Science.gov

Sample records for marginal cost pricing

  1. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  2. Revenue Neutral Water Conservation: Marginal Cost Pricing With Discount Coupons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinge, Robert A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper points out how a system of marketable discount coupons applied to the sale of water by an agency can satisfy both redistributional and revenue constraints without compromise to economic efficiency, in effect creating marketable multipart pricing. This procedure achieves marginal cost pricing for each user while decreasing the average consumer's expenditures on water. Efficiency would obtain both in allocation among users and in overall usage. No information on consumer demand for water is required. A useful by-product is market revelation of the marginal value of incremental water usage, thereby also shedding light on the value of incremental water projects.

  3. Marginal energy prices report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitkin, Stuart; Biermayer, Peter; Bretz, Sarah; Brown, Steve; Constantine, Sachu; Fisher, Diane; Hakim, Sajid; Liew, Lucy; Lutz, Jim; Marnay, Chris; McMahon, James E.; Moezzi, Mithra; Osborn, Julie; Rawner, Esther; Roberson, Judy; Rosenquist, Greg; Ryan, Nancy; Turiel, Isaac; Wiel, Stephen

    1999-06-24

    This report responds to a recommendation from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advisory Committee on Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards. It presents the derivation of estimated consumer marginal energy prices for the commercial and residential sectors for use in the life-cycle cost (LCC) analyses for four of the high priority appliances' energy efficiency standards rule makings --clothes washers, water heaters,fluorescent lamp ballasts, and central airconditioners/heat pumps. Marginal prices as discussed here are those prices consumers pay (or save) for their last units of energy used (or saved). Marginal prices reflect a change in a consumer's bill (that might be associated with new energy efficiency standards) divided by the corresponding change in the amount of energy the consumer used.

  4. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  5. Toward a new spacecraft optimal design lifetime? Impact of marginal cost of durability and reduced launch price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelgrove, Kailah B.; Saleh, Joseph Homer

    2016-10-01

    The average design lifetime of satellites continues to increase, in part due to the expectation that the satellite cost per operational day decreases monotonically with increased design lifetime. In this work, we challenge this expectation by revisiting the durability choice problem for spacecraft in the face of reduced launch price and under various cost of durability models. We first provide a brief overview of the economic thought on durability and highlight its limitations as they pertain to our problem (e.g., the assumption of zero marginal cost of durability). We then investigate the merging influence of spacecraft cost of durability and launch price, and we identify conditions that give rise cost-optimal design lifetimes that are shorter than the longest lifetime technically achievable. For example, we find that high costs of durability favor short design lifetimes, and that under these conditions the optimal choice is relatively robust to reduction in launch prices. By contrast, lower costs of durability favor longer design lifetimes, and the optimal choice is highly sensitive to reduction in launch price. In both cases, reduction in launch prices translates into reduction of the optimal design lifetime. Our results identify a number of situations for which satellite operators would be better served by spacecraft with shorter design lifetimes. Beyond cost issues and repeat purchases, other implications of long design lifetime include the increased risk of technological slowdown given the lower frequency of purchases and technology refresh, and the increased risk for satellite operators that the spacecraft will be technologically obsolete before the end of its life (with the corollary of loss of value and competitive advantage). We conclude with the recommendation that, should pressure to extend spacecraft design lifetime continue, satellite manufacturers should explore opportunities to lease their spacecraft to operators, or to take a stake in the ownership

  6. Price and cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Price and Cost Estimating Program (PACE II) was developed to prepare man-hour and material cost estimates. Versatile and flexible tool significantly reduces computation time and errors and reduces typing and reproduction time involved in preparation of cost estimates.

  7. Theoretical aspects of an electricity marginal cost model

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, T.

    1986-01-01

    A separable programming model has been built to estimate electricity marginal costs. The model can be solved by applying linear programming techniques, hence marginal costs are obtained from shadow prices of model's optimal solution. In order to obtain more accurate and more detailed composition of electricity marginal costs, shadow prices are mathematically explained rigorously from model's structural points of view. Theoretical aspects of our electricity marginal cost model are investigated by applying theory of linear programming. Furthermore, various types of mathematical expression are also shown with their interpretation in the real power system.

  8. Theoretical aspects of an electricity marginal cost model

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, T.

    1987-05-01

    A separable programming model has been built to estimate electricity marginal costs. The model can be solved by applying linear programming techniques, hence marginal costs are obtained from shadow prices of model's optimal solution. In order to obtain more accurate and more detailed composition of electricity marginal costs, shadow prices are mathematically explained rigorously from model's structural points of view. Theoretical aspects of our electricity marginal cost model are investigated by applying theory of linear programming. Furthermore, various types of mathematical expression are also shown with their interpretation in the real power system.

  9. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  10. Incentive pricing and cost recovery at the basin scale.

