range in npFe(sup 0) particle sizes responsible for the spectral effects of space weathering.

  20. Insights into mare basalt thicknesses on the Moon from intrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thiriet, Mélanie; Thorey, Clément

    2016-08-01

    Magmatic intrusions preferentially spread along interfaces marked by rigidity and density contrasts. Thus the contact between a lunar mare and its substratum provides a preferential location for subsequent magmatic intrusions. Shallow intrusions that bend the overlying layer develop characteristic shapes that depend on their radius and on the overlying layer flexural wavelength and hence on their emplacement depth. We characterize the topography of seven, previously identified, candidate intrusive domes located within different lunar maria, using data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Their topographic profiles compare very well with theoretical shapes from a model of magma flow below an elastic layer, supporting their interpretation as intrusive features. This comparison allows us to constrain their intrusion depths and hence the minimum mare thickness at these sites. These new estimates are in the range 400-1900 m and are generally comparable to or thicker than previous estimates, when available. The largest thickness (⩾ 1700 m) is obtained next to the Hortensius and Kepler areas that are proposed to be the relicts of ancient volcanic shields.

  1. Integrated Pressure-Fed Liquid Oxygen / Methane Propulsion Systems - Morpheus Experience, MARE, and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Morehead, Robert; Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matt

    2016-01-01

    An integrated liquid oxygen (LOx) and methane propulsion system where common propellants are fed to the reaction control system and main engines offers advantages in performance, simplicity, reliability, and reusability. LOx/Methane provides new capabilities to use propellants that are manufactured on the Mars surface for ascent return and to integrate with power and life support systems. The clean burning, non-toxic, high vapor pressure propellants provide significant advantages for reliable ignition in a space vacuum, and for reliable safing or purging of a space-based vehicle. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Morpheus lander demonstrated many of these key attributes as it completed over 65 tests including 15 flights through 2014. Morpheus is a prototype of LOx/Methane propellant lander vehicle with a fully integrated propulsion system. The Morpheus lander flight demonstrations led to the proposal to use LOx/Methane for a Discovery class mission, named Moon Aging Regolith Experiment (MARE) to land an in-situ science payload for Southwest Research Institute on the Lunar surface. Lox/Methane is extensible to human spacecraft for many transportation elements of a Mars architecture. This paper discusses LOx/Methane propulsion systems in regards to trade studies, the Morpheus project experience, the MARE NAVIS (NASA Autonomous Vehicle for In-situ Science) lander, and future possible applications. The paper also discusses technology research and development needs for Lox/Methane propulsion systems.

  2. Influence of ovaries and photoperiod on reproductive function in the mare.

    PubMed

    Freedman, L J; Garcia, M C; Ginther, O J

    1979-01-01

    A 16 h daily photoperiod hastened the onset of the ovulatory season (first ovulation); gonadotrophin and follicular changes prior to the onset were similar in intact light-treated and control mares. A preovulatory decline in FSH concentrations before the onset of the ovulatory season preceded the decrease in number of follicles (15--25 mm) and the rise in LH concentrations which was temporally associated with the growth of an ovulatory follicle. Seasonal changes of FSH and LH concentrations were found in ovariectomized mares and were influenced by photoperiod. During the anovulatory season, there was no ovarian influence on gonadotrophin concentrations. However, during the ovulatory season the ovaries exerted a positive influence on seasonally elevated LH concentrations during oestrus and a negative influence during dioestrus. The ovaries exerted a negative influence on seasonally elevated FSH concentrations throughout the oestrous cycle. The onset of the ovulatory season occurred at the time of the first sustained increase in LH concentrations resulting from positive seasonal (increasing photoperiod) and ovarian influences. PMID:289843

  3. On a volcanic construct and a lunar pyroclastic deposit (LPD) in northern Mare Vaporum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, Raffaello; Fitzgerald, Barry

    2014-03-01

    In this study we examine a lunar pyroclastic deposit (LPD) identified using LROC WAC images, Selene-1 (Kaguya) and Clementine multispectral data, the Chandryann-1's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), and the LROC WAC-based GLD100 DTM. Selene-1 (Kaguya) and Clementine albedo imagery indicates the presence of pyroclastic deposits located some 40 km to the west-southwest of the crater Yangel in Mare Vaporum, and to the southeast of Sinus Fidei (16.42°N and 3.26°E), and associated with a dome like structure. This dome, which we term Yangel 1 (Ya1), lies immediately to the south of a mare flooded crater which is approximately 7.5 km in diameter, and is partially buried along its southern rim by the domes northern flank. With a diameter of 5.2 km, and a height of 620 m, the dome Ya1 exhibits evidence of pyroclastic volcanic deposits, both on its surface and peripherally. The current study discusses the dome Ya1, the associated deposits and possible relationship between them.

  4. Should a doctor prescribe hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D

    1996-01-01

    Many clinicians are experiencing consumer resistance to the prescription of equine HRT (that is hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine). In this paper I consider the ethical implications of prescribing these preparations. I decide that patients should have a right to refuse such treatment but also ask whether a prescribing doctor should choose one preparation over another on moral grounds. I determine that there is prima facie evidence to suggest that mares may suffer and that prescription of equine HRT (instead of synthetic oestrogen-oestriol) would therefore have to be justified in terms of either offering greater benefits to the women or offering greater value for money to the health service. I find that there is no substantial evidence to suggest that equine HRT offers unique advantages over and above oestriol. I conclude that it would be preferable for a doctor to recommend the synthetic oestrogen to women who want relief from the symptoms of the menopause and protection from osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:8863143

