Science.gov

Sample records for marine biology letters

  1. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  2. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  3. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  4. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  5. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens. PMID:12180100

  6. Gloucester Marine Biology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Sonja; And Others

    Objectives and activities for a field trip study of the seacoast environment of Gloucester, Massachusetts, are outlined in this guide. One phase of a six-week tenth grade biology unit, the field trip features study of tidal pool and salt marsh ecosystems. Specific objectives of the trip relate to observation and identification of various forms of…

  7. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  8. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future. PMID:18299181

  9. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  10. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS: MARINE MAMMALS AND SEA TURTLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the description of the Arthur Kill biological features presented in Chapter 1, marine mammals and sea turtles are not discussed since they are not regular residents of this area. owever, marine turtles, seals, and cetaccans are occasionally sighted in the Arthur Kill, and they...

  11. Field Techniques in Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is one teacher's method of teaching students to use various marine and scientific apparati while studying important relationships within the ecosystem. A data retrieval chart is included with questions and problems to ask about the data, along with information on how to interpret the data chart. (MA)

  12. Resource Letter TTSM-1: Teaching Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics in Introductory Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Meltzer, David E.; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2015-01-01

    This Resource Letter draws on discipline-based education research from physics, chemistry, and biology to collect literature on the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the three disciplines. While the overlap among the disciplinary literatures is limited at present, we hope this Resource Letter will spark more interdisciplinary interaction.

  13. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  14. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  15. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  16. Genetic Perspectives on Marine Biological Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Jonathan B.; Darling, John A.; Carlton, James T.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the geographic distributions of marine organisms have been reshaped by human activities remains underappreciated, and so does, consequently, the impact of invasive species on marine ecosystems. The application of molecular genetic data in fields such as population genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary biology have improved our ability to make inferences regarding invasion histories. Genetic methods have helped to resolve longstanding questions regarding the cryptogenic status of marine species, facilitated recognition of cryptic marine biodiversity, and provided means to determine the sources of introduced marine populations and to begin to recover the patterns of anthropogenic reshuffling of the ocean's biota. These approaches stand to aid materially in the development of effective management strategies and sustainable science-based policies. Continued advancements in the statistical analysis of genetic data promise to overcome some existing limitations of current approaches. Still other limitations will be best addressed by concerted collaborative and multidisciplinary efforts that recognize the important synergy between understanding the extent of biological invasions and coming to a more complete picture of both modern-day and historical marine biogeography.

  17. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  18. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  19. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  20. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  1. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  2. Resource Letter BSSMF-1: Biological Sensing of Static Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegold, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the effects of static (time-invariant) magnetic fields B on life, concentrating on how selected creatures sense/detect B. Journal articles, books, and previous and future electronically accessible media are cited for the following topics: history, the magnetic sensing/detection of B by creatures from bacteria to bugworms to butterflies to bees to birds to bats to bovines to beings (human), some of the mechanisms of effects at the developmental and cellular levels, experimental pitfalls, claimed healing effects of B, some medical uses of magnets, and cosmetics. The field presents a fascinating, evolving saga.

  3. Environmental biology of the marine Roseobacter lineage.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Biebl, Hanno

    2006-01-01

    The Roseobacter lineage is a phylogenetically coherent, physiologically heterogeneous group of alpha-Proteobacteria comprising up to 25% of marine microbial communities, especially in coastal and polar oceans, and it is the only lineage in which cultivated bacteria are closely related to environmental clones. Currently 41 subclusters are described, covering all major marine ecological niches (seawater, algal blooms, microbial mats, sediments, sea ice, marine invertebrates). Members of the Roseobacter lineage play an important role for the global carbon and sulfur cycle and the climate, since they have the trait of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, oxidize the greenhouse gas carbon monoxide, and produce the climate-relevant gas dimethylsulfide through the degradation of algal osmolytes. Production of bioactive metabolites and quorum-sensing-regulated control of gene expression mediate their success in complex communities. Studies of representative isolates in culture, whole-genome sequencing, e.g., of Silicibacter pomeroyi, and the analysis of marine metagenome libraries have started to reveal the environmental biology of this important marine group. PMID:16719716

  4. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2005-11-22

    We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the approximately 95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists. PMID:16243696

  5. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15 500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the ∼95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists. PMID:16243696

  6. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  7. Developmental biology in marine invertebrate symbioses.

    PubMed

    McFall-Ngai, M J; Ruby, E G

    2000-12-01

    Associations between marine invertebrates and their cooperative bacterial symbionts offer access to an understanding of the roots of host-microbe interaction; for example, several symbioses like the squid-vibrio light organ association serve as models for investigating how each partner affects the developmental biology of the other. Previous results have identified a program of specific developmental events that unfolds as the association is initiated. In the past year, published studies have focused primarily on describing the mechanisms underlying the signaling processes that occur between the juvenile squid and the luminous bacteria that colonize it. PMID:11121780

  8. Resource Letter BELFEF-1: Biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David

    1996-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the interaction of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF/EMF) interactions with biological matter, and on the possibility that such interactions could have a harmful effect on human health. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: ELF/EMF theoretical interactions with biological cells, organs and organisms, magnetic dipole interactions, sensing by animals, biomedical-biophysical experiments, epidemiology, and litigation-mitigation risk issues.

  9. Conservation biology: beyond marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, Peter

    2006-07-25

    Socioeconomic and ecological analyses of eleven coral reef conservation efforts make clear that marine protected areas are not the answer, and that in fact support of local communities is far more important than some government mandated 'fishing closure'. Apparently there are marine 'paper parks' just as there are terrestrial 'paper parks'. PMID:16860727

  10. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  11. From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming ‘big science’. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international ‘Census of Marine Life’ (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration – including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication – I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different ‘collective ways of knowing’. PMID:23342119

  12. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'. PMID:23342119

  13. Two If by Sea: Marine Biological Invasions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimowitz, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses alien species on the west coast, efforts to combat invasions, methods of transport, and educational projects developed to aid prevention efforts. Includes a list of marine invaders in the Pacific Northwest, plus threats from California and the Great Lakes. (PVD)

  14. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology, Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual contains instructions for laboratory exercises using marine organisms. For each exercise a problem is defined, materials are listed, possible ways to solve the problem are suggested, questions are asked to guide the student in interpreting data, and further reading is suggested. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen…

  15. Studies on marine toxins: chemical and biological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonik, Valentin A.; Stonik, Inna V.

    2010-07-01

    The structures and mechanisms of biological action of the best known representatives of the main groups of marine toxins are presented. It is shown that many compounds have complex chemical structures and possess extremely high toxicities. Characteristic features of isolation, structure determination and syntheses of these compounds using the achievement of modern organic chemistry are discussed. The methods of identification and quantitative analysis of marine toxins are briefly reviewed.

  16. EvoDevo meets ecology: the Ninth Okazaki Biology Conference on Marine Biology.

    PubMed

    Technau, Ulrich; Weis, Virginia M

    2013-01-01

    The "9th Okazaki Biology Conference: Marine Biology II" held at the National Institute for Basic Biology (NIBB) in Okazaki, Japan and at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) in Okinawa, Japan (14-19 October 2012) bridged the fields of EvoDevo, symbiosis and coral reef ecology. PMID:23800318

  17. EvoDevo meets ecology: the Ninth Okazaki Biology Conference on Marine Biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The “9th Okazaki Biology Conference: Marine Biology II” held at the National Institute for Basic Biology (NIBB) in Okazaki, Japan and at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) in Okinawa, Japan (14–19 October 2012) bridged the fields of EvoDevo, symbiosis and coral reef ecology. PMID:23800318

  18. Natural products with health benefits from marine biological resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ocean is the cradle of lives, which provides a diverse array of intriguing natural products that has captured scientists’ attention in the past few decades due to their significant and extremely potent biological activities. In addition to being rich sources for pharmaceutical drugs, marine nat...

  19. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  20. Marine biology, intertidal ecology, and a new place for biology.

    PubMed

    Benson, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, there is considerable interest for the physical setting of science, that is, its actual 'place' of practice. Among historians of biology, place has been considered to be a crucial component for the study of ecology. Other historians have noted the 'built' environments (laboratories) for the study of biology along the seashore, even referring to these places in terms more applicable to vacation sites. In this paper, I examine the place of intertidal ecology investigations, both in terms of the physical space and the built space. Part of the examination will investigate the aesthetic aspect of the Pacific Coast, part will evaluate the unique character of the intertidal zone, and part will consider the construction of natural laboratories and built laboratories as characteristic places for biology. PMID:25515145

  1. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J

    2014-01-01

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans. PMID:24862402

  2. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C.; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J.

    2014-05-01

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans.

  3. Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Eiji; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Harada, Naomi; Honda, Makio C.; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ishida, Akio; Kishi, Michio J.

    2014-01-01

    The future conditions of Arctic sea ice and marine ecosystems are of interest not only to climate scientists, but also to economic and governmental bodies. However, the lack of widespread, year-long biogeochemical observations remains an obstacle to understanding the complicated variability of the Arctic marine biological pump. Here we show an early winter maximum of sinking biogenic flux in the western Arctic Ocean and illustrate the importance of shelf-break eddies to biological pumping from wide shelves to adjacent deep basins using a combination of year-long mooring observations and three-dimensional numerical modelling. The sinking flux trapped in the present study included considerable fresh organic material with soft tissues and was an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. We predict that further reductions in sea ice will promote the entry of Pacific-origin biological species into the Arctic basin and accelerate biogeochemical cycles connecting the Arctic and subarctic oceans. PMID:24862402

  4. Biofilms, bacterial signaling, and their ties to marine biology.

    PubMed

    Pasmore, Mark; Costerton, J William

    2003-07-01

    Much of what is know about quorum sensing has come from the study of marine biology. The original description of the phenomenon was based on the study of marine bacteria and the luminescent pathway. More recently, aquatic organisms have been found to inhibit bacterial fouling of surfaces by blocking signaling pathways in the bacteria. These signaling effects have, over the last 5 years, been linked to biofilms. However, this correlation is not as straight forward as originally believed. Here, a brief overview of quorum sensing, and background on biofilms is provided, followed by a discussion of more recent work looking at the effects that environment may have on signal expression. PMID:12884126

  5. Guidelines for Marine Biological Reference Collections. Unesco Reports in Marine Sciences, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hureau, J. C.; Rice, A. L.

    This manual provides practical advice on the appropriation, conservation, and documentation of a marine biological reference collection, in response to needs expressed by Mediterranean Arab countries. A reference collection is defined as a working museum containing a series of specimens with which biologists are able to compare their own material.…

  6. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. PMID:23563183

  7. Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponganis, Paul J.

    2007-02-01

    Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

  8. Biological effects and subsequent economic effects and losses from marine pollution and degradations in marine environments: Implications from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, Douglas D; Seneca, Joseph J

    2006-08-01

    This paper serves as the missing piece in a more fuller understanding about economic losses from marine pollution, and demonstrates what losses have been estimated in the literature. Biological effects from marine pollution are linked with resulting economic effects and losses. The merging of these two areas is usually absent in studies of marine pollution losses. The literature has examined several effects due to marine pollution: damages due to harvest closures-restrictions, damages from consumption of unsafe seafood, damages due to decreased recreational activity, and damages related to waterfront real estate adjacent to contaminated water. Overall, marine pollution can and has resulted in sizable economic effects and losses. On the basis of the literature there is adequate justification for public policy actions to curb marine pollution, require inspection of seafood for toxic substances, and preserve marine water quality and sensitive marine environments. PMID:16740278

  9. Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregr, Edward J.; Bodtker, Karin M.

    2007-03-01

    The move to ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries and endangered species would be greatly facilitated by a quantitative method for identifying marine ecosystems that captures temporal dynamics at meso-scale (10s or 100s of kilometers) resolutions. Understanding the dynamics of ecosystem boundaries, which may differ according to the species of interest or the management objectives, is a fundamental challenge of ecosystem-based management. We present an adaptive ecosystem classification that begins to address these challenges. To demonstrate the approach, we quantitatively bounded distinct, biologically meaningful marine regions in the North Pacific Ocean based on physical oceanography. We identified the regions by applying image classification algorithms to a comprehensive description of the ocean's surface, derived from an oceanographic circulation model. Our resulting maps illustrate 15 distinct marine regions. The size and location of these regions related well to previously described water masses in the North Pacific. We investigated seasonal and long-term changes in the pattern of regions and their boundaries by dividing the oceanographic data into four seasons and two 10-year time periods, one on either side of the 1976-1977 North Pacific Ocean climate regime shift. We compared our results for each season across the regime shift and for sequential seasons within regimes using the Kappa Index of Agreement and the index of Average Mutual Information. Seasonal patterns were more similar between regimes than from one season to the next within a regime, while the magnitude of seasonal transitions appeared to differ before and after the regime shift. We assessed the biological relevance of the identified regions using seasonal maps derived from remotely sensed chlorophyll- a concentrations ([chl-a]). We used Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests to evaluate the correspondence between the [chl-a] maps and our post-regime shift regions. There was a

  10. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

  11. [Comparative analysis of seven marine biological source of mineral drugs].

    PubMed

    Si, Wei; A, Ru-na; Li, Shang-rong; Zhang, Jing-Xian; Wu, Wan-ying; Cui, Ya-jun

    2014-09-01

    The marine biological source of mineral drugs recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version) mainly including pearl, nacre, clam shell, common oyster shell, ark shell, cuttle bone, and sea-ear shell are widely used in clinical. Calcium carbonate and a small amount of protein are the main components in this type of drugs. In this paper, a systematical and comparable study were carried out by determination of calcium carbonate by EDTA titration method, the crystal of calcium carbonate by X-Ray powder diffraction and the total amino acids (TAAs) of the hydrolyzed samples by ultraviolet spectrophotometry method. As a result, the crystal structure is calcite for common oyster shell, mixture of calcite and aragonite for nacre and sea-ear shell, aragonite for the other drugs. The content of calcium carbonate ranged from 86% to 96%. Cuttle bone has the highest amount of TAAs among the seven drugs which reached 1.7% while clam shell has the lowest content of 0.16% on average. In conclusion, an effective method was developed for the quality control of marine mineral drugs by comprehensive analysis of calcium carbonate and TAAs in the seven marine mineral drugs. PMID:25522620

  12. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Markantonatou, Vasiliki; Pavloudi, Christina; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Pafilis, Evangelos; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Vasileiadou, Katerina; Dailianis, Thanos; Fanini, Lucia; Koulouri, Panayota; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The study of ecosystem functioning - the role which organisms play in an ecosystem - is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu), a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida). At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources. PMID:24855436

  13. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Lena; Hoem, Nils; Banni, Sebastiano; Berge, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    The biological activities of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) have been under extensive study for several decades. However, not much attention has been paid to differences of dietary forms, such as triglycerides (TGs) versus ethyl esters or phospholipids (PLs). New innovative marine raw materials, like krill and fish by-products, present n-3 FAs mainly in the PL form. With their increasing availability, new evidence has emerged on n-3 PL biological activities and differences to n-3 TGs. In this review, we describe the recently discovered nutritional properties of n-3 PLs on different parameters of metabolic syndrome and highlight their different metabolic bioavailability in comparison to other dietary forms of n-3 FAs. PMID:23203133

  14. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology for Upper Elementary and Secondary School Grades, Teachers Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    Designed to assist the teacher who wishes to use marine organisms for biological laboratory investigations, this manual includes general information on maintaining marine aquaria and collecting marine organisms as well as five tested laboratory exercises. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen consumption (giving techniques for…

  15. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  16. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or chemistry.…

  17. Biological surface-active compounds from marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dang, Nga Phuong; Landfald, Bjarne; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2016-01-01

    Surface-active compounds (SACs) are widely used in different industries as well as in many daily consumption products. However, with the increasing concern for their environmental acceptability, attention has turned towards biological SACs which are biodegradable, less toxic and more environmentally friendly. In this work, 176 marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial isolates from petroleum-contaminated sites along the Norwegian coastline were isolated and screened for their capacity to produce biological SACs. Among them, 18 isolates were capable of reducing the surface tension of the culture medium by at least 20 mN m(-1) and/or capable of maintaining more than 40% of the emulsion volume after 24 h when growing on glucose or kerosene as carbon and energy source. These isolates were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Rhodococcus, Catenovulum, Cobetia, Glaciecola, Serratia, Marinomonas and Psychromonas. Two isolates, Rhodococcus sp. LF-13 and Rhodococcus sp. LF-22, reduced surface tension of culture medium by more than 40 mN m(-1) when growing on kerosene, n-hexadecane or rapeseed oil. The biosurfactants were produced by resting cells of the two Rhodococcus strains suggesting the biosynthesis of the biosurfactants was not necessarily associated with their growth on hydrocarbons. PMID:26506920

  18. The Late Miocene Carbon Isotope Shift and Marine Biological Productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diester-Haass, L.; Billups, K.; Emeis, K. C.

    2004-12-01

    The late Miocene global carbon isotope shift of approximately 1 per mil is not well understood. Is it linked to ocean-related processes such as the AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A.â_oBiologic BloomAƒAøAøâ_sA¬ \\(Farrell et al., 1995\\), or to changes in type \\(C3/C4 plants\\) or cover of terrestrial vegetation? Here we examine the evolution of marine biological productivity during the isotope shift at ODP Site 846 \\(Pacific equatorial upwelling, where the AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A.â_oBiologic BloomAƒAøAøâ_sA¬ has been first described, Farrell al, 1995\\) and at Indian Ocean Site 721 \\(monsoon-driven upwelling\\), and compare their productivity history with non upwelling locations in the Atlantic Ocean. The onset of the carbon isotope shift is accompanied at all locations by an increase in paleoproductivity derived from benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates \\(expressed as gC/cm2 * ky; Huerguera, 2000\\) and increased abundance of Uvigerina spp.. At the equatorial upwelling sites the increase is comparable to half present-day values to present-day values; in the Atlantic Ocean paleoproductivity increases from present-day up to 3 times present-day values. But the productivity maxima are not concurrent. The carbon isotope shift is accompanied by severe carbonate dissolution and reduced ventilation of bottom waters, as reflected in the occurrence of pyrite and good preservation of cartilageous fish debris. Carbonate preservation is good since about 6 Ma despite high productivity. We discuss changing deep water circulation patterns, increased weathering and continental nutrient delivery, as well as erosion of terrestrial vegetation as possible factors to explain our findings.

  19. Marine biology: Coral animals combat stress with sulphur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Graham

    2013-10-01

    Photosynthetic algal symbionts of corals produce sulphur substances that are involved in the regulation of ocean temperatures. In a twist to the tale, it emerges that coral animals produce the same compounds. See Letter p.677

  20. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  1. Diversity of secondary metabolites from marine Bacillus species: chemistry and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-08-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  2. Chiral alkynylcarbinols from marine sponges: asymmetric synthesis and biological relevance.

    PubMed

    Listunov, Dymytrii; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi; Génisson, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Covering: up to March 2014. Previous review on the topic: B. W. Gung, C. R. Chim., 2009, 12, 489-505. Chiral α-functional lipidic propargylic alcohols extracted from marine sponges, in particular of the pacific genus Petrosia, constitute a class of acetylenic natural products exhibiting remarkable in vitro biological activities, especially anti-tumoral cytotoxicity. These properties, associated to functionalities that are uncommon among natural products, have prompted recent projects on asymmetric total synthesis. On the basis of a three-sector structural typology, three main sub-types of secondary alkynylcarbinols (with either alkyl, alkenyl, or alkynyl as the second substituent) can be identified as the minimal pharmacophoric units. Selected natural products containing these functionalities have been targeted using previously known or on purpose-designed procedures, where the stereo-determining step can be: (i) a C-C bond forming reaction (e.g. the Zn-mediated addition of alkynyl nucleophiles to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols), (ii) a functional layout (e.g. the asymmetric organo- or metallo-catalytic reduction of ynones), or (iii) an enantiomeric resolution (e.g. a lipase-mediated kinetic resolution via acetylation). The promising medicinal importance of these targets is finally surveyed, and future investigation prospects are proposed, such as: (i) further total synthesis of known or future extraction products; (ii) the synthesis of non-natural analogues, with simpler lipophilic environments of the alkynylcarbinol-based pharmacophoric units; (iii) the variation and optimization of both the pharmacophoric units and their lipophilic environment; and (iv) investigations into the biological mode of action of these unique structures. PMID:25275665

  3. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Physics in Medicine and Biology top ten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Michael S.

    2004-02-01

    At the recent meeting of the Editorial Board of this journal there was considerable discussion of citations and impact factors. This piqued my curiosity about the articles published in Physics in Medicine and Biology that have been cited most often. In keeping with popular trends I have generated a list of the top ten, shown in the PDF file below with the full abstract.

  4. Miocene Global Carbon Isotope Shifts and Marine Biological Productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diester-Haass, L.; Billups, K.