    PubMed

    Ward, Frank A; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Incentive pricing programs have potential to promote economically efficient water use patterns and provide a revenue source to compensate for environmental damages. However, incentive pricing may impose disproportionate costs and aggravate poverty where high prices are levied for basic human needs. This paper presents an analysis of a two-tiered water pricing system that sets a low price for subsistence needs, while charging a price equal to marginal cost, including environmental cost, for discretionary uses. This pricing arrangement can promote efficient and sustainable water use patterns, goals set by the European Water Framework Directive, while meeting subsistence needs of poor households. Using data from the Rio Grande Basin of North America, a dynamic nonlinear program, maximizes the basin's total net economic and environmental benefits subject to several hydrological and institutional constraints. Supply costs, environmental costs, and resource costs are integrated in a model of a river basin's hydrology, economics, and institutions. Three programs are compared: (1) Law of the River, in which water allocations and prices are determined by rules governing water transfers; (2) marginal cost pricing, in which households pay the full marginal cost of supplying treated water; (3) two-tiered pricing, in which households' subsistence water needs are priced cheaply, while discretionary uses are priced at efficient levels. Compared to the Law of the River and marginal cost pricing, two-tiered pricing performs well for efficiency and adequately for sustainability and equity. Findings provide a general framework for formulating water pricing programs that promote economically and environmentally efficient water use programs while also addressing other policy goals. PMID:18241978

  11. Marginal Pricing and Student Investment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.; Stange, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of marginal price on students' educational investments using rich administrative data on students at Michigan public universities. Marginal price refers to the amount colleges charge for each additional credit taken in a semester. Institutions differ in how they price credits above the full-time minimum (of 12…

  12. Hospital pricing: cost shifting and competition.

    PubMed

    Morrisey, M A

    1993-05-01

    The issue of cost shifting has taken on enormous policy implications. It is estimated that unsponsored and undercompensated hospital costs--one measure of cost shifting--has totaled $21.5 billion in 1991. The health services research literature indicates that hospitals set different prices for different payers. However, the empirical evidence on hospitals' ability to raise prices to one payer to make up for unsponsored care or lower payments by other payers is mixed at best. No study has concluded that hospitals have raised prices to fully adjust for such actions. The extent of cost shifting is limited by the market. When a hospital has market power, it is able to set prices above marginal costs. However, when a buyer has enough patient/subscribers and a willingness to direct them to particular providers based on price considerations, hospitals have less flexibility in raising prices above costs. Thus, the extent of cost shifting is limited by the market. Cost shifting is not as easy as it may have been in the past because the nature of hospital and insurer competition has changed radically in the last decade. While hospital quality, services, and amenities still matter, some buyers are increasingly concerned about the price they pay. Evidence from studies of PPO and HMO negotiations with hospitals suggests that hospitals' market power is eroding, at least in some areas. In areas with relatively few hospital competitors and little PPO or HMO activity, Medicaid and Medicare price reductions and uncompensated care burdens will be partially absorbed by higher prices paid by private payers. In more price sensitive markets and in markets in which prices to private payers have risen to those commensurate with the market power of local hospitals, such cost shifting will not occur. A market-based approach in hospital pricing requires an explicit policy for the uninsured. In a competitive market, a hospital that traditionally cared for the uninsured by spending some of its

  13. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  14. Marginal Costing Techniques for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Richard; Brinkman, Paul

    The techniques for calculating marginal costs in higher education are examined in detail. Marginal costs, as defined in economics, is the change in total cost associated with producing one additional unit of output. In higher education, the most frequently selected unit of output is a full-time-equivalent student or, alternatively, a student…

  15. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  16. The Shuttle Cost and Price model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, Katherine; Stone, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Cost and Price (SCP) model was developed as a tool to assist in evaluating major aspects of Shuttle operations that have direct and indirect economic consequences. It incorporates the major aspects of NASA Pricing Policy and corresponds to the NASA definition of STS operating costs. An overview of the SCP model is presented and the cost model portion of SCP is described in detail. Selected recent applications of the SCP model to NASA Pricing Policy issues are presented.

  17. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  18. Mean-reversion in income over feed cost margins: evidence and implications for managing margin risk by US dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Bozic, M; Newton, J; Thraen, C S; Gould, B W