  5. Equine Endometrial Gland Density and Endometrial Thickness Vary among Sampling Sites in Thoroughbred Mares

    PubMed Central

    HANADA, Michiko; MAEDA, Yousuke; OIKAWA, Masa-aki

    2012-01-01

    The secretions of the equine endometrial glands are essential for the survival, growth, and development of the conceptus in early pregnancy, and endometrial gland density is directly related to successful pregnancy outcome. Endometrial biopsy is routinely used to assess the reproductive potential of broodmares. Some previous studies have shown that equine endometrial glands are uniformly distributed throughout the uterus; however, other work has shown variation of the endometrial architecture between biopsy sites, suggesting that a single biopsy is not representative of the entire endometrium. The aims of this study were to assess and compare the endometrial gland density and thickness at four sampling sites in the uterus (the central segment of each uterine horn, the uterine horn-body junction, and the caudal portion of the uterine body). Endometrial samples from five nulliparous Thoroughbred mares in diestrus were obtained at necropsy and used for subsequent histomorphometric analysis. The caudal uterine body had a significantly lower endometrial gland density and endometrial thickness than the other sites. This may result in nutrient deprivation and reduced survival of embryos or fetuses in this region of the uterus. The endometrial gland density and endometrial thickness did not significantly differ between the other regions sampled, indicating that they are similarly suitable for embryonic implantation and fetal development. Our results suggest that the endometrial structure of the caudal uterine body of the mare is not representative of the endometrial morphology at other sites. Thus, the caudal uterine body is not a suitable site for routine endometrial biopsy. PMID:24833993

  6. Isolation and characterization of β-haemolytic-Streptococci from endometritis in mares.

    PubMed

    Casagrande Proietti, P; Bietta, A; Coppola, G; Felicetti, M; Cook, R F; Coletti, M; Marenzoni, M L; Passamonti, F

    2011-08-26

    The objective of this manuscript was to validate published PCR-based methods for detection of β-haemolytic Streptococci by comparison with established bacteriological techniques using 85 clinical isolates recovered from uterine swabs of mares with clinical signs of endometritis and to determine the distribution of SeeL/SeeM and SzeL/SzeM superantigens in isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi) and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus). The conventional bacteriological techniques showed the vast majority of these isolates (78) were S. zooepidemicus with just 5 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (S. equisimilis) and 2 S. equi strains detected. The PCR analyses confirmed the bacteriological results demonstrating the reliability of the 16S rRNA PCR assay for detecting Streptococci, the multiplex PCR for differentiating between S. zooepidemicus, and S. equi, and PCR assays based on streptokinase genes for identification of S. equisimilis. PCRs for genes encoding superantigens revealed seeL and seeM specific amplicons with size of approximately 800 and 810 bp respectively for the S. equi strains and for 2 S. zooepidemicus strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of szeL and szeM possession by S. zooepidemicus isolates derived from endometritis in mares. PMID:21570219

  7. Use of a non-linear spline regression to model time-varying fluctuations in mammary-secretion element concentrations of periparturient mares in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J W; Rook, J S; Braselton, E; Shea, M E

    2000-02-01

    A study was designed to model the fluctuations of nine specific element concentrations in mammary secretions from periparturient mares over time. During the 1992 foaling season, serial samples of mammary secretions were collected from all 18 pregnant Arabian mares at the Michigan State University equine teaching and research center. Non-linear regression techniques were used to model the relationship between element concentration in mammary secretions and days from foaling (which connected two separate sigmoid curves with a spline function); indicator variables were included for mare and mare parity. Element concentrations in mammary secretions varied significantly during the periparturient period in mares. Both time trends and individual variability explained a significant portion of the variation in these element concentrations. Multiparous mares had lower concentrations of K and Zn, but higher concentrations of Na. Substantial serial and spatial correlation were detected in spite of modeling efforts to avoid the problem. As a result, p-values obtained for parameter estimates were likely biased toward zero. Nonetheless, results of this analysis indicate that monitoring changes in mammary-secretion element concentrations might reasonably be used as a predictor of impending parturition in the mare. In addition, these results suggest that element concentrations warrant attention in the development of neonatal milk-replacement therapies. This study demonstrates that non-linear regression can be used successfully to model time-series data in animal-health management. This approach should be considered by investigators facing similar analytical challenges. PMID:10782599

  8. Problems in the interpretation of lunar mare stratigraphy and relative ages indicated by ejecta from small impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. A.; Brennan, W. J.; Nichols, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The numbers of large ejecta blocks in excess of several meters in diameter ('blockiness') around the rims of small craters in southeastern Mare Serenitatis exceed those around similar craters in southern Mare Imbrium (and some other regions) at all but the final stages of crater degradation. Terrestrial explosion crater analogs, studies of impact processes, and a layered mare model suggest that the nature of the layering in the subsurface, including lavas, ejecta and buried regolith horizons, could account for the variable blockiness of crater ejecta and, possibly, for some variation in crater size-frequency distributions. Such effects would limit the reliability and utility of counting postmare craters for the purpose of estimating the relative ages of mare surfaces. Similarly, comparisons of the effects of progressive degradation on small impact craters to determine relative or absolute ages of individual craters may be limited by the influence of stratigraphy on ejecta fragment size distributions, which would in turn affect micrometeorite erosion rates and regolith production models.

  9. Effect of clenbuterol on the clearance of particles of charcoal (4 to 90 microm) from the uteri of mares.

    PubMed

    Kolm, G; Gemeiner, M; Deichsel, K; Budik, S; Aurich, J; Aurich, C

    2005-02-26

    The failure of clearance mechanisms in the mare's uterus results in persistent inflammation and is considered a major cause of subfertility. Eighteen mares, of which three were susceptible to endometritis and four had been ovariectomised, underwent charcoal clearance testing to evaluate their clearance mechanisms. This consisted of installing 500 mg of charcoal (particle size 4 to 90 microm) added to 50 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into the uterus. Forty-eight hours later the uterus was flushed out with 0.0012 per cent methylene blue in 50 ml of PBS for determination of the diluting factor by photospectrometry. Flush volume, pH, specific gravity and pellet size were all analysed. To investigate the effect of a beta2-adrenergic agonist on the ability of genitally healthy oestrous mares to eliminate a suspension of charcoal from the uterus, four genitally healthy mares with appropriate charcoal clearance were also subjected to clearance testing following intravenous administration of 0.8 microg/kg of clenbuterol every 12 hours and 1 microg/kg of clenbuterol every eight hours. All parameters were within their normal range following clenbuterol treatment. However, minimal but significant differences in pre- and post-treatment values regarding fluid volume and extinction rate were recorded. PMID:15765896

  10. Processionary caterpillar setae and equine fetal loss: 2. Histopathology of the fetal-placental unit from experimentally exposed mares.