    2005-12-01

    The Miocene contains two major global carbon isotope shifts: a negative shift during the late Miocene (~8-6 Ma) and a positive shift during the mid-Miocene (16-14 Ma). We aim at deciphering possible changes in marine biological export productivity during these shifts by calculating paleoproductivity in gC/cm*ky from benthic foraminiferal numbers and accumulation rates at a number of sites spanning the world oceans. Our previous work has illustrated that the onset of the late Miocene negative d 13C shift, which has been attributed to enhanced erosion of terrestrial biomass and expansion of C4 plants, is also accompanied by an increase in marine export productivity from lower than present day values up to 2-3 times modern values at six sites (982, 1088, 721, 846, 1146, 1172; Diester-Haass et al, in press; Diester-Haass et al., in preparation). The Mid-Miocene 'Monterey Event', on the other hand, has been attributed to sequestration of organic material in circum-Pacific basins (Vincent and Berger, 1985) or wide spread deposition of brown coal and drowning of carbonate platforms (Föllmi et al., 2005) . For this particular time interval, our initial results from Site 608 (Atlantic Ocean) reveal relatively constant paleoproductivity values similar to modern ones ( about 10 gC/cm*ky) until 16.5 Ma, after which time paleoproductivity begins to increase until the end of our record at 11 Ma. Superimposed on the trend of generally increasing productivity, there are a number of productivity minima spaced roughly 0.5 million years apart. The long term trend in the paleoproductivity finds some similarities in the global composite benthic foraminiferal d 13C record as both proxies show an overall increase until ~14 Ma. Thereafter, however, paleoproductivity continues to increase while d 13C values decrease marking the end of the Monterey excursion. Stable isotope analyses from these same intervals will show to what extend the smaller scale fluctuations in paleoproductivity can

  5. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…

  6. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  7. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  8. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  9. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.

  10. ROLE OF PATHOBIOLOGY IN EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The editorial explores the role of the pathobiologist and problems encountered in estuarine/marine ecological investigations. Four areas are proposed for cooperative endeavor with scientists in other fields: (1) toxicological pathology in aquatic species; (2) pathophysiology of e...

  11. Marine biological valuation mapping of the Basque continental shelf (Bay of Biscay), within the context of marine spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Marta; Borja, Angel; Eede, Sarah Vanden; Deneudt, Klaas; Vincx, Magda; Galparsoro, Ibon; Legorburu, Irati

    2011-11-01

    Marine Biological Valuation (BV) has increased in importance in recent years, due to the need to establish accurate maps of biodiversity value. However, there have been few exercises undertaken in Southern Europe, in putting a value on marine biodiversity whilst at the same time looking at several biological components. This paper presents the complete Biological Valuation Map (BVM) of the Basque continental shelf and estuaries, using the methodology developed for the Belgian Continental Shelf. It includes all available biological data (zooplankton, macroalgae, macrobenthos, demersal fish, seabirds and cetaceans), from 2003 to 2010. BVMs aim to compile all available biological and ecological information for a selected study area, allocating an integrated intrinsic biological value to the subzones within the study area. Here, the results highlight specific areas (such as Jaizkibel or Cap Breton Canyon), as having high or very high integrated BV, using all of the components. Furthermore, some biodiversity 'hotspots' have been identified, according to a specific ecosystem component (e.g. mid-parts of the Oka estuary, for macroalgae, and the Cap Breton Canyon, for cetaceans). Comparison with the results obtained from other European countries, and with previously high-importance delimited zones within the study area, showed similar spatial trends and patterns. Therefore, the objectives of this contribution are: (i) to analyse and establish a spatial ecological value map of the continental shelf of the Basque Country (southern Bay of Biscay), using present BV methods; (ii) to compare the results obtained to other European countries, and (iii) to explore the application of these results to the Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requirements. This map can serve as a baseline for future MSP and can also be used for the determination of the environmental status, within the MSFD, for the qualitative descriptor 1

  12. Marine organic aerosol and oceanic biological activity: what we know and what we need (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, M.

    2009-12-01

    Observations carried out in the North Atlantic as well as in other marine locations evidenced a seasonal dependence of sub micron particle chemical composition on biological oceanic activity and a potentially important marine aerosol organic component from primary and/or secondary formation processes associated to marine vegetation and its seasonal cycle. Primary organics generated by bubble bursting in high biological activity periods are almost entirely water insoluble (WIOM up to 96 ± 2 % )and are constituted by aggregation of lipopolysaccharides exuded by phytoplankton with dominant surface tension character. In many marine environments the secondary organic fraction is dominated by MSA and by several oxygenated species (mainly carboxylic acids). New measurements also show the potential importance of secondary organic N species (biogenic amine salts ). However a large fraction of the secondary organic fraction (SOA) is still not characterized and the precursors are not identified. For modeling marine organics, besides reducing the uncertainty in the knowledge of the chemical composition and new precursors, it is of crucial importance to link marine aerosol organic composition to satellite products that could be better proxy for marine biological activity and of its decomposition products than chlorophyll-a.

  13. Conservation biology: strict marine protected areas prevent reef shark declines.

    PubMed

    Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2006-12-01

    Populations of two coral reef shark species are declining rapidly: the pattern of decline highlights both the substantial impact of poaching on closed areas and the success of strict no-entry marine protected areas in maintaining healthy shark populations. PMID:17141604

  14. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  15. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  16. Role of Marine Biology in Glacial-Interglacial CO2 Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohfeld, Karen E.; Le Quéré, Corinne; Harrison, Sandy P.; Anderson, Robert F.

    2005-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that changes in the marine biological pump caused a major portion of the glacial reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide by 80 to 100 parts per million through increased iron fertilization of marine plankton, increased ocean nutrient content or utilization, or shifts in dominant plankton types. We analyze sedimentary records of marine productivity at the peak and the middle of the last glacial cycle and show that neither changes in nutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean nor shifts in plankton dominance explain the CO2 drawdown. Iron fertilization and associated mechanisms can be responsible for no more than half the observed drawdown.

  17. Role of marine biology in glacial-interglacial CO2 cycles.

    PubMed

    Kohfeld, Karen E; Le Quéré, Corinne; Harrison, Sandy P; Anderson, Robert F

    2005-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that changes in the marine biological pump caused a major portion of the glacial reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide by 80 to 100 parts per million through increased iron fertilization of marine plankton, increased ocean nutrient content or utilization, or shifts in dominant plankton types. We analyze sedimentary records of marine productivity at the peak and the middle of the last glacial cycle and show that neither changes in nutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean nor shifts in plankton dominance explain the CO2 drawdown. Iron fertilization and associated mechanisms can be responsible for no more than half the observed drawdown. PMID:15802597

  18. Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow, phytodetritus and the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.

    2015-01-01

    The 'biological pump' is the process by which photosynthetically-produced organic matter in the ocean descends from the surface layer to depth by a combination of sinking particles, advection or vertical mixing of dissolved organic matter, and transport by animals. Particulate organic matter that is exported downward from the euphotic zone is composed of combinations of fecal pellets from zooplankton and fish, organic aggregates known as 'marine snow' and phytodetritus from sinking phytoplankton. Previous reviews by Turner and Ferrante (1979) and Turner (2002) focused on publications that appeared through late 2001. Since that time, studies of the biological pump have continued, and there have been >300 papers on vertical export flux using sediment traps, large-volume filtration systems and other techniques from throughout the global ocean. This review will focus primarily on recent studies that have appeared since 2001. Major topics covered in this review are (1) an overview of the biological pump, and its efficiency and variability, and the role of dissolved organic carbon in the biological pump; (2) zooplankton fecal pellets, including the contribution of zooplankton fecal pellets to export flux, epipelagic retention of zooplankton fecal pellets due to zooplankton activities, zooplankton vertical migration and fecal pellet repackaging, microbial ecology of fecal pellets, sinking velocities of fecal pellets and aggregates, ballasting of sinking particles by mineral contents, phytoplankton cysts, intact cells and harmful algae toxins in fecal pellets, importance of fecal pellets from various types of zooplankton, and the role of zooplankton fecal pellets in picoplankton export; (3) marine snow, including the origins, abundance, and distributions of marine snow, particles and organisms associated with marine snow, consumption and fragmentation of marine snow by animals, pathogens associated with marine snow; (4) phytodetritus, including pulsed export of

  19. How are climate and marine biological outbreaks functionally linked?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Marshall L.; Bonaventura, Joseph; Mitchell, Todd P.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Shinn, Eugene A.; Van Dolah, Frances; Barber, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, large-scale episodic events such as disease epidemics, mass mortalities, harmful algal blooms and other population explosions have been occurring in marine environments at an historically unprecedented rate. The variety of organisms involved (host, pathogens and other opportunists) and the absolute number of episodes have also increased during this period. Are these changes coincidental? Between 1972 and 1976, a global climate regime shift took place, and it is manifest most clearly by a change in strength of the North Pacific and North Atlantic pressure systems. Consequences of this regime shift are: (1) prolonged drought conditions in the Sahel region of Africa; (2) increased dust supply to the global atmosphere, by a factor of approximately four; (3) increased easterly trade winds across the Atlantic; (4) increased eolian transport of dust to the Atlantic and Caribbean basins; and (5) increased deposition of iron-rich eolian dust to typically iron-poor marine regions. On the basis of well-documented climate and dust observations and the widely accepted increase in marine outbreak rates, this paper proposes that the increased iron supply has altered the micronutrient factors limiting growth of opportunistic organisms and virulence of pathogenic microbes, particularly in macronutrient-rich coastal systems.

  20. Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissler, D.

    1995-03-01

    Five scientists on excursion — a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892. The picture, of which several variant poses with minor differences exist, is a photograph taken on Helgoland in September, 1865. The original is to be found in the collections of the Ernst-Haeckel-Haus in Jena. The photograph shows only a few objects and fewer persons, but they are arranged like a bouquet: in front, collecting vessels; behind, grouped around a table, five scientists, Dohrn, Greeff, Haeckel, Salverda, Marchi. They hold up their catching nets like insignia, identifying their basic activity. This photograph is a unique document for the marine biological research on Helgoland before 1892. Furthermore, it illustrates a time and place for the birth of the idea of establishing the world's most famous marine biological station, the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.

  1. Use of the confocal laser scanning microscope in studies on the developmental biology of marine crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Zupo, Valerio; Miralto, Antonio

    2003-03-01

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope techniques have been applied to study the developmental biology of marine copepods and decapod larvae. The lipophylic probes DiI and DiOC(6) were used to study both the external and internal morphology of these crustaceans, whereas the same DiOC(6) and the specific nuclear probe Hoechst 33342 were used to study embryonic development of copepods in vivo. To distinguish viable from non-viable copepod embryos, the vital dye dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA) was used. Major advantages and difficulties in the use of these non-invasive techniques in studies of the reproductive biology of marine crustaceans are discussed. PMID:12567403

  2. BIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN MARINE ENCLOSURE EXPERIMENTS: CHALLENGES AND REVELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Logistical considerations have usually dictated that components of estuarine systems be considered in isolation from one another whether in the laboratory or field. ence, biological disciplines usually have specialized to a single area or process. y contrast, enclosure or mesocos...

  3. Insights from the Sea: Structural Biology of Marine Polyketide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Akey, David L.; Gehret, Jennifer J.; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe2+/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown. PMID:22498975

  4. Insights from the sea: structural biology of marine polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Akey, David L; Gehret, Jennifer J; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L

    2012-10-01

    The world's oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe(2+)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown. PMID:22498975

  5. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  6. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769

  7. Chemistry and biology of new marine alkaloids from the indole and annelated indole series.

    PubMed

    Aygün, Alparslan; Pindur, Ulf

    2003-07-01

    Chemistry and biology of marine natural products from the indole and annelated indole series have become an attractive research field for development of new pharmacological lead substances. In the past years some of the isolated natural organic compounds were synthesized by chemists and evaluated with great enthusiasm to find new lead natural compounds against different diseases. In this review the latest results for new compounds including isolation, biological evaluation, synthetic pathways and some retrosynthetic analyses are summarized. PMID:12678805

  8. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ardura, A; Juanes, F; Planes, S; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  9. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, A.; Juanes, F.; Planes, S.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423

  10. Sequential determination of biological and pollutant elements in marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisler, R.; Stone, S.F.; Sanders, R.W.

    1988-12-15

    A unique sequence of instrumental methods has been employed to obtain concentrations for 44 elements in marine bivalve tissue. The techniques used were (1) X-ray fluorescence, (2) prompt gamma activation analysis, and (3) neutron activation analysis. It is possible to use a single subsample and follow it nondestructively through the three instrumental analysis techniques. A final radiochemical procedure for tin was also applied after completing the instrumental analyses. Comparison of results for elements determined by more than one technique in sequence showed good agreement, as did results from certified reference material samples analyzed along with the samples. The concentrations found in the bivalve samples ranged from carbon at more than 50% dry weight down to gold at several microgram per kilogram.

  11. Marine Biology: Ecology of the Sea. A Zephyr Learning Packet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    From the smallest plankton to the most massive whales, marine biology is the study of the flora and fauna, the living creatures of the ocean. This Zephyr self-directed study unit was developed to bridge the gap between students as passive learners to students as active participants. Originally developed for gifted students, these units emphasize…

  12. 50 CFR 216.156 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San...) Plans to monitor the behavior and effects of the activity on marine mammals. (d) A copy of the Letter...

  13. 50 CFR 216.156 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San...) Plans to monitor the behavior and effects of the activity on marine mammals. (d) A copy of the Letter...

  14. 50 CFR 216.156 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San...) Plans to monitor the behavior and effects of the activity on marine mammals. (d) A copy of the Letter...

  15. 50 CFR 216.156 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San...) Plans to monitor the behavior and effects of the activity on marine mammals. (d) A copy of the Letter...

  16. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria: A biological source of the bacteriohopanetetrol stereoisomer in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rush, Darci; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Poulton, Simon W.; Thamdrup, Bo; Garside, A. Leigh; Acuña González, Jenaro; Schouten, Stefan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Talbot, Helen M.

    2014-09-01

    Bacterially-derived bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are abundant, well preserved lipids in modern and paleo-environments. Bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) is a ubiquitously produced BHP while its less common stereoisomer (BHT isomer) has previously been associated with anoxic environments; however, its biological source remained unknown. We investigated the occurrence of BHPs in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic marine fjord-like enclosure located in Costa Rica. The distribution of BHT isomer in four sediment cores and a surface sediment transect closely followed the distribution of ladderane fatty acids, unique biomarkers for bacteria performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). This suggests that BHT isomer and ladderane lipids likely shared the same biological source in Golfo Dulce. This was supported by examining the BHP lipid compositions of two enrichment cultures of a marine anammox species (‘Candidatus Scalindua profunda’), which were found to contain both BHT and BHT isomer. Remarkably, the BHT isomer was present in higher relative abundance than BHT. However, a non-marine anammox enrichment contained only BHT, which explains the infrequence of BHT isomer observations in terrestrial settings, and indicates that marine anammox bacteria are likely responsible for at least part of the environmentally-observed marine BHT isomer occurrences. Given the substantially greater residence time of BHPs in sediments, compared to ladderanes, BHT isomer is a potential biomarker for past anammox activity.

  17. Synthesis and Biology of Cyclic Imine Toxins, An Emerging Class of Potent, Globally Distributed Marine Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Stivala, Craig E.; Benoit, Evelyne; Araoz, Romulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day. PMID:25338021

  18. Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Craig E; Benoit, Evelyne; Aráoz, Rómulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-03-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day. PMID:25338021

  19. Marine biological controls on atmospheric CO2 and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the ocean is losing N gas faster than N is being returned to the ocean, and that replenishment of the N supply in the ocean usually occurs during ice ages. Available N from river and estruarine transport and from rainfall after formation by lightning are shown to be at a rate too low to compensate for the 10,000 yr oceanic lifetime of N. Ice sheets advance and transfer moraine N to the ocean, lower the sea levels, erode the ocean beds, promote greater biological productivity, and reduce CO2. Ice core samples have indicated a variability in the atmospheric N content that could be attributed to the ice age scenario.

  20. Matching biological traits to environmental conditions in marine benthic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, J.; Rogers, S. I.; Frid, C. L. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of variability in environmental conditions on species composition in benthic ecosystems are well established, but relatively little is known about how environmental variability relates to ecosystem functioning. Benthic invertebrate assemblages are heavily involved in the maintenance of ecological processes and investigation of the biological characteristics (traits) expressed in these assemblages can provide information about some aspects of functioning. The aim of this study was to establish and explore relationships between environmental variability and biological traits expressed in megafauna assemblages in two UK regions. Patterns of trait composition were matched to environmental conditions and subsets of variables best describing these patterns determined. The nature of the relationships were subsequently examined at two separate scales, both between and within the regions studied. Over the whole area, some traits related to size, longevity, reproduction, mobility, flexibility, feeding method, sociability and living habit were negatively correlated with salinity, sea surface temperature, annual temperature range and the level of fishing effort, and positively associated with fish taxon richness and shell content of the substratum. Between the two regions, reductions in temperature range and shell content were associated with infrequent relative occurrences of short-lived, moderately mobile, flexible, solitary, opportunistic, permanent-burrow dwelling fauna and those exhibiting reproductive strategies based on benthic development. Relationships between some traits and environmental conditions diverged within the two regions, with increases in fishing effort and shell content of the substratum being associated with low frequencies of occurrence of moderately mobile and moderately to highly flexible fauna within one region, but high frequencies in the other. These changes in trait composition have implications for ecosystem processes, with, for

  1. The Influence of the Biological Pump on Marine Redox Conditions During Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Ridgwell, A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for bottom-water anoxia on the continental shelves waned over the course of the Phanerozoic, which may be influenced by secular changes in the biological pump that led to weaker positive feedbacks within the oceans. The biological pump describes the transfer of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean, which creates vertical gradients in nutrients and oxygen, both important influences in the structure of marine ecosystems. We used the cGENIE Earth system model to quantitatively test the hypothesis that reductions in the efficiency of the nutrient recycling loop of the biological pump during the past 550 Ma reduced the extent of anoxia on the shelves and acted as an important control on marine animal ecosystems. When the modeled remineralization depth is shallow relative to the modern ocean, anoxia tends to be more widespread at continental shelf depths. As the modeled remineralization depth increases toward modern conditions, anoxia is less prevalent and occurs at depths below the continental shelves. Reduced marine productivity in the closed system configuration of cGENIE cannot produce the frequent bottom-water anoxia conditions envisioned for the Paleozoic. We hypothesize that evidence for greater animal abundance and metabolic demand during the Phanerozoic was driven by progressive oxygenation of shelf environments related to changes in the biological pump rather than greater food availability. In general, these model simulations suggest changes in the depth distribution of organic carbon remineralization may have controlled observed shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure during the Phanerozoic.

  2. Advanced monitoring systems for biological applications in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, U.; Chiffings, T.; Gandelli, A.; Grimaccia, F.; Johnstone, R. W.; Zich, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    The increasing need to manage complex environmental problems demands a new approach and new technologies to provide the information required at a spatial and temporal resolution appropriate to the scales at which the biological processes occur. In particular sensor networks, now quite popular on land, still poses many difficult problems in underwater environments. In this context, it is necessary to develop an autonomous monitoring system that can be remotely interrogated and directed to address unforeseen or expected changes in such environmental conditions. This system, at the highest level, aims to provide a framework for combining observations from a wide range of different in-situ sensors and remote sensing instruments, with a long-term plan for how the network of sensing modalities will continue to evolve in terms of sensing modality, geographic location, and spatial and temporal density. The advances in sensor technology and digital electronics have made it possible to produce large amount of small tag-like sensors which integrate sensing, processing, and communication capabilities together and form an autonomous entity. To successfully use this kind of systems in under water environments, it becomes necessary to optimize the network lifetime and face the relative hindrances that such a field imposes, especially in terms of underwater information exchange.

  3. Dispersal of marine organisms and the grand challenges in biology: an introduction to the symposium.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sara M

    2012-10-01

    Understanding dispersal and its complex variables is critical to understanding the ecology and evolution of life histories of species, but research on dispersal tends to reflect or emphasize particular disciplines, such as population genetics, functional morphology, evolutionary and developmental biology, physiology, and biophysics, or to emphasize a particular clade or functional group (e.g., fish, planktotrophs or lecithotrophs, pelagic or benthic organisms) in marine ecosystems. The symposium on "Dispersal of Marine Organisms" assembled an interdisciplinary group of outstanding young and established speakers to address dispersal in marine organisms in order to foster integration and cross-talk among different disciplines and to identify gaps in our knowledge and suggest areas for future research. PMID:23001959

  4. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195

  5. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ground truthing at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously.

