Science.gov

Sample records for marine biological stations

  1. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  2. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  3. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  4. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  5. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  6. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens. PMID:12180100

  7. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wade, C. E.; Givens, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet NASA's objective of using the unique aspects of the space environment to expand fundamental knowledge in the biological sciences, the Space Station Biological Research Project at Ames Research Center is developing, or providing oversight, for two major suites of hardware which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The first, the Gravitational Biology Facility, consists of Habitats to support plants, rodents, cells, aquatic specimens, avian and reptilian eggs, and insects and the Habitat Holding Rack in which to house them at microgravity; the second, the Centrifuge Facility, consists of a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge that will provide acceleration levels between 0.01 g and 2.0 g and a Life Sciences Glovebox. These two facilities will support the conduct of experiments to: 1) investigate the effect of microgravity on living systems; 2) what level of gravity is required to maintain normal form and function, and 3) study the use of artificial gravity as a countermeasure to the deleterious effects of microgravity observed in the crew. Upon completion, the ISS will have three complementary laboratory modules provided by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Japanese space agency, NASDA. Use of all facilities in each of the modules will be available to investigators from participating space agencies. With the advent of the ISS, space-based gravitational biology research will transition from 10-16 day short-duration Space Shuttle flights to 90-day-or-longer ISS increments.

  8. Gloucester Marine Biology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Sonja; And Others

    Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of…

  9. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  10. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  11. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future. PMID:18299181

  12. A North Adriatic centenarian: The marine research station at Rovinj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnik, D.

    1995-03-01

    The institute in Rovinj was founded in 1891 as the field station of the Berlin Aquarium. It soon gained in scientific importance. From 1911, it was governed by various scientific bodies, such as the ‘Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften’, the ‘Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano’, and the ‘Jugoslavenska Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti’. At present, it is a department of the ‘Ruđer Bo\\vsković’ Institute, called the ‘Center for Marine Research Rovinj’. In the past hundred years, the Rovinj station experienced several ascents and declines in its development: both in the First and Second World Wars the station's scientific equipment, research vessels, library and reference collections were dispersed, and from 1945 1948 the station was closed. But in “happier” periods, rich support by the state and international bodies favoured the increase in research facilities and promoted interest among visiting scientists. The station has always been involved in studies of the Adriatic Sea, especially in its northern part. It contributed much to general knowledge of oceanography, of the physics and chemistry of the sea, but its paramount contribution is to various disciplines of marine biological sciences. Applied research, however, was most oriented to fisheries biology, especially shellfish culture, to resource studies, and, recently, to toxicology, bacteriology, eutrophication and pollution monitoring. The international approach in science and applied research was always favoured. At present, the Center is well equipped for complex coastal and offshore field- and laboratory research, and maintains facilities for graduate and postgraduate teaching. Scientific dissemination is also promoted by the public aquarium and professional meetings.

  13. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  14. Gravitational biology on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  15. The Biological Stations of Europe. Bulletin, 1910, No. 4. Whole Number 440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofoid, Charles Atwood

    1910-01-01

    This report is based in large part upon a personal examination of the fresh water and marine biological stations of Europe, made in the summers of 1908 and 1909. Its purpose is to put in convenient form for reference an account of the history, organization, equipment, and work of the various stations of Europe, and to indicate their relations to…

  16. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS: MARINE MAMMALS AND SEA TURTLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the description of the Arthur Kill biological features presented in Chapter 1, marine mammals and sea turtles are not discussed since they are not regular residents of this area. owever, marine turtles, seals, and cetaccans are occasionally sighted in the Arthur Kill, and they...

  17. Field Techniques in Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is one teacher's method of teaching students to use various marine and scientific apparati while studying important relationships within the ecosystem. A data retrieval chart is included with questions and problems to ask about the data, along with information on how to interpret the data chart. (MA)

  18. Biological research on a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1990-01-01

    A Space Station can provide reliable, long duration access to ug environments for basic and applied biological research. The uniqueness of access to near-weightless environments to probe fundamental questions of significance to gravitational and Space biologists can be exploited from many vantage points. Access to centrifuge facilities that can provide 1 g and hypo-g controls will permit identification of gravity-dependent or primary effects. Understanding secondary effects of the ug environment as well will allow a fuller exploitation of the Space environment.

  19. Genetic Perspectives on Marine Biological Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Jonathan B.; Darling, John A.; Carlton, James T.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the geographic distributions of marine organisms have been reshaped by human activities remains underappreciated, and so does, consequently, the impact of invasive species on marine ecosystems. The application of molecular genetic data in fields such as population genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary biology have improved our ability to make inferences regarding invasion histories. Genetic methods have helped to resolve longstanding questions regarding the cryptogenic status of marine species, facilitated recognition of cryptic marine biodiversity, and provided means to determine the sources of introduced marine populations and to begin to recover the patterns of anthropogenic reshuffling of the ocean's biota. These approaches stand to aid materially in the development of effective management strategies and sustainable science-based policies. Continued advancements in the statistical analysis of genetic data promise to overcome some existing limitations of current approaches. Still other limitations will be best addressed by concerted collaborative and multidisciplinary efforts that recognize the important synergy between understanding the extent of biological invasions and coming to a more complete picture of both modern-day and historical marine biogeography.

  20. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  1. Environmental biology of the marine Roseobacter lineage.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Biebl, Hanno

    2006-01-01

    The Roseobacter lineage is a phylogenetically coherent, physiologically heterogeneous group of alpha-Proteobacteria comprising up to 25% of marine microbial communities, especially in coastal and polar oceans, and it is the only lineage in which cultivated bacteria are closely related to environmental clones. Currently 41 subclusters are described, covering all major marine ecological niches (seawater, algal blooms, microbial mats, sediments, sea ice, marine invertebrates). Members of the Roseobacter lineage play an important role for the global carbon and sulfur cycle and the climate, since they have the trait of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, oxidize the greenhouse gas carbon monoxide, and produce the climate-relevant gas dimethylsulfide through the degradation of algal osmolytes. Production of bioactive metabolites and quorum-sensing-regulated control of gene expression mediate their success in complex communities. Studies of representative isolates in culture, whole-genome sequencing, e.g., of Silicibacter pomeroyi, and the analysis of marine metagenome libraries have started to reveal the environmental biology of this important marine group. PMID:16719716

  2. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2005-11-22

    We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the approximately 95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists. PMID:16243696

  3. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15 500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the ∼95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists. PMID:16243696

  4. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  5. Developmental biology in marine invertebrate symbioses.

    PubMed

    McFall-Ngai, M J; Ruby, E G

    2000-12-01

    Associations between marine invertebrates and their cooperative bacterial symbionts offer access to an understanding of the roots of host-microbe interaction; for example, several symbioses like the squid-vibrio light organ association serve as models for investigating how each partner affects the developmental biology of the other. Previous results have identified a program of specific developmental events that unfolds as the association is initiated. In the past year, published studies have focused primarily on describing the mechanisms underlying the signaling processes that occur between the juvenile squid and the luminous bacteria that colonize it. PMID:11121780

  6. Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissler, D.

    1995-03-01

    Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892. The picture, of which several variant poses with minor differences exist, is a photograph taken on Helgoland in September, 1865. The original is to be found in the collections of the Ernst-Haeckel-Haus in Jena. The photograph shows only a few objects and fewer persons, but they are arranged like a bouquet: in front, collecting vessels; behind, grouped around a table, five scientists, Dohrn, Greeff, Haeckel, Salverda, Marchi. They hold up their catching nets like insignia, identifying their basic activity. This photograph is a unique document for the marine biological research on Helgoland before 1892. Furthermore, it illustrates a time and place for the birth of the idea of establishing the world's most famous marine biological station, the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.

  7. Conservation biology: beyond marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, Peter

    2006-07-25

    Socioeconomic and ecological analyses of eleven coral reef conservation efforts make clear that marine protected areas are not the answer, and that in fact support of local communities is far more important than some government mandated 'fishing closure'. Apparently there are marine 'paper parks' just as there are terrestrial 'paper parks'. PMID:16860727

  8. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Zhao, Yue

    2012-05-01

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state's obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection. PMID:22364923

  9. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

  10. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  11. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'. PMID:23342119

  12. From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming ‘big science’. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international ‘Census of Marine Life’ (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration – including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication – I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different ‘collective ways of knowing’. PMID:23342119

  13. Two If by Sea: Marine Biological Invasions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimowitz, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses alien species on the west coast, efforts to combat invasions, methods of transport, and educational projects developed to aid prevention efforts. Includes a list of marine invaders in the Pacific Northwest, plus threats from California and the Great Lakes. (PVD)

  14. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology, Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual contains instructions for laboratory exercises using marine organisms. For each exercise a problem is defined, materials are listed, possible ways to solve the problem are suggested, questions are asked to guide the student in interpreting data, and further reading is suggested. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen…

  15. Studies on marine toxins: chemical and biological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonik, Valentin A.; Stonik, Inna V.

    2010-07-01

    The structures and mechanisms of biological action of the best known representatives of the main groups of marine toxins are presented. It is shown that many compounds have complex chemical structures and possess extremely high toxicities. Characteristic features of isolation, structure determination and syntheses of these compounds using the achievement of modern organic chemistry are discussed. The methods of identification and quantitative analysis of marine toxins are briefly reviewed.

  16. Space Station Biological Research Project: Reference Experiment Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine (Editor); Wade, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP), which is the combined efforts of the Centrifuge Facility (CF) and the Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), is responsible for the development of life sciences hardware to be used on the International Space Station to support cell, developmental, and plant biology research. The SSBRP Reference Experiment Book was developed to use as a tool for guiding this development effort. The reference experiments characterize the research interests of the international scientific community and serve to identify the hardware capabilities and support equipment needed to support such research. The reference experiments also serve as a tool for understanding the operational aspects of conducting research on board the Space Station. This material was generated by the science community by way of their responses to reference experiment solicitation packages sent to them by SSBRP scientists. The solicitation process was executed in two phases. The first phase was completed in February of 1992 and the second phase completed in November of 1995. Representing these phases, the document is subdivided into a Section 1 and a Section 2. The reference experiments contained in this document are only representative microgravity experiments. They are not intended to define actual flight experiments. Ground and flight experiments will be selected through the formal NASA Research Announcement (NRA) and Announcement of Opportunity (AO) experiment solicitation, review, and selection process.

  17. EvoDevo meets ecology: the Ninth Okazaki Biology Conference on Marine Biology.

    PubMed

    Technau, Ulrich; Weis, Virginia M

    2013-01-01

    The "9th Okazaki Biology Conference: Marine Biology II" held at the National Institute for Basic Biology (NIBB) in Okazaki, Japan and at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) in Okinawa, Japan (14-19 October 2012) bridged the fields of EvoDevo, symbiosis and coral reef ecology. PMID:23800318

  18. EvoDevo meets ecology: the Ninth Okazaki Biology Conference on Marine Biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The “9th Okazaki Biology Conference: Marine Biology II” held at the National Institute for Basic Biology (NIBB) in Okazaki, Japan and at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) in Okinawa, Japan (14–19 October 2012) bridged the fields of EvoDevo, symbiosis and coral reef ecology. PMID:23800318

  19. Gravitational Biology Facility on Space Station: Meeting the needs of space biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Katherine; Wade, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF) is a set of generic laboratory equipment needed to conduct research on Space Station Freedom (SSF), focusing on Space Biology Program science (Cell and Developmental Biology and Plant Biology). The GBF will be functional from the earliest utilization flights through the permanent manned phase. Gravitational biology research will also make use of other Life Sciences equipment on the space station as well as existing equipment developed for the space shuttle. The facility equipment will be developed based on requirements derived from experiments proposed by the scientific community to address critical questions in the Space Biology Program. This requires that the facility have the ability to house a wide variety of species, various methods of observation, and numerous methods of sample collection, preservation, and storage. The selection of the equipment will be done by the members of a scientific working group (5 members representing cell biology, 6 developmental biology, and 6 plant biology) who also provide requirements to design engineers to ensure that the equipment will meet scientific needs. All equipment will undergo extensive ground based experimental validation studies by various investigators addressing a variety of experimental questions. Equipment will be designed to be adaptable to other space platforms. The theme of the Gravitational Biology Facility effort is to provide optimal and reliable equipment to answer the critical questions in Space Biology as to the effects of gravity on living systems.

  20. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  1. Natural products with health benefits from marine biological resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ocean is the cradle of lives, which provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products that has captured scientists’ attention in the past few decades due to their significant and extremely potent biological activities. In addition to being rich sources for pharmaceutical drugs, marine nat...

  2. Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station - a new Baltic Sea ICOS-site for sea-atmosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Lauri; Laurila, Tuomas; Mäkelä, Timo; Hatakka, Juha; Purokoski, Tero; Hietala, Riikka; Roine, Tuomo; Jämsen, Pertti; Kielosto, Sami; Asmi, Eija; Lonka, Harry; Alenius, Pekka; Drebs, Achim; Seppälä, Jukka; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric research has developed a concept of focused, multidisciplinary, automated observation platforms with continuous high time resolution observations. This approach containing state-of-the-art equipment has enabled research on physical, chemical and biological processes and seasonal variability and showed up new, previously unknown phenomena. New technical and engineering solutions allowing, such approach is also state-of-the-art in marine research through projects like US Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory (EMSO), JERICO-NEXT and Japanese DONET. At the Baltic Sea, on Island of Utö (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E), Finnish Meteorological Institute has observed meteorology since 1881, marine parameters since 1900 and a diversity of atmospheric chemical and physical variables since 1980. Recent years the stations has also been upgraded with aerosol observations, and together with Finnish Environment Institute, on marine observations. The current and observations under construction at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station (en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/uto. Marine observations: surface waves, ice-cover radar, temperature and salinity and oxygen at different depths, chlorophyll, cyanobacteria, underwater flows, turbidity, pCO2 and nutrients. Atmospheric observations: T, WS, WD, visibility, cloud height, boundary layer wind profiles and turbulence, weather and underwater camera, aerosol particle size distributions, aerosol light scattering and absorption, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, CO2, CH4, sea-atmosphere CO2- and heat fluxes. In our presentation, we present for the first time some 100 years of climate relevant atmospheric and marine observations from Utö.

  3. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

  4. Hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Survey work from 1992–2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7%) followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%). The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3%) of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, Alurnus salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni. PMID:22303103

  5. [Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days. PMID:21033402

  6. Marine biology, intertidal ecology, and a new place for biology.

    PubMed

    Benson, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, there is considerable interest for the physical setting of science, that is, its actual 'place' of practice. Among historians of biology, place has been considered to be a crucial component for the study of ecology. Other historians have noted the 'built' environments (laboratories) for the study of biology along the seashore, even referring to these places in terms more applicable to vacation sites. In this paper, I examine the place of intertidal ecology investigations, both in terms of the physical space and the built space. Part of the examination will investigate the aesthetic aspect of the Pacific Coast, part will evaluate the unique character of the intertidal zone, and part will consider the construction of natural laboratories and built laboratories as characteristic places for biology. PMID:25515145

  7. Fundamental Biological Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.; Yost, Bruce; Fletcher, L.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental Biology Program of NASA's Life Sciences Division is chartered with enabling and sponsoring research on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to understand the effects of the space flight environment, particularly microgravity, on living systems. To accomplish this goal, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has been tasked with managing the development of a number of biological habitats, along with their support systems infrastructure. This integrated suite of habitats and support systems is being designed to support research requirements identified by the scientific community. As such, it will support investigations using cells and tissues, avian eggs, insects, plants, aquatic organisms and rodents. Studies following organisms through complete life cycles and over multiple generations will eventually be possible. As an adjunct to the development of these basic habitats, specific analytical and monitoring technologies are being targeted for maturation to complete the research cycle by transferring existing or emerging analytical techniques, sensors, and processes from the laboratory bench to the ISS research platform.

  8. Facilities for Biological Research Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, Kenneth A.; Yost, Bruce D.; Berry, William E.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1996-01-01

    A centrifuge designed as part of an integrated biological facility for installation onboard the International Space Station is presented. The requirements for the 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, which is designed for the support of biological experiments are discussed. The scientific objectives of the facility are to: provide a means of conducting fundamental studies in which gravitational acceleration is a controllable variable; provide a 1g control; determine the threshold acceleration for physiological response, and determine the value of centrifugation as a potential countermeasure for the biomedical problems associated with space flight. The implementation of the facility is reported on, and the following aspects of the facility are described: the host resources systems supply requirements such as power and data control; the habitat holding rack; the life sciences glove box; the centrifuge; the different habitats for cell culture, aquatic studies, plant research and insect research; the egg incubator, and the laboratory support equipment.

  9. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J

    2014-01-01

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans. PMID:24862402

  10. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C.; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J.

    2014-05-01

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans.

  11. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C.; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J.

    2014-01-01

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans. PMID:24862402

  12. Biofilms, bacterial signaling, and their ties to marine biology.

    PubMed

    Pasmore, Mark; Costerton, J William

    2003-07-01

    Much of what is know about quorum sensing has come from the study of marine biology. The original description of the phenomenon was based on the study of marine bacteria and the luminescent pathway. More recently, aquatic organisms have been found to inhibit bacterial fouling of surfaces by blocking signaling pathways in the bacteria. These signaling effects have, over the last 5 years, been linked to biofilms. However, this correlation is not as straight forward as originally believed. Here, a brief overview of quorum sensing, and background on biofilms is provided, followed by a discussion of more recent work looking at the effects that environment may have on signal expression. PMID:12884126

  13. Guidelines for Marine Biological Reference Collections. Unesco Reports in Marine Sciences, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hureau, J. C.; Rice, A. L.