    PubMed

    Todhunter, K H; Cawdell-Smith, A J; Bryden, W L; Perkins, N R; Begg, A P

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant mares were experimentally exposed to whole caterpillar or exoskeleton of the Processionary caterpillar (Ochrogaster lunifer) via gavage. Tissues were collected from resulting abortions and near or full-term pregnancies consisting of 13 aborted fetuses, 3 fetuses from treated euthanized mares, membranes of 5 foals, and organs from 3 foals. Three control membranes and 1 control fetus and membranes were examined. Caterpillar setal fragments were present in the allantochorion of the 3 fetuses from the euthanized mares and 11 of 12 aborted fetuses (92%) embedded in the chorion (villi or stroma) or allantois (vasculature or stroma). Placental locations of fragments ranged from the cervical pole region to the body encompassing the umbilical insertion and pregnant horn. Numbers in each fetus ranged from 1 to 7 fragments. Setae were present in the allantochorion from 2 to 22 days after the initial treatment. Acute to chronic active inflammation was present in all aborted fetuses, all euthanized fetuses, and within at least 1 tissue level (chorion, allantois, umbilical cord, or amnion) of the membranes from full-term foals. Amnionitis, funisitis, and allantoitis were present in 95% of the examined membranes. Pneumonia was present in 95% of the specimens, and bacteria were present histologically in 90.5% of the specimens with or without accompanying inflammation. The rapid migration of setae within 2 days after mare exposure suggests that direct setal migration into the fetal membranes is a likely initiating factor for equine amnionitis and fetal loss (EAFL). PMID:24424732

  11. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare

    PubMed Central

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K.; Anthony, James

    2015-01-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described. PMID:26246633

  12. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described. PMID:26246633

  13. Determination of amino acid profile of mare milk produced in the highlands of the Kyrgyz Republic during the milking season.

    PubMed

    Mazhitova, A T; Kulmyrzaev, A A

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the influence of milking season on amino acid (AA) profile and chemical composition of milk samples from Kyrgyz native breed mares under traditional pasture conditions. Milk samples were collected monthly from May to August 2014 from mares grazing at 2,200m above sea level. The AA composition was determined by precolumn derivatization with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate in HPLC and 18 AA were determined in mare milk. The analytical parameters of linearity (0.01-4μg/mL), precision of the method (0.26-4.88% relative standard deviation), derivatization procedure (0.82-2.80% relative standard deviation), and instrument precision (0.08-1.00% relative standard deviation) were determined. The most abundant AA were glutamic acid (0.393-480g/100g of milk), leucine (0.192-0.230g/100g of milk), and lysine (0.192-0.230g/100g of milk). The amount of ornithine was small (0.002-0.015g/100g of milk). The percentages of essential AA in the protein of mare milk were 46, 46, 51, and 48% for May, June, July, and August, respectively, which demonstrate the high biological value of milk during the whole milking season. PMID:26851855

  14. Composition, seasonal change and bathymetry of Ligeia Mare, Titan, derived from its 2.2-cm thermal emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Malaska, M. J.; Tokano, T.; Hayes, A. G.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Veyssière, G.

    2015-10-01

    Ligeia Mare is the second largest sea of Saturn's moon Titan. It is also the first extraterritorial sea for which a bathymetry profile was obtained. In this paper, we analyze all data acquired up to July 2013 in the passive mode of the RADAR (i.e., radiometry mode) on board the Cassini probe in order to constrain its composition, seasonal change and bathymetry.

  15. Variability of plasma melatonin level in pony mares (Equus caballus), comparison with the hybrid: mules and with jennies (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Daniel; Zarazaga, Luiz A; Malpaux, Benoît; Chemineau, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    In long-day breeders like horses, the length of nocturnal melatonin secretion is the main messenger of photoperiod. Previous studies have shown that the nocturnal jugular melatonin concentration is lower in horses, than in mules but is unknown in donkeys. The aim of this study was to estimate the inter-animal variability of plasma melatonin concentration in domestic mares and to compare this concentration with those observed in domestic jennies and in their hybrid mules. In the autumn, blood samples were collected at 22 h, 23 h, 0 h and 1 h during 2 nights at 3 weeks intervals, in 110 pony mares, 10 jennies and 6 mules maintained under natural photoperiod. Melatonin was assayed by a validated RIA method. The statistical analysis of the measures was done with a specific unbalanced analysis of variance model. The effect of species and individuals (nested under species) was highly significant. The mean melatonin concentration was 24 pg.mL(-1) in mares and was significantly lower than in jennies and in mules which were 90 pg.mL(-1) and 169 pg.mL(-1) respectively. The melatonin plasma concentration was higher in jennies than in mares. These results suggest that the melatonin concentration is genetically determined. PMID:17169310

  16. Changes in LH pulse frequency and amplitude in intact mares during the transition into the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, B P; Affleck, K J; Barrows, S P; Murdoch, W L; Barker, K B; Loy, R G

    1987-03-01

    Two groups of mares were exposed to an abrupt, artificial increase or a natural increase in daylength. In both groups, mean LH pulse frequency increased with time of year and was accompanied by a reciprocal decrease in LH pulse amplitude. A non-pulsatile pattern of LH secretion was observed in some mares sampled close to the day of ovulation. Maximum mean LH pulse frequency and the onset of the breeding season occurred earlier in those mares exposed to an abrupt artificial increase in daylength. In blood samples collected frequently, mean serum LH concentrations increased in relation to time of year. However, during 60 days before ovulation, when LH pulse frequency increased, mean daily serum LH values only increased on Day -3 before ovulation. The magnitude of the periovulatory LH rise was greater before the second than the first ovulation of the breeding season. These results support the hypothesis that, in the mare, a photoperiod-induced seasonal alteration in LH pulse frequency and/or amplitude may play a role in the onset of the breeding season. PMID:3572880

  17. The influence of photoperiod on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone stimulated luteinising hormone release in the anoestrous mare.