  6. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  7. Astonishing diversity of natural surfactants: 6. Biologically active marine and terrestrial alkaloid glycosides.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2005-11-01

    This review article presents 209 alkaloid glycosides isolated and identified from plants, microorganisms, and marine invertebrates that demonstrate different biological activities. They are of great interest, especially for the medicinal and/or pharmaceutical industries. These biologically active glycosides have good potential for future chemical preparation of compounds useful as antioxidants, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antibacterial agents. These glycosidic compounds have been subdivided into several groups, including: acridone; aporphine; benzoxazinoid; ergot; indole; enediyne alkaloidal antibiotics; glycosidic lupine alkaloids; piperidine, pyridine, pyrrolidine, and pyrrolizidine alkaloid glycosides; glycosidic quinoline and isoquinoline alkaloids; steroidal glycoalkaloids; and miscellaneous alkaloid glycosides. PMID:16459921

  8. Marine Snow and Gels: Hot Spots of Biogeochemical Cycling, Biological Activity, and Sedimentation in the Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alldredge, A. L.

    2004-12-01

    Much of the organic carbon sequestered in the deep sea and ocean bottom sediments as relatively rare, large detrital particles generically known as marine snow. Because they are enriched in organic matter, microbes, and nutrients, these large particles also serve as hot spots for biological and chemical process in the water column. Recent evidence reveals that abundant carbohydrate gel particles in the ocean, formed from the dissolved exudates of phytoplankton and bacteria, are intricately involved in the formation of marine snow. These discoveries are changing the way we conceptualize the pelagic zone on small scales. We no longer imagine seawater as a relatively homogeneous fluid in which float a spectrum of dispersed molecules, particles, and organisms, but instead see it as a rich hydrated matrix of transparent organic gels, detritus, and cob-web like surfaces which provide microscale physical, chemical, and biological structure. This talk will focus on the origins, fate, and significance of marine snow and gels in the sea, including their role in carbon cycling, sedimentation and carbon flux , food webs, and chemical and biological transformation.

  9. 50 CFR 216.277 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Southern California Range Complex (SOCAL Range Complex) § 216.277 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless...

  10. 50 CFR 218.7 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Virginia Capes Range Complex (VACAPES Range Complex) § 218.7 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless...

  11. 50 CFR 218.16 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Jacksonville Range Complex (JAX Range Complex) § 218.16 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended...

  12. Quantifying the Impact of Mineral Dust and Dissolved Iron Deposition on Marine Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Gassó, S.; Solmon, F.

    2009-12-01

    Aeolian dust deposition has proven to be a critical source of iron (Fe) to remote oceanic regions where it can play an important role in regulating marine ecosystem productivity. Increases in marine biological activity have been suggested to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and enhance oceanic emissions of marine primary organic aerosols and biologically produced trace gases leading to secondary aerosol formation. These mechanisms can affect climate directly by enhancing carbon sequestration rates, and through organic aerosols influencing incoming solar radiation or modulating shallow marine cloud properties. Due to dust emissions and transport also being dependent upon climatic conditions, the relationship between aeolian dust deposition and oceanic emissions (e.g., primary organic matter, dimethylsulphide, halocarbons, and several types of non-methane hydrocarbons) presents a possible ocean-atmosphere feedback cycle. The Southern Ocean (SO) is characterized as being the largest oceanic region with marine primary productivity that is limited by the micronutrient Fe. Despite the potentially important role of dust laden-Fe in this region, few studies exist that can help to constrain the impact of dust-laden Fe fluxes on biological productivity in the Atlantic sector of the SO. Patagonia has been estimated to supply the majority of aeolian-Fe deposited to the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Thus, the focus of this study is to quantify the influence of Patagonian dust storms on marine primary productivity in the SAO and assess the potential climatic effect of variability in aeolian dust deposition. In this work we use the global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with a prognostic Fe dissolution scheme (GEOS-Chem/DFeS), to evaluate the deposition of Patagonian dust and associated dissolved iron (DFe) fluxes to the SAO. Model predicted fluxes of DFe were then used to quantify the impact of Patagonian dust on marine primary productivity in the surface

  13. Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas.

    PubMed

    Bax, Nicholas J; Cleary, Jesse; Donnelly, Ben; Dunn, Daniel C; Dunstan, Piers K; Fuller, Mike; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) addressed a United Nations (UN) call for area-based planning, including for marine-protected areas that resulted in a global effort to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas (EBSAs). We summarized the results, assessed their consistency, and evaluated the process developed by the Secretariat of the CBD to engage countries and experts in 9 regional workshops held from 2011 to 2014. Experts from 92 countries and 79 regional or international bodies participated. They considered 250 million km(2) of the world's ocean area (two-thirds of the total). The 204 areas they examined in detail differed widely in area (from 5.5 km(2) to 11.1 million km(2) ). Despite the initial focus of the CBD process on areas outside national jurisdiction, only 31 of the areas examined were solely outside national jurisdiction. Thirty-five extended into national jurisdictions, 137 were solely within national jurisdictions, and 28 included the jurisdictions of more than 1 country (1 area lacked precise boundaries). Data were sufficient to rank 88-99% of the areas relative to each of the 7 criteria for EBSAs agreed to previously by Parties to the CBD. The naturalness criterion ranked high for a smaller percentage of the EBSAs (31%) than other criteria (51-70%), indicating the difficulty in finding relatively undisturbed areas in the ocean. The highly participatory nature of the workshops, including easy and consistent access to the relevant information facilitated by 2 technical teams, contributed to the workshop participants success in identifying areas that could be ranked relative to most criteria and areas that extend across jurisdictional boundaries. The formal recognition of workshop results by the Conference of Parties to the CBD resulted in these 204 areas being identified as EBSAs by the 196 Parties. They represent the only suite of marine areas recognized by the international community for their

  14. Polar marine biology science in Portugal and Spain: Recent advances and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, José C.; Barbosa, Andrés; Agustí, Susana; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Alvito, Pedro; Ameneiro, Julia; Ávila, Conxita; Baeta, Alexandra; Canário, João; Carmona, Raquel; Catry, Paulo; Ceia, Filipe; Clark, Melody S.; Cristobo, Francisco J.; Cruz, Bruno; Duarte, Carlos M.; Figuerola, Blanca; Gili, Josep-Maria; Gonçalves, Ana R.; Gordillo, Francisco J. L.; Granadeiro, José P.; Guerreiro, Miguel; Isla, Enrique; Jiménez, Carlos; López-González, Pablo J.; Lourenço, Sílvia; Marques, João C.; Moreira, Elena; Mota, Ana M.; Nogueira, Marta; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Orejas, Covadonga; Paiva, Vitor H.; Palanques, Albert; Pearson, Gareth A.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Power, Deborah M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Rossi, Sergi; Seco, José; Sañé, Elisabet; Serrão, Ester A.; Taboada, Sergi; Tavares, Sílvia; Teixidó, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Valente, Tiago; Vázquez, Elsa; Vieira, Rui P.; Viñegla, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Polar marine ecosystems have global ecological and economic importance because of their unique biodiversity and their major role in climate processes and commercial fisheries, among others. Portugal and Spain have been highly active in a wide range of disciplines in marine biology of the Antarctic and the Arctic. The main aim of this paper is to provide a synopsis of some of the results and initiatives undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish polar teams within the field of marine sciences, particularly on benthic and pelagic biodiversity (species diversity and abundance, including microbial, molecular, physiological and chemical mechanisms in polar organisms), conservation and ecology of top predators (particularly penguins, albatrosses and seals), and pollutants and evolution of marine organisms associated with major issues such as climate change, ocean acidification and UV radiation effects. Both countries have focused their polar research more in the Antarctic than in the Arctic. Portugal and Spain should encourage research groups to continue increasing their collaborations with other countries and develop multi-disciplinary research projects, as well as to maintain highly active memberships within major organizations, such as the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the International Arctic Science Council (IASC) and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), and in international research projects.

  15. Marine biological diversity: Some important issues, opportunities and critical research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, Cheryl Ann; Carlton, James T.

    1995-07-01

    Marine biological diversity is changing, dramatically in some cases, and most recent changes are due to broad-scale human activities. Knowledge of "biodiversity" — the variety of genomes (the genetic material specifying all characteristics and functions within an organism), species and ecosystems — is the foundation for understanding and predicting how human and natural effects can change the ocean's ecosystems. Evaluating the scale and ultimate consequences to life in the sea of a plethora of anthropogenic effects is difficult, however, because there is inadequate knowledge of both the patterns of and the processes that control marine biodiversity. Recognizing change and evaluating its consequences require sufficient knowledge of present and historical natural patterns of biodiversity, and sufficient understanding of how and why these patterns vary in space and time. Data on biodiversity patterns and their causes are sorely lacking for most marine ecosystems. Adequate understanding of what creates and maintains diversity must be the scientific underpinning for policy decisions regarding pollutant and waste disposal, habitat alteration, fisheries management and the preservation of threatened or endangered species. The inability, at this time, to provide such information to policy makers may have important implications for the conservation of marine life [Norse, 1993].

  16. Emerging concepts promising new horizons for marine biodiscovery and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Reen, F Jerry; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Dobson, Alan D W; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2015-05-01

    The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions. PMID:25984990

  17. Emerging Concepts Promising New Horizons for Marine Biodiscovery and Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Reen, F. Jerry; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Adams, Claire; O’Gara, Fergal

    2015-01-01

    The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions. PMID:25984990

  18. Pyridinoacridine alkaloids of marine origin: NMR and MS spectral data, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Biavatti, Maique W

    2015-01-01

    Summary This review focuses on pyridoacridine-related metabolites as one biologically interesting group of alkaloids identified from marine sources. They are produced by marine sponges, ascidians and tunicates, and they are structurally comprised of four to eight fused rings including heterocycles. Acridine, acridone, dihydroacridine, and quinolone cores are features regularly found in these alkaloid skeletons. The lack of hydrogen atoms next to quaternary carbon atoms for two or three rings makes the chemical shift assignment a difficult task. In this regard, one of the aims of this review is the compilation of previously reported, pyridoacridine 13C NMR data. Observations have been made on the delocalization of electrons and the presence of some functional groups that lead to changes in the chemical shift of some carbon resonances. The lack of mass spectra information for these alkaloids due to the compactness of their structures is further discussed. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways of some of these metabolites have been shown since they could inspire biomimetic synthesis. The synthesis routes used to prepare members of these marine alkaloids (as well as their analogues), which are synthesized for biological purposes are also discussed. Pyridoacridines were found to have a large spectrum of bioactivity and this review highlights and compares the pharmacophores that are responsible for the observed bioactivity. PMID:26664587

  19. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  20. Light-enhanced primary marine aerosol production from biologically productive seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kieber, D. J.; Frossard, A. A.; Russell, L. M.; Maben, J. R.; Kinsey, J. D.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

    2014-04-01

    Physical and biogeochemical processes in seawater controlling primary marine aerosol (PMA) production and composition are poorly understood and associated with large uncertainties in estimated fluxes into the atmosphere. PMA production was investigated in the biologically productive NE Pacific Ocean and in biologically productive and oligotrophic regions of the NW Atlantic Ocean. Physicochemical properties of model PMA, produced by aeration of fresh seawater under controlled conditions, were quantified. Diel variability in model PMA mass and number fluxes was observed in biologically productive waters, increasing following sunrise and decreasing to predawn levels overnight. Such variability was not seen in oligotrophic waters. During daytime, surfactant scavenging by aeration in the aerosol generator without replenishing the seawater in the reservoir reduced the model PMA production in productive waters to nighttime levels but had no influence on production from oligotrophic waters. Results suggest bubble plume interactions with sunlight-mediated biogenic surfactants in productive seawater significantly enhanced model PMA production.

  1. 50 CFR 217.207 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal...) Issuance of a Letter of Authorization will be based on the determination that the number of marine...

  2. 50 CFR 217.207 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal...) Issuance of a Letter of Authorization will be based on the determination that the number of marine...

  3. 50 CFR 217.207 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal...) Issuance of a Letter of Authorization will be based on the determination that the number of marine...

  4. 50 CFR 217.207 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal...) Issuance of a Letter of Authorization will be based on the determination that the number of marine...

  5. Letter Imperfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    In this essay, the author, a 5th-grade teacher, questions how well a standardized test can measure his students. This article presents a letter he wrote for the Washington state science test scorer regarding his students' test scores. He shares stories about some of the students in his class. He points out that tests can turn out to be more like…

  6. Image Processing And Pattern Recognition With Applications To Marine Biological Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsinis, C.; Poularikas, A. D.; Jeffries, H. P.

    1984-12-01

    Erosion and dilation of images were compared with other edge detection techniques on a variety of marine organisms. Under certain conditions the erosion and dilation technique gave better results. The critical problem resolved by our approach was low contrast imaging of randomly oriented objects that displayed random variations due to appendages that frequently appearred with marine biological samples. A multicomputer system was developed to perform image processing and morphological feature extraction on large number of samples. Emphasis was given to system reliability and expandability, allowing for performance at a reduced rate when one or more computers malfunctioned. The system currently operates with seven computers but can be expanded to contain up to seventeen. Classification accuracy on zooplankton samples from New England coastal waters was approximately 92%.

  7. Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stow, Craig A.; Jolliff, Jason; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Doney, Scott C.; Allen, J. Icarus; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Wallhead, Philip

    2009-02-01

    Coupled biological/physical models of marine systems serve many purposes including the synthesis of information, hypothesis generation, and as a tool for numerical experimentation. However, marine system models are increasingly used for prediction to support high-stakes decision-making. In such applications it is imperative that a rigorous model skill assessment is conducted so that the model's capabilities are tested and understood. Herein, we review several metrics and approaches useful to evaluate model skill. The definition of skill and the determination of the skill level necessary for a given application is context specific and no single metric is likely to reveal all aspects of model skill. Thus, we recommend the use of several metrics, in concert, to provide a more thorough appraisal. The routine application and presentation of rigorous skill assessment metrics will also serve the broader interests of the modeling community, ultimately resulting in improved forecasting abilities as well as helping us recognize our limitations.

  8. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

  9. Biological Targets and Mechanisms of Action of Natural Products from Marine Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are an ancient group of organisms and prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. These compounds are presumably optimized by evolution over billions of years to exert high affinity for their intended biological target in the ecologically relevant organism but likely also possess activity in different biological contexts such as human cells. Screening of marine cyanobacterial extracts for bioactive natural products has largely focused on cancer cell viability; however, diversification of the screening platform led to the characterization of many new bioactive compounds. Targets of compounds have oftentimes been elusive if the compounds were discovered through phenotypic assays. Over the past few years, technology has advanced to determine mechanism of action (MOA) and targets through reverse chemical genetic and proteomic approaches, which has been applied to certain cyanobacterial compounds and will be discussed in this review. Some cyanobacterial molecules are the most-potent-in-class inhibitors and therefore may become valuable tools for chemical biology to probe protein function but also be templates for novel drugs, assuming in vitro potency translates into cellular and in vivo activity. Our review will focus on compounds for which the direct targets have been deciphered or which were found to target a novel pathway, and link them to disease states where target modulation may be beneficial. PMID:25571978

  10. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse. PMID:24477070

  11. What is marine biology?: Defining a science in the United States in the mid 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Marine biology and biological oceanography are two disciplinary subfields that have long struggled with their definitions. Should marine biology simply be considered a part of biology that takes place in the marine environment or is it a distinct entity, with conceptual problems and methodological approaches all its own? Similarly, biological oceanography could be seen as a necessary adjunct to physical and chemical oceanography or it could be defined more as an extension of biology into the marine realm. In the United States, these issues were directly addressed from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s in a series of events that shed light on how marine biologists came to a working definition of their field that provided a broad methodological tent for practitioners and, at the same time, allied the field to oceanography during a period in which exploration of uncharted areas drew considerable funding from the post-WWII federal agencies charged with keeping American science at the forefront. PMID:18822664

  12. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  13. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  14. Syntheses and Biological Studies of Marine Terpenoids Derived from Inorganic Cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Schnermann, Martin J.; Shenvi, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Isocyanoterpenes (ICTs) are marine natural products biosynthesized through an unusual pathway that adorns terpene scaffolds with nitrogenous functionality derived from cyanide. The appendage of nitrogen functional groups–isonitriles in particular–onto stereochemically-rich carbocyclic ring systems provides enigmatic, bioactive molecules that have required innovative chemical syntheses. This review discusses the challenges inherent to the synthesis of this diverse family and details the development of the field. We also present recent progress in isolation and discuss key aspects of the remarkable biological activity of these compounds. PMID:25514696

  15. Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variations in environmental and biological sources: A survey of marine and terrestrial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, Stephanie; Clementz, Mark T.

    2012-10-01

    The relative concentrations of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) in mammalian bioapatite are common biogeochemical indicators for trophic level and/or dietary preferences in terrestrial foodwebs; however, similar research in marine foodwebs is lacking. This study combined environmental and biological Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data from both terrestrial and marine settings from 62 published books, reports, and studies along with original data collected from 149 marine mammals (30 species) and 83 prey items (18 species) and found that variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of biological and environmental samples are appreciably different in terrestrial and marine systems. In terrestrial systems, environmental sources account for most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. In contrast, environmental sources in marine systems (i.e., seawater) are comparatively invariant, meaning most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios originate from biological processes. Marine consumers, particularly non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates, show evidence of biopurification of Ca relative to Sr and Ba, similar to what is observed in terrestrial systems; however, unlike terrestrial systems, variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of environmental sources are overprinted by bioaccumulation of Sr and Ba at the base of marine foodwebs. This demonstrates that in marine systems, spatial or temporal differences may have little to no effect on Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of marine vertebrates, making Sr/Ca, and to a lesser extent Ba/Ca, potentially useful global proxies for trophic level and dietary preferences of marine vertebrates.

  16. 50 CFR 216.235 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determination that the number of marine mammals taken by the activity will be small, and that the total taking... stocks of marine mammal(s). (d) Notice of issuance or denial of a Letter of Authorization will...

  17. 50 CFR 216.158 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San... for review and comment on the request. Review and comment on renewals of Letters of Authorization...

  18. 50 CFR 216.158 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San... for review and comment on the request. Review and comment on renewals of Letters of Authorization...

  19. 50 CFR 216.158 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San... for review and comment on the request. Review and comment on renewals of Letters of Authorization...

  20. 50 CFR 216.158 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San... for review and comment on the request. Review and comment on renewals of Letters of Authorization...