    This manual provides practical advice on the appropriation, conservation, and documentation of a marine biological reference collection, in response to needs expressed by Mediterranean Arab countries. A reference collection is defined as a working museum containing a series of specimens with which biologists are able to compare their own material.…

  14. 78 FR 1838 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...We have received an application from the St. George Reef Lighthouse Preservation Society (Society), for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment incidental to conducting aircraft operations, lighthouse renovation, and light maintenance activities on the St. George Reef Light Station on Northwest Seal Rock (NWSR) in the northeast Pacific Ocean from the......

  15. 76 FR 79157 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...NMFS has received an application from the St. George Reef Lighthouse Preservation Society (SGRLPS), for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment incidental to conducting aircraft operations, lighthouse renovation, and light maintenance activities on the St. George Reef Light Station on Northwest Seal Rock (NWSR) in the northeast Pacific Ocean from the......

  16. Space Station Freedom: a unique laboratory for gravitational biology research.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R W; Cowing, K L

    1993-04-01

    The advent of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide a permanent laboratory in space with unparalleled opportunities to perform biological research. As with any spacecraft there will also be limitations. It is our intent to describe this space laboratory and present a picture of how scientists will conduct research in this unique environment we call space. SSF is an international venture which will continue to serve as a model for other peaceful international efforts. It is hoped that as the human race moves out from this planet back to the moon and then on to Mars that SSF can serve as a successful example of how things can and should be done. PMID:11537716

  17. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. PMID:23563183

  18. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  19. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  20. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  1. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  2. Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponganis, Paul J.

    2007-02-01

    Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

  3. Biological effects and subsequent economic effects and losses from marine pollution and degradations in marine environments: Implications from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, Douglas D; Seneca, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    This paper serves as the missing piece in a more fuller understanding about economic losses from marine pollution, and demonstrates what losses have been estimated in the literature. Biological effects from marine pollution are linked with resulting economic effects and losses. The merging of these two areas is usually absent in studies of marine pollution losses. The literature has examined several effects due to marine pollution: damages due to harvest closures-restrictions, damages from consumption of unsafe seafood, damages due to decreased recreational activity, and damages related to waterfront real estate adjacent to contaminated water. Overall, marine pollution can and has resulted in sizable economic effects and losses. On the basis of the literature there is adequate justification for public policy actions to curb marine pollution, require inspection of seafood for toxic substances, and preserve marine water quality and sensitive marine environments. PMID:16740278

  4. Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregr, Edward J.; Bodtker, Karin M.

    2007-03-01

    The move to ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries and endangered species would be greatly facilitated by a quantitative method for identifying marine ecosystems that captures temporal dynamics at meso-scale (10s or 100s of kilometers) resolutions. Understanding the dynamics of ecosystem boundaries, which may differ according to the species of interest or the management objectives, is a fundamental challenge of ecosystem-based management. We present an adaptive ecosystem classification that begins to address these challenges. To demonstrate the approach, we quantitatively bounded distinct, biologically meaningful marine regions in the North Pacific Ocean based on physical oceanography. We identified the regions by applying image classification algorithms to a comprehensive description of the ocean's surface, derived from an oceanographic circulation model. Our resulting maps illustrate 15 distinct marine regions. The size and location of these regions related well to previously described water masses in the North Pacific. We investigated seasonal and long-term changes in the pattern of regions and their boundaries by dividing the oceanographic data into four seasons and two 10-year time periods, one on either side of the 1976-1977 North Pacific Ocean climate regime shift. We compared our results for each season across the regime shift and for sequential seasons within regimes using the Kappa Index of Agreement and the index of Average Mutual Information. Seasonal patterns were more similar between regimes than from one season to the next within a regime, while the magnitude of seasonal transitions appeared to differ before and after the regime shift. We assessed the biological relevance of the identified regions using seasonal maps derived from remotely sensed chlorophyll- a concentrations ([chl-a]). We used Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests to evaluate the correspondence between the [chl-a] maps and our post-regime shift regions. There was a

  5. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

  6. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Markantonatou, Vasiliki; Pavloudi, Christina; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Pafilis, Evangelos; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Dailianis, Thanos; Fanini, Lucia; Koulouri, Panayota; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The study of ecosystem functioning - the role which organisms play in an ecosystem - is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

  7. [Comparative analysis of seven marine biological source of mineral drugs].

    PubMed

    Si, Wei; A, Ru-na; Li, Shang-rong; Zhang, Jing-Xian; Wu, Wan-ying; Cui, Ya-jun

    2014-09-01

    The marine biological source of mineral drugs recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version) mainly including pearl, nacre, clam shell, common oyster shell, ark shell, cuttle bone, and sea-ear shell are widely used in clinical. Calcium carbonate and a small amount of protein are the main components in this type of drugs. In this paper, a systematical and comparable study were carried out by determination of calcium carbonate by EDTA titration method, the crystal of calcium carbonate by X-Ray powder diffraction and the total amino acids (TAAs) of the hydrolyzed samples by ultraviolet spectrophotometry method. As a result, the crystal structure is calcite for common oyster shell, mixture of calcite and aragonite for nacre and sea-ear shell, aragonite for the other drugs. The content of calcium carbonate ranged from 86% to 96%. Cuttle bone has the highest amount of TAAs among the seven drugs which reached 1.7% while clam shell has the lowest content of 0.16% on average. In conclusion, an effective method was developed for the quality control of marine mineral drugs by comprehensive analysis of calcium carbonate and TAAs in the seven marine mineral drugs. PMID:25522620

  8. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Lena; Hoem, Nils; Banni, Sebastiano; Berge, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    The biological activities of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) have been under extensive study for several decades. However, not much attention has been paid to differences of dietary forms, such as triglycerides (TGs) versus ethyl esters or phospholipids (PLs). New innovative marine raw materials, like krill and fish by-products, present n-3 FAs mainly in the PL form. With their increasing availability, new evidence has emerged on n-3 PL biological activities and differences to n-3 TGs. In this review, we describe the recently discovered nutritional properties of n-3 PLs on different parameters of metabolic syndrome and highlight their different metabolic bioavailability in comparison to other dietary forms of n-3 FAs. PMID:23203133

  9. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  10. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology for Upper Elementary and Secondary School Grades, Teachers Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    Designed to assist the teacher who wishes to use marine organisms for biological laboratory investigations, this manual includes general information on maintaining marine aquaria and collecting marine organisms as well as five tested laboratory exercises. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen consumption (giving techniques for…

  11. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  12. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or chemistry.…

  13. IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

  14. Biological surface-active compounds from marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dang, Nga Phuong; Landfald, Bjarne; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2016-01-01

    Surface-active compounds (SACs) are widely used in different industries as well as in many daily consumption products. However, with the increasing concern for their environmental acceptability, attention has turned towards biological SACs which are biodegradable, less toxic and more environmentally friendly. In this work, 176 marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial isolates from petroleum-contaminated sites along the Norwegian coastline were isolated and screened for their capacity to produce biological SACs. Among them, 18 isolates were capable of reducing the surface tension of the culture medium by at least 20 mN m(-1) and/or capable of maintaining more than 40% of the emulsion volume after 24 h when growing on glucose or kerosene as carbon and energy source. These isolates were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Rhodococcus, Catenovulum, Cobetia, Glaciecola, Serratia, Marinomonas and Psychromonas. Two isolates, Rhodococcus sp. LF-13 and Rhodococcus sp. LF-22, reduced surface tension of culture medium by more than 40 mN m(-1) when growing on kerosene, n-hexadecane or rapeseed oil. The biosurfactants were produced by resting cells of the two Rhodococcus strains suggesting the biosynthesis of the biosurfactants was not necessarily associated with their growth on hydrocarbons. PMID:26506920

  15. Detecting regime shifts in marine systems with limited biological data: An example from southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzow, Michael A.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Frusher, Stewart D.; Dann, Peter; Tuck, Geoffrey N.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to detect ecological regime shifts in a data-limited setting was investigated, using southeast Australian ecosystems as a model. Community variability was summarized for 1968-2008 with the first two principal components (PCs) of recruitment estimates for six fish stocks and reproductive parameters for four seabird species; regional climate was summarized for 1953-2008 with the first two PCs for three parameters (sea surface temperature [SST], sea surface salinity, surface nitrate) measured at two stations; and basin-scale climate variability was summarized for 1950-2012 with mean South Pacific SST and the first two PCs of detrended South Pacific SST. The first two biology PCs explained 45% of total community variability. The first two PCs of basin-scale SST showed abrupt shifts similar to "regime" behavior observed in other ocean basins, and the first PC of basin-scale SST showed significant covariation with the first PC of regional climate. Together, these results are consistent with the strong community variability and decadal-scale red noise climatic variability associated with Northern Hemisphere regime shifts. However, statistical model selection showed that the first two PCs of regional climate and the first PC of biology time series all exhibited linear change, rather than abrupt shifts. This result is consistent with previous studies documenting rapid linear change in the climate and biology of southeast Australian shelf ecosystems, and we conclude that there is no evidence for regime shift behavior in the region's ecology. However, analysis of a large set of previously-published biological time series from the North Pacific (n = 64) suggests that studies using fewer than ∼30 biological time series, such as this one, may be unable to detect regime shifts. Thus we conclude that the nature of ecological variability in the region cannot be determined with available data. The development of additional long-term biological observations is needed

  16. The Late Miocene Carbon Isotope Shift and Marine Biological Productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diester-Haass, L.; Billups, K.; Emeis, K. C.

    2004-12-01

    The late Miocene global carbon isotope shift of approximately 1 per mil is not well understood. Is it linked to ocean-related processes such as the AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A.â_oBiologic BloomAƒAøAøâ_sA¬ \\(Farrell et al., 1995\\), or to changes in type \\(C3/C4 plants\\) or cover of terrestrial vegetation? Here we examine the evolution of marine biological productivity during the isotope shift at ODP Site 846 \\(Pacific equatorial upwelling, where the AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A.â_oBiologic BloomAƒAøAøâ_sA¬ has been first described, Farrell al, 1995\\) and at Indian Ocean Site 721 \\(monsoon-driven upwelling\\), and compare their productivity history with non upwelling locations in the Atlantic Ocean. The onset of the carbon isotope shift is accompanied at all locations by an increase in paleoproductivity derived from benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates \\(expressed as gC/cm2 * ky; Huerguera, 2000\\) and increased abundance of Uvigerina spp.. At the equatorial upwelling sites the increase is comparable to half present-day values to present-day values; in the Atlantic Ocean paleoproductivity increases from present-day up to 3 times present-day values. But the productivity maxima are not concurrent. The carbon isotope shift is accompanied by severe carbonate dissolution and reduced ventilation of bottom waters, as reflected in the occurrence of pyrite and good preservation of cartilageous fish debris. Carbonate preservation is good since about 6 Ma despite high productivity. We discuss changing deep water circulation patterns, increased weathering and continental nutrient delivery, as well as erosion of terrestrial vegetation as possible factors to explain our findings.

  17. Diversity of secondary metabolites from marine Bacillus species: chemistry and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-08-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  18. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  19. Chiral alkynylcarbinols from marine sponges: asymmetric synthesis and biological relevance.

    PubMed

    Listunov, Dymytrii; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi; Génisson, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Covering: up to March 2014. Previous review on the topic: B. W. Gung, C. R. Chim., 2009, 12, 489-505. Chiral α-functional lipidic propargylic alcohols extracted from marine sponges, in particular of the pacific genus Petrosia, constitute a class of acetylenic natural products exhibiting remarkable in vitro biological activities, especially anti-tumoral cytotoxicity. These properties, associated to functionalities that are uncommon among natural products, have prompted recent projects on asymmetric total synthesis. On the basis of a three-sector structural typology, three main sub-types of secondary alkynylcarbinols (with either alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl as the second substituent) can be identified as the minimal pharmacophoric units. Selected natural products containing these functionalities have been targeted using previously known or on purpose-designed procedures, where the stereo-determining step can be: (i) a C-C bond forming reaction (e.g. the Zn-mediated addition of alkynyl nucleophiles to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols), (ii) a functional layout (e.g. the asymmetric organo- or metallo-catalytic reduction of ynones), or (iii) an enantiomeric resolution (e.g. a lipase-mediated kinetic resolution via acetylation). The promising medicinal importance of these targets is finally surveyed, and future investigation prospects are proposed, such as: (i) further total synthesis of known or future extraction products; (ii) the synthesis of non-natural analogues, with simpler lipophilic environments of the alkynylcarbinol-based pharmacophoric units; (iii) the variation and optimization of both the pharmacophoric units and their lipophilic environment; and (iv) investigations into the biological mode of action of these unique structures. PMID:25275665

  20. Music and biology at the Naples Zoological Station.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Bernardino

    2015-01-01

    Anton Dohrn projected the Stazione Zoologica as composed of two complementary halves: nature and culture. This attitude was not only expression of the general cultural background of the nineteenth century cultural elite, for Dohrn both formed a coherent and organized whole. In my essay I will analyse the different levels of the relationship between music and biology. In particular, I will demonstrate that both share similar "styles of thought". In the last part I will show that Dohrn's most important scientific contribution, the concept or "principle" of Functionswechsel, provides evidence for the link he had established between music and biology. PMID:26013193

  1. Miocene Global Carbon Isotope Shifts and Marine Biological Productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diester-Haass, L.; Billups, K.

    2005-12-01

    The Miocene contains two major global carbon isotope shifts: a negative shift during the late Miocene (~8-6 Ma) and a positive shift during the mid-Miocene (16-14 Ma). We aim at deciphering possible changes in marine biological export productivity during these shifts by calculating paleoproductivity in gC/cm*ky from benthic foraminiferal numbers and accumulation rates at a number of sites spanning the world oceans. Our previous work has illustrated that the onset of the late Miocene negative d 13C shift, which has been attributed to enhanced erosion of terrestrial biomass and expansion of C4 plants, is also accompanied by an increase in marine export productivity from lower than present day values up to 2-3 times modern values at six sites (982, 1088, 721, 846, 1146, 1172; Diester-Haass et al, in press; Diester-Haass et al., in preparation). The Mid-Miocene 'Monterey Event', on the other hand, has been attributed to sequestration of organic material in circum-Pacific basins (Vincent and Berger, 1985) or wide spread deposition of brown coal and drowning of carbonate platforms (Föllmi et al., 2005) . For this particular time interval, our initial results from Site 608 (Atlantic Ocean) reveal relatively constant paleoproductivity values similar to modern ones ( about 10 gC/cm*ky) until 16.5 Ma, after which time paleoproductivity begins to increase until the end of our record at 11 Ma. Superimposed on the trend of generally increasing productivity, there are a number of productivity minima spaced roughly 0.5 million years apart. The long term trend in the paleoproductivity finds some similarities in the global composite benthic foraminiferal d 13C record as both proxies show an overall increase until ~14 Ma. Thereafter, however, paleoproductivity continues to increase while d 13C values decrease marking the end of the Monterey excursion. Stable isotope analyses from these same intervals will show to what extend the smaller scale fluctuations in paleoproductivity can

  2. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…

  3. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  4. Behavioral biology of mammalian reproduction and development for a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Space Station research includes two kinds of adaption to space: somatic (the adjustments made by an organism, within its lifetime, in response to local conditions), and transgenerational adaption (continuous exposure across sequential life cycles of genetic descendents). Transgenerational effects are akin to evolutionary process. Areas of a life Sciences Program in a space station address the questions of the behavioral biology of mammalian reproduction and development, using the Norway rat as the focus of experimentation.

  5. Seasonal fluctuation of DNA photodamage in marine plankton assemblages at Palmer Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Meador, Jarah; Jeffrey, Wade H; Kase, Jason P; Pakulski, J Dean; Chiarello, Stephanie; Mitchell, David L

    2002-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage frequencies were measured in DNA dosimeters and natural plankton communities during the austral spring at Palmer Station, Antarctica, during the 1999-2000 field season. We found that the fluence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) at the earth's surface correlated with stratospheric ozone concentrations, with significant ozone depletion observed because of "ozone hole" conditions. To verify the interdependence of ozone depletion and DNA damage in natural microbial communities, seawater was collected daily or weekly from Arthur Harbor at Palmer Station, Antarctica, throughout "ozone season," exposed to ambient sunlight between 0600 and 1800 h and fractionated using membrane filtration to separate phytoplankton and bacterioplankton populations. DNA from these fractions was isolated and DNA damage measured using radioimmunoassay. Under low-ozone conditions cyclobutane dimer concentrations in bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities were maximal. DNA damage measured in dosimeters correlated closely with ozone concentrations and UV-B fluence. Our studies offer further support to the theory that stratospheric deozonation is detrimental to marine planktonic organisms in the Southern Ocean. PMID:11950092

  6. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  7. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  8. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.

  9. ROLE OF PATHOBIOLOGY IN EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The editorial explores the role of the pathobiologist and problems encountered in estuarine/marine ecological investigations. Four areas are proposed for cooperative endeavor with scientists in other fields: (1) toxicological pathology in aquatic species; (2) pathophysiology of e...