    PubMed

    Nequin, L G; King, S S; Matt, K S; Jurak, R C

    1990-09-01

    The transition from anoestrus to oestrus in mares is controlled by photoperiod. The present study examined whether additional daylength would accelerate the mares' response to gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone (GnRH). Nine anoestrous mares were placed under ambient or artificial long lighting on 7th January. The four month experimental period was divided into a three-day sequence which was repeated at 21 day intervals. Ovaries were palpated rectally on Day 1; saline was injected (1 ml intravenously [iv]) on Day 2; GnRH was administered (0.59 microgram/kg bodyweight iv) on Day 3. Blood was taken at -60, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 mins relative to saline or GnRH treatment. Serum luteinising hormone (LH) was determined by a homologous equine radioimmunoassay (RIA). Several criteria were employed to define a positive response to GnRH and the results were analysed by Fisher's exact probability test. Treatment with artificial light allowed a response to GnRH within six weeks whereas the mares in ambient lighting took 12 weeks to respond to GnRH. The advancement in the time of response to GnRH under the long photoperiod could be related to changes in pituitary LH content, accelerated follicular activity or alterations in other brain-pituitary hormone levels. PMID:2226401

  18. Disruption of periovulatory FSH and LH surges during induced anovulation by an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Cuervo-Arango, J; Beg, M A

    2011-06-01

    The role of passage of follicular fluid into the peritoneal cavity during ovulation in the transient disruption in the periovulatory FSH and LH surges was studied in ovulatory mares (n=7) and in mares with blockage of ovulation by treatment with an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis (n=8). Mares were pretreated with hCG when the largest follicle was ≥32 mm (Hour 0). Ultrasonic scanning was done at Hours 24 and 30 and every 2h thereafter until ovulation or ultrasonic signs of anovulation. Blood samples were collected at Hours 24, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 48, and 60. Ovulation in the ovulatory group occurred at Hours 38 (five mares), 40, and 44. Until Hour 36, diameter of the follicle and concentrations of FSH, LH, and estradiol-17β (estradiol) were similar between groups. Between Hours 34 and 36, a novel transient increase in estradiol occurred in each group, and color-Doppler signals of blood flow in the follicular wall decreased in the ovulatory group and increased in the anovulatory group. In each group, FSH and LH periovulatory surges were disrupted by a decrease or plateau between Hours 38 and 48 and an increase between Hours 48 and 60. The discharge of hormone-laden follicular fluid into the peritoneal cavity at ovulation was not an adequate sole explanation for the temporally associated transient depression in FSH and LH. Other routes from follicle to circulation for gonadotropin inhibitors played a role, based on similar depression in the ovulatory and anovulatory groups. PMID:21571458

  19. 77 FR 39418 - Safety Zone: Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Vallejo, Mare Island Strait...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register A. Regulatory History and Information The... the City of Vallejo, Mare Island Strait, Vallejo, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Island Strait near Vallejo, CA in support of the Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City...

  20. Workshop on Mare Volcanism and Basalt Petrogenesis: Astounding Fundamental Concepts (AFC) Developed Over the Last Fifteen Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A. (Editor); Longi, John (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the workshop on mare volcanism and basalt petrogenesis are compiled. The discussion of recent ideas and concepts within the context of this workshop permitted to catch up on the developments over the last 15 years. The following subject areas were covered: (1) geological setting; (2) magma evolution and source regions; (3) magma source and ascent processes; and (4) history of volcanism.

  1. The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalts As Deduced From Analysis of Data for Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence; Basilevsky, A.; Neukum, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we analyze chronological data for lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/lmc/contents.cfm cited thereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter and from the associated literature.

  2. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  3. Remote sensing of potential lunar resources. 2: High spatial resolution mapping of spectral reflectance ratios and implications for nearside mare TiO2 content`

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendrez, David E.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Larson, Stephen M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    High spatial resolution maps illustrating variations in spectral reflectance 400/560 nm ratio values have been generated for the following mare regions: (1) the border between southern Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Tranquillitatis (including the MS-2 standard area and Apollo 17 landing site), (2) central Mare Tranquillitatis, (3) Oceanus Procellarum near Seleucus, and (4) southern Oceanus Procellarum and Flamsteed. We have also obtained 320-1000 nm reflectance spectra of several sites relative to MS-2 to facilitate scaling of the images and provide additional information on surface composition. Inferred TiO2 abundances for these mare regions have been determined using an empirical calibration which relates the weight percent TiO2 in mature mare regolith to the observed 400/560 nm ratio. Mare areas with high TiO2 abundances are probably rich in ilmenite (FeTiO3) a potential lunar resource. The highest potential TiO2 concentrations we have identified in the nearside maria occur in central Mare Tranquillitatis. Inferred TiO2 contents for these areas are greater than 9 wt% and are spatially consistent with the highest-TiO2 regions mapped previously at lower spatial resolution. We note that the morphology of surface units with high 400/560 nm ratio values increases in complexity at higher spatial resolutions. Comparisons have been made with previously published geologic maps, Lunar Orbiter IV, and ground-based images, and some possible morphologic correlatins have been found between our mapped 400/560 nm ratio values and volcanic landforms such as lava flows, mare domes, and collapse pits.