  1. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL). PMID:26133554

  2. Biological invasions as a component of global change in stressed marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Savini, D

    2003-05-01

    Biological invasions in marine environment are the lesser known aspect of global change. However, recent events which occurred in the Mediterranean Sea demonstrate that they represent a serious ecological and economical menace leading to biodiversity loss, ecosystem unbalancing, fishery and tourism impairment. In this paper we review marine bioinvasions using examples taken from the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. Particular attention is given to the environmental status of the receiving area as a fundamental pre-requisite for the colonisation success of alien species. The spread of the tropical algae belonging to the genus Caulerpa in the northwestern basin of the Mediterranean Sea has been facilitated by pre-existing conditions of instability of the Posidonia oceanica endemic ecosystem in relation to stress of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Human interventions caused long-term modification in the Black Sea environment, preparing a fertile ground for mass bioinvasion of aquatic nuisance species which, in some cases, altered the original equilibrium of the entire basin. Finally, the Venice lagoon is presented as the third example of an environment subjected to high propagule pressure and anthropogenic forcing and bearing the higher "diversity" of non-indigenous species compared to the other Mediterranean lagoons. Stressed environments are easily colonised by alien species; understanding the links between human and natural disturbance and massive development of non-indigenous species will help prevent marine bioinvasions, that are already favoured by global oceanic trade. PMID:12735951

  3. Chemistry and biology of fascaplysin, a potent marine-derived CDK-4 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bharate, S B; Manda, S; Mupparapu, N; Battini, N; Vishwakarma, R A

    2012-06-01

    Marine natural products offer an abundant source of pharmacologically active agents with great diversity and complexity, and the potential to produce valuable therapeutic entities. Indole alkaloids is one of the important class of marine-derived secondary metabolites, with wide occurrence amongst variety of marine sources such as sponges, tunicates, algae, worms and microorganisms and have been extensively studied for their biological activities. Among this chemical family, a sponge-derived bis-indole alkaloid fascaplysin (1) exhibited broad range of bioactivities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-HIV-1-RTase, p56 tyrosine kinase inhibition, antimalarial, anti-angiogenic, antiproliferative activity against numerous cancer cell lines, specific inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (IC(50) 350 nM) and action as a DNA intercalator. In the present review, the chemical diversity of natural as well as synthetic analogues of fascaplysin has been reviewed with a detailed account on synthetic reports and pharmacological studies. Our analysis of the structure-activity relationships of this family of compounds highlights the existence of various potential leads for the development of novel anticancer agents. PMID:22512549

  4. Investigation of Marine-Derived Fungal Diversity and Their Exploitable Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Jang, Seokyoon; Heo, Young Mok; Min, Mihee; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Marine fungi are potential producers of bioactive compounds that may have pharmacological and medicinal applications. Fungi were cultured from marine brown algae and identified using multiple target genes to confirm phylogenetic placement. These target genes included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear large subunit (LSU), and the β-tubulin region. Various biological activities of marine-derived fungi were evaluated, including their antifungal, antioxidant and cellulolytic enzyme activities. As a result, a total of 50 fungi was isolated from the brown algae Sargassum sp. Among the 50 isolated fungi, Corollospora angusta was the dominant species in this study. The genus Arthrinium showed a relatively strong antifungal activity to all of the target plant pathogenic fungi. In particular, Arthrinium saccharicola KUC21221 showed high radical scavenging activity and the highest activities in terms of filter paper units (0.39 U/mL), endoglucanase activity (0.38 U/mL), and β-glucosidase activity (1.04 U/mL). PMID:26133554

  5. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Pan, Hongmiao; Yue, Haidong; Song, Tao; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Guanjun; Wu, Longfei; Xiao, Tian

    2006-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in diameter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gram stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  6. Determination of Iodine-129 in fish samples as new tracer of marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2014-05-01

    Most of Iodine-129 in the surface environment is the anthropogenic origin, i.e., the result of the human nuclear activities. In the marine environment, like Pacific ocean, I-129 is transferred from atmosphere and slowly diffuses into deeper layer so that there is steep gradient of I-129 concentration, i.e., the surface layer has high I-129 concentration and it suddenly decreases going deeper. This peculiar depth profile is thus reflected by the isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) profile because stable iodine (I-127) concentration is almost uniform in the seawater (ca. 60 ppb). Iodine isotopic ratio (I-129/I-127) of marine lives like fish should be determined by their habitats and the ways exchanging iodine with seawater. This means that the iodine isotopic ratio is potential indicator of marine biology. However there have been only few studies using I-129 for marine biology. This is because I-129 is so rare in the marine lives that ordinary analytical techniques cannot detect. Recently, the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry has been developed and demonstrates excellent sensitivity to detect I-129/I-127 ratio as low as 1E-14. However it requires typically 1 mg AgI sample. To obtain such amount of iodine several hundreds gram should be treated in the case of typical fish. In this study "carrier method" was adopted to overcome this difficulty. Our procedure is following: A fish sample was first dried completely then homogenized well. Iodine was extracted into an alkaline solution by the thermal hydrolysis from 0.1 to 0.5g of dried sample. An aliquot of this solution was taken for ICP-MS analysis to determine the stable iodine concentration. The remaining was, added with carrier iodine (about 1 mg), purified by solvent extraction and collected as AgI precipitation. I-129/I-127 ratio of obtained AgI was determined by AMS. From the AMS result and the stable iodine concentration, the isotopic ratio of the fish samples themselves can be calculated. The result of fish

  7. Parasites as biological tags in marine fisheries research: European Atlantic waters.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, K; Hemmingsen, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the use of parasites as biological tags for stock identification and to follow migrations of marine fish, mammals and invertebrates in European Atlantic waters are critically reviewed and evaluated. The region covered includes the North, Baltic, Barents and White Seas plus Icelandic waters, but excludes the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Each fish species or ecological group of species is treated separately. More parasite tag studies have been carried out on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus than on any other species, while cod Gadus morhua have also been the subject of many studies. Other species that have been the subjects of more than one study are: blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii, horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus and mackerel Scomber scombrus. Other species are dealt with under the general headings redfishes, flatfish, tunas, anadromous fish, elasmobranchs, marine mammals and invertebrates. A final section highlights how parasites can be, and have been, misused as biological tags, and how this can be avoided. It also reviews recent developments in methodology and parasite genetics, considers the potential effects of climate change on the distributions of both hosts and parasites, and suggests host-parasite systems that should reward further research. PMID:24722002

  8. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi's productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  9. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances. PMID:27023571

  10. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    PubMed Central

    O’Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell’Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts. PMID:26464099

  11. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  12. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray's water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts. PMID:26464099

  13. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to...

  14. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to...

  15. Detecting regime shifts in marine systems with limited biological data: An example from southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzow, Michael A.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Frusher, Stewart D.; Dann, Peter; Tuck, Geoffrey N.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to detect ecological regime shifts in a data-limited setting was investigated, using southeast Australian ecosystems as a model. Community variability was summarized for 1968-2008 with the first two principal components (PCs) of recruitment estimates for six fish stocks and reproductive parameters for four seabird species; regional climate was summarized for 1953-2008 with the first two PCs for three parameters (sea surface temperature [SST], sea surface salinity, surface nitrate) measured at two stations; and basin-scale climate variability was summarized for 1950-2012 with mean South Pacific SST and the first two PCs of detrended South Pacific SST. The first two biology PCs explained 45% of total community variability. The first two PCs of basin-scale SST showed abrupt shifts similar to "regime" behavior observed in other ocean basins, and the first PC of basin-scale SST showed significant covariation with the first PC of regional climate. Together, these results are consistent with the strong community variability and decadal-scale red noise climatic variability associated with Northern Hemisphere regime shifts. However, statistical model selection showed that the first two PCs of regional climate and the first PC of biology time series all exhibited linear change, rather than abrupt shifts. This result is consistent with previous studies documenting rapid linear change in the climate and biology of southeast Australian shelf ecosystems, and we conclude that there is no evidence for regime shift behavior in the region's ecology. However, analysis of a large set of previously-published biological time series from the North Pacific (n = 64) suggests that studies using fewer than ∼30 biological time series, such as this one, may be unable to detect regime shifts. Thus we conclude that the nature of ecological variability in the region cannot be determined with available data. The development of additional long-term biological observations is needed

  16. p53 Superfamily proteins in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Charles W; Van Beneden, Rebecca J; Muttray, Annette F; Böttger, S Anne; Kelley, Melissa L; Tucker, Abraham E; Thomas, W Kelley

    2011-01-01

    The human p53 tumour suppressor protein is inactivated in many cancers and is also a major player in apoptotic responses to cellular stress. The p53 protein and the two other members of this protein family (p63, p73) are encoded by distinct genes and their functions have been extensively documented for humans and some other vertebrates. The structure and relative expression levels for members of the p53 superfamily have also been reported for most major invertebrate taxa. The functions of homologous proteins have been investigated for only a few invertebrates (specifically, p53 in flies, nematodes and recently a sea anemone). These studies of classical model organisms all suggest that the gene family originally evolved to mediate apoptosis of damaged germ cells or to protect germ cells from genotoxic stress. Here, we have correlated data from a number of molluscan and other invertebrate sequencing projects to provide a framework for understanding p53 signalling pathways in marine bivalve cancer and stress biology. These data suggest that (a) the two identified p53 and p63/73-like proteins in soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Northern European squid (Loligo forbesi) have identical core sequences and may be splice variants of a single gene, while some molluscs and most other invertebrates have two or more distinct genes expressing different p53 family members; (b) transcriptional activation domains (TADs) in bivalve p53 and p63/73-like protein sequences are 67-69% conserved with human p53, while those in ecdysozoan, cnidarian, placozoan and choanozoan eukaryotes are ≤33% conserved; (c) the Mdm2 binding site in the transcriptional activation domain is 100% conserved in all sequenced bivalve p53 proteins (e.g. Mya, Mytilus, Crassostrea and Spisula) but is not present in other non-deuterostome invertebrates; (d) an Mdm2 homologue has been cloned for Mytilus trossulus; (e) homologues for both human p53 upstream regulatory and

  17. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or revoked... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of Authorization. 216.257...

  18. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or revoked... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letters of Authorization. 216.257...

  19. 50 CFR 216.258 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.258 Renewal of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  20. 50 CFR 216.258 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.258 Renewal of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  1. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible. PMID:23610641

  2. 50 CFR 218.35 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for Letters of Authorization. 218.35 Section 218.35 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Range Complex § 218.35 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally take marine...

  3. 50 CFR 218.18 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Jacksonville Range... risk to the well-being of the species or stocks of marine mammals specified in § 218.11(b), a Letter...

  4. 50 CFR 218.18 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Jacksonville Range... risk to the well-being of the species or stocks of marine mammals specified in § 218.11(b), a Letter...

  5. 50 CFR 218.9 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Virginia Capes... risk to the well-being of the species or stocks of marine mammals specified in § 218.2(c), a Letter...

  6. 50 CFR 218.9 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Virginia Capes... risk to the well-being of the species or stocks of marine mammals specified in § 218.2(c), a Letter...

  7. 50 CFR 217.208 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage... that the number of marine mammals taken during the period of the Letter of Authorization will be...

  8. 50 CFR 216.126 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Space Vehicle And Test Flight Activities § 216.126 Applications for Letters of Authorization. (a) To incidentally take marine mammals pursuant...

  9. 50 CFR 217.208 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage... that the number of marine mammals taken during the period of the Letter of Authorization will be...

  10. 50 CFR 216.127 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Space Vehicle And Test Flight Activities § 216.127 Letters... Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken by the activity...

  11. 50 CFR 217.208 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage... that the number of marine mammals taken during the period of the Letter of Authorization will be...

  12. 50 CFR 216.126 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Space Vehicle And Test Flight Activities § 216.126 Applications for Letters of Authorization. (a) To incidentally take marine mammals pursuant...

  13. 50 CFR 217.208 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To The Port of Anchorage... that the number of marine mammals taken during the period of the Letter of Authorization will be...

  14. Latitudinal distributions of organic nitrogen and organic carbon in marine biologically influenced aerosols over the western North Pacific in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Jung, J.; Furutani, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Latitudinal distributions of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC) as well as isotopic ratios of total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC) were measured in marine aerosols collected in the western North Pacific in summer 2008. Increased concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and diethylammonium (DEA+) at 40-44N and subtropical regions (10-20N), together with averaged satellite chlorophyll a data and five-day back trajectory, suggest significant influences of marine biological activities on aerosols in these regions. In the marine biologically influenced aerosols, ON exhibited increased concentrations up to 260 ngN m-3. We found that water-insoluble organic nitrogen (WION) was the most abundant N in the marine aerosols, which accounted for 67±15% of total aerosol N. In particular, the average WION/ON ratio was as high as 0.93±0.07 at 40-44N. These results suggest that marine biological sources significantly contributed to ON, a majority of which is composed of water-insoluble fractions in the study region. The stable carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C) showed higher values (from -22‰ to -20‰) when ON/OC ratios increased from 0.15 to 0.35. The results clearly show an enrichment of nitrogen in organic aerosols originated from the oceanic region with high biological productivity and indicate preferential transfer of nitrogen-containing compounds from the sea surface to marine atmosphere. Furthermore, both WION concentrations and WION/WIOC ratios showed positive correlations with local wind speeds, suggesting that ON contributes significantly as a nutrient-affiliated element to primary marine organic aerosols over the study region. We will discuss possible chemical properties of WION including proteins and gel-like particles, and potential processes for primary and secondary production of aerosol ON.

  15. Marine biological productivity and carbon cycling during the Oligocene to Miocene climate transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billups, K.; Diester-Haass, L.; Emeis, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Oligocene to Miocene boundary marks one of the major Cenozoic cooling steps. A corresponding but slightly out of phase δ13C maximum has been attributed to increased organic matter burial associated with global climate cooling (e.g., Zachos et al., 2001). To test this idea we have constructed records of marine biological productivity (based on benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, BFAR) and sequestration of total organic carbon (TOC) in pelagic sediments to parallel the stable isotope records from 20-25 Ma. Here we present first results from Ceara Rise Site 926 located in the tropical northwestern Atlantic. Our data show that the δ18O/δ13C maximum that characterized the Oligocene/Miocene boundary is accompanied by a pronounced maximum in BFAR derived paleoproductivity. In addition, there are longer term variations in paleoproductivity that follow the well established eccentricity-scale variations in the δ18O and δ13C record. Cross-spectral analysis focusing on the Oligocene/Miocene boundary interval (22-24 Ma), for which we have an average sampling resolution of about 10 kyr, verifies that paleoproductivity is coherent with the stable isotope records above the 80% level. These results support the hypothesis that there is a relationship between global climate cooling and the carbon cycle via marine primary productivity.

  16. Marine biological metapopulation with coupled logistic growth functions: The MSY and quasi MSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husniah, H.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we develop a mathematical model for a harvested marine biological stock. The stock consists of two discretely separated sub-stocks which are connected by the dispersal of individuals, and hence forms a metapopulation structure. The model assumes that the production function of each stock follows a logistic equation, hence the full system of the stocks governed by a couple of logistic equations. We find the formula of the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) for each sub-stock, which is extendable to a metapopulation with several discretely separated sub-populations. We also give a numerical simulation to illustrate the application of the formula for two-patch case, based on the quasi maximum sustainable yield. The simulation shows that ignoring the existence of the coupling of the system resulting in a lower total harvest from the population. This indicates a financial lost potential arising from an inappropriate recognition of a metapopulation structure in a fishery industry.

  17. Comparison of methods for integrating biological and physical data for marine habitat mapping and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumchenia, E. J.; King, J. W.

    2010-09-01

    An important first step in marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management efforts is the creation of benthic habitat maps that allow scientists and managers to understand the distribution of living and non-living resources on the seafloor. However, the location of boundaries between and composition of habitats is highly dependent on the approach taken to integrate abiotic and biotic information. The purpose of this study was to test "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches for integrating physical and biological data derived from commonly used sub-tidal benthic mapping tools to create a habitat map compatible with the US Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). We found that a top-down framework, where we tested for differences in macrofauna assemblages among side scan sonar facies, defined two broad-scale and general habitats. Using the bottom-up approach, where patterns in abiotic and biotic variables were examined with multivariate statistics (BEST, LINKTREE, ANOSIM, SIMPER), we generated seven biotopes based on the macrofauna abundance, percent sand, water depth, and backscatter standard deviation that corresponded well to, but provided more fine-scale detail than the top-down habitats. We were able to use the statistical relationship between abiotic variables and macrofauna assemblages in the LINKTREE to predict the spatial distribution of assemblages over ˜50% of the study area. We created a local catalogue of biotopes specific to our study area that contributes to the CMECS library. In addition, we were able to fully map CMECS Geoform, Surface Geology, and Biotic Cover Components. This mapping effort represented real progress toward reconciling the "data density mismatch" between physical and biological mapping methods, and it provided further evidence that using a bottom-up methodology preserves species-environment relationships.

  18. Marine biological productivity, carbon cycling, and climate cooling during the Oligocene to Miocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diester-Haass, Liselotte; Billups, Katharina; Emeis, Kay-Christian

    2010-05-01

    The Oligocene to Miocene boundary (the so-called Mi1 event) marks one of the major Cenozoic cooling steps. A corresponding but slightly out of phase 13C maximum has been attributed to increased organic matter burial associated with global climate cooling (e.g., Zachos et al., 2001). To test this idea we have constructed records of marine biological productivity (based on benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, BFAR) to parallel the stable isotope records from 20-25 Ma at three sites from the Atlantic Ocean sampling different hydrographic regimes. Our data show that the 18O and 13C maximum that characterize the Oligocene/Miocene boundary is accompanied by a pronounced maximum in BFAR derived paleoproductivity at all sites. In the subtropical Atlantic (Site 1265) and the Southern Ocean (Site 1090), productivity increases about 500 kyr prior to Mi1 in tune with the beginning of enhanced amplitude variations in the benthic foraminiferal 13C record. In the tropical Atlantic (Site 926), where we have appropriate sampling resolution (~10 kyr), eccentricity-scale variations in paleoproductivity are coherent with the stable isotope records and in-phase with the 18O values. Paleoproductivity leads 13C at the 400 kyr period in agreement with the lead of 18O values with respect to 13C values. These results illustrate that the link between Oligocene to Miocene climate transition and the carbon cycle is one of marine primary productivity both during the glacial event of Mi1 as well as on eccentricity time scales. The late Oligocene (24 Ma) increase of productivity suggests that a reduction of atmospheric CO2 levels mediated by increased biological productivity may have lead to climate cooling at the Oligocene to Miocene boundary.

  19. Marine biotechnologies and synthetic biology, new issues for a fair and equitable profit-sharing commercial use.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jean-François; Tardieu-Guigues, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    The sea will be a source of economic development in the next years. Today the research works in marine biotechnologies supply new products and processes. The introduction in the laboratories of a new technology, synthesis biology, is going to increase the possibilities of creation of new products. Exploitation of product stemming from marine biodiversity has to be made with regard to various rights among which industrial property law, maritime law and the Convention on BioDiversity. All participants involved in the promotion of research in marine biotechnology must address the fair and equitable sharing of any commercial exploitation. Carrying out work involving synthetic biology has increased the number of unanswered questions about how operators should manage in order to avoid any threat of being sued for infringements of IP rights or for alleged bio-piracy. This paper, by no means exhaustive in the field, analyzes some of the issues raised on the modification to the landscape in marine biotechnology by the advent of synthetic biology. Such issues indicate how important the collaboration between researchers, industrialists, lawyers is for allowing proper use of marine biotech. PMID:25116370

  20. Propagation of climatic events on ocean stratification, marine biology, and CO2: Case studies over the 1979-1999 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le QuéRé, Corinne; Aumont, Olivier; Monfray, Patrick; Orr, James

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the propagation of climatic events on ocean stratification, marine biology, and CO2 using a large-scale ocean general circulation model coupled to a simple biogeochemical model of plankton dynamics and the carbon cycle. The model was forced with satellite and reanalysis fields during 1979-1999. We focus on three climatic events: (1) the North Atlantic Oscillation, (2) El Niño events, and (3) the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Such climatic events caused variability in ocean stratification, approximated by the mixing depth (MD), from ±20 m in the subtropics to ±100 s of meters at high latitudes. In the subtropics, deepening of the MD resupplied nutrient-impoverished surface waters and increased marine biomass by 20-100%. In contrast, at high latitudes, shoaling of the MD lengthened the growing season (i.e., the length of time that light is available for plankton growth) and increased marine biomass by 10-20%. Variability in marine biology reached global peak-to-peak values of ±0.01 mg m-3 for surface chl a, ±3.4 Pg C yr-1 for primary production, and ±0.3 Pg C yr-1 for export production and its contribution to CO2 fluxes. Our model results suggest that changes in ocean stratification driven by short-term climatic events could be used to understand and quantify the feedbacks from marine biology to CO2 and climate.

  1. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  2. Learning about Marine Biology. Superific Science Book VI. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…

  3. Recent trends in biological extraction of chitin from marine shell wastes: a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh

    2015-03-01

    The natural biopolymer chitin and its deacetylated product chitosan are widely used in innumerable applications ranging from biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture and personal care products to environmental sector. The abundant and renewable marine processing wastes are commercially exploited for the extraction of chitin. However, the traditional chitin extraction processes employ harsh chemicals at elevated temperatures for a prolonged time which can harm its physico-chemical properties and are also held responsible for the deterioration of environmental health. In view of this, green extraction methods are increasingly gaining popularity due to their environmentally friendly nature. The bioextraction of chitin from crustacean shell wastes has been increasingly researched at the laboratory scale. However, the bioextraction of chitin is not currently exploited to its maximum potential on the commercial level. Bioextraction of chitin is emerging as a green, cleaner, eco-friendly and economical process. Specifically in the chitin extraction, microorganisms-mediated fermentation processes are highly desirable due to easy handling, simplicity, rapidity, controllability through optimization of process parameters, ambient temperature and negligible solvent consumption, thus reducing environmental impact and costs. Although, chitin production from crustacean shell waste through biological means is still at its early stage of development, it is undergoing rapid progress in recent years and showing a promising prospect. Driven by reduced energy, wastewater or solvent, advances in biological extraction of chitin along with valuable by-products will have high economic and environmental impact. PMID:24083454

  4. Reproductive biology of two marine catfishes (Siluriformes, Ariidae) in the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Iracema David; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2004-03-01

    Marine catfish are abundant in the Sepetiba Bay, a 305 km2 area in Southeast Brazilian coast (Lat. 22 degrees 54' - 23 degrees 04' S: Long. 43 degrees 44' - 44 degrees 10' W), but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of Sciadeichthys luniscutis (Valenciennes 1840) and Genidens genidens (Valenciennes 1839) was studied through monthly sampling, from October 1998 to September 1999. Fishes were caught with a standardized otter trawl, in the interior of Sepetiba Bay, and near to the confluence with a major freshwater contributor. Six gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observations of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter, and microscopic observations of differences in size and staining in the nucleus and cytoplasm structures, as viewed through a light microscope. Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in stages of gonadal development showed what S. luniscutis spawned in Spring, while G. genidens spawned in Summer. Total spawning was shown for both species as indicated by high concentration of post-ovulatory follicles in spent stages. Fecundity was low (14-38 vitellogenic oocytes for S. luniscutis and 6-24 for G. genidens). when compared with other teleosts. Low fecundity and separation in spawning period suggest that both species are k-strategist, able to avoid interspecific competition in early stages of life cycle to optimize the use of the available niche. PMID:17357411

  5. Marine biological feedback associated with Indian Ocean Dipole in a coupled ocean/biogeochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of marine ecosystem on the tropical climate variability in the Indian Ocean is investigated by performing coupled ocean/biogeochemical model experiments, which are forced by realistic surface winds from 1951 to 2010. Results from a suite of chlorophyll perturbation experiments reveal that the presence of chlorophyll can have significant effects on the characteristics of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), including its amplitude and skewness, as well as on the mean state. Specifically, chlorophyll increases mean sea surface temperature due to direct biological heating in regions where the mean mixed layer depth is generally shallow. It is also found that the presence of chlorophyll affects the IOD magnitude by two different processes: One is the amplifying effect by the mean chlorophyll, which leads to shoaling of mean thermocline depth, and the other is the damping effect by the interactively varying chlorophyll coupled with the physical model. There is also a biological impact on the skewness of the IOD, resulting in enhanced positive skewness. This skewness change is primarily caused by the phase dependency of the above two contradicting effects involving the asymmetric thermocline feedback and the nonlinear mixed layer heating.