    2012-12-01

    With the increased volatility of feed prices, dairy farm managers are no longer concerned with managing only milk price volatility, but are considering the adoption of risk management programs that address income over feed cost (IOFC) margin risk. Successful margin risk management should be founded on an understanding of the behavior of IOFC margins. To that end, we have constructed forward IOFC margins using Class III milk, corn, and soybean meal futures prices. We focus on the characteristics of the term structure of forward IOFC margins, that is, the sequence of forward margins for consecutive calendar months, all observed on the same trading day. What is apparent from the shapes of these term structures is that both in times when margins were exceptionally high and in times when they were disastrously low, market participants expected that a reversal back to average margin levels would not come quickly, but rather would take up to 9 mo. Slopes of the forward margin term structure before and after most of the major swings in IOFC indicate these shocks were mostly unanticipated, whereas the time needed for recovery to normal margin levels was successfully predicted. This suggests that IOFC margins may exhibit slow mean-reverting, rather than predictable cyclical behavior, as is often suggested in the popular press. This finding can be exploited to design a successful catastrophic risk management program by initiating protection at 9 to 12 mo before futures contract maturity. As a case study, we analyzed risk management strategies for managing IOFC margins that used Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle insurance contracts and created 2 farm profiles. The first one represents dairy farms that grow most of their feed, whereas the second profile is designed to capture the risk exposure of dairy farms that purchase all their dairy herd, dry cow, and heifer feed. Our case study of this program encompasses the 2009 period, which was characterized by exceptionally

  19. National Models for College Costs and Prices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Merisotis, Jamie P.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationships among college prices, expenditures, and revenues within the public and private not-for-profit sectors. The trend analysis and model results found differences in the nature and strength of relationships between costs and prices across types of institutions and within types of institutions over time. (EV)

  20. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    PubMed

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. PMID:26412420

  1. 48 CFR 15.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  2. 48 CFR 15.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  3. 48 CFR 1815.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  4. 48 CFR 1815.403 - Obtaining cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Obtaining cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.403 Obtaining cost or pricing data....

  5. 48 CFR 1315.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1315.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  6. 48 CFR 1315.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1315.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  7. 48 CFR 1315.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1315.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  8. 48 CFR 1815.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  9. 48 CFR 1815.403 - Obtaining cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.403 Obtaining cost or pricing data....

  10. 48 CFR 15.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  11. 48 CFR 15.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  12. 48 CFR 1815.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Special cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  13. 48 CFR 1815.403 - Obtaining cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.403 Obtaining cost or pricing data....

  14. 48 CFR 1315.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1315.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  15. 48 CFR 15.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  16. 48 CFR 1815.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  17. 48 CFR 1815.403 - Obtaining cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.403 Obtaining cost or pricing data....

  18. 48 CFR 1315.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1315.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  19. 48 CFR 1815.403 - Obtaining cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.403 Obtaining cost or pricing data....

  20. 48 CFR 1815.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.407 Special cost or pricing areas....

  1. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47... Agreements Procurement Standards § 550.47 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall..., market prices and similar indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation...

  2. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47... Agreements Procurement Standards § 550.47 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall..., market prices and similar indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation...

  3. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 570.110 Section 570.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... PROPERTY General 570.110 Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. (a)...

  4. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 570.110 Section 570.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... PROPERTY General 570.110 Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 570.110 Section 570.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... PROPERTY General 570.110 Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. (a)...

  6. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 570.110 Section 570.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... PROPERTY General 570.110 Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. (a)...

  7. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 570.110 Section 570.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... PROPERTY General 570.110 Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. (a)...

  8. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7406 Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. (a) Common carriers are not required to submit cost or pricing... information other than cost or pricing data. 239.7406 Section 239.7406 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  9. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and... indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of each element of cost...

  10. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and... indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of each element of cost...

  11. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and... indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of each element of cost...

  12. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and... indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of each element of cost...

  13. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in...

  14. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  15. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  16. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in...

  17. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  18. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  19. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  20. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  1. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  2. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  3. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for... pricing data for community rated carriers is the specialized rating data used by carriers in computing...

  4. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for... pricing data for community rated carriers is the specialized rating data used by carriers in computing...

  5. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  6. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  7. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in...

  8. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  9. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  10. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  11. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  12. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  13. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in...

  14. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in...

  15. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  16. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-10 Section 52.215-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-10 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data... or Pricing Data (AUG 2011) (a) If any price, including profit or fee, negotiated in connection...

  17. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-10 Section 52.215-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-10 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data... or Pricing Data (AUG 2011) (a) If any price, including profit or fee, negotiated in connection...

  18. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-10 Section 52.215-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-10 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data... or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) If any price, including profit or fee, negotiated in connection...

  19. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-10 Section 52.215-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-10 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data... or Pricing Data (AUG 2011) (a) If any price, including profit or fee, negotiated in connection...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  1. 38 CFR 49.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  2. 38 CFR 49.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  3. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  4. 38 CFR 49.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  5. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  6. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  7. 38 CFR 49.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  8. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  9. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  11. Confronting Cost and Pricing Issues in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas H.; Parker, G. D., III; Tebeaux, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that "the devil is in the details" when determining costs and prices for distance delivery of courses, and describes Texas A&M University's process of determining cost and price for distance education courses. (EV)

  12. At what cost do we reduce pollution Shadow prices of SO[sub 2] emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Swinton, J.R. )

    1998-01-01

    The US EPA's infant market for SO[sub 2] emissions has the potential for improving the cost effectiveness of reducing acid rain pollutants. If the market works as planned, over time one should see the cost of reducing additional amounts of sulfur dioxide converge across plants. The results of the study described here demonstrate that before the market opened marginal abatement costs varied wildly across plants. This work provides estimates of the shadow price of SO[sub 2] abatement using the output distance function approach for Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin coal-burning electric plants. The results demonstrate that the coal-burning electric plants with the highest emissions rates are also the plants with the lowest marginal abatement costs, a fact that may explain lower-than-expected prices in the new market for allowances. The data include information about plants with installed scrubber capital allowing for an investigation of the effect of scrubber capital on marginal abatement costs.