  4. Remote sensing of potential lunar resources. 2: High spatial resolution mapping of spectral reflectance ratios and implications for nearside mare TiO2 content`

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendrez, D. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Larson, S. M.; Singer, R. B.

    1994-03-01

    High spatial resolution maps illustrating variations in spectral reflectance 400/560 nm ratio values have been generated for the following mare regions: (1) the border between southern Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Tranquillitatis (including the MS-2 standard area and Apollo 17 landing site), (2) central Mare Tranquillitatis, (3) Oceanus Procellarum near Seleucus, and (4) southern Oceanus Procellarum and Flamsteed. We have also obtained 320-1000 nm reflectance spectra of several sites relative to MS-2 to facilitate scaling of the images and provide additional information on surface composition. Inferred TiO2 abundances for these mare regions have been determined using an empirical calibration which relates the weight percent TiO2 in mature mare regolith to the observed 400/560 nm ratio. Mare areas with high TiO2 abundances are probably rich in ilmenite (FeTiO3) a potential lunar resource. The highest potential TiO2 concentrations we have identified in the nearside maria occur in central Mare Tranquillitatis. Inferred TiO2 contents for these areas are greater than 9 wt% and are spatially consistent with the highest-TiO2 regions mapped previously at lower spatial resolution. We note that the morphology of surface units with high 400/560 nm ratio values increases in complexity at higher spatial resolutions. Comparisons have been made with previously published geologic maps, Lunar Orbiter IV, and ground-based images, and some possible morphologic correlatins have been found between our mapped 400/560 nm ratio values and volcanic landforms such as lava flows, mare domes, and collapse pits.

  5. Investigation of Neospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in mares and in precolostral foals from Parana State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Locatelli-Dittrich, R; Dittrich, J R; Richartz, R R T B; Gasino Joineau, M E; Antunes, J; Pinckney, R D; Deconto, I; Hoffmann, D C S; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2006-02-18

    Antibodies to Neospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii were measured in mares and precolostral foals from a farm in Parana State, Brazil. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine specific antibodies. Three sampling points, 2003, 2004 and at parturition were included in the study, but not all horses are represented at a parturition time point. In 2003, antibodies to Neospora were detected in 17 mares (47%) at 1:50 dilution and in 5 mares (13.8%) at 1:100 dilution. In 2004, antibodies to Neospora were found in 11/36 (30%) horses with titers of 1:50 and in 6 mares (16.6%) at 1:100 dilution. The prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii was 2.7% in mares, either in 2003 and 2004. Evidence for the role of Neospora sp. in equine reproduction failure was not observed in the farm. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to Neospora were found in two of the nine precolostrum foals. Four seronegative foals were born from seronegative mothers, and three seronegative foals were born from seropositive mothers (1:50). Two seropositive precolostrum foals were born from seropositive mothers (1:50). The foals were born clinically normal, and T. gondii antibodies were not detected in their serum samples. The total immunoglobulins values detected on seronegative precolostrum foals were lower than the levels observed in the seropositive foals. This data warrants additional studies to differentiate N. hughesi and N. caninum serologically and determination if these parasites were associated with equine neurological disease and reproductive failure. PMID:16289863

  6. A Model for the Thermal and Chemical Evolution of the Moon's Interior: Implications for the Onset of Mare Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallization of the lunar magma ocean creates a chemically stratified Moon consisting of an anorthositic crust and magma ocean cumulates overlying the primitive lunar interior. Within the magma ocean cumulates the last liquids to crystallize form dense, ilmenite-rich cumulates that contain high concentrations of incompatible radioactive elements. The underlying olivine-orthopyroxene cumulates are also stratified with later crystallized, denser, more Fe-rich compositions at the top. This paper explores the chemical and thermal consequences of an internal evolution model accounting for the possible role of these sources of chemical buoyancy. Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes the dense ilmenite-rich cumulate layer and underlying Fe-rich cumulates to sink toward the center of the Moon, forming a dense lunar core. After this overturn, radioactive heating within the ilmenite-rich cumulate core heats the overlying mantle, causing it to melt. In this model, the source region for high-TiO2 mare basalts is a convectively mixed layer above the core-mantle boundary which would contain small and variable amounts of admixed ilmenite and KREEP. This deep high-pressure melting, as required for mare basalts, occurs after a reasonable time interval to explain the onset of mare basalt volcanism if the content of radioactive elements in the core and the chemical density gradients above the core are sufficiently high but within a range of values that might have been present in the Moon. Regardless of details implied by particular model parameters, gravitational overturn driven by the high density of magma ocean Fe-rich cumulates should concentrate high-TiO2 mare basalt sources, and probably a significant fraction of radioactive heating, toward the center of the Moon. This will have important implications for both the thermal evolution of the Moon and for mare basalt genesis.