  6. Numerical and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of suction cup bio-logging tag designs for marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mark; Shorter, Alex; Howle, Laurens; Johnson, Mark; Moore, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The improvement and miniaturization of sensing technologies has made bio-logging tags, utilized for the study of marine mammal behavior, more practical. These sophisticated sensing packages require a housing which protects the electronics from the environment and provides a means of attachment to the animal. The hydrodynamic forces on these housings can inadvertently remove the tag or adversely affect the behavior or energetics of the animal. A modification to the original design of a suction cup bio-logging tag housing was desired to minimize the adverse forces. In this work, hydrodynamic loading of two suction cup tag designs, original and modified designs, were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and validated experimentally. Overall, the simulation and experimental results demonstrated that a tag housing that minimized geometric disruptions to the flow reduced drag forces, and that a tag housing with a small frontal cross-sectional area close to the attachment surface reduced lift forces. Preliminary results from experimental work with a common dolphin cadaver indicates that the suction cups used to attach the tags to the animal provide sufficient attachment force to resist failure at predicted drag and lift forces in 10 m/s flow.

  7. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  8. The influence of the biological pump on ocean chemistry: implications for long-term trends in marine redox chemistry, the global carbon cycle, and marine animal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K M; Ridgwell, A; Payne, J L

    2016-05-01

    The net export of organic matter from the surface ocean and its respiration at depth create vertical gradients in nutrient and oxygen availability that play a primary role in structuring marine ecosystems. Changes in the properties of this 'biological pump' have been hypothesized to account for important shifts in marine ecosystem structure, including the Cambrian explosion. However, the influence of variation in the behavior of the biological pump on ocean biogeochemistry remains poorly quantified, preventing any detailed exploration of how changes in the biological pump over geological time may have shaped long-term shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure. Here, we use a 3-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantitatively explore the effects of the biological pump on marine chemistry. We find that when respiration of sinking organic matter is efficient, due to slower sinking or higher respiration rates, anoxia tends to be more prevalent and to occur in shallower waters. Consequently, the Phanerozoic trend toward less bottom-water anoxia in continental shelf settings can potentially be explained by a change in the spatial dynamics of nutrient cycling rather than by any change in the ocean phosphate inventory. The model results further suggest that the Phanerozoic decline in the prevalence ocean anoxia is, in part, a consequence of the evolution of larger phytoplankton, many of which produce mineralized tests. We hypothesize that the Phanerozoic trend toward greater animal abundance and metabolic demand was driven more by increased oxygen concentrations in shelf environments than by greater food (nutrient) availability. In fact, a lower-than-modern ocean phosphate inventory in our closed system model is unable to account for the Paleozoic prevalence of bottom-water anoxia. Overall, these model simulations suggest that the changing spatial distribution of photosynthesis and respiration in the oceans has

  9. The identification of a new Giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of G. duodenalis population biology in marine systems✯

    PubMed Central

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Welch, David Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2010-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite of many vertebrates. The presence of G. duodenalis in the marine environment due to anthropogenic and wildlife activity is well documented, including the contributions from untreated sewage and storm water, agricultural run-off, and droppings from terrestrial animals. Recently, studies have detected this protistan parasite in the feces of marine vertebrates such as whales, dolphins, seals and shore birds. To explore the population biology of G. duodenalis in marine life, we determined the prevalence of G. duodenalis in two species of seal (Halichoerus grypus, Phoca vitulina vitulina and Phoca vitulina richardsi) from the east and west coasts of the USA, sequenced two loci from G. duodenalis-positive samples to assess molecular diversity, and examined G. duodenalis distribution among these seals and other marine vertebrates along the east coast. We found a significant difference in the presence of G. duodenalis between east and west coast seal species. Only the zoonotic lineages of G. duodenalis, Assemblages A and B and a novel lineage, which we designated as Assemblage H, were identified in marine vertebrates. Assemblages A and B are broadly distributed geographically and show a lack of host specificity. Only grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) samples and one gull sample (Larus argentatus) from a northern location of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA showed the presence of Assemblage H haplotypes; only one other study of harbor seals from the Puget Sound region of Washington, USA previously recorded the presence of an Assemblage H haplotype. Assemblage H sequences form a monophyletic clade that appears as divergent from the other seven Assemblages of G. duodenalis as these assemblages are from each other. The discovery of a previously uncharacterized lineage of G. duodenalis suggests that this parasite has more genetic diversity and perhaps a larger host range than previously believed. PMID:20361967

  10. The identification of a new Giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of G. duodenalis population biology in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Welch, David Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2010-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite of many vertebrates. The presence of G. duodenalis in the marine environment due to anthropogenic and wildlife activity is well documented, including the contributions from untreated sewage and storm water, agricultural run-off and droppings from terrestrial animals. Recently, studies have detected this protistan parasite in the faeces of marine vertebrates such as whales, dolphins, seals and shore birds. To explore the population biology of G. duodenalis in marine life, we determined the prevalence of G. duodenalis in two species of seal (Halichoerus grypus, Phoca vitulina vitulina and Phoca vitulina richardsi) from the east and west coasts of the USA, sequenced two loci from G. duodenalis-positive samples to assess molecular diversity and examined G. duodenalis distribution amongst these seals and other marine vertebrates along the east coast. We found a significant difference in the presence of G. duodenalis between east and west coast seal species. Only the zoonotic lineages of G. duodenalis, Assemblages A and B and a novel lineage, which we designated as Assemblage H, were identified in marine vertebrates. Assemblages A and B are broadly distributed geographically and show a lack of host specificity. Only grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) samples and one gull sample (Larus argentatus) from a northern location of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, showed the presence of Assemblage H haplotypes; only one other study of harbour seals from the Puget Sound region of Washington, USA previously recorded the presence of an Assemblage H haplotype. Assemblage H sequences form a monophyletic clade that appears as divergent from the other seven Assemblages of G. duodenalis as these assemblages are from each other. The discovery of a previously uncharacterised lineage of G. duodenalis suggests that this parasite has more genetic diversity and perhaps a larger host range than previously believed. PMID:20361967

  11. Biological N2O fixation in the Eastern South Pacific Ocean and marine cyanobacterial cultures.

    PubMed

    Farías, Laura; Faúndez, Juan; Fernández, Camila; Cornejo, Marcela; Sanhueza, Sandra; Carrasco, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the global radiative balance and atmospheric ozone chemistry, its sources and sinks within the Earth's system are still poorly understood. In the ocean, N2O is produced by microbiological processes such as nitrification and partial denitrification, which account for about a third of global emissions. Conversely, complete denitrification (the dissimilative reduction of N2O to N2) under suboxic/anoxic conditions is the only known pathway accountable for N2O consumption in the ocean. In this work, it is demonstrated that the biological assimilation of N2O could be a significant pathway capable of directly transforming this gas into particulate organic nitrogen (PON). N2O is shown to be biologically fixed within the subtropical and tropical waters of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, under a wide range of oceanographic conditions and at rates ranging from 2 pmol N L(-1) d(-) to 14.8 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (mean ± SE of 0.522 ± 1.06 nmol N L(-1) d(-1), n = 93). Additional assays revealed that cultured cyanobacterial strains of Trichodesmium (H-9 and IMS 101), and Crocosphaera (W-8501) have the capacity to directly fix N2O under laboratory conditions; suggesting that marine photoautotrophic diazotrophs could be using N2O as a substrate. This metabolic capacity however was absent in Synechococcus (RCC 1029). The findings presented here indicate that assimilative N2O fixation takes place under extreme environmental conditions (i.e., light, nutrient, oxygen) where both autotrophic (including cyanobacteria) and heterotrophic microbes appear to be involved. This process could provide a globally significant sink for atmospheric N2O which in turn affects the oceanic N2O inventory and may also represent a yet unexplored global oceanic source of fixed N. PMID:23717516

  12. Integrating Distributed Physical and Biological Marine data using OGC Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmell, A. L.; Blower, J. D.; Haines, K.; Price, M.; Millard, K.; Harpham, Q.

    2008-12-01

    Earth scientists use highly diverse sources of data, including in-situ measurements, remotely-sensed information and the results of numerical simulations. The ability to access, visualize, combine and compare these datasets is at the core of scientific investigation, but such tasks have hitherto been very difficult or impossible due to a fundamental lack of harmonization of data products. As a result, much valuable data remains underused. We present a web portal that visualizes and compares physical and biological marine data from both numerical models and in-situ observations. The model data are obtained via an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)-compatible Web Map Service (WMS), and the observed data are obtained via an OGC Web Feature Service (WFS). The physical model WMS, the biological model WMS and the WFS are located at three different institutes. This ability to display in-situ point observations alongside model data facilitates much valuable work on model validation. As models become increasingly complex, and sources of observed data become more numerous, it is important to be able to access and compare this growing amount of data efficiently, to ensure cross-checking and consistency between models and observations. The web portal is being applied in a large European operational oceanography project (ECOOP), where it is used to provide support to ecosystem modellers, and specifically to aid detection of potentially harmful algal blooms in coastal areas. The development of this system has been enabled by the conceptual framework of the Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML), which provides a common view onto all these datasets, independent of their storage format or physical location. CSML is based upon emerging international standards, enabling interoperability with other standards-based infrastructures. By creating a reusable Java library that embodies the CSML concepts we are able to apply these techniques to a number of other projects.

  13. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    PubMed Central

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported. PMID:20714425

  14. [Model of regularity of ammonia transformation along marine biological aerated filter].

    PubMed

    Luo, Rong-Qiang; Hou, Sha-Sha; Shen, Jia-Zheng; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the biological aerated filter (BAF) of a marine recirculating aquaculture system, which is important to remove harmful ammonia and organics. A model, characterizing the ammonia transformation along the BAF, was established on the basis of the principle of adsorption and the first order reaction bio-film. Experiments were performed and verified the effectiveness of the proposed model. The target BAF was packed with bamboo ring for 70 cm high. Study under the conditions [pH 7.1-7.6, DO 5-7 mg x L(-1), gas water ratio about 20 : 1, organic load about 4 g x (m3 x h)(-1)] shows that ammonia is removed significantly under the 10 cm height of medium, while less ammonia is removed between 10-70 cm. Experimental results confirm that the model predicts the ammonia concentration along the BAF accurately with a low influent ammonia concentration, but the predicted value is slightly lower than the true value with a high influent ammonia concentration. Study on ammonia concentration along the BAF reveals that the effluent ammonia concentration increases along with either the increment of the influent ammonia concentration or the reduction of the hydraulic retention time. PMID:23243879

  15. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. F.; Peng, P. A.; Liu, M. Y.; Xi, D. P.; Song, J. Z.; Wan, X. Q.; Wang, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ13Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB.

  16. Marine organism cell biology and regulatory sequence discoveryin comparative functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David W; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Parton, Angela; Dowell, Lori M; Bayne, Christopher J; Forrest, John N

    2004-10-01

    The use of bioinformatics to integrate phenotypic and genomic data from mammalian models is well established as a means of understanding human biology and disease. Beyond direct biomedical applications of these approaches in predicting structure-function relationships between coding sequences and protein activities, comparative studies also promote understanding of molecular evolution and the relationship between genomic sequence and morphological and physiological specialization. Recently recognized is the potential of comparative studies to identify functionally significant regulatory regions and to generate experimentally testable hypotheses that contribute to understanding mechanisms that regulate gene expression, including transcriptional activity, alternative splicing and transcript stability. Functional tests of hypotheses generated by computational approaches require experimentally tractable in vitro systems, including cell cultures. Comparative sequence analysis strategies that use genomic sequences from a variety of evolutionarily diverse organisms are critical for identifying conserved regulatory motifs in the 5'-upstream, 3'-downstream and introns of genes. Genomic sequences and gene orthologues in the first aquatic vertebrate and protovertebrate organisms to be fully sequenced (Fugu rubripes, Ciona intestinalis, Tetraodon nigroviridis, Danio rerio) as well as in the elasmobranchs, spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and little skate (Raja erinacea), and marine invertebrate models such as the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) are valuable in the prediction of putative genomic regulatory regions. Cell cultures have been derived for these and other model species. Data and tools resulting from these kinds of studies will contribute to understanding transcriptional regulation of biomedically important genes and provide new avenues for medical therapeutics and disease prevention. PMID:19003267

  17. The Influence of LGM Iron Inputs on the Marine Biological Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. K.

    2008-12-01

    Dust deposition to Antarctica was substantially higher at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and model results suggest that globally dust deposition to the oceans increased approximately fourfold, with larger increases at high southern latitudes. Thus, atmospheric iron inputs to the oceans were greatly increased. However sedimentary iron inputs decreased due to the lower sea level. We examine the impacts of glacial iron inputs from both sources on marine biogeochemical cycling at the LGM, through simulations with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) ocean model. The BEC model includes several key phytoplankton functional groups (diatoms, diazotrophs, picophytoplankton, and coccolithophores) and multiple potentially growth-limiting nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, and dissolved iron). The increased LGM iron inputs led to increased production and export in the classic High Nitrate, Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions known to be iron-limited today. In the simulations there is also an indirect response to increased iron inputs in some low-nutrient, subtropical regions, where iron is the limiting nutrient for the diazotrophs. Increased iron fuels additional nitrogen fixation by this group, reducing the nitrogen stress of the larger phytoplankton community, and increasing production and export. The strengthening of the biological pump due to the direct (HNLC) and indirect (N fixation) pathways substantially lowers atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  18. Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Edward R.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Smith, Sherri L.; Calder, Fred D.

    1995-01-01

    Matching biological and chemical data were compiled from numerous modeling, laboratory, and field studies performed in marine and estuarine sediments. Using these data, two guideline values (an effects range-low and an effects range-median) were determined for nine trace metals, total PCBs, two pesticides, 13 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and three classes of PAHs. The two values defined concentration ranges that were: (1) rarely, (2) occasionally, or (3) frequently associated with adverse effects. The values generally agreed within a factor of 3 or less with those developed with the same methods applied to other data and to those developed with other effects-based methods. The incidence of adverse effects was quantified within each of the three concentration ranges as the number of cases in which effects were observed divided by the total number of observations. The incidence of effects increased markedly with increasing concentrations of all of the individual PAHs, the three classes of PAHs, and most of the trace metals. Relatively poor relationships were observed between the incidence of effects and the concentrations of mercury, nickel, total PCB, total DDT and p,p'-DDE. Based upon this evaluation, the approach provided reliable guidelines for use in sediment quality assessments. This method is being used as a basis for developing National sediment quality guidelines for Canada and informal, sediment quality guidelines for Florida.

  19. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J. F.; Peng, P. A.; Liu, M. Y.; Xi, D. P.; Song, J. Z.; Wan, X. Q.; Wang, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ13Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB. PMID:25946976

  20. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Marine life forms are an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as `first-in-class' drugs, with 5 of 7 appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and pre-clinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  1. Lessons from the past and charting the future of marine natural products drug discovery and chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Gerwick, William H; Moore, Bradley S

    2012-01-27

    Marine life forms are an important source of structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites, several of which have inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. These success stories have had to overcome difficulties inherent to natural products-derived drugs, such as adequate sourcing of the agent and issues related to structural complexity. Nevertheless, several marine-derived agents are now approved, most as "first-in-class" drugs, with five of seven appearing in the past few years. Additionally, there is a rich pipeline of clinical and preclinical marine compounds to suggest their continued application in human medicine. Understanding of how these agents are biosynthetically assembled has accelerated in recent years, especially through interdisciplinary approaches, and innovative manipulations and re-engineering of some of these gene clusters are yielding novel agents of enhanced pharmaceutical properties compared with the natural product. PMID:22284357

  2. 50 CFR 218.177 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... adaptive management. 218.177 Section 218.177 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. (a) A Letter of Authorization issued under... GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy...

  3. 50 CFR 218.38 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Gulf of Mexico... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modifications to Letters of...

  4. 50 CFR 218.36 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex § 218... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letters of Authorization. 218.36...

  5. 50 CFR 218.35 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Gulf of Mexico... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for Letters of...

  6. 50 CFR 218.35 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Gulf of Mexico... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for Letters of...

  7. 50 CFR 216.106 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Letter of Authorization. 216.106 Section 216.106 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Regulations...

  8. 50 CFR 217.208 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization. 217.208 Section 217.208 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED...

  9. 50 CFR 217.209 - Modifications of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modifications of Letters of Authorization. 217.209 Section 217.209 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO...

  10. 50 CFR 217.206 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for Letters of Authorization. 217.206 Section 217.206 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO...

  11. 50 CFR 216.126 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for Letters of Authorization. 216.126 Section 216.126 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking...

  12. 50 CFR 217.207 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Letters of Authorization. 217.207 Section 217.207 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking...

  13. Satellite Tracking of Sympatric Marine Megafauna Can Inform the Biological Basis for Species Co-Management

    PubMed Central

    Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Context Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Methodology/Results Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Conclusions/Significance: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but

  14. Impact of geoengineering with olivine dissolution on the carbon cycle and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, P.; Abrams, J.; Völker, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Hartmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique: the carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification. If details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO2 sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. These upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2 in examples for the rivers Amazon and Congo (Köhler et al., 2010). The secondary effects of the input of silicic acid connected with this approach leads in an ecosystem model (ReCOM2.0 in MITgcm) to species shifts aways from the calcifying species towards diatoms, thus altering the biological carbon pumps. Open ocean dissolution of olivine would sequestrate about 1 Pg CO2 per Pg olivine from which about 8% are caused by changes in the biological pumps (increase export of organic matter, decreased export of CaCO3). The chemical impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine (the increased alkalinity input) is therefore less efficient than dissolution on land, but leads due to different chemical impacts to a higher surface ocean pH enhancement to counteract ocean acidification. We finally investigate open ocean dissolution rates of up to 10 Pg olivine per year corresponding to geoengineering rates which might be of interest in the light of expected future emission (e.g. A2 scenario with emissions rising to 30 PgC/yr in 2100 AD). Those rates would still sequestrate only less than 20% of the emission until 2100, but would require that the nowadays available

  15. Size distributions of organic nitrogen and carbon in remote marine aerosols: Evidence of marine biological origin based on their isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Sawano, Maki

    2010-03-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected over the western North Pacific in summer 2008 for the measurements of organic nitrogen (ON) and organic carbon (OC). ON and OC showed bimodal size distributions. Their concentrations showed positive correlation with those of biogenic tracers, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and azelaic acid (C9). We found that average ON and OC concentrations were twice greater in aerosols collected in the oceanic region with higher biological productivity than in the regions with lower productivity. The average ON/OC ratios are higher (0.49 ± 0.11) in more biologically influenced aerosols than those (0.35 ± 0.10) in less influenced aerosols. Stable carbon isotopic analysis indicates that marine-derived carbon accounted for ˜46-72% of total carbon in more biologically influenced aerosols. These results provide evidence that organic aerosols in this region are enriched in ON that is linked to oceanic biological activity and the subsequent emissions to the atmosphere.

  16. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  17. On letter frequency effects.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    In four experiments we examined whether the frequency of occurrence of letters affects performance in the alphabetic decision task (speeded letter vs. pseudo-letter classification). Experiments 1A and 1B tested isolated letters and pseudo-letters presented at fixation, and Experiments 2A and 2B tested the same stimuli inserted at the 1st, 3rd, or 5th position in a string of Xs. Significant negative correlations between letter frequency and response times to letter targets were found in all experiments. The correlations were found to be stronger for token frequency counts compared with both type frequency and frequency rank, stronger for frequency counts based on a book corpus compared with film subtitles, and stronger for measures counting occurrences as the first letter of words compared with inner letters and final letters. Correlations for letters presented in strings of Xs were found to depend on letter case and position-in-string. The results are in favor of models of word recognition that implement case-specific and position-specific letter representations. PMID:21855049

  18. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions. PMID:25039294

  19. 50 CFR 218.106 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... identified in § 218.100(c) (i.e., the Navy) must apply for and obtain either an initial Letter...

  20. 50 CFR 218.116 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... identified in § 218.110(c) (i.e., the Navy) must apply for and obtain either an initial Letter...

  1. 50 CFR 218.116 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... identified in § 218.110(c) (i.e., the Navy) must apply for and obtain either an initial Letter...