  13. Electric Utility Rate Design Study: comments on An Evaluation of Four Marginal-Costing Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-12

    This report is an extension of NP-24255 (EAPA 6:1820), An Evaluation of Four Marginal Costing Methodologies (RDS No. 66), which summarizes, contrasts, and evaluates four marginal costing methodologies currently in use by various electric utilities. The proponents of the four methodologies evaluated by Temple, Barker, and Sloane (TBS) were asked to comment on the TBS report (RDS No. 66). Other selected reviewers were asked to comment on the TBS report. This report, RDS No. 67, is an anthology of all those comments plus a response to them by TBS. The rebuttal comments from TBS appear first, followed by comments submitted by Ralph Turvey, an authority in microeconomics. The next comments are to the Rate Design Study by members of Advisory Group I, experts in the field of electricity pricing. The next four sections present detailed comments submitted by the four marginal-cost proponents: Cicchetti, Gillen, and Smolensky; Ernst and Ernst; Gordian Associates; and National Economic Research Associates.

  14. 15 CFR 14.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 14.45 Section... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  15. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  16. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action....

  17. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files...

  18. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files...

  19. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  20. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  2. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47... Agreements Procurement Standards § 550.47 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action....

  3. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47... Agreements Procurement Standards § 550.47 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action....

  4. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action....

  5. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  6. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  7. 15 CFR 14.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 14.45 Section... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  8. 2 CFR 215.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 215.45 Section 215... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  9. 20 CFR 435.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 435.45 Section 435... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  10. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  12. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  13. 20 CFR 435.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 435.45 Section 435... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  14. 15 CFR 14.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 14.45 Section... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  15. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  16. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585... Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis. (a) General. The recipient must conduct and document a cost or price analysis in connection...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585... Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis. (a) General. The recipient must conduct and document a cost or price analysis in connection...

  18. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made...

  19. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis...

  20. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and...

  1. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and...

  2. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made...

  3. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in...

  4. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented...

  5. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis...

  6. 2 CFR 215.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 215.45 Section 215... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER... Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in...

  7. 2 CFR 215.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 215.45 Section 215... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  8. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  9. 15 CFR 14.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 14.45 Section... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  11. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585... Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis. (a) General. The recipient must conduct and document a cost or price analysis in connection...

  12. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  13. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  14. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  15. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585... Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis. (a) General. The recipient must conduct and document a cost or price analysis in connection...

  16. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  17. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated...

  18. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated...

  19. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-76 Cost or pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost or pricing data....

  1. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-21... Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data... Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (OCT 2010) (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-21... Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data... Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (OCT 2010) (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 239.7406 Section 239.7406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Telecommunications Services 239.7406 Cost or pricing data...

  4. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1352.215-76 Section 1352.215-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES...

  5. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1352.215-76 Section 1352.215-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES...

  6. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1352.215-76 Section 1352.215-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES...

  7. 48 CFR 1352.215-76 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pricing data. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315.204-570(b)(4), insert the following provision: Cost or Pricing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1352.215-76 Section 1352.215-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES...

  8. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including...

  9. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including...

  10. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-20 Section 52.215-20... Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(l), insert the following provision: Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other...

  11. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-20 Section 52.215-20... Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(l), insert the following provision: Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other...

  12. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-20 Section 52.215-20... Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(l), insert the following provision: Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other...

  13. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  14. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy... Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  16. 48 CFR 215.403-5 - Instructions for submission of cost or pricing data or information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submission of cost or pricing data or information other than cost or pricing data. 215.403-5 Section 215.403... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.403-5 Instructions for submission of cost or pricing data or information other than cost or pricing data. When...

  17. 20 CFR 435.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 435.45 Section 435... AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.45 Cost and price analysis....

  18. The marginal cost of public funds with an aging population.

    PubMed

    Wildasin, D E

    1991-05-01

    "As populations in the United States and other advanced economies grow older, the burden of social security and health care financing is expected to rise markedly. Payroll, income, and other taxes on working populations are projected to rise accordingly. The marginal welfare cost to workers of social security and other public expenditures is analyzed within the context of a two-period life cycle model. By relaxing separability assumptions that have become common in the literature, the theoretical structure properly incorporates the effect of these public expenditures on labor supply. Comparative statics results indicate that changing age structure is likely to raise the marginal welfare to workers of social security, education, and other public expenditures. Illustrative calculations for the United States confirm this result, suggesting that the cost to workers of incremental social security benefits may easily double by 2025-2050." PMID:12316979

  19. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. 239.7406 Section 239.7406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF...