  10. Marine biological valuation mapping of the Basque continental shelf (Bay of Biscay), within the context of marine spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Marta; Borja, Angel; Eede, Sarah Vanden; Deneudt, Klaas; Vincx, Magda; Galparsoro, Ibon; Legorburu, Irati

    2011-11-01

    Marine Biological Valuation (BV) has increased in importance in recent years, due to the need to establish accurate maps of biodiversity value. However, there have been few exercises undertaken in Southern Europe, in putting a value on marine biodiversity whilst at the same time looking at several biological components. This paper presents the complete Biological Valuation Map (BVM) of the Basque continental shelf and estuaries, using the methodology developed for the Belgian Continental Shelf. It includes all available biological data (zooplankton, macroalgae, macrobenthos, demersal fish, seabirds and cetaceans), from 2003 to 2010. BVMs aim to compile all available biological and ecological information for a selected study area, allocating an integrated intrinsic biological value to the subzones within the study area. Here, the results highlight specific areas (such as Jaizkibel or Cap Breton Canyon), as having high or very high integrated BV, using all of the components. Furthermore, some biodiversity 'hotspots' have been identified, according to a specific ecosystem component (e.g. mid-parts of the Oka estuary, for macroalgae, and the Cap Breton Canyon, for cetaceans). Comparison with the results obtained from other European countries, and with previously high-importance delimited zones within the study area, showed similar spatial trends and patterns. Therefore, the objectives of this contribution are: (i) to analyse and establish a spatial ecological value map of the continental shelf of the Basque Country (southern Bay of Biscay), using present BV methods; (ii) to compare the results obtained to other European countries, and (iii) to explore the application of these results to the Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requirements. This map can serve as a baseline for future MSP and can also be used for the determination of the environmental status, within the MSFD, for the qualitative descriptor 1

  11. Marine organic aerosol and oceanic biological activity: what we know and what we need (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, M.

    2009-12-01

    Observations carried out in the North Atlantic as well as in other marine locations evidenced a seasonal dependence of sub micron particle chemical composition on biological oceanic activity and a potentially important marine aerosol organic component from primary and/or secondary formation processes associated to marine vegetation and its seasonal cycle. Primary organics generated by bubble bursting in high biological activity periods are almost entirely water insoluble (WIOM up to 96 ± 2 % )and are constituted by aggregation of lipopolysaccharides exuded by phytoplankton with dominant surface tension character. In many marine environments the secondary organic fraction is dominated by MSA and by several oxygenated species (mainly carboxylic acids). New measurements also show the potential importance of secondary organic N species (biogenic amine salts ). However a large fraction of the secondary organic fraction (SOA) is still not characterized and the precursors are not identified. For modeling marine organics, besides reducing the uncertainty in the knowledge of the chemical composition and new precursors, it is of crucial importance to link marine aerosol organic composition to satellite products that could be better proxy for marine biological activity and of its decomposition products than chlorophyll-a.

  12. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  13. Conservation biology: strict marine protected areas prevent reef shark declines.

    PubMed

    Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2006-12-01

    Populations of two coral reef shark species are declining rapidly: the pattern of decline highlights both the substantial impact of poaching on closed areas and the success of strict no-entry marine protected areas in maintaining healthy shark populations. PMID:17141604

  14. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  15. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  16. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  17. Role of Marine Biology in Glacial-Interglacial CO2 Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohfeld, Karen E.; Le Quéré, Corinne; Harrison, Sandy P.; Anderson, Robert F.

    2005-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that changes in the marine biological pump caused a major portion of the glacial reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide by 80 to 100 parts per million through increased iron fertilization of marine plankton, increased ocean nutrient content or utilization, or shifts in dominant plankton types. We analyze sedimentary records of marine productivity at the peak and the middle of the last glacial cycle and show that neither changes in nutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean nor shifts in plankton dominance explain the CO2 drawdown. Iron fertilization and associated mechanisms can be responsible for no more than half the observed drawdown.

  18. Role of marine biology in glacial-interglacial CO2 cycles.

    PubMed

    Kohfeld, Karen E; Le Quéré, Corinne; Harrison, Sandy P; Anderson, Robert F

    2005-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that changes in the marine biological pump caused a major portion of the glacial reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide by 80 to 100 parts per million through increased iron fertilization of marine plankton, increased ocean nutrient content or utilization, or shifts in dominant plankton types. We analyze sedimentary records of marine productivity at the peak and the middle of the last glacial cycle and show that neither changes in nutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean nor shifts in plankton dominance explain the CO2 drawdown. Iron fertilization and associated mechanisms can be responsible for no more than half the observed drawdown. PMID:15802597

  19. Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.

    2015-01-01

    The 'biological pump' is the process by which photosynthetically-produced organic matter in the ocean descends from the surface layer to depth by a combination of sinking particles, advection or vertical mixing of dissolved organic matter, and transport by animals. Particulate organic matter that is exported downward from the euphotic zone is composed of combinations of fecal pellets from zooplankton and fish, organic aggregates known as 'marine snow' and phytodetritus from sinking phytoplankton. Previous reviews by Turner and Ferrante (1979) and Turner (2002) focused on publications that appeared through late 2001. Since that time, studies of the biological pump have continued, and there have been >300 papers on vertical export flux using sediment traps, large-volume filtration systems and other techniques from throughout the global ocean. This review will focus primarily on recent studies that have appeared since 2001. Major topics covered in this review are (1) an overview of the biological pump, and its efficiency and variability, and the role of dissolved organic carbon in the biological pump; (2) zooplankton fecal pellets, including the contribution of zooplankton fecal pellets to export flux, epipelagic retention of zooplankton fecal pellets due to zooplankton activities, zooplankton vertical migration and fecal pellet repackaging, microbial ecology of fecal pellets, sinking velocities of fecal pellets and aggregates, ballasting of sinking particles by mineral contents, phytoplankton cysts, intact cells and harmful algae toxins in fecal pellets, importance of fecal pellets from various types of zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton fecal pellets in picoplankton export; (3) marine snow, including the origins, abundance, and distributions of marine snow, particles and organisms associated with marine snow, consumption and fragmentation of marine snow by animals, pathogens associated with marine snow; (4) phytodetritus, including pulsed export of

  20. How are climate and marine biological outbreaks functionally linked?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Marshall L.; Bonaventura, Joseph; Mitchell, Todd P.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Shinn, Eugene A.; Van Dolah, Frances; Barber, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, large-scale episodic events such as disease epidemics, mass mortalities, harmful algal blooms and other population explosions have been occurring in marine environments at an historically unprecedented rate. The variety of organisms involved (host, pathogens and other opportunists) and the absolute number of episodes have also increased during this period. Are these changes coincidental? Between 1972 and 1976, a global climate regime shift took place, and it is manifest most clearly by a change in strength of the North Pacific and North Atlantic pressure systems. Consequences of this regime shift are: (1) prolonged drought conditions in the Sahel region of Africa; (2) increased dust supply to the global atmosphere, by a factor of approximately four; (3) increased easterly trade winds across the Atlantic; (4) increased eolian transport of dust to the Atlantic and Caribbean basins; and (5) increased deposition of iron-rich eolian dust to typically iron-poor marine regions. On the basis of well-documented climate and dust observations and the widely accepted increase in marine outbreak rates, this paper proposes that the increased iron supply has altered the micronutrient factors limiting growth of opportunistic organisms and virulence of pathogenic microbes, particularly in macronutrient-rich coastal systems.

  1. Atmospheric phosphorus load to the Baltic Sea - first measurements at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Saarnio, Karri; Hemmilä, Marja; Knuuttila, Seppo; Makkonen, Ulla; Vuorenmaa, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    The HELCOM (Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission) Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) has the overall objective of reaching the Baltic Sea in a good environmental status by 2021. The HELCOM Contracting Parties have agreed to restrict their nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea according to the BSAP Maximum Allowable Inputs (MAI) of nitrogen and phosphorus (P), which base on the eutrophication targets. Both waterborne and airborne loads should be taken into account in the implementation of the country allocation of nutrient reductions. The waterborne P load is regularly assessed in detail, whereas for the airborne part a very preliminary estimate is available due to insufficient monitoring data. At present a fixed estimate of 5 mg m-2 of atmospheric P deposition per year is used in the BSAP implementation. Measurements of bulk deposition and particulate concentration of P have been performed at the Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research station (59° 46'50N, 21° 22'23E) at the outer edge of the Archipelago Sea. Utö is a small rocky island without any arable land, so the local anthropogenic P emissions are low. Weekly bulk deposition measurements started in February, 2013 and the weekly sampling for the PM2.5 and the daily sampling for PM10 in 2014. Based on the results of the first year of the bulk deposition measurements, the annual wet deposition of total P in precipitation was nearly 5 mg m-2. For soluble PO4-P, the wet deposition in precipitation was about 2 mg m-2. The maximum concentrations were measured in late spring and in summer during the biological growing period. The level of the soluble PO4-P concentration in the PM10 particles was lower during the winter months (median 6 ng m-3) compared to the growing season (median 10 ng m-3). In fine particles (PM2.5), the PO4-P level was lower (1-2 ng m-3) than in the PM10 samples, often under the detection level of the IC method used. Natural biogenic aerosols like pollen, algae and fragments of leaves are

  2. Use of the confocal laser scanning microscope in studies on the developmental biology of marine crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Zupo, Valerio; Miralto, Antonio

    2003-03-01

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope techniques have been applied to study the developmental biology of marine copepods and decapod larvae. The lipophylic probes DiI and DiOC(6) were used to study both the external and internal morphology of these crustaceans, whereas the same DiOC(6) and the specific nuclear probe Hoechst 33342 were used to study embryonic development of copepods in vivo. To distinguish viable from non-viable copepod embryos, the vital dye dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA) was used. Major advantages and difficulties in the use of these non-invasive techniques in studies of the reproductive biology of marine crustaceans are discussed. PMID:12567403

  3. BIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN MARINE ENCLOSURE EXPERIMENTS: CHALLENGES AND REVELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Logistical considerations have usually dictated that components of estuarine systems be considered in isolation from one another whether in the laboratory or field. ence, biological disciplines usually have specialized to a single area or process. y contrast, enclosure or mesocos...

  4. End-to-End Data System Architecture for the Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mian, Arshad; Scimemi, Sam; Adeni, Kaiser; Picinich, Lou; Ramos, Rubin (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Is developing hardware referred to as the "facility" for providing life sciences research capability on the International Space Station. This hardware includes several biological specimen habitats, habitat holding racks, a centrifuge and a glovebox. An SSBRP end to end data system architecture has been developed to allow command and control of the facility from the ground, either with crew assistance or autonomously. The data system will be capable of handling commands, sensor data, and video from multiple cameras. The data will traverse through several onboard and ground networks and processing entities including the SSBRP and Space Station onboard and ground data systems. A large number of onboard and ground (,entities of the data system are being developed by the Space Station Program, other NASA centers and the International Partners. The SSBRP part of the system which includes the habitats, holding racks, and the ground operations center, User Operations Facility (UOF) will be developed by a multitude of geographically distributed development organizations. The SSBRP has the responsibility to define the end to end data and communications systems to make the interfaces manageable and verifiable with multiple contractors with widely varying development constraints and schedules. This paper provides an overview of the SSBRP end-to-end data system. Specifically, it describes the hardware, software and functional interactions of individual systems, and interface requirements among various entities of the end-to-end system.

  5. Insights from the Sea: Structural Biology of Marine Polyketide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Akey, David L.; Gehret, Jennifer J.; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe2+/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown. PMID:22498975

  6. Insights from the sea: structural biology of marine polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Akey, David L; Gehret, Jennifer J; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L

    2012-10-01

    The world's oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe(2+)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown. PMID:22498975

  7. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  8. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  9. Chemistry and biology of new marine alkaloids from the indole and annelated indole series.

    PubMed

    Aygün, Alparslan; Pindur, Ulf

    2003-07-01

    Chemistry and biology of marine natural products from the indole and annelated indole series have become an attractive research field for development of new pharmacological lead substances. In the past years some of the isolated natural organic compounds were synthesized by chemists and evaluated with great enthusiasm to find new lead natural compounds against different diseases. In this review the latest results for new compounds including isolation, biological evaluation, synthetic pathways and some retrosynthetic analyses are summarized. PMID:12678805

  10. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ardura, A; Juanes, F; Planes, S; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  11. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, A.; Juanes, F.; Planes, S.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  12. Sequential determination of biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisler, R.; Stone, S.F.; Sanders, R.W.

    1988-12-15

    A unique sequence of instrumental methods has been employed to obtain concentrations for 44 elements in marine bivalve tissue. The techniques used were (1) X-ray fluorescence, (2) prompt gamma activation analysis, and (3) neutron activation analysis. It is possible to use a single subsample and follow it nondestructively through the three instrumental analysis techniques. A final radiochemical procedure for tin was also applied after completing the instrumental analyses. Comparison of results for elements determined by more than one technique in sequence showed good agreement, as did results from certified reference material samples analyzed along with the samples. The concentrations found in the bivalve samples ranged from carbon at more than 50% dry weight down to gold at several microgram per kilogram.

  13. Marine Biology: Ecology of the Sea. A Zephyr Learning Packet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    From the smallest plankton to the most massive whales, marine biology is the study of the flora and fauna, the living creatures of the ocean. This Zephyr self-directed study unit was developed to bridge the gap between students as passive learners to students as active participants. Originally developed for gifted students, these units emphasize…

  14. Integrated payload resource requirements for NASA's Gravitational Biology Research Laboratory on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Lauren E.; Sarver, George L., Dr.; Jahns, Gary, Dr.

    2000-01-01

    The primary mission of International Space Station (ISS) is to provide a shirt-sleeve working environment within an orbiting laboratory to support a wide variety of research conducted in the micro-gravity (μ-gravity) environment of space. The laboratory being developed by the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) at the Ames Research Center (ARC) will support NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) Research Program on the influence and affects of gravity on living systems. It will support research from the building blocks of biology (cells and tissues) through complete, fully grown systems (plants, rodents, aquatics and insects) and through all phases of growth as well as multiple generations. The results will provide an in-depth understanding of the role of gravity in living systems. It should provide the information necessary to support long-term manned missions for exploration of the solar system. In addition, it is expected to provide valuable insight into how Earth-bound biological systems work. .

  15. Evaluation of the Biolog MicroStation system for yeast identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, M. R.; Molina, T. C.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine isolates representing 16 genera and 53 species of yeasts were processed with the Biolog MicroStation System for yeast identification. Thirteen genera and 38 species were included in the Biolog database. For these 129 isolates, correct identifications to the species level were 13.2, 39.5 and 48.8% after 24, 48 and 72 hours incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. Three genera and 15 species which were not included in the Biolog database were also tested. Of the 30 isolates studied, 16.7, 53.3 and 56.7% of the isolates were given incorrect names from the system's database after 24,48 and 72 h incubation at 30 degrees C, respectively. The remaining isolates of this group were not identified.

  16. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria: A biological source of the bacteriohopanetetrol stereoisomer in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rush, Darci; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Poulton, Simon W.; Thamdrup, Bo; Garside, A. Leigh; Acuña González, Jenaro; Schouten, Stefan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Talbot, Helen M.

    2014-09-01

    Bacterially-derived bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are abundant, well preserved lipids in modern and paleo-environments. Bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) is a ubiquitously produced BHP while its less common stereoisomer (BHT isomer) has previously been associated with anoxic environments; however, its biological source remained unknown. We investigated the occurrence of BHPs in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic marine fjord-like enclosure located in Costa Rica. The distribution of BHT isomer in four sediment cores and a surface sediment transect closely followed the distribution of ladderane fatty acids, unique biomarkers for bacteria performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). This suggests that BHT isomer and ladderane lipids likely shared the same biological source in Golfo Dulce. This was supported by examining the BHP lipid compositions of two enrichment cultures of a marine anammox species (‘Candidatus Scalindua profunda’), which were found to contain both BHT and BHT isomer. Remarkably, the BHT isomer was present in higher relative abundance than BHT. However, a non-marine anammox enrichment contained only BHT, which explains the infrequence of BHT isomer observations in terrestrial settings, and indicates that marine anammox bacteria are likely responsible for at least part of the environmentally-observed marine BHT isomer occurrences. Given the substantially greater residence time of BHPs in sediments, compared to ladderanes, BHT isomer is a potential biomarker for past anammox activity.

  17. Synthesis and Biology of Cyclic Imine Toxins, An Emerging Class of Potent, Globally Distributed Marine Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Stivala, Craig E.; Benoit, Evelyne; Araoz, Romulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day. PMID:25338021

  18. Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Craig E; Benoit, Evelyne; Aráoz, Rómulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-03-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day. PMID:25338021

  19. 75 FR 80471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ87 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Norte County, CA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... frequently used in the discussions of acoustic effects in this document. Sound pressure is the sound...

  20. 77 FR 8811 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the St. George Reef Lighthouse Preservation Society (SGRLPS) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment only, incidental to conducting aircraft operations, and lighthouse renovation and light......

  1. 78 FR 71576 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby given that we, NMFS, have issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (Authorization) to the St. George Reef Lighthouse Preservation Society (Society) to take four species of marine mammals, by Level B harassment only, incidental to conducting helicopter operations, and......

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of marine-origin matter along a transect from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, Eastern Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanjin; Xiao, Cunde; Shi, Guitao; Ding, Minghu; Qin, Dahe; Ren, Jiawen

    2016-08-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution pattern of marine-origin matter on the Antarctica ice sheet was used to study variations in the source regions, transport mechanisms and post-depositional influences. We present data on sea salt ions, sulfur components and stable isotopes from surface and snow pit samples collected along the transect route from Zhongshan Station to Dome A during the austral summer in 2012-2013. A general decreasing trend in the accumulation, sea salt ions and sulfur components occurred with increasing distance from the coast and increasing elevation. However, different sources of the marine components, transport pathways and post-depositional influences were responsible for their different spatial distribution patterns. The marine ions in the coastal snow pit varied seasonally, with higher sea salt ion concentrations in the winter and lower concentrations in the summer; the opposite pattern was found for the sulfur compounds. The sea ice area surrounding Antarctica was the main source region for the deposited sea salt and the open sea water for the sulfur compounds. No significant trends in the marine-origin components were detected during the past 3 decades. Several periods of elevated deposition of sea salt ions were associated with lower temperatures (based on δD and δ(18)O) or intensified wind fields. In comparison to the sea salt ions, the sulfur concentrations exhibited the opposite distribution patterns and were associated with changes in the surrounding sea ice extent. PMID:27521951

  3. Marine biological controls on atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the ocean is losing N gas faster than N is being returned to the ocean, and that replenishment of the N supply in the ocean usually occurs during ice ages. Available N from river and estruarine transport and from rainfall after formation by lightning are shown to be at a rate too low to compensate for the 10,000 yr oceanic lifetime of N. Ice sheets advance and transfer moraine N to the ocean, lower the sea levels, erode the ocean beds, promote greater biological productivity, and reduce CO2. Ice core samples have indicated a variability in the atmospheric N content that could be attributed to the ice age scenario.