  2. 50 CFR 218.106 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... identified in § 218.100(c) (i.e., the Navy) must apply for and obtain either an initial Letter...

  3. 33 CFR 143.210 - Letter of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 143.210 Letter of compliance. (a) The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, determines whether a mobile offshore... fee prescribed in 46 CFR 2.10-130....

  4. 33 CFR 143.210 - Letter of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 143.210 Letter of compliance. (a) The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, determines whether a mobile offshore... fee prescribed in 46 CFR 2.10-130....

  5. 33 CFR 157.106 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.106 Letter of acceptance. The Coast...

  6. 33 CFR 157.106 - Letter of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.106 Letter of acceptance. The Coast...

  7. Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine habitats: production, characterization and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 x 10(5) to 3 x 10(5) Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to

  8. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides from Extreme Marine Habitats: Production, Characterization and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Annarita; Anzelmo, Gianluca; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 × 105 to 3 × 105 Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to give

  9. Relationships between ocean anoxia, the biological pump, and marine animal life during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, K. M.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean anoxia/euxinia and carbon cycle instability have long been linked to the end-Permian mass extinction and the Early Triassic interval of delayed or interrupted biotic recovery. Many hypotheses to explain this extinction event invoke the release of greenhouse gases during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps, which likely triggered abrupt changes in marine biogeochemical cycling, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. However, the precise ways in which volcanism and these perturbations are linked and how they governed the tempo and mode of biotic recovery remain poorly understood. Here we highlight new C, Ca, and Sr isotopic data that serve to link volcanic CO2 inputs to changes in marine biogeochemistry and environmental change. We then examine the relationship between ocean biogeochemistry, the biological pump, and marine animal ecosystems during the end-Permian mass extinction and Early Triassic recovery. Finally, we use numerical simulations to probe whether these relationships also explain broad Phanerozoic trends in ocean nutrient status, anoxia, and productivity of marine ecosystems.

  10. 50 CFR 216.218 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.218 Letters of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letters of Authorization. 216.218 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF...

  11. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally take... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for Letters of Authorization... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  12. 50 CFR 216.218 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.218 Letters of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of Authorization. 216.218 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF...

  13. 50 CFR 216.218 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.218 Letters of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Letters of Authorization. 216.218 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF...

  14. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally take... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for Letters of Authorization... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  15. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  16. All About Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.

    This booklet, designed to promote the letter writing habit, provides information about writing letters in a variety of situations. It is divided into several short sections with illustrations. Reasons to write letters and postcards are offered by several authors and celebrites including Stevie Wonder, Darryl Stingley, and "Dear Abby." Addresses…

  17. Writing Letters of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withers, Jennie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to instruct teachers how to write a letter of recommendation for their students. It includes when to say no, what the student needs to provide the teacher and how to write a strong letter. I am a teacher with sixteen years experience and therefore have written many letters for students. This instructional essay will…

  18. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  19. Organomercury determination in biological reference materials: Application to a study on mercury speciation in marine mammals off the Faroee Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Schintu, M.; Jean-Caurant, F.; Amiard, J.C. )

    1992-08-01

    The potential use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) for the organic mercury determination in marine biological tissues was evaluated. Following its isolation by acid extraction in toluene, organic mercury was recovered in aqueous thiosulfate and measured by GF-AAS. The detection limit was 0.01 microgram Hg/g (as methyl mercury). Analyses were conducted on three reference standard materials certified for their methyl mercury content, DOLT-1, DORM-1, and TORT-1, provided by the National Research Council of Canada. The method resulted in very good recovery and reproducibility, indicating that GF-AAS can provide results comparable to those obtained by using more expensive and time consuming analytical techniques. The method was applied to the analysis of liver tissues of pilot whale specimens (Globicephala melas) from the drive fishery of the Faroee Islands (northeast Atlantic). The results provided useful information on the proportion of different mercury forms in the liver of these marine mammals.

  20. Marine biological controls on climate via the carbon and sulphur geochemical cycles

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    We review aspects of the influence of the marine biota on climate, focusing particularly on their role in mediating surface temperatures via their influence on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations. Variation in natural CO2 concentrations occurring over 103 to 105 years are set by oceanic processes, and in particular by conditions in the Southern Ocean, so it is to this region that we must look to understand the glacial-interglacial changes in CO2 concentrations. It seems likely that marine productivity in the Southern Ocean is limited by a combination of restricted iron supply to the region and insufficient light. Plankton-produced DMS is thought to influence climate by changing the numbers of cloud condensation nuclei available in remote regions; the efficiency of this mechanism is still unknown, but calculations suggest it may be a powerful influence on climate. It has a much shorter time-scale than the CO2 effect, and as a consequence may well be a player on the 'global change' timescale. The direction of both the CO2 and the DMS mechanisms is such that more marine productivity would lead to lower global temperatures, and we speculate that the overall effect of the marine biota today is to cool the planet by ca. 6°C as a result of these two mechanisms, with one-third of this figure being due to CO2 effects and two-thirds due to DMS. While the marine biota influence climate, climate also influences the marine biota, chiefly via changing atmospheric circulation. This in turn alters ocean circulation patterns, responsible for mixing up sub-surface nutrients, and also influences the transport of nutrients, such as iron, in atmospheric dust. A more vigorous atmospheric circulation would be expected to increase the productivity of the marine biota on both counts. Thus during glacial time, the colder and drier climate might be expected to stimulate greater marine productivity than occurs today. Since more production leads to

  1. Learning to write letters: examination of student and letter factors.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Learning to write the letters of the alphabet is an important part of learning how to write conventionally. In this study, we investigated critical factors in the development of letter-writing skills using exploratory item response models to simultaneously account for variance in responses due to differences between students and between letters. Letter-writing skills were assessed in 415 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. At the student level, we examined the contribution of letter-name knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness to letter-writing skills. At the letter level, we examined seven intrinsic and extrinsic factors in understanding how preschool children learn to write alphabet letters: first letter of name, letters in name, letter order, textual frequency, number of strokes, symmetry, and letter type. Results indicated that variation in letter-writing skills was accounted for more by differences between students rather than by differences between letters, with most of the variability accounted for by letter-name knowledge and age. Although significant, the contribution of letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness was relatively small. Student-level mechanisms underlying the acquisition of letter-writing skills are similar to the mechanisms underlying the learning of letter sounds. However, letter characteristics, which appear to play a major role in the learning of letter names and letter sounds, did not appear to influence learning how to write letters in a substantial way. The exception was if the letter was in the child's name. PMID:25181463

  2. Changes in chemical contaminant body burden and biological effects in mussels adjacent to a marine remediation site

    SciTech Connect

    Kagley, A.N.; Snider, R.G.; Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor is a creosote-polluted marine site currently undergoing initial environmental remediation. Highly contaminated sediments were capped with a layer of sediment from a minimally contaminated area. Mussels (Mytilus edulis complex) in the vicinity of the creosote plant were collected before, during, and after the initial remediation process, for monitoring body burdens of PAHs as well as cellular effects indicative of biological damage. Mussels from this area have previously been shown to exhibit an elevated body burden of high molecular weight PAHs, as well as substantial changes in subcellular structures and functions, characteristic of mussels from chemically contaminated environments. Following capping, the body burden of high molecular weight PAHs was substantially reduced early in the restoration process yet mussel contaminant body burdens were approaching pre-cap levels one year after the end of the remediation project. Changes in mussel health were assessed by measuring selected aspects of lysosomal function as well as levels of enzymes and anti-oxidants involved in detoxifying organic chemical contaminants. Substantial improvement throughout capping occurred in lysosomal stability and cytochrome P450 reductase activity in digestive gland, and anti-oxidant status in gill tissue when compared to initial findings. In contrast, increased levels of neutral lipid and lipofuscin in digestive glands indicated that mussels were still suffering biological impairment as a result of chemical contaminant exposure. Overall, indigenous mussels near the marine remediation project showed temporary improvement in tissue body burden of chemical contaminants and some decrease in biological effects.

  3. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F.; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2013-03-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ˜30%.

  4. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals. PMID:25091913

  5. 50 CFR 216.219 - Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Gulf of Mexico § 216.219 Renewal and modifications of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal and modifications of Letters of... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  6. Marine ecosystem simulation in the eastern tropical Pacific with a global eddy resolving coupled physical-biological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Y.; Sasaki, H.; Sasaoka, K.; Ishida, A.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We have simulated the seasonal variability of marine biology in the eastern tropical Pacific using a global eddy-resolving coupled physical-biological model. Using high-resolution satellite wind fields, the model reproduces the seasonal variability of surface chlorophyll influenced by the meso-scale eddies and upwelling associated with the strong offshore wind jets. In winter, upwelling generated by the wind jets in the Gulfs of Tehuantepec, Papagayo, and Panama brings up cold and nitrate-rich waters from subsurface layer, where the tropical spring bloom occurs and is transported offshore. In summer, the intertropical convergence zone moves northward, and these jets weaken. The Costa Rica Dome develops with wind fields west of the Gulf of Papagayo. The dome in the open ocean supports high chlorophyll by the nutrient supply with upwelling. The westward expansion of surface chlorophyll of dome is response to the thermocline variation with the westward propagation of Rossby waves.

  7. Effects of gill-net fishing on marine birds in a biological hotspot in the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Gail K

    2007-08-01

    Marine biological hotspots, or areas where high abundances of species overlap in space and time, are ecologically important areas because energy flow through marine food webs, a key ecosystem process, is maximized in these areas. I investigated whether top predators aggregated at persistent spawning sites of a key forage fish species, capelin (Mallotus villosus), on the NE coast of Newfoundland during July and August 2000-2003. By examining the distributional patterns of top predators through ship-based surveys at multiple spatial and temporal scales, I found that the biomasses of birds-dominated by Common Murres (Uria aalge)-and mammals-dominated by whale species-were concentrated along the coast, with a biological hotspot forming near two persistent spawning sites of capelin in all years. The formation of this hotspot was well defined in space and time from middle of July to middle of August, likely coinciding with the spawning chronology of capelin. Within this hotspot, there was a high spatial and temporal overlap of Common Murres and gill nets set to capture Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). This resulted in breeding murres becoming entangled in gill nets while feeding on spawning capelin. Despite an acknowledged uncertainty of bycatch mortality, estimates for the larger regional-scale area (1936-4973 murres/year; 0.2-0.6% of the breeding population) underestimated mortality relative to estimates within the hotspot (3053-14054 murres/year; 0.4-1.7%). Although fishing effort for Atlantic cod has declined substantially since the groundfish moratorium in 1992, chronic, unnatural, and additive mortality through bycatch continues in coastal Newfoundland. Restricted use of gill nets within this and other biological hotspots during the capelin spawning period appears to be a straightforward application of the "ecological and biologically significant area" management framework in Canada's Oceans Act. This protection would minimize murre bycatch and maintain ecosystem

  8. Phylogenetic Diversity and Biological Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated from the Chukchi Shelf Marine Sediments in the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  9. Limitations of an optimum sustainable population or potential biological removal approach for conserving marine mammals: Pacific walrus case study.

    PubMed

    Robards, Martin D; Burns, John J; Meek, Chanda L; Watson, Annette

    2009-10-01

    Decision rules are the agreed-upon points at which specific management interventions are initiated. For marine mammal management under the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), decision rules are usually based on either a numeric population or biological-removal approach. However, for walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds, the inability to reliably assess population numbers or biological removals highlights a significant gap in the MMPA, particularly when the Arctic environment is rapidly changing. We describe the MMPA's ecosystem-based management goals, and why managers have bypassed these goals in favor of an approach that depends upon numerical population assessment. We then revisit the statute's primary goals in light of current knowledge about the Pacific walrus ecosystem and new developments in environmental governance. We argue that to monitor and respond to changes in the walrus ecosystem, decision rules should be based on scientific criteria that depend less on the currently-impractical goal of accurately enumerating population size and trends, or removals from that population. Rather, managers should base decisions on ecological needs and observed ecological changes. To implement this approach would require an amendment to the MMPA that supports filling the gap in management with achievable decision rules. Alternatively, walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds will remain largely unmanaged during a period of profound environmental change. PMID:19783356

  10. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of actinobacteria isolated from the Chukchi Shelf marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  11. 50 CFR 216.157 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken...

  12. 50 CFR 217.76 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launches at... impact on the species of marine mammals authorized for taking and its habitat; and (5) Requirements for monitoring and reporting incidental takes. (d) Issuance of a Letter of Authorization will be based on...

  13. 50 CFR 216.157 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken...

  14. 50 CFR 217.76 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launches at... impact on the species of marine mammals authorized for taking and its habitat; and (5) Requirements for monitoring and reporting incidental takes. (d) Issuance of a Letter of Authorization will be based on...

  15. 50 CFR 217.76 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launches at... impact on the species of marine mammals authorized for taking and its habitat; and (5) Requirements for monitoring and reporting incidental takes. (d) Issuance of a Letter of Authorization will be based on...

  16. 50 CFR 216.157 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken...

  17. 50 CFR 216.106 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE... Authorization will be based on a determination that the level of taking will be consistent with the findings made for the total taking allowable under the specific regulations. (c) Letters of Authorization...

  18. 50 CFR 216.106 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE... Authorization will be based on a determination that the level of taking will be consistent with the findings made for the total taking allowable under the specific regulations. (c) Letters of Authorization...

  19. Marine biological production from in situ oxygen measurements on a profiling float in the subarctic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushinsky, Seth M.; Emerson, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the organic carbon flux from the surface ocean to the interior (the marine biological pump) is essential for predictions of ocean carbon cycle feedback to climate change. One approach for determining these fluxes is to measure the concentration of oxygen in the upper ocean over a seasonal cycle, calculate the net O2 flux using an upper ocean model, and then use a stoichiometric relationship between oxygen evolved and organic carbon produced. Applying this tracer in a variety of ocean areas over seasonal cycles requires accurate O2 measurements on autonomous vehicles. Here we demonstrate this approach using an O2 sensor on a profiling float that is periodically calibrated against atmospheric pO2. Using accurate data and a model that includes all physical and biological processes influencing oxygen, we determine an annual net community production of 0.7 ± 0.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the northeast Pacific Ocean (50°N, 145°W) from June 2012 to June 2013. There is a strong seasonal cycle in net biological oxygen production with wintertime fluxes caused by bubble processes critical to determining the annual flux. Approximately 50% of net autotrophic production during summer months is consumed by net respiration during the winter. The result is a biological pump in the subarctic Pacific Ocean that is less than that determined by similar methods in the subtropics to the south. This estimate is significantly lower than that predicted by satellite remote sensing and global circulation models.

  20. Arsenic species extraction of biological marine samples (Periwinkles, Littorina littorea) from a highly contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Whaley-Martin, K J; Koch, I; Reimer, K J

    2012-01-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the tissues of marine organisms and in uncontaminated environments it is dominantly present as the highly soluble and easily extractable non-toxic arsenical, arsenobetaine. However in contaminated environments, higher proportions of inorganic arsenic, which is much less soluble, are accumulated into the tissues of marine organisms, resulting in lower extraction efficiencies (defined as the percent extracted arsenic of the total arsenic). This study carried out a comparative analysis between three different two-step arsenic extraction methods based on Foster et al. [27] from highly contaminated tissue of the marine periwinkle, Littorina littorea. The first extraction step used 100% water, 1:1 methanol-water, or a 9:1 methanol-water as the extraction solvent and the second step consisted of a gently heated dilute nitric acid extraction. The optimized two step extraction method was 1:1 methanol-water extraction followed by a 2% HNO(3) extraction, based on maximum amounts of extracted species, including organoarsenic species. PMID:22265486

  1. Reproductive biology, family conflict, and size of offspring in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Stephanie J; Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Grosberg, Richard K

    2010-10-01

    All organisms face two fundamental trade-offs in the allocation of energetic resources: one between many small versus a few large offspring, and the second between present and future reproduction. Nowhere are these trade-offs more apparent than in the vast range of variation in the sizes of eggs and offspring exhibited among species of marine invertebrates. It has become increasingly clear that, in many taxa of marine organisms, there is also substantial intraspecific variation in the size of eggs and hatchings. This variation has largely been attributed to adaptive maternal effects. In theory, however, the inevitable conflicts of interest that arise in families of sexually reproducing organisms over the optimal distribution of parental resources among siblings could also account for much of this variation in egg and offspring size. Here, we explore the potential impacts of family conflict on offspring traits by comparing the life histories of two exemplar species of marine organisms, the polychaete Boccardia proboscidea and the gastropod Solenosteira macrospira, emphasizing how differences in modes of fertilization and parental care might influence the phenotype and, consequently, the fitness of offspring. PMID:21558228

  2. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia—a perceived distortion of visual space—is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment. PMID:25453116

  3. The Business Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Business. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide, designed for direct student use, indicates the parts of a business letter, a placement guide, and steps for typing letters. Worksheets and illustrations indicate forms of block and indented styles; open, closed, and mixed punctuation; the…

  4. Letters from a Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Donna Holland; Lawal-Solarin, Foluso Williams; Lester, David

    2007-01-01

    There has been no published study on personal letters written before an individual's suicidal death hitherto, although studies have been done using diaries. The purpose of this study was to search for trends in the use of particular linguistic categories in a series of personal letters written before an individual's suicidal death. A linguistic…

  5. Making United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) inclusive of marine biological resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moustahfid, H.; Potemra, J.; Goldstein, P.; Mendelssohn, R.; Desrochers, A.

    2011-01-01

    An important Data Management and Communication (DMAC) goal is to enable a multi-disciplinary view of the ocean environment by facilitating discovery and integration of data from various sources, projects and scientific domains. United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) DMAC functional requirements are based upon guidelines for standardized data access services, data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and other conventions. So far, the data integration effort has focused on geophysical U.S. IOOS core variables such as temperature, salinity, ocean currents, etc. The IOOS Biological Observations Project is addressing the DMAC requirements that pertain to biological observations standards and interoperability applicable to U.S. IOOS and to various observing systems. Biological observations are highly heterogeneous and the variety of formats, logical structures, and sampling methods create significant challenges. Here we describe an informatics framework for biological observing data (e.g. species presence/absence and abundance data) that will expand information content and reconcile standards for the representation and integration of these biological observations for users to maximize the value of these observing data. We further propose that the approach described can be applied to other datasets generated in scientific observing surveys and will provide a vehicle for wider dissemination of biological observing data. We propose to employ data definition conventions that are well understood in U.S. IOOS and to combine these with ratified terminologies, policies and guidelines. ?? 2011 MTS.

  6. Export flux and stability as regulators of community composition in pelagic marine biological communities: Implications for regime shifts [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Edward

    2004-02-01

    Regime shifts occur when a system transitions from one stable configuration to another. Such abrupt changes in biological communities may reflect small changes in environmental conditions such as temperature, oxygen concentration, or irradiance. Although it seems clear that biological communities are not randomly organized with respect to their functional components, there is disagreement concerning the factors that control that organization. In this paper, I examine the implications of assuming that the composition of pelagic marine biological communities evolves to a condition of maximum stability or resilience. At temperatures of 25 °C or less, a model based on this hypothesis predicts abrupt and discontinuous transitions from configurations associated with low export ratios to configurations associated with high export ratios as the rate of primary production increases. Comparison between field data and model predictions shows very good agreement at low and high production rates, but the field data do not support a step-function transition from low to high export ratios at intermediate rates of production. Instead, the field data are consistent with the assumption that food webs effect the transition between high and low ef ratio modes by reconfiguring themselves in a more-or-less continuous manner. The configurations associated with these transitions are at least locally more resilient than any similar food web structure.

  7. Which Children Benefit from Letter Names in Learning Letter Sounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Boada, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Typical U.S. children use their knowledge of letters' names to help learn the letters' sounds. They perform better on letter sound tests with letters that have their sounds at the beginnings of their names, such as v, than with letters that have their sounds at the ends of their names, such as m, and letters that do not have their sounds in their…

  8. Influence of chemical and biological factors on trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in the northwater polynya marine food web.