  7. Potential signals mediating the maintenance of reproductive activity during the non-breeding season of the mare.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, B P; Reedy, S E; Sessions, D R; Powell, D M; McManus, C J

    2002-01-01

    The seasonal nature of reproductive activity in mares is widely accepted and considerable attention has focused on the mechanisms that lead to the initiation of the breeding season. In contrast, considerably less information is available about the termination of the breeding season. It is interesting to note that each winter a sub-population of mares continues to undergo oestrous cyclicity during the non-breeding season. Continuation of reproductive activity during the winter occurs most frequently in mares that maintain a non-pregnant condition in successive years. The maintenance of a non-pregnant condition in successive years leads to an increase in the percentage of total body fat and it has been proposed that the degree of adiposity may be a determinant of reproductive activity during the winter months. To investigate this hypothesis we have manipulated fat stores by either pharmacological treatments or feed restriction. The studies described in this review demonstrate that manipulation of body fat during the autumn months fails to modify the mechanisms that lead to anoestrus or the proportion of mares that continues to show oestrous cyclicity during the winter months. On the basis of these and related studies two hypotheses are presented that may serve as a template for future work. The first hypothesis proposes that one aspect of the long-term regulation of seasonal reproductive rhythms in mares, specifically anoestrus, may reflect recognition of the availability of metabolic fuels before perception of a change in photoperiod. Alternatively, energy availability may need to reach a critical value before a presumptive inhibitory daylength signal initiates termination of the breeding season. This review describes previous and current studies that have led to development of these proposals. PMID:12698977

  8. A follow up study on antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis in mares and foals from two breeding farms in Germany.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Julia; Schmoll, Friedrich; Uhlig, Albrecht; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) caused by Lawsonia (L.) intracellularis is an emerging disease in foals, particularly in North America. Since a case report in Germany exists, the objective of this study was to examine the incidence of L. intracellularis-antibodies in healthy horses from two German breeding farms. In group 1, serum samples from 24 (year 1) and 16 (year 2) Haflinger mares and their foals were taken. In group 2, over a period of five months, serum samples of six warmblood mares and foals were collected monthly from birth until the foals became seronegative. Serum samples were tested using an ELISA system. Results are expressed as Percentage of Inhibiton (PI). All adult mares (100%) of both groups were seropositive at each point in time (PI-value > 30). In group 1,7/24 foals (29.2%) in year 1 and 4/16 foals (25%) in year 2 had antibodies.The seropositive foals from year 2 had the same dams as the seropositive foals from year 1. In group 2 five of six foals were seropositive after birth. Antibodies decreased from March to July in mares and foals. In July, all five foals tested negative for the first time between the ages of 82 and 141 days (median 115 days). PI-values of mares were significantly correlated with PI-values of their foals. Higher PI-values were seen in younger foals and early in spring. Loss of antibodies in foals at the age of three to five months could be a risk factor for infection and appearance of EPE. PMID:21848042

  9. Serum levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1, leptin, and lipids during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period in mares.

    PubMed

    Arfuso, F; Giannetto, C; Rizzo, M; Fazio, F; Giudice, E; Piccione, G

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and leptin levels as well as of lipid and lipoprotein profiles in mares during the peripartum period. Ten pregnant mares (group A) were monitored from 15 ± 3 days of pregnancy until 15 days after foaling, and 10 nonpregnant nonlactating mares constituted the control (group B). In group A, blood sampling was performed on Days 15 ± 3 and 7 ± 3 before foaling, on the day of foaling, and on Days 7 and 15 after foaling. In group B, blood sampling was performed on the same days as in group A. Serum levels were determined for UCP1, leptin, total lipids, phospholipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol (Total-Chol), high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs). Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was applied to evaluate the effects of peripartum period and group membership. All studied parameters except phospholipid levels (P > 0.05) showed significant changes in group A over the peripartum period (P < 0.0001). A significant effect of pregnancy was found on all studied parameters (P < 0.001), which showed lower levels in group A than in group B for most of the time points considered. Significant negative correlations were found between UCP1 and total lipids, triglycerides, VLDLs, Total-Chol, and LDL values. Positive correlations were found between leptin and total lipids, triglycerides, VLDLs, Total-Chol, and LDLs. These changes observed in mares during the peripartum period could represent a response to hormonal and metabolic adaptations occurring during specific physiological conditions such as late pregnancy and early postpartum. These changes should compensate for the energy loss occurring during these particular life phases and ensure a good body condition to protect mares against negative energy balance. PMID:27165993

  10. Major element chemistry of Apollo 14 mare basalt clasts and highland plutonic clasts from lunar breccia 14321: Comparison with neutron activation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of lithic components in lunar breccias have documented a wide variety of rock types and magma suites which are not found among large, discrete lunar samples. Rock types found exclusively or dominantly as clasts in breccias include KREEP basalts, VHK mare basalts, high-alumina mare basalts, olivine vitrophyres, alkali anorthosites, and magnesian anorthosites and troctolites. These miniature samples are crucial in petrogenetic studies of ancient mare basalts and the highlands crust of the western nearside, both of which have been battered by basin-forming impacts and no longer exist as distinct rock units.

  11. Effect of the South African asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV) in pregnant donkey mares and duration of maternal immunity in foals.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T

    1997-06-01

    Clinical, virological and serological responses were investigated in five pregnant donkey mares after experimental exposure to the South African asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and the duration of maternal immunity to EAV was studied in their foals. In four intranasally inoculated mares, fever with maximum rectal temperatures of 39.1-40.7 degrees C was recorded 2-11 d after challenge. All the inoculated mares developed mild depression, and a serous ocular and nasal discharge; in three mares mild conjuctivitis was observed. The virus was recovered from the nasopharynx and from buffy-coat samples of all the mares 3-10 d, and 2-18 d post inoculation (p.i.), respectively. Seroconversion to EAV was detected on days 8-10 p.i. Peak serum-virus-neutralizing antibody titres of log10 1.8-2.4, and IgG ELISA OD values of 0.85-2.15 were recorded 2-3 weeks p.i. The in-contact (p.c.) control mare developed fever on days 15-19 post exposure, and showed mild clinical signs of equine viral arteritis similar to those observed in the inoculated mares. Seroconversion to EAV was detected in the p.c. mare on day 20 post exposure, and virus was isolated from nasal swabs and blood samples collected at the time of the febrile response and 1-3 d afterwards. None of the mares aborted. After they had given normal birth 45-128 d p.i. or after p.c. exposure, no virus could be isolated from their placentas. The concentration of EAV-neutralizing antibody in colostrum was two to eight times higher than in serum samples collected at the time of parturition. All the foals born to infected mares were clinically normal at the time of birth and throughout the subsequent 1-2 months of observation. No EAV was recovered from the buffy-coat fraction of blood samples collected at birth nor from those collected on days 1, 2 and 7 after birth. Also, no virus-serum-neutralizing or IgG ELISA antibody to EAV was detected in sera collected immediately after birth before the foals started nursing