  4. Matching biological traits to environmental conditions in marine benthic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, J.; Rogers, S. I.; Frid, C. L. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of variability in environmental conditions on species composition in benthic ecosystems are well established, but relatively little is known about how environmental variability relates to ecosystem functioning. Benthic invertebrate assemblages are heavily involved in the maintenance of ecological processes and investigation of the biological characteristics (traits) expressed in these assemblages can provide information about some aspects of functioning. The aim of this study was to establish and explore relationships between environmental variability and biological traits expressed in megafauna assemblages in two UK regions. Patterns of trait composition were matched to environmental conditions and subsets of variables best describing these patterns determined. The nature of the relationships were subsequently examined at two separate scales, both between and within the regions studied. Over the whole area, some traits related to size, longevity, reproduction, mobility, flexibility, feeding method, sociability and living habit were negatively correlated with salinity, sea surface temperature, annual temperature range and the level of fishing effort, and positively associated with fish taxon richness and shell content of the substratum. Between the two regions, reductions in temperature range and shell content were associated with infrequent relative occurrences of short-lived, moderately mobile, flexible, solitary, opportunistic, permanent-burrow dwelling fauna and those exhibiting reproductive strategies based on benthic development. Relationships between some traits and environmental conditions diverged within the two regions, with increases in fishing effort and shell content of the substratum being associated with low frequencies of occurrence of moderately mobile and moderately to highly flexible fauna within one region, but high frequencies in the other. These changes in trait composition have implications for ecosystem processes, with, for

  5. AmeriFlux US-UMB Univ. of Mich. Biological Station

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Peter; Gough, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-UMB Univ. of Mich. Biological Station. Site Description - The UMBS site is located within a protected forest owned by the University of Michigan. Arboreal composition of the forest consists of mid-aged northern hardwoods, conifer understory, aspen, and old growth hemlock. Logging of local white pines began in 1879. In successive years, several other species were harvested. Logging was discontinued in 1980 when the land became protected under the private ownership of the University of Michigan. Patchy low- to high-intensity wildfires occurred yearly from 1880 - 1920, essentially burning the entire region.

  6. The Influence of the Biological Pump on Marine Redox Conditions During Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Ridgwell, A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for bottom-water anoxia on the continental shelves waned over the course of the Phanerozoic, which may be influenced by secular changes in the biological pump that led to weaker positive feedbacks within the oceans. The biological pump describes the transfer of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean, which creates vertical gradients in nutrients and oxygen, both important influences in the structure of marine ecosystems. We used the cGENIE Earth system model to quantitatively test the hypothesis that reductions in the efficiency of the nutrient recycling loop of the biological pump during the past 550 Ma reduced the extent of anoxia on the shelves and acted as an important control on marine animal ecosystems. When the modeled remineralization depth is shallow relative to the modern ocean, anoxia tends to be more widespread at continental shelf depths. As the modeled remineralization depth increases toward modern conditions, anoxia is less prevalent and occurs at depths below the continental shelves. Reduced marine productivity in the closed system configuration of cGENIE cannot produce the frequent bottom-water anoxia conditions envisioned for the Paleozoic. We hypothesize that evidence for greater animal abundance and metabolic demand during the Phanerozoic was driven by progressive oxygenation of shelf environments related to changes in the biological pump rather than greater food availability. In general, these model simulations suggest changes in the depth distribution of organic carbon remineralization may have controlled observed shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure during the Phanerozoic.

  7. Advanced monitoring systems for biological applications in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, U.; Chiffings, T.; Gandelli, A.; Grimaccia, F.; Johnstone, R. W.; Zich, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    The increasing need to manage complex environmental problems demands a new approach and new technologies to provide the information required at a spatial and temporal resolution appropriate to the scales at which the biological processes occur. In particular sensor networks, now quite popular on land, still poses many difficult problems in underwater environments. In this context, it is necessary to develop an autonomous monitoring system that can be remotely interrogated and directed to address unforeseen or expected changes in such environmental conditions. This system, at the highest level, aims to provide a framework for combining observations from a wide range of different in-situ sensors and remote sensing instruments, with a long-term plan for how the network of sensing modalities will continue to evolve in terms of sensing modality, geographic location, and spatial and temporal density. The advances in sensor technology and digital electronics have made it possible to produce large amount of small tag-like sensors which integrate sensing, processing, and communication capabilities together and form an autonomous entity. To successfully use this kind of systems in under water environments, it becomes necessary to optimize the network lifetime and face the relative hindrances that such a field imposes, especially in terms of underwater information exchange.

  8. Dark-cycle monitoring of biological subjects on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Sherry; Mian, Arshad

    1992-01-01

    The operational environment for biological research on Space Station Freedom will incorporate video technology for monitoring plant and animal subjects. The video coverage must include dark-cycle monitoring because early experiments will use rodents that are nocturnal and therefore most active during the dark part of the daily cycle. Scientific requirements for monitoring during the dark cycle are exacting. Infrared (IR) or near-IR sensors are required. The trade-offs between these two types of sensors are based on engineering constraints, sensitivity spectra, and the quality of imagery possible from each type. This paper presents results of a study conducted by the Biological Flight Research Projects Office in conjunction with the Spacecraft Data Systems Branch at ARC to investigate the use of charged-coupled-device and IR cameras to meet the scientific requirements. Also examined is the effect of low levels of near-IR illumination on the circadian rhythm in rats.

  9. Dispersal of marine organisms and the grand challenges in biology: an introduction to the symposium.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sara M

    2012-10-01

    Understanding dispersal and its complex variables is critical to understanding the ecology and evolution of life histories of species, but research on dispersal tends to reflect or emphasize particular disciplines, such as population genetics, functional morphology, evolutionary and developmental biology, physiology, and biophysics, or to emphasize a particular clade or functional group (e.g., fish, planktotrophs or lecithotrophs, pelagic or benthic organisms) in marine ecosystems. The symposium on "Dispersal of Marine Organisms" assembled an interdisciplinary group of outstanding young and established speakers to address dispersal in marine organisms in order to foster integration and cross-talk among different disciplines and to identify gaps in our knowledge and suggest areas for future research. PMID:23001959

  10. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195

  11. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ground truthing at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously.

  12. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  13. Astonishing diversity of natural surfactants: 6. Biologically active marine and terrestrial alkaloid glycosides.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2005-11-01

    This review article presents 209 alkaloid glycosides isolated and identified from plants, microorganisms, and marine invertebrates that demonstrate different biological activities. They are of great interest, especially for the medicinal and/or pharmaceutical industries. These biologically active glycosides have good potential for future chemical preparation of compounds useful as antioxidants, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antibacterial agents. These glycosidic compounds have been subdivided into several groups, including: acridone; aporphine; benzoxazinoid; ergot; indole; enediyne alkaloidal antibiotics; glycosidic lupine alkaloids; piperidine, pyridine, pyrrolidine, and pyrrolizidine alkaloid glycosides; glycosidic quinoline and isoquinoline alkaloids; steroidal glycoalkaloids; and miscellaneous alkaloid glycosides. PMID:16459921

  14. Marine Snow and Gels: Hot Spots of Biogeochemical Cycling, Biological Activity, and Sedimentation in the Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alldredge, A. L.

    2004-12-01

    Much of the organic carbon sequestered in the deep sea and ocean bottom sediments as relatively rare, large detrital particles generically known as marine snow. Because they are enriched in organic matter, microbes, and nutrients, these large particles also serve as hot spots for biological and chemical process in the water column. Recent evidence reveals that abundant carbohydrate gel particles in the ocean, formed from the dissolved exudates of phytoplankton and bacteria, are intricately involved in the formation of marine snow. These discoveries are changing the way we conceptualize the pelagic zone on small scales. We no longer imagine seawater as a relatively homogeneous fluid in which float a spectrum of dispersed molecules, particles, and organisms, but instead see it as a rich hydrated matrix of transparent organic gels, detritus, and cob-web like surfaces which provide microscale physical, chemical, and biological structure. This talk will focus on the origins, fate, and significance of marine snow and gels in the sea, including their role in carbon cycling, sedimentation and carbon flux , food webs, and chemical and biological transformation.

  15. Quantifying the Impact of Mineral Dust and Dissolved Iron Deposition on Marine Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Gassó, S.; Solmon, F.

    2009-12-01

    Aeolian dust deposition has proven to be a critical source of iron (Fe) to remote oceanic regions where it can play an important role in regulating marine ecosystem productivity. Increases in marine biological activity have been suggested to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and enhance oceanic emissions of marine primary organic aerosols and biologically produced trace gases leading to secondary aerosol formation. These mechanisms can affect climate directly by enhancing carbon sequestration rates, and through organic aerosols influencing incoming solar radiation or modulating shallow marine cloud properties. Due to dust emissions and transport also being dependent upon climatic conditions, the relationship between aeolian dust deposition and oceanic emissions (e.g., primary organic matter, dimethylsulphide, halocarbons, and several types of non-methane hydrocarbons) presents a possible ocean-atmosphere feedback cycle. The Southern Ocean (SO) is characterized as being the largest oceanic region with marine primary productivity that is limited by the micronutrient Fe. Despite the potentially important role of dust laden-Fe in this region, few studies exist that can help to constrain the impact of dust-laden Fe fluxes on biological productivity in the Atlantic sector of the SO. Patagonia has been estimated to supply the majority of aeolian-Fe deposited to the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Thus, the focus of this study is to quantify the influence of Patagonian dust storms on marine primary productivity in the SAO and assess the potential climatic effect of variability in aeolian dust deposition. In this work we use the global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with a prognostic Fe dissolution scheme (GEOS-Chem/DFeS), to evaluate the deposition of Patagonian dust and associated dissolved iron (DFe) fluxes to the SAO. Model predicted fluxes of DFe were then used to quantify the impact of Patagonian dust on marine primary productivity in the surface

  16. Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas.

    PubMed

    Bax, Nicholas J; Cleary, Jesse; Donnelly, Ben; Dunn, Daniel C; Dunstan, Piers K; Fuller, Mike; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) addressed a United Nations (UN) call for area-based planning, including for marine-protected areas that resulted in a global effort to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas (EBSAs). We summarized the results, assessed their consistency, and evaluated the process developed by the Secretariat of the CBD to engage countries and experts in 9 regional workshops held from 2011 to 2014. Experts from 92 countries and 79 regional or international bodies participated. They considered 250 million km(2) of the world's ocean area (two-thirds of the total). The 204 areas they examined in detail differed widely in area (from 5.5 km(2) to 11.1 million km(2) ). Despite the initial focus of the CBD process on areas outside national jurisdiction, only 31 of the areas examined were solely outside national jurisdiction. Thirty-five extended into national jurisdictions, 137 were solely within national jurisdictions, and 28 included the jurisdictions of more than 1 country (1 area lacked precise boundaries). Data were sufficient to rank 88-99% of the areas relative to each of the 7 criteria for EBSAs agreed to previously by Parties to the CBD. The naturalness criterion ranked high for a smaller percentage of the EBSAs (31%) than other criteria (51-70%), indicating the difficulty in finding relatively undisturbed areas in the ocean. The highly participatory nature of the workshops, including easy and consistent access to the relevant information facilitated by 2 technical teams, contributed to the workshop participants success in identifying areas that could be ranked relative to most criteria and areas that extend across jurisdictional boundaries. The formal recognition of workshop results by the Conference of Parties to the CBD resulted in these 204 areas being identified as EBSAs by the 196 Parties. They represent the only suite of marine areas recognized by the international community for their

  17. Main results of biological experiments on Russian orbital stations and its contribution in future life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    Biological experiments in a field of space biology have been started before the first satellite flight. These experiments were devoted to an estimation of space radiation factors on living organisms and carried out in mountains. The systematic biological experiments in space have been started in 1971 with orbital station Salyut. In total more than 1000 experiments have been installed in space flights: fundamental investigations (panspermia theory, gravity biology, complex factors of space environment on biological objects) and applications focused on future biological life support systems. The investigations were directed to some tasks: influence of complex factors of space flight on living organisms at different stages of the evolution scale; investigations of proteins and DNA, cell, tissue, organism and assembled organisms under space flight factors with separation of individual factors, for example, microgravity and space radiation. The aim was to understand the organism reactions on different levels, to get complete ontogenesis cycle in space flight and to find adaption ability of organisms to extreme factors of the space flight. In course of investigations, the unique experimental equipment for orbital biological experiments has been designed; new methods for organism protection against the negative factors of space flight were found; developed new biotechnological products and processes; developed recommendations for space station interior with biological objects for psychological comfort of crew. The results showed a possibility and ways to include different organisms into biotechnological life support systems for future space stations and interplanet spaceships.

  18. Landscape ecosystems of the University of Michigan Biological Station: Ecosystem diversity and ground-cover diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsall, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this research is to provide an understanding of the three-dimensional (air-earth-organism) units of the landscape of the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) that the author calls landscape ecosystem types, or simply ecosystems. Specifically, he has focused on the kinds, spatial location and patterns, and composition (physiography, soil, vegetation) of the local landscape ecosystem types of UMBS and Colonial Point. Future research on the functioning of these ecosystems together with inventories of their plant and animal life will add significantly to the landscape ecology research that has been initiated. A major reason for this research is to provide the conceptual basis and baseline data for understanding ecosystem change. Although it is popular to speak of climate change, entire ecosystems change; some components change faster than others.

  19. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Rita De Cassia; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2007-10-01

    This study demonstrates that ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) extensively use primates as a food resource at the Caratinga Biological Station (CBS) in Southeast Brazil. Analysis of 60 fecal samples collected over 4 years revealed predation upon the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba), the muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), and the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). The most frequent items found in the fecal samples analyzed were Calomys (n=16) and non-identified Aves (n=15), followed by A. guariba (n=12). Although Rodentia was the most common group consumed (n=52) Primates were found in 27% of total fecal samples and were the third most consumed group in relation to the total items. Particularly, predation of A. guariba by ocelots (20% of the total fecal samples) was not an isolated event; our results showed that this species was preyed on across several months. Predation on primates was far higher at CBS than at other sites where comparable studies have been carried out. PMID:17330310

  20. Emerging concepts promising new horizons for marine biodiscovery and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Reen, F Jerry; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Dobson, Alan D W; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2015-05-01

    The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions. PMID:25984990

  1. Polar marine biology science in Portugal and Spain: Recent advances and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, José C.; Barbosa, Andrés; Agustí, Susana; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Alvito, Pedro; Ameneiro, Julia; Ávila, Conxita; Baeta, Alexandra; Canário, João; Carmona, Raquel; Catry, Paulo; Ceia, Filipe; Clark, Melody S.; Cristobo, Francisco J.; Cruz, Bruno; Duarte, Carlos M.; Figuerola, Blanca; Gili, Josep-Maria; Gonçalves, Ana R.; Gordillo, Francisco J. L.; Granadeiro, José P.; Guerreiro, Miguel; Isla, Enrique; Jiménez, Carlos; López-González, Pablo J.; Lourenço, Sílvia; Marques, João C.; Moreira, Elena; Mota, Ana M.; Nogueira, Marta; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Orejas, Covadonga; Paiva, Vitor H.; Palanques, Albert; Pearson, Gareth A.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Power, Deborah M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Rossi, Sergi; Seco, José; Sañé, Elisabet; Serrão, Ester A.; Taboada, Sergi; Tavares, Sílvia; Teixidó, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Valente, Tiago; Vázquez, Elsa; Vieira, Rui P.; Viñegla, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Polar marine ecosystems have global ecological and economic importance because of their unique biodiversity and their major role in climate processes and commercial fisheries, among others. Portugal and Spain have been highly active in a wide range of disciplines in marine biology of the Antarctic and the Arctic. The main aim of this paper is to provide a synopsis of some of the results and initiatives undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish polar teams within the field of marine sciences, particularly on benthic and pelagic biodiversity (species diversity and abundance, including microbial, molecular, physiological and chemical mechanisms in polar organisms), conservation and ecology of top predators (particularly penguins, albatrosses and seals), and pollutants and evolution of marine organisms associated with major issues such as climate change, ocean acidification and UV radiation effects. Both countries have focused their polar research more in the Antarctic than in the Arctic. Portugal and Spain should encourage research groups to continue increasing their collaborations with other countries and develop multi-disciplinary research projects, as well as to maintain highly active memberships within major organizations, such as the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the International Arctic Science Council (IASC) and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), and in international research projects.

  2. Marine biological diversity: Some important issues, opportunities and critical research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, Cheryl Ann; Carlton, James T.

    1995-07-01

    Marine biological diversity is changing, dramatically in some cases, and most recent changes are due to broad-scale human activities. Knowledge of "biodiversity" — the variety of genomes (the genetic material specifying all characteristics and functions within an organism), species and ecosystems — is the foundation for understanding and predicting how human and natural effects can change the ocean's ecosystems. Evaluating the scale and ultimate consequences to life in the sea of a plethora of anthropogenic effects is difficult, however, because there is inadequate knowledge of both the patterns of and the processes that control marine biodiversity. Recognizing change and evaluating its consequences require sufficient knowledge of present and historical natural patterns of biodiversity, and sufficient understanding of how and why these patterns vary in space and time. Data on biodiversity patterns and their causes are sorely lacking for most marine ecosystems. Adequate understanding of what creates and maintains diversity must be the scientific underpinning for policy decisions regarding pollutant and waste disposal, habitat alteration, fisheries management and the preservation of threatened or endangered species. The inability, at this time, to provide such information to policy makers may have important implications for the conservation of marine life [Norse, 1993].