    PubMed

    Fisk, A T; Hobson, K A; Norstrom, R J

    2001-02-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta 15N) were measured in zooplankton (6 species), a benthic invertebrate (Anonyx nugax), Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), seabirds (6 species), and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) collected in 1998 in the Northwater Polynya to examine effects of biological and chemical factors on trophic transfer of POPs in an Arctic marine food web. Strong positive relationships were found between recalcitrant POP concentrations (lipid corrected) and trophic level based on stable isotopes of nitrogen, providing clear evidence of POP biomagnification in Arctic marine food webs. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs), derived from the slope of the POP--trophic level relationship, provided an overall magnification factor for the food web but over and underestimated biomagnification factors (BMFs) based on predator--prey concentrations in poikilotherms (fish) and homeotherms (seabirds and mammals), respectively. Greater biomagnification in homeotherms was attributed to their greater energy requirement and subsequent feeding rates. Within the homeotherms, seabirds had greater BMFs than ringed seals, consistent with greater energy demands in birds. Scavenging from marine mammal carcasses and accumulation in more contaminated winter habitats were considered important variables in seabird BMFs. Metabolic differences between species resulted in lower than expected BMFs, which would not be recognized in whole food web trophic level--POP relationships. The use of sigma POP groups, such as sigma PCB, is problematic because FWMFs and BMFs varied considerably between individual POPs. FWMFs of recalcitrant POPs had a strong positive relationship with log octanol--water partition coefficient (Kow). Results of this study show the utility of using delta 15N to characterize trophic level and trophic transfer of POPs but highlight the effects of species and chemical differences on trophic transfer of POPs that can be overlooked when

  9. HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS Analysis and Biological Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from the Colombian Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox

    PubMed Central

    Colorado-Ríos, Jhonny; Muñoz, Diana; Montoya, Guillermo; Márquez, Diana; Márquez, Maria-Elena; López, Juan; Martínez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox produces antipredatory and allelopathic triterpenoid glycosides as part of its chemical defense repertoire against predators, competitors, and fouling organisms. These molecules are responsible for the pharmacological potential found in the glycosides present in this species. In order to observe the glycochemical diversity present in E. ferox, a liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyse a complex polar fraction of this marine sponge was performed. This gave valuable information for about twenty-five compounds three of which have been previously reported and another three which were found to be composed of known aglycones. Furthermore, a group of four urabosides, sharing two uncommon substitutions with carboxyl groups at C-4 on the terpenoid core, were identified by a characteristic fragmentation pattern. The oxidized aglycones present in this group of saponins can promote instability, making the purification process difficult. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle modulation, a cell cloning efficiency assay, as well as its hemolytic activity were evaluated. The cytotoxic activity was about IC50 40 µg/mL on Jurkat and CHO-k1 cell lines without exhibiting hemolysis. Discussion on this bioactivity suggests the scanning of other biological models would be worthwhile. PMID:24317472

  10. Validation and interpretation of CALUX as a tool for the estimation of dioxin-like activity in marine biological matrixes.

    PubMed

    Windal, Isabelle; Van Wouwe, Nathalie; Eppe, Gauthier; Xhrouet, Céline; Debacker, Virginie; Baeyens, Willy; De Pauw, Edwin; Goeyens, Leo

    2005-03-15

    Among the different analytical tools proposed as an alternative to the very expensive gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) analyses of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorodibenzofurans, Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) in vitro cell bioassay is very promising. It allows the analyses of a high number of samples since it is relatively fast, inexpensive, and sensitive. However, this technique is not yet widely applied for screening or environmental monitoring. The main reasons are probably the lack of validation and the difficulty in interpreting the global biological response of the bioassay. In this paper, the strict quality control criteria set up for the validation of CALUX are described. The validation has shown good repeatability (relative standard deviation (RSD) = 9%) and good within-lab reproducibility (RSD = 15%) of the results. The quantification limit, in the conditions applied in this paper, is 1.25 pg CALUX-TEQ/g fat. Comparison of CALUX and GC-HRMS analysis was made forvarious marine matrixes (fishes, mussels, starfishes, sea birds, and marine mammals). Good correlations are usually observed, but there are systematic differences between the results. Attempts are made to identify the origin of the discrepancy between the two methods. PMID:15819233

  11. Accessing Novel Conoidean Venoms: Biodiverse Lumun-lumun Marine Communities, An Untapped Biological and Toxinological Resource

    PubMed Central

    Seronay, Romell A.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Astilla, Mary Anne; Watkins, Maren; Saguil, Noel; Heralde, Francisco M.; Tagaro, Sheila; Poppe, Guido T.; Aliño, Porfirio M.; Oliverio, Marco; Kantor, Yuri I.; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2010-01-01

    Cone snail venoms have yielded pharmacologically-active natural products of exceptional scientific interest. However, cone snails are a small minority of venomous molluscan biodiversity, the vast majority being tiny venomous morphospecies in the family Turridae. A novel method called lumun-lumun opens access to these micromolluscs and their venoms. Old fishing nets are anchored to the sea bottom for a period of 1–6 months and marine biotas rich in small molluscs are established. In a single lumun-lumun community, we found a remarkable gastropod biodiversity (155 morphospecies). Venomous predators belonging to the superfamily Conoidea (36 morphospecies) were the largest group, the majority being micromolluscs in the family Turridae. We carried out an initial analysis of the most abundant of the turrid morphospecies recovered, Clathurella (Lienardia) cincta (Dunker, 1871). In contrast to all cDNA clones characterized from cone snail venom ducts, one of the C. cincta clones identified encoded two different peptide precursors presumably translated from a single mRNA. The prospect of easily accessing so many different morphospecies of venomous marine snails raises intriguing toxinological possibilities: the 36 conoidean morphospecies in this one net alone have the potential to yield thousands of novel pharmacologically-active compounds. PMID:20005243

  12. A comparison of biological trends from four marine ecosystems: Synchronies, differences, and commonalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Jason S.; Stockhausen, William T.; Skaret, Georg; Overholtz, William; Megrey, Bernard A.; Gjøsæter, Harald; Gaichas, Sarah; Dommasnes, Are; Falk-Petersen, Jannike; Kane, Joseph; Mueter, Franz J.; Friedland, Kevin D.; Hare, Jonathan A.

    2009-04-01

    Major features of four marine ecosystems were analyzed based on a broad range of fisheries-associated datasets and a suite of oceanographic surveys. The ecosystems analyzed included the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, the Norwegian/Barents Seas in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and the eastern Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. We examined survey trends in major fish abundances, total system fish biomass, and zooplankton biomasses. We standardized each time series and examined trends and anomalies over time, using both time series and cross-correlational statistical methods. We compared dynamics of functionally analogous species from each of these four ecosystems. Major commonalities among ecosystems included a relatively stable amount of total fish biomass and the importance of large calanoid copepods, small pelagic fishes and gadids. Some of the changes in these components were synchronous across ecosystems. Major differences between ecosystems included gradients in the magnitude of total fish biomass, commercial fish biomass, and the timing of major detected events. This work demonstrates the value of comparative analysis across a wide range of marine ecosystems, suggestive of very few but none-the-less detectable common features across all northern hemisphere ocean systems.

  13. Inter-ocean switching in tropical thermocline nutrient supply: another way to vary the efficiency of the marine biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubere, P.

    2008-12-01

    Variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide content have been associated with glacial-interglacial cycles, and could help drive them. The marine biological pump has been implicated as causing up to one half of the carbon dioxide variations observed. Different mechanisms have been proposed to account for a positive feedback link between marine biological production and climate change, mediated through regulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide content. The more recent generation of these mechanisms focuses on the efficiency of export to the deep ocean, and on the flux ratio. In modeling exercises, increasing efficiency and the ratio (organic carbon to carbonate) can account for glacial period draw-down of atmosphere CO2 concentrations. While much of the thinking on the biotic pump has been focused on the polar regions, modeling of export and the flux ratio show that variation in tropical production can be important to the draw- down process (e.g. silicate leakage hypothesis). We present a new mechanism which could influence overall oceanic export and flux ratio. Combining records of carbon isotopes from the tropical thermocline and deep ocean labile organic carbon flux, we show that over the glacial cycle the supply of nutrients to the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans varied inversely, with increases/decreases to the Atlantic/Pacific during the colder periods and the reverse during warmings. This, combined with greater export efficiency in the Atlantic (as well as Ice Age increases in the flux ratio in both oceans), yielded greater CO2 drawdown during glacials than interglacials. The timing of thermocline shifts in nutrient content, and tropical productivity, matches with that required to account for observed changes in atmospheric CO2. It seems likely that combined changes in a number of productivity regulating factors during glacials created the positive feedback to climate provided by the biotic pump.

  14. Chemical Transformation and Biological Studies of Marine Sesquiterpene (S)-(+)-Curcuphenol and Its Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Waseem; Hammond, Nicholas L.; Yousaf, Muhammad; Peng, Jiangnan; Holley, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Chemical transformation studies of the marine sesquiterpene phenol (S)-(+)-curcuphenol (1) isolated from the Jamaican sponges, Didiscus oxeata and Myrmekioderma styx, were accomplished. In order to optimize the activity and better understand the SAR of (S)-(+)-curcuphenol, nineteen semisynthetic analogs were prepared and evaluated for activity against infectious diseases. A number of analogs showed significant activity against Mtb and Leishmania donovani, while showing good to moderate activities in antibacterial and antifungal assays as well as against P. falciparium (D6 clone) and (W2 clone). The analogs a, c, h, and r exhibited Mtb activity with MICs of 24.6, 41.2, 6.90, and 50.5 μM, respectively. Analog f shows enhanced activity against L. donovani with an IC50 of 0.6 μM and IC90 of 40 μM respectively. PMID:17804167

  15. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. PMID:25752833

  16. Late Miocene carbon isotope records and marine biological productivity: Was there a (dusty) link?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diester-Haass, Liselotte; Billups, Katharina; Emeis, Kay C.

    2006-12-01

    We examine whether or not a relationship exists between the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (˜7.6-6.6 Ma) and marine productivity at four sites from the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Ocean Drilling Program Sites 721, 1146, 1172, and 846). We use a multiproxy approach based on benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, elemental ratios, and dissolution indices, and we compare these data to benthic foraminiferal δ13C values measured on the same samples. Although some of these sites have been targeted previously in studies of either the late Miocene/early Pliocene "biogenic bloom" (Sites 721 and 846) or the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (Site 1172), our records are the first to establish paired proxy records of carbon isotopes and paleoproductivity allowing a direct assessment of a potential link. Our results indicate that at all sites, productivity increased sometime during the δ13C shift; at three sites (721, 1146, and 846), productivity increased at the beginning of the shift. The correlation coefficients derived from linear regression between micropaleontologically derived productivity and foraminiferal δ13C values are relatively high during the time interval containing the late Miocene δ13C shift (and statistically significant at three of the sites). Carbon flux and isotope mass balance considerations illustrate that transfer of organic matter between the terrestrial and marine reservoirs together with enhanced oceanic upwelling best approximates observed changes in carbon isotope records and paleoproductivity. We note that long-term trend in the Site 846 paleoproductivity record can be correlated to the long-term trend in the Site 848 eolian flux reconstructions of Hovan (1995) hinting at a link between strengthened wind regime and productivity during the late Miocene.

  17. Priorities and developments of sensors, samplers and methods for key marine biological observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Samantha; Chavez, Francisco; Pearlman, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two decades or more, physical oceanography has seen a significant growth in in-situ sensors and platforms including fixed point and cable observatories, Argo floats, gliders and AUVs to supplement satellites for creating a 3-D view of the time-varying global ocean temperature and salinity structures. There are important developments recently for biogeochemists for monitoring nitrate, chemical contaminants, oxygen and pH that can now be added to these autonomous systems. Biologists are still lagging. Given the importance of biology to ocean health and the future earth, and the present reliance on humans and ships for observing species and abundance, it is paramount that new biological sensor systems be developed. Some promising sensor systems based on, but not limited to acoustic, chemical, genomic or imaging techniques, can sense from microbes to whales, are on the horizon. These techniques can be applied in situ with either real time or recorded data and can be captured and returned to the laboratory using the autonomous systems. The number of samples is limiting, requiring adaptive and smart systems. Two steps are envisioned to meeting the challenges. The first is to identify the priority biological variables to focus observation requirements and planning. The second is to address new sensors that can fill the gaps in current capabilities for biological observations. This abstract will review recent efforts to identify core biological variables for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System and address new sensors and innovations for observing these variables, particularly focused on availability and maturity of sensors.

  18. Report of pontoniinae shrimps (crustacea: decapoda) collected by Joint Chinese-German Marine Biology Expeditions to Hainan Island, South China Sea. III. Periclimenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinzheng; Liu, Ruiyu

    2004-03-01

    The present paper reports 12 species of genus Periclimenes, subfamily Pontoniinae, collected from Hainan Island, South China Sea, by the Joint Chinese-German Marine Biology Expeditions, in which, Periclimenes consobrinus and P. tenuipes are new records from Chinese waters, and Periclimenes amymone, P. holthuisi, P. soror, and P. toloensis are recorded for the first time from Hainan Island.

  19. A Balanced Marine Aquarium [and] The Biology of Marine Aquarium Fishes Collected in Monroe County, Florida. A Two-Paper NOAA Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palko, Barbara Jayne; And Others

    This document consists of two separate papers. The first paper, "A Balanced Marine Aquarium" (Barbara Jayne Palko), discusses various aspects of a balanced marine aquarium. Information provided includes the basic and optional equipment needed to construct a balanced aquarium, preparations for setting up the aquarium, preparing the aquarium for…

  20. Teaching Letter Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Madan, Avi J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a remedial technique for teaching letter formation to students with handwriting difficulties. The approach blends traditional procedures (modeling, physical prompts, tracing, self correction, etc.) with cognitive behavior modification principles. (CL)

  1. IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW LETTERS, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following letters provide a summary of the Environmental Protection Agencys comments regarding 2002 Implementation Review of nineteen estuary programs in the National Estuary Program. Various strengths within the programs included use of implementation progress and tracking s...

  2. Chemical and Biological Aspects of Marine Sponges from the Family Mycalidae.

    PubMed

    Habener, Leesa J; Hooper, John N A; Carroll, Anthony R

    2016-06-01

    Sponges are a useful source of bioactive natural products. Members of the family Mycalidae, in particular, have provided a variety of chemical structures including alkaloids, polyketides, terpene endoperoxides, peptides, and lipids. This review highlights the compounds isolated from Mycalid sponges and their associated biological activities. A diverse group of 190 compounds have been reported from over 40 specimens contained in 49 references. Over half of the studies have reported on the biological activities for the compounds isolated. The polyketides, in particular the macrolides, displayed potent cytotoxic activities (< 1 µM), and the alkaloids, in particular the 2,5-disubstituted pyrrole derivatives, were associated with moderate cytotoxic activities (1-20 µM). The pyrrole alkaloids and the cyclic peroxides appear to be phylogenetically restricted to sponges and thus might prove useful when applied to sponge taxonomy. The observed diversity of chemical structures suggests this family makes a good target for targeted biodiscovery projects. PMID:27002400

  3. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal. PMID:26853862

  4. Students as Letter Writers: How Letters Inform Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirms, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    Letters from students, serve to enhance the insight toward students at a personal level while adding a familiar form and friendly voice to the classroom community. The biographical letter and study-skill letter are the two sets of students' letters discussed. It is found that one needs to know one's student better versus the time needed for this…

  5. Biological modifiers of marine benthic seascapes: Their role as ecosystem engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Peter S.; Meadows, Azra; Murray, John M. H.

    2012-07-01

    Benthic organisms in marine ecosystems modify the environment on different spatial and temporal scales. These modifications, many of which are initially at a microscale, are likely to have large scale effects on benthic seascapes. This is especially so if the species are ecosystem engineers. Most species of infaunal and epifaunal invertebrates and macrophytes contribute at a geophysical or geochemical level. Microorganisms also play a key but currently neglected role. In the intertidal and immediately sublittoral zone, algae and seagrasses, and mussels in mussel beds have received considerable attention. A substantial fossil record also exists. Mathematical modelling of these systems is still in its infancy, although several sophisticated mathematical tools have been applied. The effects of bioturbation and of microorganisms have been less studied, and little is known about the activities of benthic organisms in the deep sea. This paper addresses all these effects, and places them in the context of large scale benthic seascapes and of the extensive literature on species defined as ecosystem engineers in the sea.

  6. Comparative biology of cAMP-induced germinal vesicle breakdown in marine invertebrate oocytes.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ryusaku; Takeda, Noriyo; Stricker, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    During maturation, oocytes must undergo a process of nuclear disassembly, or "germinal vesicle breakdown" (GVBD), that is regulated by signaling pathways involving cyclic AMP (cAMP). In vertebrate and starfish oocytes, cAMP elevation typically prevents GVBD. Alternatively, increased concentrations of intra-oocytic cAMP trigger, rather than inhibit, GVBD in several groups of marine invertebrates. To integrate what is known about the stimulation of GVBD by intra-oocytic cAMP, this article reviews published data for ascidian, bivalve, brittle star, jellyfish, and nemertean oocytes. The bulk of the review concentrates on the three most intensively analyzed groups known to display cAMP-induced GVBD-nemerteans, ascidians, and jellyfish. In addition, this synopsis also presents some previously unpublished findings regarding the stimulatory effects of intra-oocytic cAMP on GVBD in jellyfish and the annelid worm Pseudopotamilla occelata. Finally, factors that may account for the currently known distribution of cAMP-induced GVBD across animal groups are discussed. PMID:21774023

  7. Biologic origin of iron nodules in a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths <1 m on all terraces. The nodules consisted of soil mineral grains cemented by Fe oxides. The nodules varied in size from 0.5 to 25 mm in diameter. Nodules did not occur in the underlying regolith. The Fe-oxide mineralogy of the nodules was typically goethite; however, a subset of nodules consisted of maghemite. There was a slight transformation to hematite with time. The abundance of soil Fe nodules increased with terrace age on the five terraces studied (aged 65,000-226,000 yr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed Fe-oxide-containing fungal hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

  9. Letter Names, Letter Sounds and Phonological Awareness: An Examination of Kindergarten Children across Letters and of Letters across Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Bell, Michelle; Shaw, Deborah; Moretti, Shelley; Page, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    In this study 149 kindergarten children were assessed for knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, phonological awareness, and cognitive abilities. Through this it examined child and letter characteristics influencing the acquisition of alphabetic knowledge in a naturalistic context, the relationship between letter-sound knowledge and…

  10. Ribonucleotide reductases reveal novel viral diversity and predict biological and ecological features of unknown marine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sakowski, Eric G.; Munsell, Erik V.; Hyatt, Mara; Kress, William; Williamson, Shannon J.; Nasko, Daniel J.; Polson, Shawn W.; Wommack, K. Eric

    2014-01-01

    Virioplankton play a crucial role in aquatic ecosystems as top-down regulators of bacterial populations and agents of horizontal gene transfer and nutrient cycling. However, the biology and ecology of virioplankton populations in the environment remain poorly understood. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are ancient enzymes that reduce ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides and thus prime DNA synthesis. Composed of three classes according to O2 reactivity, RNRs can be predictive of the physiological conditions surrounding DNA synthesis. RNRs are universal among cellular life, common within viral genomes and virioplankton shotgun metagenomes (viromes), and estimated to occur within >90% of the dsDNA virioplankton sampled in this study. RNRs occur across diverse viral groups, including all three morphological families of tailed phages, making these genes attractive for studies of viral diversity. Differing patterns in virioplankton diversity were clear from RNRs sampled across a broad oceanic transect. The most abundant RNRs belonged to novel lineages of podoviruses infecting α-proteobacteria, a bacterial class critical to oceanic carbon cycling. RNR class was predictive of phage morphology among cyanophages and RNR distribution frequencies among cyanophages were largely consistent with the predictions of the “kill the winner–cost of resistance” model. RNRs were also identified for the first time to our knowledge within ssDNA viromes. These data indicate that RNR polymorphism provides a means of connecting the biological and ecological features of virioplankton populations. PMID:25313075

  11. Ribonucleotide reductases reveal novel viral diversity and predict biological and ecological features of unknown marine viruses.