  12. An investigation of uterine nitric oxide production in mares susceptible and resistant to persistent breeding-induced endometritis and the effects of immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Woodward, E M; Christoffersen, M; Campos, J; Horohov, D W; Scoggin, K E; Squires, E; Troedsson, M H T

    2013-08-01

    The first objective of this study was to evaluate intrauterine nitric oxide (NO) and endometrial inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in mares susceptible or resistant to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE) within 24 h after breeding. Mares susceptible (n = 6) or resistant (n = 6) to PBIE were inseminated over five cycles, and uterine secretions and endometrial biopsies were collected before and 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after insemination. Uterine secretions were analysed for NO and biopsies were analyzed for iNOS expression. A second experiment evaluated the effect of treatment with dexamethasone or mycobacterial cell wall extract (MCWE) on uterine NO production and endometrial iNOS mRNA expression. Six susceptible mares were inseminated over three cycles with (i) killed spermatozoa without treatment (control), (ii) killed spermatozoa with 50 mg of dexamethasone IV or (iii) MCWE IV 24 h prior to insemination with killed spermatozoa. Six resistant mares were inseminated with killed spermatozoa as a control. Six hours after breeding, uterine biopsies and secretions were collected and evaluated for NO and iNOS mRNA. In Experiment 1, resistant mares had an increase in iNOS mRNA expression 2 h post-breeding compared to baseline (p = 0.045), 12 h (p = 0.014) and 24 h (p = 0.001). Susceptible mares had higher expression 2 h compared to 6 h (p = 0.046). No differences were observed in mRNA or protein expression of iNOS between resistant and susceptible mares. Resistant mares had a relatively steady amount of total intrauterine NO over 24 h, while susceptible mares had an increase over time, with a significantly higher increase in total NO than resistant mares at 6 (p = 0.04) and 12 h (p = 0.032). In Experiment 2, no differences were observed for iNOS mRNA expression. Susceptible mares had increased NO when compared to resistant mares (p = 0.008) and MCWE decreased NO (p = 0.047). PMID:23228000

  13. Winds and tides of Ligeia Mare, with application to the drift of the proposed time TiME (Titan Mare Explorer) capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Tokano, Tetsuya; Newman, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    We use two independent General Circulation Models (GCMs) to estimate surface winds at Titan’s Ligeia Mare (78° N, 250° W), motivated by a proposed mission to land a floating capsule in this ∼500 km hydrocarbon sea. The models agree on the overall magnitude (∼0.5-1 m/s) and seasonal variation (strongest in summer) of windspeeds, but details of seasonal and diurnal variation of windspeed and direction differ somewhat, with the role of surface exchanges being more significant than that of gravitational tides in the atmosphere. We also investigate the tidal dynamics in the sea using a numerical ocean dynamics model: assuming a rigid lithosphere, the tidal amplitude is up to ∼0.8 m. Tidal currents are overall proportional to the reciprocal of depth-with an assumed central depth of 300 m, the characteristic tidal currents are ∼1 cm/s, with notable motions being a slosh between Ligeia’s eastern and western lobes, and a clockwise flow pattern. We find that a capsule will drift at approximately one tenth of the windspeed, unless measures are adopted to augment the drag areas above or below the waterline. Thus motion of a floating capsule is dominated by the wind, and is likely to be several km per Earth day, a rate that will be readily measured from Earth by radio navigation methods. In some instances, the wind vector rotates diurnally such that the drift trajectory is epicyclic.

  14. The presence of the mu-opioid receptor in the isthmus of mare oviduct.

    PubMed

    Desantis, S; Albrizio, M; Ventriglia, G; Deflorio, M; Guaricci, A C; Minoia, R; De Metrio, G

    2008-05-01

    The presence of the mu-opioid receptor and the type of glycosylation in the third extra-cellular loop of this receptor was investigated in the isthmus of mare oviduct during oestrus by means of immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry combined with enzymatic (N-glycosidase F and O-glycosidase) and chemical (beta-elimination) treatments. Immunoblotting analysis showed that the mu-opioid receptor consists of two peptides with molecular weights of around 65 and 50 kDa. After N-deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F an additional immunoreactive peptide was observed at around 30 KDa. The cleavage of O-glycans by O-glycosidase failed in immunoblotting as well as in immunohistochemistry investigations, revealing that the third extra-cellular loop of the mu-opioid receptor expressed in mare isthmus oviduct contains some modifications of the Galbeta(1-3)GalNAc core binding to serine or threonine. Immunohistochemistry revealed the mu-opioid receptor in the mucosal epithelium, some stromal cells, muscle cells and blood vessels. In ciliated cells the mu-opioid receptor showed N-linked glycans, since the immunoreactivity was abolished after N-glycosidase F treatment, whereas it was preserved in the apical region after beta-elimination. Most non-ciliated cells expressed the mu-opioid receptor with both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides, as revealed by the abolition of immunostaining after N-glycosidase F and beta-elimination. Stromal cells, endothelial and muscle cells of blood vessels expressed the mu-opioid receptor containing both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. Myosalpinx myocytes expressed the mu-opioid receptor with O-linked oligosaccharides. The immunopositive myocytes formed a circular coat in the intrinsic musculature, whereas they were arranged in some isolated, oblique bundles in the extrinsic musculature. In conclusion, the mu-opioid receptor could have a role in the production and the movement of isthmus lumen content that contributes to ensuring the effective

  15. Mare Volcanism in the nearside of the Moon: Reinterpretation based on Kaguya LRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshigami, S.; Watanabe, S.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamaji, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.