  3. Emerging Concepts Promising New Horizons for Marine Biodiscovery and Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Reen, F. Jerry; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Adams, Claire; O’Gara, Fergal

    2015-01-01

    The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions. PMID:25984990

  4. Pyridinoacridine alkaloids of marine origin: NMR and MS spectral data, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Biavatti, Maique W

    2015-01-01

    Summary This review focuses on pyridoacridine-related metabolites as one biologically interesting group of alkaloids identified from marine sources. They are produced by marine sponges, ascidians and tunicates, and they are structurally comprised of four to eight fused rings including heterocycles. Acridine, acridone, dihydroacridine, and quinolone cores are features regularly found in these alkaloid skeletons. The lack of hydrogen atoms next to quaternary carbon atoms for two or three rings makes the chemical shift assignment a difficult task. In this regard, one of the aims of this review is the compilation of previously reported, pyridoacridine 13C NMR data. Observations have been made on the delocalization of electrons and the presence of some functional groups that lead to changes in the chemical shift of some carbon resonances. The lack of mass spectra information for these alkaloids due to the compactness of their structures is further discussed. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways of some of these metabolites have been shown since they could inspire biomimetic synthesis. The synthesis routes used to prepare members of these marine alkaloids (as well as their analogues), which are synthesized for biological purposes are also discussed. Pyridoacridines were found to have a large spectrum of bioactivity and this review highlights and compares the pharmacophores that are responsible for the observed bioactivity. PMID:26664587

  5. Enhancing the Value and Sustainability of Field Stations and Marine Laboratories in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, field stations have been important entryways for scientists to study and make important discoveries about the natural world. They are centers of research, conservation, education, and public outreach, often embedded in natural environments that range from remote to densely populated urban locations. Because they lack…

  6. 75 FR 4774 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Specified Activities; St. George Reef Light Station Restoration and Maintenance on Northwest Seal Rock, in... the St. George Reef Lighthouse Preservation Society (SGRLPS), to incidentally harass, by Level B... INFORMATION: Background Section 101(a)(5)(D) of the MMPA (16 U.S.C. 1371 (a)(5)(D)) directs the Secretary...

  7. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  8. Light-enhanced primary marine aerosol production from biologically productive seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kieber, D. J.; Frossard, A. A.; Russell, L. M.; Maben, J. R.; Kinsey, J. D.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

    2014-04-01

    Physical and biogeochemical processes in seawater controlling primary marine aerosol (PMA) production and composition are poorly understood and associated with large uncertainties in estimated fluxes into the atmosphere. PMA production was investigated in the biologically productive NE Pacific Ocean and in biologically productive and oligotrophic regions of the NW Atlantic Ocean. Physicochemical properties of model PMA, produced by aeration of fresh seawater under controlled conditions, were quantified. Diel variability in model PMA mass and number fluxes was observed in biologically productive waters, increasing following sunrise and decreasing to predawn levels overnight. Such variability was not seen in oligotrophic waters. During daytime, surfactant scavenging by aeration in the aerosol generator without replenishing the seawater in the reservoir reduced the model PMA production in productive waters to nighttime levels but had no influence on production from oligotrophic waters. Results suggest bubble plume interactions with sunlight-mediated biogenic surfactants in productive seawater significantly enhanced model PMA production.

  9. Physical and biological organ dosimetry analysis for international space station astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Willingham, Veronica; George, Kerry A

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the biological and physical organ dose equivalents for International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. Individual physical dosimetry is difficult in space due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which consists of protons, heavy ions and secondary neutrons, and the modification of these radiation types in tissue as well as limitations in dosimeter devices that can be worn for several months in outer space. Astronauts returning from missions to the ISS undergo biodosimetry assessment of chromosomal damage in lymphocyte cells using the multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Individual-based pre-flight dose responses for lymphocyte exposure in vitro to gamma rays were compared to those exposed to space radiation in vivo to determine an equivalent biological dose. We compared the ISS biodosimetry results, NASA's space radiation transport models of organ dose equivalents, and results from ISS and space shuttle phantom torso experiments. Physical and biological doses for 19 ISS astronauts yielded average effective doses and individual or population-based biological doses for the approximately 6-month missions of 72 mSv and 85 or 81 mGy-Eq, respectively. Analyses showed that 80% or more of organ dose equivalents on the ISS are from galactic cosmic rays and only a small contribution is from trapped protons and that GCR doses were decreased by the high level of solar activity in recent years. Comparisons of models to data showed that space radiation effective doses can be predicted to within about a +/-10% accuracy by space radiation transport models. Finally, effective dose estimates for all previous NASA missions are summarized. PMID:18582161

  10. Studies on the community structures of meiofauna and marine nematode at six stations in the Southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhinan; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2005-01-01

    Meiofauna (0.031-0.5 mm) were sampled and studied at a grid of six stations during the cruise of investigation for over winter ground of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Southern Yellow Sea, China in January 2003. Total meiofauna individuals averaged (1.162±0.347) × 106 ind m-2 and the corresponding biomass 1.748 ± 0.72 g dwt m-2 with the maximum 2.35g dwt m-2 at Station 9594 and the minimum 0.537g dwt m-2 at Station 11794. A total of fourteen taxa were identified. Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group with an average abundance of (1.026 ± 0.206) × 106 ind m-2, accounting for 88.5% of total numbers, and an average of 85.4% lived in the surface layer (0-2 cm) of sediments. The individual dry weight was calculated, which ranges from O.Ol µg to 31.32f*g with an average of 0.261 µg. One hundred and forty two species or taxa of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 89 genera, 24 families and 4 orders were identified. Six of them were new species. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Sphaerolaimus minitus, Metalinhomoeus longicauda, Prochromadorella attenuata., Campylaimus sp. 1, Vasostoma sp. 1, Daptonema normandicum, Paramonohystera riemanni, and Promonhystera sp.1. According to cluster analysis of Primer 5.0, the six stations were clustered into 2 groups with similar species composition at 40% similarity. The species diversity index (J), evenness index (d) and species richness index (d) of nematode were calculated and analyzed. Correlation analysis with respect to environmental factors showed that the abundance of meiofauna had a significant correlation with the median diameter of sediment (Mdø). The species richness of nematodes had a highly significant correlation with Chl-a and significant correlations with Pha-a and Chl-a + Pha-a.

  11. Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences Newsletter, Volume 7 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences, Washington, DC.

    Three articles in this newsletter describe investigative laboratory programs; two in marine or coastal biology (Hopkins Marine Station and the Bahamas field station of Earlham College), and the other a botany course at Colorado College. In all cases undergraduate students are expected to plan and conduct biological research, after being presented…

  12. NREL Furthers U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Miramar's Move Toward Net Zero Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A 2008 report from the Defense Science Board concluded that critical missions at military bases are facing unacceptable risks from extended power losses. A first step in addressing this concern is to establish military bases that can produce as much energy as they use over the course of a year, a concept known as a "net zero energy installation" (NZEI). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has helped the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, located north of San Diego, California, as it strives to achieve its NZE goal. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), NREL partnered with MCAS Miramar to standardize processes and create an NZEI template for widespread replication across the military.

  13. Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stow, Craig A.; Jolliff, Jason; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Doney, Scott C.; Allen, J. Icarus; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Wallhead, Philip

    2009-02-01

    Coupled biological/physical models of marine systems serve many purposes including the synthesis of information, hypothesis generation, and as a tool for numerical experimentation. However, marine system models are increasingly used for prediction to support high-stakes decision-making. In such applications it is imperative that a rigorous model skill assessment is conducted so that the model's capabilities are tested and understood. Herein, we review several metrics and approaches useful to evaluate model skill. The definition of skill and the determination of the skill level necessary for a given application is context specific and no single metric is likely to reveal all aspects of model skill. Thus, we recommend the use of several metrics, in concert, to provide a more thorough appraisal. The routine application and presentation of rigorous skill assessment metrics will also serve the broader interests of the modeling community, ultimately resulting in improved forecasting abilities as well as helping us recognize our limitations.

  14. Image Processing And Pattern Recognition With Applications To Marine Biological Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsinis, C.; Poularikas, A. D.; Jeffries, H. P.

    1984-12-01

    Erosion and dilation of images were compared with other edge detection techniques on a variety of marine organisms. Under certain conditions the erosion and dilation technique gave better results. The critical problem resolved by our approach was low contrast imaging of randomly oriented objects that displayed random variations due to appendages that frequently appearred with marine biological samples. A multicomputer system was developed to perform image processing and morphological feature extraction on large number of samples. Emphasis was given to system reliability and expandability, allowing for performance at a reduced rate when one or more computers malfunctioned. The system currently operates with seven computers but can be expanded to contain up to seventeen. Classification accuracy on zooplankton samples from New England coastal waters was approximately 92%.

  15. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

  16. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemoto, H.; Shoji, T.; Uchida, S.

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  17. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, H; Shoji, T; Uchida, S

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  18. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse. PMID:24477070

  19. Biological Targets and Mechanisms of Action of Natural Products from Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are an ancient group of organisms and prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. These compounds are presumably optimized by evolution over billions of years to exert high affinity for their intended biological target in the ecologically relevant organism but likely also possess activity in different biological contexts such as human cells. Screening of marine cyanobacterial extracts for bioactive natural products has largely focused on cancer cell viability; however, diversification of the screening platform led to the characterization of many new bioactive compounds. Targets of compounds have oftentimes been elusive if the compounds were discovered through phenotypic assays. Over the past few years, technology has advanced to determine mechanism of action (MOA) and targets through reverse chemical genetic and proteomic approaches, which has been applied to certain cyanobacterial compounds and will be discussed in this review. Some cyanobacterial molecules are the most-potent-in-class inhibitors and therefore may become valuable tools for chemical biology to probe protein function but also be templates for novel drugs, assuming in vitro potency translates into cellular and in vivo activity. Our review will focus on compounds for which the direct targets have been deciphered or which were found to target a novel pathway, and link them to disease states where target modulation may be beneficial. PMID:25571978

  20. Observations of marine decoupled boundary layer during the ICOS campaign at the GAW Mace Head station, Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Conor; Martucci, Giovanni; O'Dowd, Colin

    2010-05-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) top height detections have been retrieved by two ceilometers (Vaisala CL31 and Jenoptik CHM15K) and a microwave radiometer (RPG-HATPRO) based at the Mace Head Research station, Ireland, from the 8th to the 28th of June 2009 during the ICOS Mace Head campaign. Characteristic of this region, with warm waters, the marine boundary layer is typically 2-layered with a surface mixed layer (SML) and a decoupled residual or convective layer (DRCL), above which is the free troposphere (Kunz et al. 2002). The PBL data have been analyzed using a newly developed Temporal Height-Tracking (THT) algorithm (Martucci et al., 2010) for automatic detection of the independent SML and DRCL tops. Daily and weekly averages of the PBL data have been performed to smooth out the short term variability and assess the dependence of the PBL depth on different air masses advected over the Mace Head station. Moreover, a qualitative comparison between the ceilometer and radiometer PBL top detected values has been done to assess their consistency.

  1. What is marine biology?: Defining a science in the United States in the mid 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Marine biology and biological oceanography are two disciplinary subfields that have long struggled with their definitions. Should marine biology simply be considered a part of biology that takes place in the marine environment or is it a distinct entity, with conceptual problems and methodological approaches all its own? Similarly, biological oceanography could be seen as a necessary adjunct to physical and chemical oceanography or it could be defined more as an extension of biology into the marine realm. In the United States, these issues were directly addressed from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s in a series of events that shed light on how marine biologists came to a working definition of their field that provided a broad methodological tent for practitioners and, at the same time, allied the field to oceanography during a period in which exploration of uncharted areas drew considerable funding from the post-WWII federal agencies charged with keeping American science at the forefront. PMID:18822664

  2. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  3. Syntheses and Biological Studies of Marine Terpenoids Derived from Inorganic Cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Schnermann, Martin J.; Shenvi, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Isocyanoterpenes (ICTs) are marine natural products biosynthesized through an unusual pathway that adorns terpene scaffolds with nitrogenous functionality derived from cyanide. The appendage of nitrogen functional groups–isonitriles in particular–onto stereochemically-rich carbocyclic ring systems provides enigmatic, bioactive molecules that have required innovative chemical syntheses. This review discusses the challenges inherent to the synthesis of this diverse family and details the development of the field. We also present recent progress in isolation and discuss key aspects of the remarkable biological activity of these compounds. PMID:25514696

  4. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  5. Long-term monitoring of a marine geologic hydrocarbon source by a coastal air pollution station in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza; Leifer, Ira; Roberts, Dar

    2010-12-01

    Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990-2008 from a California air pollution station located near the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, were analyzed and clearly showed geologic CH 4 emissions as the dominant local source. Annual COP emissions are conservatively estimated as 0.015 Tg CH 4 year -1 and represent a natural and concentrated geologic methane source (24 m 3 m -2 day -1 gas flux at some active seeps, Clark et al., 2010). For a sense of the scale and potential importance to the regional Southern California methane budget, COP emits an amount equivalent to 8% of the estimated Los Angeles County anthropogenic emissions. Station THC measurements near COP showed a strong wind dependency with elevated levels closely correlated with a sonar-derived spatial distribution of seep field emissions. THC varied seasonally, with a maximum in January and minimum in July and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.24 ppm. The seasonal signal was more readily apparent midday ( R2 = 0.69 harmonic fit), compared to nighttime and morning ( R2 < 0.45). The bimodal diel THC pattern consisted of seasonally-modulated peaks in the morning and evening. THC temporal and spatial trends were consistent with both transport and source emission variations. Long-term, annual seep field emissions consistently decreased on a field-wide basis until the late 1990s, before increasing consistently, most likely as a function of underlying geologic processes. This study demonstrates the value of municipal air quality monitoring stations for insight into local greenhouse gas sources and highlights the non-negligible and variable contribution from marine geologic seepage.

  6. Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variations in environmental and biological sources: A survey of marine and terrestrial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Stephanie; Clementz, Mark T.

    2012-10-01

    The relative concentrations of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) in mammalian bioapatite are common biogeochemical indicators for trophic level and/or dietary preferences in terrestrial foodwebs; however, similar research in marine foodwebs is lacking. This study combined environmental and biological Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data from both terrestrial and marine settings from 62 published books, reports, and studies along with original data collected from 149 marine mammals (30 species) and 83 prey items (18 species) and found that variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of biological and environmental samples are appreciably different in terrestrial and marine systems. In terrestrial systems, environmental sources account for most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. In contrast, environmental sources in marine systems (i.e., seawater) are comparatively invariant, meaning most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios originate from biological processes. Marine consumers, particularly non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates, show evidence of biopurification of Ca relative to Sr and Ba, similar to what is observed in terrestrial systems; however, unlike terrestrial systems, variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of environmental sources are overprinted by bioaccumulation of Sr and Ba at the base of marine foodwebs. This demonstrates that in marine systems, spatial or temporal differences may have little to no effect on Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of marine vertebrates, making Sr/Ca, and to a lesser extent Ba/Ca, potentially useful global proxies for trophic level and dietary preferences of marine vertebrates.

  7. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL). PMID:26133554

  8. Biological invasions as a component of global change in stressed marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Savini, D

    2003-05-01

    Biological invasions in marine environment are the lesser known aspect of global change. However, recent events which occurred in the Mediterranean Sea demonstrate that they represent a serious ecological and economical menace leading to biodiversity loss, ecosystem unbalancing, fishery and tourism impairment. In this paper we review marine bioinvasions using examples taken from the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. Particular attention is given to the environmental status of the receiving area as a fundamental pre-requisite for the colonisation success of alien species. The spread of the tropical algae belonging to the genus Caulerpa in the northwestern basin of the Mediterranean Sea has been facilitated by pre-existing conditions of instability of the Posidonia oceanica endemic ecosystem in relation to stress of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Human interventions caused long-term modification in the Black Sea environment, preparing a fertile ground for mass bioinvasion of aquatic nuisance species which, in some cases, altered the original equilibrium of the entire basin. Finally, the Venice lagoon is presented as the third example of an environment subjected to high propagule pressure and anthropogenic forcing and bearing the higher "diversity" of non-indigenous species compared to the other Mediterranean lagoons. Stressed environments are easily colonised by alien species; understanding the links between human and natural disturbance and massive development of non-indigenous species will help prevent marine bioinvasions, that are already favoured by global oceanic trade. PMID:12735951

  9. Chemistry and biology of fascaplysin, a potent marine-derived CDK-4 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bharate, S B; Manda, S; Mupparapu, N; Battini, N; Vishwakarma, R A

    2012-06-01

    Marine natural products offer an abundant source of pharmacologically active agents with great diversity and complexity, and the potential to produce valuable therapeutic entities. Indole alkaloids is one of the important class of marine-derived secondary metabolites, with wide occurrence amongst variety of marine sources such as sponges, tunicates, algae, worms and microorganisms and have been extensively studied for their biological activities. Among this chemical family, a sponge-derived bis-indole alkaloid fascaplysin (1) exhibited broad range of bioactivities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-HIV-1-RTase, p56 tyrosine kinase inhibition, antimalarial, anti-angiogenic, antiproliferative activity against numerous cancer cell lines, specific inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (IC(50) 350 nM) and action as a DNA intercalator. In the present review, the chemical diversity of natural as well as synthetic analogues of fascaplysin has been reviewed with a detailed account on synthetic reports and pharmacological studies. Our analysis of the structure-activity relationships of this family of compounds highlights the existence of various potential leads for the development of novel anticancer agents. PMID:22512549

  10. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL). PMID:26133554

  11. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Pan, Hongmiao; Yue, Haidong; Song, Tao; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Guanjun; Wu, Longfei; Xiao, Tian

    2006-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in diameter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gram stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  12. Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2014-05-01

    Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish

  13. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray's water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts. PMID:26464099

  14. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  15. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    PubMed Central

    O’Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell’Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts. PMID:26464099

  16. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research. PMID:24722002

  17. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi's productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  18. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  19. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to...