  20. 48 CFR 1615.407-1 - Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. 1615.407-1 Section 1615.407-1 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.407-1 Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. The clause set forth in section...

  1. 48 CFR 1615.407-1 - Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. 1615.407-1 Section 1615.407-1 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.407-1 Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. The clause set forth in section...

  2. 48 CFR 1615.407-1 - Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. 1615.407-1 Section 1615.407-1 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.407-1 Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. The clause set forth in section...

  3. 48 CFR 1615.407-1 - Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. 1615.407-1 Section 1615.407-1 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.407-1 Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. The clause set forth in section...

  4. 48 CFR 1615.407-1 - Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. 1615.407-1 Section 1615.407-1 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.407-1 Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. The clause set forth in section...

  5. Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orans, Ren

    1990-10-01

    Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric

  6. 48 CFR 52.214-27 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-27 Section 52.214-27 Federal... Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-7(b), insert the following clause: Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications—Sealed...

  7. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  8. 76 FR 35218 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and Information Other Than Cost or... requirement concerning cost or pricing data requirements and information other than cost or pricing data... Information Collection 9000- 0013, Cost or Pricing Data Requirements and Information Other Than Cost...

  9. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions of the subagreement, this subpart and the cost principles included in 41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4... FPR cost principles (41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4) at the time of award. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price considerations....

  10. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions of the subagreement, this subpart and the cost principles included in 41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4... FPR cost principles (41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4) at the time of award. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price considerations....

  11. 40 CFR 35.937-6 - Cost and price considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions of the subagreement, this subpart and the cost principles included in 41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4... FPR cost principles (41 CFR 1-15.2 and 1-15.4) at the time of award. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price considerations....

  12. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.215-70 Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall...

  13. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.215-70 Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall...

  14. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-11 Section 52.215-11 Federal Acquisition... Pricing Data—Modifications. As prescribed in 15.408(c), insert the following clause: Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (AUG 2011) (a) This clause shall become...

  15. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-11 Section 52.215-11 Federal Acquisition... Pricing Data—Modifications. As prescribed in 15.408(c), insert the following clause: Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (OCT 2010) (a) This clause shall become...

  16. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.215-70 Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall...

  17. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.215-70 Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall...

  18. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-11 Section 52.215-11 Federal Acquisition... Pricing Data—Modifications. As prescribed in 15.408(c), insert the following clause: Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (AUG 2011) (a) This clause shall become...

  19. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-11 Section 52.215-11 Federal Acquisition... Pricing Data—Modifications. As prescribed in 15.408(c), insert the following clause: Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (AUG 2011) (a) This clause shall become...

  20. Asset Prices and Trading Volume under Fixed Transactions Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Andrew W.; Mamaysky, Harry; Wang, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dynamic equilibrium model of asset prices and trading volume when agents face fixed transactions costs. We show that even small fixed costs can give rise to large "no-trade" regions for each agent's optimal trading policy. The inability to trade more frequently reduces the agents' asset demand and in equilibrium gives rise to a…

  1. 2 CFR 200.323 - Contract cost and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contract cost and price. 200.323 Section 200... MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Post Federal Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 200.323 Contract...

  2. The cost of lithium is unlikely to upend the price of Li-ion storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    As lithium ion batteries become more common in electric vehicles and other storage applications, concerns about the cost of their namesake material, and its impact on the cost of these batteries, will continue. However, examining the constituent materials of these devices shows that lithium is a relatively small contributor to both the battery mass and manufacturing cost. The use of more expensive lithium precursor materials results in less than 1% increases in the cost of lithium ion cells considered. Similarly, larger fluctuations in the global lithium price (from 0 to 25/kg from a baseline of 7.50 per kg of Li2CO3) do not change the cost of lithium ion cells by more than 10%. While this small cost increase will not have a substantial impact on consumers, it could affect the manufacturers of these lithium ion cells, who already operate with small profit margins.