    2012-12-01

    The volume of basaltic lithofacies of lunar maria and its age differences are essential for revealing characteristics of mare volcanisms and constraining the thermal history of the Moon. However, there is no precedent study of direct estimation of basalt unit volume that is the total amount of lavas erupted during a series of magmatisms. At present, the vertical structures under the lunar maria are directly investigated using sounder observations. The Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) onboard Kaguya detected widespread horizontal reflectors under the nearside maria [e.g., Ono et al., 2009]. The LRS detects echoes from subsurface permittivity discontinuities [Ono and Oya, 2000]. The presumed depths of the detected reflectors are up to several 100s of meters [Oshigami et al., 2009]. The subsurface reflectors possibly correspond to the interfaces between basalt units with different FeO contents [Oshigami et al., 2012]. Therefore the LRS data have potential to determine a lava volume effused during a series of volcanic activities in a mare. We estimated thicknesses of units with in the ages of 2.7 to 3.8 Ga in the nearside maria using SAR-processed LRS data. Comparison between the subsurface reflectors detected in the LRS data and surface age maps [e.g., Hiesinger et al., 2000] allow us to discuss the volume of each basalt unit and its space and time variation. Estimated unit thicknesses are from several 10s to a few 100s of meters and correlate with their ages (Fig. 1). The thicknesses of single basalt flows at Apollo 11, 12, and 15 sites have been estimated to be no thicker than 10 m [Brett, 1975]. Therefore an eruption event might have occurred several to more than ten times during a series of volcanisms. Estimated unit volumes are an order of 1,000-10,000 cubic kilometers and decrease with time within a mare (Fig. 2). This volume range is consistent with flow volumes derived from numerical simulations of a thermal erosion model for lunar sinuous rilles formation [Hulme

  16. Melt immiscibility in Apollo 15 KREEP - Origin of Fe-rich mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollister, L. S.; Crawford, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    Silicate liquid immiscibility (SLI) is investigated in terms of chemistry and occurrence in two KREEP-rich Apollo 15 basalts. The two samples have different cooling histories but the same composition. In the first sample, SLI occurred at the time of 58% crystallization. In the second sample, SLI occurred after 20% had crystallized. It is noted that SLI could be initiated as soon as plagioclase (out of a total composition which also included zircon, FeS, SiO2, whitlockite, and ilmenite) alone had crystallized. Attention is given to Fe-rich immiscible melts, and it is suggested that SLI may play an important role in the formation of the source regions of Fe-rich mare basalts. The analytical technique used for the assays was an energy dispersive analysis system with a resolution of 167 eV.

  17. Characterization and Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalt Types Using Remote Sensing Techniques. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C.

    1977-01-01

    The types of basal to be found on the moon were identified using reflectance spectra from a variety of lunar mare surfaces and craters as well as geochemical interpretations of laboratory measurements of reflectance from lunar, terrestrial, and meteoritic samples. Findings indicate that major basaltic units are not represented in lunar sample collections. The existence of late stage high titanium basalts is confirmed. All maria contain lateral variations of compositionally heterogenous basalts; some are vertically inhomogenous with distinctly different subsurface composition. Some basalt types are spectrally gradational, suggesting minor variations in composition. Mineral components of unsampled units can be defined if spectra are obtained with sufficient spectral coverage (.3 to 2.5 micron m) and spatial resolution (approximating .5 km).

  18. Shock metamorphic effects in the Luna 16 soil sample from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    Diverse lunar soil fragments returned from the Luna 16 mission were examined for evidence in shock metamorphism in order to evaluate the role of meteorite impact in forming the lunar regolith at a new site relatively distant from the Apollo landing sites. It was found that shock metamorphic effects, characteristic of meteorite impact and virtually identical to those observed in Apollo samples, are common in the Luna 16 fragments. Two types of shock effects are present - i.e., a deformation and partial melting features in rock and mineral fragments, and heterogeneous glasses and glassy breccias produced by shock melting. It is concluded that these shock metamorphic effects indicate that regolith formation by meteorite impact has occurred in Mare Fecunditatis and is a general process over the entire moon.

  19. Some thoughts on the origin of lunar ANT-KREEP and mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakita, H.; Laul, J. C.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that a series of ANT (anorthosite-norite-troctolite)-KREEP type rocks and the source material for mare basalts sampled by Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 may have been derived from a common magmatic differentiation. This differentiation is studied on the basis of a model which proposes that, in the early history of the moon, extensive melting occurred in the outer lunar shell and a magma layer of 100-200 km was formed. The presence of a residual liquid which has not yet been sampled is suspected between high-K KREEP and the Apollo 11 basalt materials. This residual liquid would have a FeO/MgO ratio greater than one and would be significantly enriched in apatite, zircon, K-feldspar, and ilmenite minerals.

  20. Lunar radar mapping: Correlation between radar reflectivity and stratigraphy in north-western mare imbrium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Eggleton, R.E.; Thompson, T.W.

    1970-01-01

    DELAY-DOPPLER radar maps of the Moon obtained with the 430 MHz (70 cm wavelength) radar of the Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in Puerto Rico (Thompson, unpublished) are at present being studied to correlate geological information with the radar reflexion characteristics of the lunar surface. Preliminary evaluation of the radar data for the Sinus Iridum quadrangle (32??-48?? N; 14??-38?? W) has revealed that the lowest values of radar reflectivity are closely correlated with the mare materials of lowest albedo mapped by Schaber1 as of most recent volcanic origin. These radar data were obtained with a surface resolution of 50 to 100 km2 on January 24 and April 17, 1967. A detailed account of the delay-doppler radar mapping technique can be found in unpublished reports by Thompson. ?? 1970 Nature Publishing Group.