  20. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to...

  1. p53 Superfamily proteins in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Charles W; Van Beneden, Rebecca J; Muttray, Annette F; Böttger, S Anne; Kelley, Melissa L; Tucker, Abraham E; Thomas, W Kelley

    2011-01-01

    The human p53 tumour suppressor protein is inactivated in many cancers and is also a major player in apoptotic responses to cellular stress. The p53 protein and the two other members of this protein family (p63, p73) are encoded by distinct genes and their functions have been extensively documented for humans and some other vertebrates. The structure and relative expression levels for members of the p53 superfamily have also been reported for most major invertebrate taxa. The functions of homologous proteins have been investigated for only a few invertebrates (specifically, p53 in flies, nematodes and recently a sea anemone). These studies of classical model organisms all suggest that the gene family originally evolved to mediate apoptosis of damaged germ cells or to protect germ cells from genotoxic stress. Here, we have correlated data from a number of molluscan and other invertebrate sequencing projects to provide a framework for understanding p53 signalling pathways in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology. These data suggest that (a) the two identified p53 and p63/73-like proteins in soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Northern European squid (Loligo forbesi) have identical core sequences and may be splice variants of a single gene, while some molluscs and most other invertebrates have two or more distinct genes expressing different p53 family members; (b) transcriptional activation domains (TADs) in bivalve p53 and p63/73-like protein sequences are 67-69% conserved with human p53, while those in ecdysozoan, cnidarian, placozoan and choanozoan eukaryotes are ≤33% conserved; (c) the Mdm2 binding site in the transcriptional activation domain is 100% conserved in all sequenced bivalve p53 proteins (e.g. Mya, Mytilus, Crassostrea and Spisula) but is not present in other non-deuterostome invertebrates; (d) an Mdm2 homologue has been cloned for Mytilus trossulus; (e) homologues for both human p53 upstream regulatory and

  2. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible. PMID:23610641

  3. Latitudinal distributions of organic nitrogen and organic carbon in marine biologically influenced aerosols over the western North Pacific in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Jung, J.; Furutani, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Latitudinal distributions of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC) as well as isotopic ratios of total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC) were measured in marine aerosols collected in the western North Pacific in summer 2008. Increased concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and diethylammonium (DEA+) at 40-44N and subtropical regions (10-20N), together with averaged satellite chlorophyll a data and five-day back trajectory, suggest significant influences of marine biological activities on aerosols in these regions. In the marine biologically influenced aerosols, ON exhibited increased concentrations up to 260 ngN m-3. We found that water-insoluble organic nitrogen (WION) was the most abundant N in the marine aerosols, which accounted for 67±15% of total aerosol N. In particular, the average WION/ON ratio was as high as 0.93±0.07 at 40-44N. These results suggest that marine biological sources significantly contributed to ON, a majority of which is composed of water-insoluble fractions in the study region. The stable carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C) showed higher values (from -22‰ to -20‰) when ON/OC ratios increased from 0.15 to 0.35. The results clearly show an enrichment of nitrogen in organic aerosols originated from the oceanic region with high biological productivity and indicate preferential transfer of nitrogen-containing compounds from the sea surface to marine atmosphere. Furthermore, both WION concentrations and WION/WIOC ratios showed positive correlations with local wind speeds, suggesting that ON contributes significantly as a nutrient-affiliated element to primary marine organic aerosols over the study region. We will discuss possible chemical properties of WION including proteins and gel-like particles, and potential processes for primary and secondary production of aerosol ON.

  4. Marine biological productivity and carbon cycling during the Oligocene to Miocene climate transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billups, K.; Diester-Haass, L.; Emeis, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Oligocene to Miocene boundary marks one of the major Cenozoic cooling steps. A corresponding but slightly out of phase δ13C maximum has been attributed to increased organic matter burial associated with global climate cooling (e.g., Zachos et al., 2001). To test this idea we have constructed records of marine biological productivity (based on benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, BFAR) and sequestration of total organic carbon (TOC) in pelagic sediments to parallel the stable isotope records from 20-25 Ma. Here we present first results from Ceara Rise Site 926 located in the tropical northwestern Atlantic. Our data show that the δ18O/δ13C maximum that characterized the Oligocene/Miocene boundary is accompanied by a pronounced maximum in BFAR derived paleoproductivity. In addition, there are longer term variations in paleoproductivity that follow the well established eccentricity-scale variations in the δ18O and δ13C record. Cross-spectral analysis focusing on the Oligocene/Miocene boundary interval (22-24 Ma), for which we have an average sampling resolution of about 10 kyr, verifies that paleoproductivity is coherent with the stable isotope records above the 80% level. These results support the hypothesis that there is a relationship between global climate cooling and the carbon cycle via marine primary productivity.

  5. Marine biological metapopulation with coupled logistic growth functions: The MSY and quasi MSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husniah, H.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we develop a mathematical model for a harvested marine biological stock. The stock consists of two discretely separated sub-stocks which are connected by the dispersal of individuals, and hence forms a metapopulation structure. The model assumes that the production function of each stock follows a logistic equation, hence the full system of the stocks governed by a couple of logistic equations. We find the formula of the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) for each sub-stock, which is extendable to a metapopulation with several discretely separated sub-populations. We also give a numerical simulation to illustrate the application of the formula for two-patch case, based on the quasi maximum sustainable yield. The simulation shows that ignoring the existence of the coupling of the system resulting in a lower total harvest from the population. This indicates a financial lost potential arising from an inappropriate recognition of a metapopulation structure in a fishery industry.

  6. Comparison of methods for integrating biological and physical data for marine habitat mapping and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumchenia, E. J.; King, J. W.

    2010-09-01

    An important first step in marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management efforts is the creation of benthic habitat maps that allow scientists and managers to understand the distribution of living and non-living resources on the seafloor. However, the location of boundaries between and composition of habitats is highly dependent on the approach taken to integrate abiotic and biotic information. The purpose of this study was to test "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches for integrating physical and biological data derived from commonly used sub-tidal benthic mapping tools to create a habitat map compatible with the US Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). We found that a top-down framework, where we tested for differences in macrofauna assemblages among side scan sonar facies, defined two broad-scale and general habitats. Using the bottom-up approach, where patterns in abiotic and biotic variables were examined with multivariate statistics (BEST, LINKTREE, ANOSIM, SIMPER), we generated seven biotopes based on the macrofauna abundance, percent sand, water depth, and backscatter standard deviation that corresponded well to, but provided more fine-scale detail than the top-down habitats. We were able to use the statistical relationship between abiotic variables and macrofauna assemblages in the LINKTREE to predict the spatial distribution of assemblages over ˜50% of the study area. We created a local catalogue of biotopes specific to our study area that contributes to the CMECS library. In addition, we were able to fully map CMECS Geoform, Surface Geology, and Biotic Cover Components. This mapping effort represented real progress toward reconciling the "data density mismatch" between physical and biological mapping methods, and it provided further evidence that using a bottom-up methodology preserves species-environment relationships.

  7. Marine biological productivity, carbon cycling, and climate cooling during the Oligocene to Miocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diester-Haass, Liselotte; Billups, Katharina; Emeis, Kay-Christian

    2010-05-01

    The Oligocene to Miocene boundary (the so-called Mi1 event) marks one of the major Cenozoic cooling steps. A corresponding but slightly out of phase 13C maximum has been attributed to increased organic matter burial associated with global climate cooling (e.g., Zachos et al., 2001). To test this idea we have constructed records of marine biological productivity (based on benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, BFAR) to parallel the stable isotope records from 20-25 Ma at three sites from the Atlantic Ocean sampling different hydrographic regimes. Our data show that the 18O and 13C maximum that characterize the Oligocene/Miocene boundary is accompanied by a pronounced maximum in BFAR derived paleoproductivity at all sites. In the subtropical Atlantic (Site 1265) and the Southern Ocean (Site 1090), productivity increases about 500 kyr prior to Mi1 in tune with the beginning of enhanced amplitude variations in the benthic foraminiferal 13C record. In the tropical Atlantic (Site 926), where we have appropriate sampling resolution (~10 kyr), eccentricity-scale variations in paleoproductivity are coherent with the stable isotope records and in-phase with the 18O values. Paleoproductivity leads 13C at the 400 kyr period in agreement with the lead of 18O values with respect to 13C values. These results illustrate that the link between Oligocene to Miocene climate transition and the carbon cycle is one of marine primary productivity both during the glacial event of Mi1 as well as on eccentricity time scales. The late Oligocene (24 Ma) increase of productivity suggests that a reduction of atmospheric CO2 levels mediated by increased biological productivity may have lead to climate cooling at the Oligocene to Miocene boundary.

  8. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Zittermann, A.; Heer, M.

    1998-11-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplementat and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for `sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods.

  9. Propagation of climatic events on ocean stratification, marine biology, and CO2: Case studies over the 1979-1999 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le QuéRé, Corinne; Aumont, Olivier; Monfray, Patrick; Orr, James

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the propagation of climatic events on ocean stratification, marine biology, and CO2 using a large-scale ocean general circulation model coupled to a simple biogeochemical model of plankton dynamics and the carbon cycle. The model was forced with satellite and reanalysis fields during 1979-1999. We focus on three climatic events: (1) the North Atlantic Oscillation, (2) El Niño events, and (3) the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Such climatic events caused variability in ocean stratification, approximated by the mixing depth (MD), from ±20 m in the subtropics to ±100 s of meters at high latitudes. In the subtropics, deepening of the MD resupplied nutrient-impoverished surface waters and increased marine biomass by 20-100%. In contrast, at high latitudes, shoaling of the MD lengthened the growing season (i.e., the length of time that light is available for plankton growth) and increased marine biomass by 10-20%. Variability in marine biology reached global peak-to-peak values of ±0.01 mg m-3 for surface chl a, ±3.4 Pg C yr-1 for primary production, and ±0.3 Pg C yr-1 for export production and its contribution to CO2 fluxes. Our model results suggest that changes in ocean stratification driven by short-term climatic events could be used to understand and quantify the feedbacks from marine biology to CO2 and climate.

  10. Marine biotechnologies and synthetic biology, new issues for a fair and equitable profit-sharing commercial use.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jean-François; Tardieu-Guigues, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    The sea will be a source of economic development in the next years. Today the research works in marine biotechnologies supply new products and processes. The introduction in the laboratories of a new technology, synthesis biology, is going to increase the possibilities of creation of new products. Exploitation of product stemming from marine biodiversity has to be made with regard to various rights among which industrial property law, maritime law and the Convention on BioDiversity. All participants involved in the promotion of research in marine biotechnology must address the fair and equitable sharing of any commercial exploitation. Carrying out work involving synthetic biology has increased the number of unanswered questions about how operators should manage in order to avoid any threat of being sued for infringements of IP rights or for alleged bio-piracy. This paper, by no means exhaustive in the field, analyzes some of the issues raised on the modification to the landscape in marine biotechnology by the advent of synthetic biology. Such issues indicate how important the collaboration between researchers, industrialists, lawyers is for allowing proper use of marine biotech. PMID:25116370

  11. (Visit to the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica): Foreign trip report, February 28--March 5, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, D.E.

    1988-03-17

    The traveler attended the quarterly meeting of the National Board of Governors of The Nature Conservancy held in Costa Rica to highlight their international program in Central America. The traveler used this opportunity to visit the La Selva Biological Station of the Organization for Tropical Studies and to examine their ecosystem research project on wet lowland tropical forests. Discussions were held with the co-directors, faculty, students, and visiting scientists from the United States.

  12. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Searby, Nancy D.

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  13. A Camera and Multi-Sensor Automated Station Design for Polar Physical and Biological Systems Monitoring: AMIGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlander, J. A.; Ross, R.; Scambos, T.; Haran, T. M.; Bauer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Automated Meteorology - Ice/Indigenous species - Geophysics Observation System (AMIGOS) consists of a set of measurement instruments and camera(s) controlled by a single-board computer with a simplified Linux operating system and an Iridium satellite modem supporting two-way communication. Primary features of the system relevant to polar operations are low power requirements, daily data uploading, reprogramming, tolerance for low temperatures, and various approaches for automatic resets and recovery from low power or cold shut-down. Instruments include a compact weather station, C/A or dual-frequency GPS, solar flux and reflectivity sensors, sonic snow gages, simplified radio-echo-sounder, and resistance thermometer string in the firn column. In the current state of development, there are two basic designs. One is intended for in situ observations of glacier conditions. The other design supports a high-resolution camera for monitoring biological or geophysical systems from short distances (100 m to 20 km). The stations have been successfully used in several locations for operational support, monitoring rapid ice changes in response to climate change or iceberg drift, and monitoring penguin colony activity. As of June, 2012, there are 9 AMIGOS systems installed, all on the Antarctic continent. The stations are a working prototype for a planned series of upgraded stations, currently termed 'Sentinels'. These stations would carry further instrumentation, communications, and processing capability to investigate ice - ocean interaction from ice tongue, ice shelf, or fjord coastline areas.

  14. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  15. 75 FR 5290 - Notice of the Record of Decision for the United States Marine Corps Grow the Force at Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station New River, and Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) New River, and MCAS Cherry Point,...

  16. Learning about Marine Biology. Superific Science Book VI. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…

  17. Numerical and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of suction cup bio-logging tag designs for marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mark; Shorter, Alex; Howle, Laurens; Johnson, Mark; Moore, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The improvement and miniaturization of sensing technologies has made bio-logging tags, utilized for the study of marine mammal behavior, more practical. These sophisticated sensing packages require a housing which protects the electronics from the environment and provides a means of attachment to the animal. The hydrodynamic forces on these housings can inadvertently remove the tag or adversely affect the behavior or energetics of the animal. A modification to the original design of a suction cup bio-logging tag housing was desired to minimize the adverse forces. In this work, hydrodynamic loading of two suction cup tag designs, original and modified designs, were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and validated experimentally. Overall, the simulation and experimental results demonstrated that a tag housing that minimized geometric disruptions to the flow reduced drag forces, and that a tag housing with a small frontal cross-sectional area close to the attachment surface reduced lift forces. Preliminary results from experimental work with a common dolphin cadaver indicates that the suction cups used to attach the tags to the animal provide sufficient attachment force to resist failure at predicted drag and lift forces in 10 m/s flow.

  18. Recent trends in biological extraction of chitin from marine shell wastes: a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh

    2015-03-01

    The natural biopolymer chitin and its deacetylated product chitosan are widely used in innumerable applications ranging from biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture and personal care products to environmental sector. The abundant and renewable marine processing wastes are commercially exploited for the extraction of chitin. However, the traditional chitin extraction processes employ harsh chemicals at elevated temperatures for a prolonged time which can harm its physico-chemical properties and are also held responsible for the deterioration of environmental health. In view of this, green extraction methods are increasingly gaining popularity due to their environmentally friendly nature. The bioextraction of chitin from crustacean shell wastes has been increasingly researched at the laboratory scale. However, the bioextraction of chitin is not currently exploited to its maximum potential on the commercial level. Bioextraction of chitin is emerging as a green, cleaner, eco-friendly and economical process. Specifically in the chitin extraction, microorganisms-mediated fermentation processes are highly desirable due to easy handling, simplicity, rapidity, controllability through optimization of process parameters, ambient temperature and negligible solvent consumption, thus reducing environmental impact and costs. Although, chitin production from crustacean shell waste through biological means is still at its early stage of development, it is undergoing rapid progress in recent years and showing a promising prospect. Driven by reduced energy, wastewater or solvent, advances in biological extraction of chitin along with valuable by-products will have high economic and environmental impact. PMID:24083454

  19. Reproductive biology of two marine catfishes (Siluriformes, Ariidae) in the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Iracema David; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2004-03-01

    Marine catfish are abundant in the Sepetiba Bay, a 305 km2 area in Southeast Brazilian coast (Lat. 22 degrees 54' - 23 degrees 04' S: Long. 43 degrees 44' - 44 degrees 10' W), but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of Sciadeichthys luniscutis (Valenciennes 1840) and Genidens genidens (Valenciennes 1839) was studied through monthly sampling, from October 1998 to September 1999. Fishes were caught with a standardized otter trawl, in the interior of Sepetiba Bay, and near to the confluence with a major freshwater contributor. Six gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observations of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter, and microscopic observations of differences in size and staining in the nucleus and cytoplasm structures, as viewed through a light microscope. Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in stages of gonadal development showed what S. luniscutis spawned in Spring, while G. genidens spawned in Summer. Total spawning was shown for both species as indicated by high concentration of post-ovulatory follicles in spent stages. Fecundity was low (14-38 vitellogenic oocytes for S. luniscutis and 6-24 for G. genidens). when compared with other teleosts. Low fecundity and separation in spawning period suggest that both species are k-strategist, able to avoid interspecific competition in early stages of life cycle to optimize the use of the available niche. PMID:17357411

  20. Marine biological feedback associated with Indian Ocean Dipole in a coupled ocean/biogeochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of marine ecosystem on the tropical climate variability in the Indian Ocean is investigated by performing coupled ocean/biogeochemical model experiments, which are forced by realistic surface winds from 1951 to 2010. Results from a suite of chlorophyll perturbation experiments reveal that the presence of chlorophyll can have significant effects on the characteristics of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), including its amplitude and skewness, as well as on the mean state. Specifically, chlorophyll increases mean sea surface temperature due to direct biological heating in regions where the mean mixed layer depth is generally shallow. It is also found that the presence of chlorophyll affects the IOD magnitude by two different processes: One is the amplifying effect by the mean chlorophyll, which leads to shoaling of mean thermocline depth, and the other is the damping effect by the interactively varying chlorophyll coupled with the physical model. There is also a biological impact on the skewness of the IOD, resulting in enhanced positive skewness. This skewness change is primarily caused by the phase dependency of the above two contradicting effects involving the asymmetric thermocline feedback and the nonlinear mixed layer heating.