  3. Cost-effectiveness and pricing of antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of 'value', which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. PMID:25521641

  4. Cost-effectiveness and Pricing of Antibacterial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of ‘value’, which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. PMID:25521641

  5. Health care cost in Switzerland: quantity- or price-driven?

    PubMed

    Schleiniger, Reto

    2014-07-01

    In Switzerland, per capita health care costs vary substantially from canton to canton and rise considerably and steadily from year to year. Since costs are equal to the product of quantities and prices, the question arises whether regional cost variations and cost increase over time are quantity- or price-driven. Depending on the answer, the containment of health care costs must be approached differently. This article examines the cost of mandatory health insurance in Switzerland for the period from 2004 to 2010 and breaks it down into quantity and price effects. The main result of the cross-section analysis reveals that regional cost differences are mainly due to quantity differences. Similarly, the longitudinal analysis shows that the cost increase across all health care services is primarily caused by increasing per capita quantities. Any attempt to contain costs must therefore focus primarily on the extent of medical care utilization, and the key challenge to be met is how to identify medical care services which do not have a positive effect on patients' health status. PMID:24794986

  6. PACE 2: Pricing and Cost Estimating Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.; Shepherd, T.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic data processing system to be used for the preparation of industrial engineering type manhour and material cost estimates has been established. This computer system has evolved into a highly versatile and highly flexible tool which significantly reduces computation time, eliminates computational errors, and reduces typing and reproduction time for estimators and pricers since all mathematical and clerical functions are automatic once basic inputs are derived.

  7. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... applicable or that income is under the exceptions in section 954(b)(4). In addition, the marginal costing... purposes of the full costing method. (4) Application of limitation on FSC income (“no loss” rules). The...: (i) 23% of maximum combined taxable income determined under the marginal costing rules, (ii) 23%...

  8. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that income is under the exceptions in section 954(b)(4). In addition, the marginal costing rules do... purposes of the full costing method. (4) Application of limitation on FSC income (“no loss” rules). The...: (i) 23% of maximum combined taxable income determined under the marginal costing rules, (ii) 23%...

  9. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  10. The effect of location and facility demand on the marginal cost of delivered wood chips from energy crops: A case study of the state of Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; Downing, M.; Noon, C.; Daly, M.; Moore, A.

    1995-12-31

    Cost-supply curves for delivered wood chips from short rotation woody crops were calculated for 21 regularly-spaced locations spanning the state of Tennessee. These curves were used to systematically evaluate the combined effects of location and facility demand on wood chip feedstock costs in Tennessee. The cost-supply curves were developed using BRAVO, a GIS-based decision support system which calculates marginal cost of delivering wood chips to a specific location given road network maps and maps of farmgate prices and supplies of woody chips from short rotation energy crops. Marginal costs of delivered chips varied by both facility location in the state and facility demand. Marginal costs were lowest in central Tennessee unless the facility demand was greater than 2.7 million dry Mg per year (3 million dry tons per year) in which case west Tennessee was the lowest cost region. Marginal costs rose rapidly with increasing facility demand in the mountainous eastern portion of the state. Transportation costs accounted for 18 to 29% of the delivered cost and ranged between $8 and $18/dry Mg ($7 and $16/dry ton). Reducing the expected farmer participation rate from 100% to 50% or 25% dramatically raised the marginal costs of feedstock supply in the east and central regions of the state. The analysis demonstrates the need to use geographically-specific information when projecting the potential costs and supplies of biomass feedstock.

  11. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585 Section 35.6585 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under...

  12. FARM LABOR COSTS AND FOOD PRICES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL WORKER EMPLOYMENT ON FARM-LABOR COSTS, FOOD PRICES, AND RETURN TO THE FARMER, AN ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE 1964-65 CHANGES IN THESE FACTORS FOR SELECTED CALIFORNIA CROPS. TOMATOES, LETTUCE, STRAWBERRIES, CANTALOUPES, CELERY, LEMONS, AND ASPARAGUS, WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR 71 PERCENT OF THE…

  13. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210.45 Section 1210.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210.45 Section 1210.45 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...

  15. Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-06-12

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

  16. 48 CFR 15.403 - Obtaining certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or pricing data. 15.403 Section 15.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403 Obtaining certified cost or pricing data....

  17. 48 CFR 15.403 - Obtaining certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or pricing data. 15.403 Section 15.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403 Obtaining certified cost or pricing data....

  18. 48 CFR 15.403 - Obtaining certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or pricing data. 15.403 Section 15.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403 Obtaining certified cost or pricing data....

  19. 48 CFR 15.403 - Obtaining certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or pricing data. 15.403 Section 15.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403 Obtaining certified cost or pricing data....

  20. 48 CFR 15.403 - Obtaining certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or pricing data. 15.403 Section 15.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403 Obtaining certified cost or pricing data....

  1. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  2. The Short- and Long-Run Marginal Cost Curves: An Alternative Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Laura A.; Boyd, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues related to short-run marginal cost and long-run marginal cost in economic theory. Asserts that few economics textbooks deal with important aspects of this concept. Includes four figures illustrating the approach suggested by the authors. (CFR)

  3. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  4. Costs of Building Waste Facilities; Price Per Shipment to Recoup Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-05-14

    The Automated Pricing Schedule is a computer model for evaluating the economics of developing, operating, and closing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site. It provides pricing for individual shipments based on the characteristics of the shipment, and calculates a disposal fee to be charged for each shipment to recover the costs of the facility. It includes a sensitivity analysis module to evaluate the effect of varying the parameters of the model.

  5. 48 CFR 15.403-5 - Instructions for submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. 15.403-5... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-5 Instructions for submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. (a) Taking...

  6. 48 CFR 15.403-5 - Instructions for submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. 15.403-5... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-5 Instructions for submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. (a) Taking...

  7. 48 CFR 15.403-5 - Instructions for submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. 15.403-5... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-5 Instructions for submission of certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data. (a) Taking...

  8. 77 FR 2680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... definition of cost or pricing data, published at 75 FR 53135 on August 30, 2010. II. Executive Orders 12866... cost or pricing data, published at 75 FR 53135 on August 30, 2010. DoD does not expect this proposed... RIN 0750-AH49 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing...

  9. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submission of certified cost or pricing data at (FAR) 48 CFR 15.403-4(a)(1), and (2) Be limited to such... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  10. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leasing and full-cost pricing. 426.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.6 Leasing and full-cost pricing. (a... or lessee should select land as subject to full-cost pricing, then that land can receive...

  11. 48 CFR 52.215-12 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-12 Section 52.215-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.215-12 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(d), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) Before...

  12. 48 CFR 52.215-12 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-12 Section 52.215-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.215-12 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(d), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) Before...

  13. 48 CFR 52.215-13 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-13 Section 52.215-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-13 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications. As prescribed in 15.408(e), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  14. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... submission of certified cost or pricing data at (FAR) 48 CFR 15.403-4(a)(1), and (2) Be limited to such... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  15. 48 CFR 52.215-12 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-12 Section 52.215-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.215-12 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(d), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) Before...

  16. 48 CFR 52.215-13 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-13 Section 52.215-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-13 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications. As prescribed in 15.408(e), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  17. 48 CFR 52.215-13 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-13 Section 52.215-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-13 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications. As prescribed in 15.408(e), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  18. 48 CFR 52.215-12 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-12 Section 52.215-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.215-12 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(d), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) Before...

  19. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leasing and full-cost pricing. 426.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.6 Leasing and full-cost pricing. (a... or lessee should select land as subject to full-cost pricing, then that land can receive...

  20. 48 CFR 52.215-13 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-13 Section 52.215-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-13 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications. As prescribed in 15.408(e), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  1. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... submission of certified cost or pricing data at (FAR) 48 CFR 15.403-4(a)(1), and (2) Be limited to such... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  2. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Leasing and full-cost pricing. 426.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.6 Leasing and full-cost pricing. (a... or lessee should select land as subject to full-cost pricing, then that land can receive...

  3. 43 CFR 426.6 - Leasing and full-cost pricing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leasing and full-cost pricing. 426.6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.6 Leasing and full-cost pricing. (a... or lessee should select land as subject to full-cost pricing, then that land can receive...

  4. 48 CFR 52.215-13 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-13 Section 52.215-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-13 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications. As prescribed in 15.408(e), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  5. 48 CFR 52.214-28 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... submission of certified cost or pricing data at (FAR) 48 CFR 15.403-4(a)(1), and (2) Be limited to such... Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-28 Section 52.214-28 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-28 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing...

  6. 48 CFR 52.215-12 - Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-12 Section 52.215-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.215-12 Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(d), insert the following clause: Subcontractor Certified Cost or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) Before...

  7. 48 CFR 15.403-2 - Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data are not required. 15.403-2 Section 15.403-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Contract Pricing 15.403-2 Other circumstances where certified cost or pricing data are not required. (a... require submission of certified cost or pricing data. (b) Certified cost or pricing data are not...

  8. Marginal cost of electricity 1980-1995: an approximation based on the cost of new coal and nuclear generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Emery, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents estimates of the costs of new coal and nuclear base-load generating capacity which is either currently under construction or planned by utilities to meet their load-growth expectations during the period from 1980 to 1995. These capacity cost estimates are used in conjunction with announced plant capacities and commercial-operation dates to develop state-level estimates of busbar costs of electricity. From these projected busbar costs, aggregated estimates of electricity costs at the retail level are developed for DOE Regions. The introductory chapter explains the rationale for using the cost of electricity from base-load plants to approximate the marginal cost of electricity. The next major section of the report outlines the methodology and major assumptions used. This is followed by a detailed description of the empirical analysis, including the equations used for each of the cost components. The fourth section presents the resultant marginal cost estimates.

  9. Method for computing marginal costs associated with on-site energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, R.; Davitian, H.

    1980-08-01

    A method for calculating long-run marginal costs for an electric utility is described. The method is especially suitable for computing the marginal costs associated with the use of small on-site energy technologies, i.e., cogenerators, solar heating and hot water systems, wind generators, etc., which are interconnected with electric utilities. In particular, both the costs a utility avoids when power is delivered to it from a facility with an on-site generator and marginal cost to the utility of supplementary power sold to the facility can be calculated. A utility capacity expansion model is used to compute changes in the utility's costs when loads are modified by the use of the on-site technology. Changes in capacity-related costs and production costs are thus computed in an internally consistent manner. The variable nature of the generation/load pattern of the on-site technology is treated explicitly. The method yields several measures of utility costs that can be used to develop rates based on marginal avoided costs for on-site technologies as well as marginal cost rates for conventional utility customers.