  1. Application of geophysical methods to the delineation of paleochannels and missing confining units above the Castle Hayne Aquifer at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C., III; Miller, R.D.; Wrege, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, is underlain by four freshwater-bearing aquifers--the surficial, Yorktown, and upper and lower Castle Hayne. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the principal supply of freshwater for the Air Station. The potential for movement of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. Missing confining units may indicate the presence of paleochannels filled with permeable material. Seismic-reflection techniques were successful in delinea- ting paleochannels of Quaternary and Tertiary age within unconsoli- dated sediments less than 180 feet deep at several locations. Continuous single-channel marine seismic-reflection profiling in the Neuse River was effective in delineating a large paleochannel complex consisting of at least two superimposed paleochannels within hydrogeologic units overlying the upper Castle Hayne aquifer. The complex was found immediately north of the Air Station and is thought to continue south beneath the Air Station. Shallow high-resolution land seismic-reflection techniques were used at the Air Station to delineate structures and correlate strati- graphy between the limestone of the upper Castle Hayne aquifer and the Yorktown confining unit. Three different land seismic-reflection techniques proved effective for the horizontal extrapolation of geo- logic features and identification of paleochannels at several locations. The northeastern margin of a large paleochannel was identified beneath the southern part of the Air Station. This feature strikes northwest to southeast and cuts through the Yorktown and upper Castle Hayne aquifer confining units.

  2. Data from stratigraphic test holes drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1994-2001, and periodic water levels, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, Beth M.; Jen, Philip S.

    2004-01-01

    Nine stratigraphic test holes, from 158 to 305 feet deep, were drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point, North Carolina, between 1994 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey. These test holes and subsequent wells provide information about the lithology, stratigraphy, and geology at the Marine Corps Air Station. In addition, ground-water-level data were collected at the Air Station through 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey also conducted high-resolution marine and land seismic surveys during this investigation. The ground-water-level data and locations of the seismic survey lines are included in this report. The stratigraphic data combined with the seismic data provide a basis for the delineation of paleochannels beneath the Air Station as well as information for the management of water resources at the Air Station.

  3. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  4. The influence of the biological pump on ocean chemistry: implications for long-term trends in marine redox chemistry, the global carbon cycle, and marine animal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K M; Ridgwell, A; Payne, J L

    2016-05-01

    The net export of organic matter from the surface ocean and its respiration at depth create vertical gradients in nutrient and oxygen availability that play a primary role in structuring marine ecosystems. Changes in the properties of this 'biological pump' have been hypothesized to account for important shifts in marine ecosystem structure, including the Cambrian explosion. However, the influence of variation in the behavior of the biological pump on ocean biogeochemistry remains poorly quantified, preventing any detailed exploration of how changes in the biological pump over geological time may have shaped long-term shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure. Here, we use a 3-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantitatively explore the effects of the biological pump on marine chemistry. We find that when respiration of sinking organic matter is efficient, due to slower sinking or higher respiration rates, anoxia tends to be more prevalent and to occur in shallower waters. Consequently, the Phanerozoic trend toward less bottom-water anoxia in continental shelf settings can potentially be explained by a change in the spatial dynamics of nutrient cycling rather than by any change in the ocean phosphate inventory. The model results further suggest that the Phanerozoic decline in the prevalence ocean anoxia is, in part, a consequence of the evolution of larger phytoplankton, many of which produce mineralized tests. We hypothesize that the Phanerozoic trend toward greater animal abundance and metabolic demand was driven more by increased oxygen concentrations in shelf environments than by greater food (nutrient) availability. In fact, a lower-than-modern ocean phosphate inventory in our closed system model is unable to account for the Paleozoic prevalence of bottom-water anoxia. Overall, these model simulations suggest that the changing spatial distribution of photosynthesis and respiration in the oceans has

  5. The identification of a new Giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of G. duodenalis population biology in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Welch, David Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2010-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite of many vertebrates. The presence of G. duodenalis in the marine environment due to anthropogenic and wildlife activity is well documented, including the contributions from untreated sewage and storm water, agricultural run-off and droppings from terrestrial animals. Recently, studies have detected this protistan parasite in the faeces of marine vertebrates such as whales, dolphins, seals and shore birds. To explore the population biology of G. duodenalis in marine life, we determined the prevalence of G. duodenalis in two species of seal (Halichoerus grypus, Phoca vitulina vitulina and Phoca vitulina richardsi) from the east and west coasts of the USA, sequenced two loci from G. duodenalis-positive samples to assess molecular diversity and examined G. duodenalis distribution amongst these seals and other marine vertebrates along the east coast. We found a significant difference in the presence of G. duodenalis between east and west coast seal species. Only the zoonotic lineages of G. duodenalis, Assemblages A and B and a novel lineage, which we designated as Assemblage H, were identified in marine vertebrates. Assemblages A and B are broadly distributed geographically and show a lack of host specificity. Only grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) samples and one gull sample (Larus argentatus) from a northern location of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, showed the presence of Assemblage H haplotypes; only one other study of harbour seals from the Puget Sound region of Washington, USA previously recorded the presence of an Assemblage H haplotype. Assemblage H sequences form a monophyletic clade that appears as divergent from the other seven Assemblages of G. duodenalis as these assemblages are from each other. The discovery of a previously uncharacterised lineage of G. duodenalis suggests that this parasite has more genetic diversity and perhaps a larger host range than previously believed. PMID:20361967

  6. The identification of a new Giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of G. duodenalis population biology in marine systems✯

    PubMed Central

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Welch, David Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2010-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite of many vertebrates. The presence of G. duodenalis in the marine environment due to anthropogenic and wildlife activity is well documented, including the contributions from untreated sewage and storm water, agricultural run-off, and droppings from terrestrial animals. Recently, studies have detected this protistan parasite in the feces of marine vertebrates such as whales, dolphins, seals and shore birds. To explore the population biology of G. duodenalis in marine life, we determined the prevalence of G. duodenalis in two species of seal (Halichoerus grypus, Phoca vitulina vitulina and Phoca vitulina richardsi) from the east and west coasts of the USA, sequenced two loci from G. duodenalis-positive samples to assess molecular diversity, and examined G. duodenalis distribution among these seals and other marine vertebrates along the east coast. We found a significant difference in the presence of G. duodenalis between east and west coast seal species. Only the zoonotic lineages of G. duodenalis, Assemblages A and B and a novel lineage, which we designated as Assemblage H, were identified in marine vertebrates. Assemblages A and B are broadly distributed geographically and show a lack of host specificity. Only grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) samples and one gull sample (Larus argentatus) from a northern location of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA showed the presence of Assemblage H haplotypes; only one other study of harbor seals from the Puget Sound region of Washington, USA previously recorded the presence of an Assemblage H haplotype. Assemblage H sequences form a monophyletic clade that appears as divergent from the other seven Assemblages of G. duodenalis as these assemblages are from each other. The discovery of a previously uncharacterized lineage of G. duodenalis suggests that this parasite has more genetic diversity and perhaps a larger host range than previously believed. PMID:20361967

  7. Biological N2O fixation in the Eastern South Pacific Ocean and marine cyanobacterial cultures.

    PubMed

    Farías, Laura; Faúndez, Juan; Fernández, Camila; Cornejo, Marcela; Sanhueza, Sandra; Carrasco, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the global radiative balance and atmospheric ozone chemistry, its sources and sinks within the Earth's system are still poorly understood. In the ocean, N2O is produced by microbiological processes such as nitrification and partial denitrification, which account for about a third of global emissions. Conversely, complete denitrification (the dissimilative reduction of N2O to N2) under suboxic/anoxic conditions is the only known pathway accountable for N2O consumption in the ocean. In this work, it is demonstrated that the biological assimilation of N2O could be a significant pathway capable of directly transforming this gas into particulate organic nitrogen (PON). N2O is shown to be biologically fixed within the subtropical and tropical waters of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, under a wide range of oceanographic conditions and at rates ranging from 2 pmol N L(-1) d(-) to 14.8 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (mean ± SE of 0.522 ± 1.06 nmol N L(-1) d(-1), n = 93). Additional assays revealed that cultured cyanobacterial strains of Trichodesmium (H-9 and IMS 101), and Crocosphaera (W-8501) have the capacity to directly fix N2O under laboratory conditions; suggesting that marine photoautotrophic diazotrophs could be using N2O as a substrate. This metabolic capacity however was absent in Synechococcus (RCC 1029). The findings presented here indicate that assimilative N2O fixation takes place under extreme environmental conditions (i.e., light, nutrient, oxygen) where both autotrophic (including cyanobacteria) and heterotrophic microbes appear to be involved. This process could provide a globally significant sink for atmospheric N2O which in turn affects the oceanic N2O inventory and may also represent a yet unexplored global oceanic source of fixed N. PMID:23717516

  8. Integrating Distributed Physical and Biological Marine data using OGC Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmell, A. L.; Blower, J. D.; Haines, K.; Price, M.; Millard, K.; Harpham, Q.

    2008-12-01

    Earth scientists use highly diverse sources of data, including in-situ measurements, remotely-sensed information and the results of numerical simulations. The ability to access, visualize, combine and compare these datasets is at the core of scientific investigation, but such tasks have hitherto been very difficult or impossible due to a fundamental lack of harmonization of data products. As a result, much valuable data remains underused. We present a web portal that visualizes and compares physical and biological marine data from both numerical models and in-situ observations. The model data are obtained via an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compatible Web Map Service (WMS), and the observed data are obtained via an OGC Web Feature Service (WFS). The physical model WMS, the biological model WMS and the WFS are located at three different institutes. This ability to display in-situ point observations alongside model data facilitates much valuable work on model validation. As models become increasingly complex, and sources of observed data become more numerous, it is important to be able to access and compare this growing amount of data efficiently, to ensure cross-checking and consistency between models and observations. The web portal is being applied in a large European operational oceanography project (ECOOP), where it is used to provide support to ecosystem modellers, and specifically to aid detection of potentially harmful algal blooms in coastal areas. The development of this system has been enabled by the conceptual framework of the Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML), which provides a common view onto all these datasets, independent of their storage format or physical location. CSML is based upon emerging international standards, enabling interoperability with other standards-based infrastructures. By creating a reusable Java library that embodies the CSML concepts we are able to apply these techniques to a number of other projects.

  9. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J. F.; Peng, P. A.; Liu, M. Y.; Xi, D. P.; Song, J. Z.; Wan, X. Q.; Wang, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ13Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB. PMID:25946976

  10. Marine organism cell biology and regulatory sequence discoveryin comparative functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David W; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Parton, Angela; Dowell, Lori M; Bayne, Christopher J; Forrest, John N

    2004-10-01

    The use of bioinformatics to integrate phenotypic and genomic data from mammalian models is well established as a means of understanding human biology and disease. Beyond direct biomedical applications of these approaches in predicting structure-function relationships between coding sequences and protein activities, comparative studies also promote understanding of molecular evolution and the relationship between genomic sequence and morphological and physiological specialization. Recently recognized is the potential of comparative studies to identify functionally significant regulatory regions and to generate experimentally testable hypotheses that contribute to understanding mechanisms that regulate gene expression, including transcriptional activity, alternative splicing and transcript stability. Functional tests of hypotheses generated by computational approaches require experimentally tractable in vitro systems, including cell cultures. Comparative sequence analysis strategies that use genomic sequences from a variety of evolutionarily diverse organisms are critical for identifying conserved regulatory motifs in the 5'-upstream, 3'-downstream and introns of genes. Genomic sequences and gene orthologues in the first aquatic vertebrate and protovertebrate organisms to be fully sequenced (Fugu rubripes, Ciona intestinalis, Tetraodon nigroviridis, Danio rerio) as well as in the elasmobranchs, spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and little skate (Raja erinacea), and marine invertebrate models such as the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) are valuable in the prediction of putative genomic regulatory regions. Cell cultures have been derived for these and other model species. Data and tools resulting from these kinds of studies will contribute to understanding transcriptional regulation of biomedically important genes and provide new avenues for medical therapeutics and disease prevention. PMID:19003267

  11. The Influence of LGM Iron Inputs on the Marine Biological Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. K.

    2008-12-01

    Dust deposition to Antarctica was substantially higher at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and model results suggest that globally dust deposition to the oceans increased approximately fourfold, with larger increases at high southern latitudes. Thus, atmospheric iron inputs to the oceans were greatly increased. However sedimentary iron inputs decreased due to the lower sea level. We examine the impacts of glacial iron inputs from both sources on marine biogeochemical cycling at the LGM, through simulations with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) ocean model. The BEC model includes several key phytoplankton functional groups (diatoms, diazotrophs, picophytoplankton, and coccolithophores) and multiple potentially growth-limiting nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, and dissolved iron). The increased LGM iron inputs led to increased production and export in the classic High Nitrate, Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions known to be iron-limited today. In the simulations there is also an indirect response to increased iron inputs in some low-nutrient, subtropical regions, where iron is the limiting nutrient for the diazotrophs. Increased iron fuels additional nitrogen fixation by this group, reducing the nitrogen stress of the larger phytoplankton community, and increasing production and export. The strengthening of the biological pump due to the direct (HNLC) and indirect (N fixation) pathways substantially lowers atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  12. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    PubMed Central

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported. PMID:20714425

  13. [Model of regularity of ammonia transformation along marine biological aerated filter].

    PubMed

    Luo, Rong-Qiang; Hou, Sha-Sha; Shen, Jia-Zheng; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the biological aerated filter (BAF) of a marine recirculating aquaculture system, which is important to remove harmful ammonia and organics. A model, characterizing the ammonia transformation along the BAF, was established on the basis of the principle of adsorption and the first order reaction bio-film. Experiments were performed and verified the effectiveness of the proposed model. The target BAF was packed with bamboo ring for 70 cm high. Study under the conditions [pH 7.1-7.6, DO 5-7 mg x L(-1), gas water ratio about 20 : 1, organic load about 4 g x (m3 x h)(-1)] shows that ammonia is removed significantly under the 10 cm height of medium, while less ammonia is removed between 10-70 cm. Experimental results confirm that the model predicts the ammonia concentration along the BAF accurately with a low influent ammonia concentration, but the predicted value is slightly lower than the true value with a high influent ammonia concentration. Study on ammonia concentration along the BAF reveals that the effluent ammonia concentration increases along with either the increment of the influent ammonia concentration or the reduction of the hydraulic retention time. PMID:23243879

  14. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. F.; Peng, P. A.; Liu, M. Y.; Xi, D. P.; Song, J. Z.; Wan, X. Q.; Wang, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ13Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB.

  15. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Edward R.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Smith, Sherri L.; Calder, Fred D.

    1995-01-01

    Matching biological and chemical data were compiled from numerous modeling, laboratory, and field studies performed in marine and estuarine sediments. Using these data, two guideline values (an effects range-low and an effects range-median) were determined for nine trace metals, total PCBs, two pesticides, 13 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and three classes of PAHs. The two values defined concentration ranges that were: (1) rarely, (2) occasionally, or (3) frequently associated with adverse effects. The values generally agreed within a factor of 3 or less with those developed with the same methods applied to other data and to those developed with other effects-based methods. The incidence of adverse effects was quantified within each of the three concentration ranges as the number of cases in which effects were observed divided by the total number of observations. The incidence of effects increased markedly with increasing concentrations of all of the individual PAHs, the three classes of PAHs, and most of the trace metals. Relatively poor relationships were observed between the incidence of effects and the concentrations of mercury, nickel, total PCB, total DDT and p,p'-DDE. Based upon this evaluation, the approach provided reliable guidelines for use in sediment quality assessments. This method is being used as a basis for developing National sediment quality guidelines for Canada and informal, sediment quality guidelines for Florida.

  16. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Marine life forms are an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as `first-in-class' drugs, with 5 of 7 appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and pre-clinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  17. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Gerwick, William H; Moore, Bradley S

    2012-01-27

    Marine life forms are an important source of structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as "first-in-class" drugs, with five of seven appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and preclinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  18. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  19. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 6: Space Station Freedom/spacelab modules compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The differences in rack requirements for Spacelab, the Shuttle Orbiter, and the United States (U.S.) laboratory module, European Space Agency (ESA) Columbus module, and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of Space Station Freedom are identified. The feasibility of designing standardized mechanical, structural, electrical, data, video, thermal, and fluid interfaces to allow space flight hardware designed for use in the U.S. laboratory module to be used in other locations is assessed.