  10. Costs and prices of single dental fillings in Europe: a micro-costing study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siok Swan; Ken Redekop, W; Rutten, Frans F H

    2008-01-01

    Dental fillings represent an established procedure to treat tooth decay. The present paper provides a cost comparison of dental filling procedures across nine European countries. More specifically, the paper aims to estimate the costs and prices (i.e. reimbursement fees) of a single dental filling procedure in an approximately 12-year-old child with a toothache in a lower molar who presents at a dental practice, as described in a case vignette. Both amalgam and composite fillings were examined. Total costs were determined by identifying resource use and unit costs for the following cost components: diagnostic procedures, labour, materials, drugs, and overheads. Altogether, 49 practices provided data for the cost calculations. Mean total costs per country varied considerably, ranging from 8 euros to 156 euros. Labour costs were the most important cost driver in all practices, comprising 58% of total costs. Overhead costs were the second-most important cost component in the majority of countries. Actual cost differences across practices within countries were relatively small. Cost variations between countries were primarily due to differences in unit costs, especially for labour and overheads, and only to a lesser extent to differences in resource use. Finally, cost estimates for a single dental filling procedure based on reimbursement fees led to an underestimation of the total costs by approximately 50%. PMID:18186032

  11. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules. 1.925(b)-1T Section 1.925(b)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Earned Income of Citizens of United States § 1.925(b)-1T Temporary regulations; marginal...

  12. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  13. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or pricing data. 15.407-1 Section 15.407-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407-1 Defective certified cost or pricing data. (a) If, before agreement on price, the contracting officer...

  14. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or pricing data. 15.407-1 Section 15.407-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407-1 Defective certified cost or pricing data. (a) If, before agreement on price, the contracting officer...

  15. 48 CFR 15.407-1 - Defective certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or pricing data. 15.407-1 Section 15.407-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407-1 Defective certified cost or pricing data. (a) If, before agreement on price, the contracting officer...

  16. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M. R.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.

    2013-07-01

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  17. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-20 Section 52.215-20 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  18. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-21 Section 52.215-21 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...

  19. 23 CFR 636.508 - Can price or cost be an issue in discussions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can price or cost be an issue in discussions? 636.508 Section 636.508 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND... Can price or cost be an issue in discussions? You may inform an offeror that its price is...

  20. 23 CFR 636.508 - Can price or cost be an issue in discussions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can price or cost be an issue in discussions? 636.508 Section 636.508 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND... Can price or cost be an issue in discussions? You may inform an offeror that its price is...

  1. 23 CFR 636.508 - Can price or cost be an issue in discussions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can price or cost be an issue in discussions? 636.508 Section 636.508 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND... Can price or cost be an issue in discussions? You may inform an offeror that its price is...

  2. 23 CFR 636.508 - Can price or cost be an issue in discussions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can price or cost be an issue in discussions? 636.508 Section 636.508 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND... Can price or cost be an issue in discussions? You may inform an offeror that its price is...

  3. 48 CFR 215.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data. 215.403-3 Section 215.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.403-3 Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data. Follow...

  4. 48 CFR 215.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data. 215.403-3 Section 215.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.403-3 Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data. Follow...

  5. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data. 15.403-3 Section 15.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-3 Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data. (a)(1) In those acquisitions that...

  6. 48 CFR 5252.215-9000 - Submission of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pricing data. 5252.215-9000 Section 5252.215-9000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Clauses 5252.215-9000 Submission of cost or pricing data. As prescribed at 5215.407, insert the following provision: Submission of Cost or Pricing Data (NOV 1987) (a) It is expected that this contract will...

  7. 48 CFR 5252.215-9000 - Submission of cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pricing data. 5252.215-9000 Section 5252.215-9000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Clauses 5252.215-9000 Submission of cost or pricing data. As prescribed at 5215.407, insert the following provision: Submission of Cost or Pricing Data (NOV 1987) (a) It is expected that this contract will...

  8. 48 CFR 215.403-3 - Requiring information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requiring information other than cost or pricing data. 215.403-3 Section 215.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.403-3 Requiring information other than cost or pricing...

  9. 48 CFR 15.403-3 - Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certified cost or pricing data. 15.403-3 Section 15.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-3 Requiring data other than certified cost or pricing data. (a)(1) In those acquisitions that...

  10. 48 CFR 215.403 - Obtaining certified cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining certified cost or pricing data. 215.403 Section 215.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Contract Pricing 215.403 Obtaining certified cost or pricing data....