  20. Development of Marine Sciences in Arab Universities. Meeting of Experts Held at the Marine Science Station (Aqaba, Jordan, December 1-5, 1985). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    The "Unesco Reports in Marine Science" are designed to serve as a complement to the "Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science." This report focuses on the current situation in marine sciences in Arab universities. A special meeting was convened in Jordan during December, 1985, to discuss the objectives of teaching and research in the marine…

  1. Satellite Tracking of Sympatric Marine Megafauna Can Inform the Biological Basis for Species Co-Management

    PubMed Central

    Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Context Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Methodology/Results Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Conclusions/Significance: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but

  2. Impact of geoengineering with olivine dissolution on the carbon cycle and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, P.; Abrams, J.; Völker, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Hartmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique: the carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification. If details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO2 sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. These upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2 in examples for the rivers Amazon and Congo (Köhler et al., 2010). The secondary effects of the input of silicic acid connected with this approach leads in an ecosystem model (ReCOM2.0 in MITgcm) to species shifts aways from the calcifying species towards diatoms, thus altering the biological carbon pumps. Open ocean dissolution of olivine would sequestrate about 1 Pg CO2 per Pg olivine from which about 8% are caused by changes in the biological pumps (increase export of organic matter, decreased export of CaCO3). The chemical impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine (the increased alkalinity input) is therefore less efficient than dissolution on land, but leads due to different chemical impacts to a higher surface ocean pH enhancement to counteract ocean acidification. We finally investigate open ocean dissolution rates of up to 10 Pg olivine per year corresponding to geoengineering rates which might be of interest in the light of expected future emission (e.g. A2 scenario with emissions rising to 30 PgC/yr in 2100 AD). Those rates would still sequestrate only less than 20% of the emission until 2100, but would require that the nowadays available

  3. Viability and Biological Properties of Barley Seeds Expose to Outside of International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Novikova, Nataliya; Grigoriev, Anatoly

    Plants play an important role in supplying nutrients and oxygen to human under material recycle system in space as well as on earth, therefore, seed storage in space should be necessary to self-supply foods when number of astronauts would stay and investigate for a long-term habitation of orbit and the bases of the Moon and Mars. In order to understand the effect of real space environment on the preservation of seeds, the seeds of malting barley, Haruna Nijo, were exposed to outside of the Pier docking station of International Space Station in the framework of the Biorisk-MSN program. After exposure to outside of International Space Station for 13 months, the seeds (SP) were transported to Earth, soaked in water, and germinated on the filter paper filled with water. The germination ratio of SP was 82%, while that of the ground control was 96%, showing that the barley seeds survived cosmic radiation, vacuum, and temperature excursion in space. The germinated seeds of SP and ground control were transplanted to the Wagner pots filled with soil and grown for 5 months in the greenhouse. The agronomic character, such as number of main stem leaf and ear, straw weight, culm length, ear length, thousand kernel weight, and percentage of ripening, were not different significantly between SP and ground control. The germination ratio of the harvested SP was 96% as same as that of the harvested ground control. Genomic DNA and protein were extracted from leaves of the barleys and analyzed by AFLP and 2-DE, respectively. The results demonstrated no significant difference in genetic polymorphism and protein production in these barleys. From our results, barley seeds could survive real space environment for the long-term habitation without phenotypic and genotypic damages.

  4. Size distributions of organic nitrogen and carbon in remote marine aerosols: Evidence of marine biological origin based on their isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Sawano, Maki

    2010-03-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific in summer 2008 for the measurements of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC). ON and OC showed bimodal size distributions. Their concentrations showed positive correlation with those of biogenic tracers, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and azelaic acid (C9). We found that average ON and OC concentrations were twice greater in aerosols collected in the oceanic region with higher biological productivity than in the regions with lower productivity. The average ON/OC ratios are higher (0.49 ± 0.11) in more biologically influenced aerosols than those (0.35 ± 0.10) in less influenced aerosols. Stable carbon isotopic analysis indicates that marine-derived carbon accounted for ˜46-72% of total carbon in more biologically influenced aerosols. These results provide evidence that organic aerosols in this region are enriched in ON that is linked to oceanic biological activity and the subsequent emissions to the atmosphere.

  5. Biological effects of galactic radiation HZE particles in experiments on the orbital station Salyut 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. T.; Nevzgodina, L. V.

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds were flown on-board the orbital station Salyut 7 for 66-457 days. It was found that a single heavy charged particle (HZE) hitting a seed only slightly affects the subsequent plant growth. However, morphological anomalies of varying type in primordial leaves and roots were observed that show good correlation with the location of the particle track. The most severe damage detected by light and an electron microscopy were ``channels'' in dry and soaked seeds. The appearance of ``channels'' seems to be related to the LET of the incident particle. This finding is of considerable importance for assessment of space flight radiation hazard.

  6. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  7. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions. PMID:25039294

  8. Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine habitats: production, characterization and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(5) Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to

  9. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides from Extreme Marine Habitats: Production, Characterization and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 × 105 to 3 × 105 Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to give

  10. Relationships between ocean anoxia, the biological pump, and marine animal life during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean anoxia/euxinia and carbon cycle instability have long been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and the Early Triassic interval of delayed or interrupted biotic recovery. Many hypotheses to explain this extinction event invoke the release of greenhouse gases during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps, which likely triggered abrupt changes in marine biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. However, the precise ways in which volcanism and these perturbations are linked and how they governed the tempo and mode of biotic recovery remain poorly understood. Here we highlight new C, Ca, and Sr isotopic data that serve to link volcanic CO2 inputs to changes in marine biogeochemistry and environmental change. We then examine the relationship between ocean biogeochemistry, the biological pump, and marine animal ecosystems during the end-Permian mass extinction and Early Triassic recovery. Finally, we use numerical simulations to probe whether these relationships also explain broad Phanerozoic trends in ocean nutrient status, anoxia, and productivity of marine ecosystems.

  11. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately 6,800 feet west of the mouth of Slocum Creek, and all waters of Hancock and Slocum Creeks and...

  12. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  13. Organomercury determination in biological reference materials: Application to a study on mercury speciation in marine mammals off the Faroee Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Schintu, M.; Jean-Caurant, F.; Amiard, J.C. )

    1992-08-01

    The potential use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) for the organic mercury determination in marine biological tissues was evaluated. Following its isolation by acid extraction in toluene, organic mercury was recovered in aqueous thiosulfate and measured by GF-AAS. The detection limit was 0.01 microgram Hg/g (as methyl mercury). Analyses were conducted on three reference standard materials certified for their methyl mercury content, DOLT-1, DORM-1, and TORT-1, provided by the National Research Council of Canada. The method resulted in very good recovery and reproducibility, indicating that GF-AAS can provide results comparable to those obtained by using more expensive and time consuming analytical techniques. The method was applied to the analysis of liver tissues of pilot whale specimens (Globicephala melas) from the drive fishery of the Faroee Islands (northeast Atlantic). The results provided useful information on the proportion of different mercury forms in the liver of these marine mammals.

  14. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  15. Herpetofauna of the Beni Biological Station Biosphere Reserve, Amazonian Bolivia: Additional information, and current knowledge in context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middendorf, G.; Reynolds, R.

    2000-01-01

    Previous collections in the Departamento del Beni in tropical Bolivia only hinted at high levels of herpetological biodiversity (Fugler 1986, 1988; de la Riva 1990a; Fugler and de la Riva 1990). Fieldwork (totaling 48 days) in July-August 1988 and September 1987 (dry seasons) and November-December 1990 (wet season) has resulted in collection and identification of 401 amphibian and reptilian specimens from the general area of the Beni Biological Station's (EBB) headquarters at El Porvenir. These collections represent 33 amphibian and 17 reptilian species in 29 genera (14 amphibian, 15 reptilian). The inventory of herpetofauna scientifically documented to occur in the Departamento del Beni is considered to have been increased by 6 amphibian and 10 reptilian species. Specimens that could not be definitively identified (reflecting taxonomic uncertainty and/or probably species new to science) include 3 amphibian species (anurans) and 2 reptilian species (snakes). The EBB harbors the richest savanna for anuran species known in South America.

  16. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  17. Marine biological controls on climate via the carbon and sulphur geochemical cycles

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    We review aspects of the influence of the marine biota on climate, focusing particularly on their role in mediating surface temperatures via their influence on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations. Variation in natural CO2 concentrations occurring over 103 to 105 years are set by oceanic processes, and in particular by conditions in the Southern Ocean, so it is to this region that we must look to understand the glacial-interglacial changes in CO2 concentrations. It seems likely that marine productivity in the Southern Ocean is limited by a combination of restricted iron supply to the region and insufficient light. Plankton-produced DMS is thought to influence climate by changing the numbers of cloud condensation nuclei available in remote regions; the efficiency of this mechanism is still unknown, but calculations suggest it may be a powerful influence on climate. It has a much shorter time-scale than the CO2 effect, and as a consequence may well be a player on the 'global change' timescale. The direction of both the CO2 and the DMS mechanisms is such that more marine productivity would lead to lower global temperatures, and we speculate that the overall effect of the marine biota today is to cool the planet by ca. 6°C as a result of these two mechanisms, with one-third of this figure being due to CO2 effects and two-thirds due to DMS. While the marine biota influence climate, climate also influences the marine biota, chiefly via changing atmospheric circulation. This in turn alters ocean circulation patterns, responsible for mixing up sub-surface nutrients, and also influences the transport of nutrients, such as iron, in atmospheric dust. A more vigorous atmospheric circulation would be expected to increase the productivity of the marine biota on both counts. Thus during glacial time, the colder and drier climate might be expected to stimulate greater marine productivity than occurs today. Since more production leads to

  18. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F.; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2013-03-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ˜30%.

  19. Changes in chemical contaminant body burden and biological effects in mussels adjacent to a marine remediation site

    SciTech Connect

    Kagley, A.N.; Snider, R.G.; Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor is a creosote-polluted marine site currently undergoing initial environmental remediation. Highly contaminated sediments were capped with a layer of sediment from a minimally contaminated area. Mussels (Mytilus edulis complex) in the vicinity of the creosote plant were collected before, during, and after the initial remediation process, for monitoring body burdens of PAHs as well as cellular effects indicative of biological damage. Mussels from this area have previously been shown to exhibit an elevated body burden of high molecular weight PAHs, as well as substantial changes in subcellular structures and functions, characteristic of mussels from chemically contaminated environments. Following capping, the body burden of high molecular weight PAHs was substantially reduced early in the restoration process yet mussel contaminant body burdens were approaching pre-cap levels one year after the end of the remediation project. Changes in mussel health were assessed by measuring selected aspects of lysosomal function as well as levels of enzymes and anti-oxidants involved in detoxifying organic chemical contaminants. Substantial improvement throughout capping occurred in lysosomal stability and cytochrome P450 reductase activity in digestive gland, and anti-oxidant status in gill tissue when compared to initial findings. In contrast, increased levels of neutral lipid and lipofuscin in digestive glands indicated that mussels were still suffering biological impairment as a result of chemical contaminant exposure. Overall, indigenous mussels near the marine remediation project showed temporary improvement in tissue body burden of chemical contaminants and some decrease in biological effects.

  20. Biological contribution to ice nucleation active particles in clouds at the puy de Dôme atmospheric station, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Pierre; Joly, Muriel; Deguillaume, Laurent; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2015-04-01

    The distribution, abundance and nature of ice nucleation active particles in the atmosphere are major sources of uncertainty in the prediction of cloud coverage, precipitation patterns and climate. Some biological ice nuclei (IN) induce freezing at temperatures at which most other atmospheric particles exhibit no detectable activity (> -10°C), but their actual contribution to the pool of IN in clouds remains poorly known. In order to help elucidating this, cloud water was collected aseptically from the summit of Puy de Dome (1465m a.s.l., France) within contrasted meteorological and physico-chemical situations. Total and biological (i.e. heat-sensitive) IN were quantified by droplet-freezing assay between -5°C and -14°C. We observed that freezing was systematically induced by biological material, between -6°C and -8°C in 92{%} of the samples. Its removal by heat treatment consistently led to a decrease of the onset freezing temperature, by 3°C or more in most samples. At -10°C, 0 to 220 biological IN mL-1 of cloud water were measured (i.e. 0 to 22 m-3 of cloud air), and these represented 65{%} to 100{%} of the total IN. Based on back-trajectories and on physico-chemical analyses, the high variability observed resulted probably from a source effect, with IN originating mostly from continental sources. Bacteria concentration in the air at altitude relevant for clouds typically ranges from ˜102 to ˜105 cells m-3. Assuming that biological IN measured in cloud water samples at -8°C were all bacteria, ice nucleation active bacteria represented at maximum 0.6{%} of the total bacteria cells present (3.1{%} at -12°C). These results should help elucidating the role of biological and bacterial IN on cloud microphysics and their impact on precipitation at local scale. References: Joly, M., Amato, P., Deguillaume, L., Monier, M., Hoose, C., and Delort A-M (2014). Quantification of ice nuclei active at near 0°C temperatures in low altitude clouds at the puy de Dome

  1. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals. PMID:25091913

  2. It is an Experience, Not a Lesson: The Nature of High School Students' Experiences at a Biological Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Marc E.

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the nature of high school students' experiences in the immersive four-day field experience at Stone Laboratory Biological Field Station including excursions to Kelley's Island and South Bass Island. Six tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students participated through interviews, photovoice, observations, and a survey. Pretrip semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand each participant student's relationship with science. Participants were given cameras to record their field trip experiences to relate what they found interesting, important, and exciting. Back at school after the field trip, the participants were asked to choose their five most meaningful photographs, and write a short essay to describe the significance of each image. A posttrip semi-structured interview explored each participant's experiences during the field trip. An unstructured interview was conducted to discuss each participant's full photograph gallery from the field trip. Interview transcripts were member checked with one minor wording change. Analysis consisted of open coding using apriori codes derived from the ecological framework and emergent codes derived from the data. Coding was duplicated through multiple readers. Significant findings included: 1) Prior experience, prior knowledge, and funds of knowledge added relevance and value to an experience, facilitating interest development; 2) Experiences appeared to be more meaningful when all the senses were stimulated; 3) Friends and peers were an essential part of a quality experience; 4) Quality experiences included a wow factor, or sudden awareness; 5) Teachers needed to be within the experience, not the focus of the experience, and needed to be available to answer questions, be enthusiastic when a discovery was made, and promote student reflection concerning their perceptions and discoveries; 6) A quality informal learning situation incorporated the cognitive/affective, physical

  3. Marine ecosystem simulation in the eastern tropical Pacific with a global eddy resolving coupled physical-biological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Y.; Sasaki, H.; Sasaoka, K.; Ishida, A.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We have simulated the seasonal variability of marine biology in the eastern tropical Pacific using a global eddy-resolving coupled physical-biological model. Using high-resolution satellite wind fields, the model reproduces the seasonal variability of surface chlorophyll influenced by the meso-scale eddies and upwelling associated with the strong offshore wind jets. In winter, upwelling generated by the wind jets in the Gulfs of Tehuantepec, Papagayo, and Panama brings up cold and nitrate-rich waters from subsurface layer, where the tropical spring bloom occurs and is transported offshore. In summer, the intertropical convergence zone moves northward, and these jets weaken. The Costa Rica Dome develops with wind fields west of the Gulf of Papagayo. The dome in the open ocean supports high chlorophyll by the nutrient supply with upwelling. The westward expansion of surface chlorophyll of dome is response to the thermocline variation with the westward propagation of Rossby waves.

  4. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem

  5. Phylogenetic Diversity and Biological Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated from the Chukchi Shelf Marine Sediments in the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  6. Limitations of an optimum sustainable population or potential biological removal approach for conserving marine mammals: Pacific walrus case study.

    PubMed

    Robards, Martin D; Burns, John J; Meek, Chanda L; Watson, Annette

    2009-10-01

    Decision rules are the agreed-upon points at which specific management interventions are initiated. For marine mammal management under the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), decision rules are usually based on either a numeric population or biological-removal approach. However, for walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds, the inability to reliably assess population numbers or biological removals highlights a significant gap in the MMPA, particularly when the Arctic environment is rapidly changing. We describe the MMPA's ecosystem-based management goals, and why managers have bypassed these goals in favor of an approach that depends upon numerical population assessment. We then revisit the statute's primary goals in light of current knowledge about the Pacific walrus ecosystem and new developments in environmental governance. We argue that to monitor and respond to changes in the walrus ecosystem, decision rules should be based on scientific criteria that depend less on the currently-impractical goal of accurately enumerating population size and trends, or removals from that population. Rather, managers should base decisions on ecological needs and observed ecological changes. To implement this approach would require an amendment to the MMPA that supports filling the gap in management with achievable decision rules. Alternatively, walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds will remain largely unmanaged during a period of profound environmental change. PMID:19783356

  7. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of actinobacteria isolated from the Chukchi Shelf marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  8. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  9. A new species and new distribution records for Braconidae from Mountain Lake Biological Station in southwestern Virginia and a redescription of Pentapleura foveolata Viereck

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One new species of Alysiinae, Coelinius wrayi Kula, is described. Pentapleura foveolata Viereck, also in Alysiinae and previously known only from a male collected at the type locality in Connecticut, is redescribed based on six females and two males collected at Mountain Lake Biological Station (MLB...

  10. Marine biological production from in situ oxygen measurements on a profiling float in the subarctic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushinsky, Seth M.; Emerson, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the organic carbon flux from the surface ocean to the interior (the marine biological pump) is essential for predictions of ocean carbon cycle feedback to climate change. One approach for determining these fluxes is to measure the concentration of oxygen in the upper ocean over a seasonal cycle, calculate the net O2 flux using an upper ocean model, and then use a stoichiometric relationship between oxygen evolved and organic carbon produced. Applying this tracer in a variety of ocean areas over seasonal cycles requires accurate O2 measurements on autonomous vehicles. Here we demonstrate this approach using an O2 sensor on a profiling float that is periodically calibrated against atmospheric pO2. Using accurate data and a model that includes all physical and biological processes influencing oxygen, we determine an annual net community production of 0.7 ± 0.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the northeast Pacific Ocean (50°N, 145°W) from June 2012 to June 2013. There is a strong seasonal cycle in net biological oxygen production with wintertime fluxes caused by bubble processes critical to determining the annual flux. Approximately 50% of net autotrophic production during summer months is consumed by net respiration during the winter. The result is a biological pump in the subarctic Pacific Ocean that is less than that determined by similar methods in the subtropics to the south. This estimate is significantly lower than that predicted by satellite remote sensing and global circulation models.