    PubMed

    Sakowski, Eric G; Munsell, Erik V; Hyatt, Mara; Kress, William; Williamson, Shannon J; Nasko, Daniel J; Polson, Shawn W; Wommack, K Eric

    2014-11-01

    Virioplankton play a crucial role in aquatic ecosystems as top-down regulators of bacterial populations and agents of horizontal gene transfer and nutrient cycling. However, the biology and ecology of virioplankton populations in the environment remain poorly understood. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are ancient enzymes that reduce ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides and thus prime DNA synthesis. Composed of three classes according to O2 reactivity, RNRs can be predictive of the physiological conditions surrounding DNA synthesis. RNRs are universal among cellular life, common within viral genomes and virioplankton shotgun metagenomes (viromes), and estimated to occur within >90% of the dsDNA virioplankton sampled in this study. RNRs occur across diverse viral groups, including all three morphological families of tailed phages, making these genes attractive for studies of viral diversity. Differing patterns in virioplankton diversity were clear from RNRs sampled across a broad oceanic transect. The most abundant RNRs belonged to novel lineages of podoviruses infecting α-proteobacteria, a bacterial class critical to oceanic carbon cycling. RNR class was predictive of phage morphology among cyanophages and RNR distribution frequencies among cyanophages were largely consistent with the predictions of the "kill the winner-cost of resistance" model. RNRs were also identified for the first time to our knowledge within ssDNA viromes. These data indicate that RNR polymorphism provides a means of connecting the biological and ecological features of virioplankton populations. PMID:25313075

  12. Physiological and molecular biological characterization of intracellular carbonic anhydrase from the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Satoh, D; Hiraoka, Y; Colman, B; Matsuda, Y

    2001-08-01

    A single intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) was detected in air-grown and, at reduced levels, in high CO(2)-grown cells of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (UTEX 642). No external CA activity was detected irrespective of growth CO(2) conditions. Ethoxyzolamide (0.4 mM), a CA-specific inhibitor, severely inhibited high-affinity photosynthesis at low concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, whereas 2 mM acetazolamide had little effect on the affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that internal CA is crucial for the operation of a carbon concentrating mechanism in P. tricornutum. Internal CA was purified 36.7-fold of that of cell homogenates by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and two-step column chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-sephacel and p-aminomethylbenzene sulfone amide agarose. The purified CA was shown, by SDS-PAGE, to comprise an electrophoretically single polypeptide of 28 kD under both reduced and nonreduced conditions. The entire sequence of the cDNA of this CA was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and indicated that the cDNA encodes 282 amino acids. Comparison of this putative precursor sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified CA indicated that it included a possible signal sequence of up to 46 amino acids at the N terminus. The mature CA was found to consist of 236 amino acids and the sequence was homologous to beta-type CAs. Even though the zinc-ligand amino acid residues were shown to be completely conserved, the amino acid residues that may constitute a CO(2)-binding site appeared to be unique among the beta-CAs so far reported. PMID:11500545

  13. Exploring the chemodiversity and biological activities of the secondary metabolites from the marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wan-Ling; Le, Xiu; Li, Hou-Jin; Yang, Xiang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Xiong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Huan-Liang; Wang, Lai-You; Wang, Kun-Teng; Hu, Kun-Chao; Yang, De-Po; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2014-11-01

    The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY) and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY) media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2), together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (11), didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (12) and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6). However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14), a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15), gliotoxin (7) and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8), reduced gliotoxin (9), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio) gliotoxin (11) and bis-N-norgliovictin (13), were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium). This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2-14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7-13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed. PMID:25421322

  14. Exploring the Chemodiversity and Biological Activities of the Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wan-Ling; Le, Xiu; Li, Hou-Jin; Yang, Xiang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Xiong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Huan-Liang; Wang, Lai-You; Wang, Kun-Teng; Hu, Kun-Chao; Yang, De-Po; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2014-01-01

    The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY) and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY) media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2), together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylene-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (11), didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (12) and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6). However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14), a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15), gliotoxin (7) and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8), reduced gliotoxin (9), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio) gliotoxin (11) and bis-N-norgliovictin (13), were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium). This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2–14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7–13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed. PMID:25421322

  15. 50 CFR 217.18 - Renewals and modifications of Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewals and modifications of Letters of Authorization. 217.18 Section 217.18 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL...

  16. Alkenone paleothermometry: Biological lessons from marine sediment records off western South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl, Fredrick G.; Mix, Alan C.; Sparrow, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical global core-top calibration that relates the alkenone unsaturation index U37K' to mean annual SST (maSST) is statistically the same as that defined for a subarctic Pacific strain of Emiliania huxleyi (CCMP1742) grown exponentially in batch culture under isothermal conditions. Although both equations have been applied widely for paleoSST reconstruction, uncertainty still stems from two key ecological factors: variability in the details of biosynthesis among genetically distinct alkenone-producing strains, and impacts of non-thermal physiological growth factors on U37K'. New batch culture experiments with CCMP1742 here reveal that U37K' diverge systematically from the core-top calibration in response to nutrient depletion and light deprivation, two physiological stresses experienced by phytoplankton populations in the real ocean. Other aspects of alkenone/alkenoate composition also respond to these stresses and may serve as signatures of such effects, providing an opportunity to detect, understand, and potentially correct for such impacts on the geologic record. A test case documents that sediments from the Southeast Pacific display the alkenone/alkenoate compositional signature characteristic of cells physiologically stressed by light deprivation. Such an observation could be explained if marine snow provided a major vector of sedimentation for these biomarkers. Late Pleistocene U37K' records in the Southeast Pacific yield plausible paleotemperature histories of ice-age cooling, but ice-age alkenone/alkenoate signatures fall outside the range of modern calibration samples of similar U37K'. They better match core-top samples deposited beneath waters characterized by much cooler maSST, suggesting key features of ice-age ecology for alkenone-producing haptophytes were different from today, and that the U37K' index taken alone may misgauge the total range of ice-age cooling at these locations. Analysis of the full spectrum of alkenone/alkenoate compositions

  17. Strong biological controls on Sr/Ca ratios in aragonitic marine bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillikin, David Paul; Lorrain, Anne; Navez, Jacques; Taylor, James W.; André, Luc; Keppens, Eddy; Baeyens, Willy; Dehairs, Frank

    2005-05-01

    It is well known that skeletal remains of carbonate secreting organisms can provide a wealth of information about past environments. Sr/Ca ratios have been successfully used as a temperature proxy in corals and sclerosponges. Previous work on aragonitic bivalve shells has not been conclusive but suggests a major control of growth rate on Sr/Ca ratios. As many studies have used bivalve growth rates to determine temperature, we tested if Sr/Ca ratios could predict temperature through its relationship with growth rate. Shells from the two species of clams from the same family (veneroidea) studied here, Saxidomus giganteus and Mercenaria mercenaria, show vastly different seasonal Sr/Ca profiles. A strong relationship between average annual Sr/Ca ratios and annual growth rate was found in S. giganteus shells from both Washington (R2 = 0.87) and Alaska (R2 = 0.64), USA, but not in M. mercenaria shells from North Carolina, USA. Furthermore, the Sr/Ca-growth rate relationship was also evident upon a more detailed inspection of subannual growth rates in S. giganteus (R2 = 0.73). Although there were significant positive correlations between Sr/Ca ratios and temperature in S. giganteus shells, the correlations were weak (0.09 < R2 < 0.27), and thus Sr/Ca ratios cannot be used as a reliable temperature proxy in these species of aragonitic bivalves. It is clear from this study that Sr/Ca ratios are not under thermodynamic control in either clam species, since thermodynamics predict a negative correlation between Sr/Ca ratios and temperature in aragonite. This points toward dominance of biological processes in the regulation of Sr2+. This is also reflected by the largely differing Sr/Ca partition coefficients (DSr) in these shells (DSr ≈ 0.25), when compared to inorganic, coral, and sclerosponge studies (DSr ≈ 1), all of which show a negative dependence of Sr/Ca on temperature. We suggest that caution be taken when using Sr/Ca in any biogenic aragonite as a temperature proxy

  18. Missing organic carbon in Eocene marine sediments: Is metabolism the biological feedback that maintains end-member climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivarez Lyle, Annette; Lyle, Mitchell W.

    2006-06-01

    Ocean chemistry is affected by pCO2 in the atmosphere by increasing the dissolution of solid calcium carbonate and elevating the dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in seawater. Positive feedbacks between the ocean and atmosphere can maintain high atmospheric pCO2 and affect global climate. We report evidence for changes in the oceanic carbon cycle from the first high-quality organic carbon (Corg) data set of Eocene sediments beneath the equatorial Pacific upwelling region (Leg 199 of the Ocean Drilling Program). Eocene Corg mass accumulation rates (MARs) are 10 times lower than Holocene rates, even though expected Corg MARs estimated from biogenic-barium MARs (an indicator of biological production) equal or exceed modern fluxes. What happened to the missing Corg? Recent advances in ecology and biochemical kinetics show that the metabolism of nearly all animals, marine and terrestrial, is positively correlated by first principles to environmental temperatures. The approximately 10°C abyssal temperature difference from Eocene to Holocene should have radically reduced pelagic Corg burial, as we observe. We propose that higher basal metabolism and nutrient utilization/recycling rates in the Eocene water column and surface sediments precluded Corg sediment burial in the pelagic ocean. Increased rates of metabolism, nutrient utilization, and lowered Corg sedimentation caused by increased temperature may have acted as a biological feedback to maintain high atmospheric pCO2 and hothouse climates. Conversely, these same parameters would reverse sign to maintain low pCO2 when temperatures decrease, thereby maintaining "icehouse" conditions during cold climate regimes.

  19. Rafting rocks reveal marine biological dispersal: A case study using clasts from beach-cast macroalgal holdfasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garden, Christopher J.; Craw, Dave; Waters, Jonathan M.; Smith, Abigail

    2011-12-01

    Tracking and quantifying biological dispersal presents a major challenge in marine systems. Most existing methods for measuring dispersal are limited by poor resolution and/or high cost. Here we use geological data to quantify the frequency of long-distance dispersal in detached bull-kelp (Phaeophyceae: Durvillaea) in southern New Zealand. Geological resolution in this region is enhanced by the presence of a number of distinct and readily-identifiable geological terranes. We sampled 13,815 beach-cast bull-kelp plants across 130 km of coastline. Rocks were found attached to 2639 of the rafted plants, and were assigned to specific geological terranes (source regions) to quantify dispersal frequencies and distances. Although the majority of kelp-associated rock specimens were found to be locally-derived, a substantial number (4%) showed clear geological evidence of long-distance dispersal, several having travelled over 200 km from their original source regions. The proportion of local versus foreign clasts varied considerably between regions. While short-range dispersal clearly predominates, long-distance travel of detached bull-kelp plants is shown to be a common and ongoing process that has potential to connect isolated coastal populations. Geological analyses represent a cost-effective and powerful method for assigning large numbers of drifted macroalgae to their original source regions.

  20. Harvard Education Letter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David T., Editor

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 6 issues in volume 18 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January/February--"Curriculum Access in the Digital Age" (David T. Gordon) and "Using Charters To Improve Urban Schools"…

  1. Letter to Doxiadis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Buckminster

    1969-01-01

    The second half of a lengthy letter to Dr. Constantine Doxiadis (published in full in Main Currents in Modern Thought, XXV, March-April 1969) summarizes Buckminster Fuller's personal reflections on the impact of industrialization and on the effect of technological change in uniting mankind. (MF)

  2. Letters and American Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevis, David E.

    The work itself should help a person who is going to teach reading and writing. Practical suggestions are offered in the final two chapters, while the opening three give intellectual perspectives. A theme binds the work of letting the consciousness of writing as a visual system be increased and of breaking the spell by which letter phonetics can…

  3. Harvard Education Letter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 15 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Retention vs. Social Promotion: Schools Search for Alternatives" (Kelly), and "School Design Can Say…

  4. Inside the Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Roger; Graham, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how a Java applet can help to build learners' intuitions about basic ideas of algebra. "Matchbox Algebra" is a Java applet the authors have designed to enable learners to grasp a key idea in learning algebra: that the letter "x" may be thought of as representing an as-yet-unknown number. They describe the…

  5. Four-Letter Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a computer program (for Apple II) that tests knowledge of four-letter words. The program, which includes four games and a dictionary, can be used in one of two modes (inquiry or game) by students at any level depending on version of dictionary selected. Dictionary operations and classroom applications are discussed. (JN)

  6. Five Long Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Describes the life of former Louisiana governor Huey Long through five fictitious letters. Discusses Long's experiences as a state public service commissioner, governor, and senator. Attributes Long's assassination to his killer's personal motives. Concludes that Long's life showed how much personal power could be gained even in a democracy. (SG)

  7. Harvard Education Letter, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David, T., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 17 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Charters and Districts: Three Stages in an Often Rocky Relationship" (Kelly) and "'We Don't Allow…

  8. Harvard Education Letter, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David T., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six issues in volume 16 of the Harvard Education Letter, a bimonthly newsletter addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Grade Inflation: What's Really behind All Those A's?" (Birk) and "Every Friday was Fight Day"…

  9. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  10. Letters in this Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  11. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Kiliyanpilakkil, V. P.; Gassó, S.

    2011-03-01

    The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron are carried out for two large dust outbreaks originated at the source regions of northern Patagonia during the austral summer of 2009. Model-simulated horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes are in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Simulations indicate that the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems are largely accountable for dust transport trajectories over the SAO. According to model results and retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), synoptic flows caused by opposing pressure systems (a high pressure system located to the east or north-east of a low pressure system) elevate the South American dust plumes well above the marine boundary layer. Under such conditions, the bulk concentration of mineral dust can quickly be transported around the low pressure system in a clockwise manner, follow the southeasterly advection pathway, and reach the HNLC waters of the SAO and Antarctica in ~3-4 days after emission from the source regions of northern Patagonia. Two different mechanisms for dust-iron mobilization into a bioavailable form are considered in this study. A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, is employed to estimate the atmospheric fluxes of soluble iron, while a

  12. Understanding the transport of Patagonian dust and its influence on marine biological activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Kiliyanpilakkil, V. P.; Gassó, S.

    2010-11-01

    The supply of bioavailable iron to the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean through atmospheric pathways could stimulate phytoplankton blooms and have major implications for the global carbon cycle. In this study, model results and remotely-sensed data are analyzed to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of iron-laden mineral dust deposition on marine biological productivity in the surface waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Model simulations for the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron are carried out for two large dust outbreaks originated at the source regions of Northern Patagonia during the austral summer of 2009. Model-simulated horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes are in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Simulations indicate that the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems are largely accountable for dust transport trajectories over the SAO. According to model results and retrievals from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), synoptic flows caused by opposing pressure systems (a high pressure system located to the east or north-east of a low pressure system) elevate the South American dust plumes well above the marine boundary layer. Under such conditions, the bulk concentration of mineral dust can quickly be transported around the low pressure system in a clockwise manner, follow the southeasterly advection pathway, and reach the HNLC waters of the SAO and Antarctica in ~3-4 days after emission from the source regions of Northern Patagonia. Two different mechanisms for dust-iron mobilization into a bioavailable form are considered in this study. A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, is employed to estimate the atmospheric fluxes of soluble iron, while a

  13. 50 CFR 218.17 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the Jacksonville Range Complex (JAX Range Complex) § 218.17 Renewal of Letters of Authorization... Range Complex Study Area or other locations). (5) Results from general marine mammal and sound...

  14. President Nixon's Letter of Resignation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--President Nixon's resignation letter--and suggests teaching strategies for its use with secondary level students. To refresh students' memories of the events surrounding the letter, a selective chronology is also presented. (RM)

  15. 50 CFR 217.77 - Renewal of a Letter of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to Space Vehicle and Missile Launches at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska § 217.77 Renewal of a Letter... will have no more than a negligible impact on the affected species or stocks of marine mammal(s), and... period of 30 days to review and comment on the request. Review and comment on renewals of Letters...

  16. 50 CFR 217.77 - Renewal of a Letter of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to Space Vehicle and Missile Launches at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska § 217.77 Renewal of a Letter... will have no more than a negligible impact on the affected species or stocks of marine mammal(s), and... period of 30 days to review and comment on the request. Review and comment on renewals of Letters...

  17. 50 CFR 218.37 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex § 218.37 Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS...

  18. 50 CFR 218.37 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex § 218.37 Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS...

  19. 50 CFR 217.57 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TO SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental To Target and Missile Launch Activities...) Means of effecting the least practicable adverse impact on the species, its habitat, and on the..., monitoring, and reporting. (c) Issuance and renewal of the Letter of Authorization will be based on...

  20. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind−1•d−1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P<0.001). Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P<0.05). It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  1. Population biology of an endangered species: the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos in Lebanese marine waters of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lteif, M; Mouawad, R; Khalaf, G; Lenfant, P; Verdoit-Jarraya, M

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the population biology of the common guitarfish Rhinobatos rhinobatos, a cartilaginous fish listed as Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Between December 2012 and January 2014, 67 individuals were collected by bottom longlining in coastal Lebanese marine waters at different ports at depths ranging from 10 to 110 m. The total length (L(T)) of the specimens ranged from 50 to 143 cm, and the mean ± s.d. was 76.2 ± 19.7 cm. The most common L(T) classes were between 60 and 70 cm. The total mass of the specimens ranged from 410 to 10,000 g, and the mean ± s.d. was 1841 ± 1987 g. A total of 34 males and 33 females were collected, and the sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1. The mass and L(T) relationship showed positive allometric growth (b = 3.096 and r(2)  = 0.99), and the mean ± s.d. L(T) at which 50% of the individuals were sexually mature was 84.73 ± 5.81 cm for females and 78.57 ± 4.88 cm for males. The gonado-somatic and hepato-somatic indices were determined along with a condition factor, and parturition appeared to occur in winter. The primary prey items found in the fish stomachs during the autumn and winter seasons were Penaeidae. The results of this study will help to parameterize models of the population dynamics for this exploited fish stock to ensure the long-term sustainability of its fishery. PMID:26928654

  2. New Insights about Letter Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of alphabetic knowledge (letter names, letter sounds, and letter forms) is an important predictor of later literacy achievement. This article describes research findings that provide new insights about how children learn the alphabetic principle and the implications for effective and efficient instruction of the alphabet. Teachers…

  3. NOAA National Status and Trends Program Twelfth Round Intercomparison Exercise Results for Trace Metals in Marine Sediments and Biological Tissues. National Status and Trends Program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Willie, S.

    1998-11-01

    The report summarizes the results of the Twelfth Round Intercomparison for Trace Metals in Marine Sediments and Biological Tissues under the directive of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program. A total of forty-four participants were included in the exercise, including NOAA, USEPA, state, Austrailian, Canadian, Mexican and Argentinean laboratories. Two samples were sent by NRC to each participant, a marine sediment collected on the east coast of Canada and a freeze-dried mussel tissue. Laboratories were also asked to analyze two certified reference materials (CRMs) MESS-2 and CRM 2976. The elements to be determined were Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb for both matrices, plus Be, Si, Mn, Sb, and Tl for the sediments. An accepted mean and confidence interval was calculated for each analyte in the two unknown samples, laboratory biases were identified and an overall rating of superior, good, fair or others were assigned to each laboratory.

  4. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The equivalence of mass and energy Peter Stansbury Head of Physics, Christ Church Grammar School, Claremont, Western Australia 6010 Comment on `A simple experiment to study parabolic surfaces' N Gauthier Department of Physics, The Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4, Canada

  5. Letter of the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    A recent decision by the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in a case from Arkansas centered on a vicious letter written by an 8th-grade boy about his former girlfriend and turned over to school officials. The court ruled for the school district in expelling the student for the year, without allowing him to attend an alternative school. Argues that…

  6. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Criticisms of hands-on pseudoscience David J Fisher 27 Elderberry Road, Cardiff CF5 3RG, UK Measuring varying fields Don Koks Adelaide University, Australia Relativity at A-level: a comment David Sang 3 Ellasdale Road, Bognor Regis, PO21 2SG, UK

  7. Marine Biological Field Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in a standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. It could be a useful instructional tool for any high school student field…

  8. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Effects of shallow-water hydrothermal venting on biological communities of coastal marine ecosystems of the western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, V G

    2006-01-01

    This review is based on integrated studies of the composition, structure and function of shallow-water ecosystems in the western Pacific that are influenced by underwater gas-hydrothermal activity. Most of the data were collected from 1985 to 1997 by the Institute of Marine Biology of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Science during expeditions to zones of modern volcanism. Gas-hydrothermal activity of volcanoes has a great influence on the physicochemical characteristics of the water column and plankton, and of bottom sediment and benthic communities. The abundance of nutrients (SiO(3)(2-), PO(4)(3-), NO(3)(-)), gases (CO(2), CH(4), H(2), H(2)S) and other reduced compounds (C(n)H(n), S(0), S(2)O(3)(2-), NH(4)(+)) in zones of shallow-water hydrothermal vents provides conditions for the use of two energy sources for primary production: sunlight (photosynthesis) and the oxidation of reduced compounds (bacterial chemosynthesis). In areas of shallow-water volcanic activity, chemosynthesis occurs not only in the immediate vicinity of venting fluid release but also in the surface layer of the water column, where it occurs together with intense photosynthesis. This surface photosynthesis is found below the layer of chemosynthesis, which is related to the distribution of hydrothermal fluids at the water surface. The contribution of each of these processes to total primary production depends on the physical and chemical conditions created by the vents and on the range and adaptation potential of the organisms. On the seabed in zones of shallow-water venting, microorganisms form mats that consist of bacteria of various physiological groups, microalgae, the products of their metabolism and sedimentary particles. Oxygenic photosynthesis of benthic diatoms, bacterial photosynthesis (anoxygenic photosynthesis) and autotrophic chemosynthesis in algobacterial and bacterial mats generate organic matter additional to that produced in the water column. The high rates of

  10. Career Choices by Biologists: A Case Study of Destinations of Graduates in Marine Biology and Zoology, 1986-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Margaret E.; Golding, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study tracking marine biologists' and zoologists' employment status between the years of 1986 and 1998. Suggests that despite the increase in university class sizes, able and well-trained biologists enjoy good career prospects. (Author/YDS)

  11. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  12. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)). PMID:24425741

  13. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Heat and temperature Kevin Carlton Canterbury Christ Church University College, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU, UK James Bond's shoes J Oliver Linton Head of Physics, Wolverhampton Grammar School, Compton Road, Wolverhampton WV3 9RB, UK Of springs and strings Ronald Newburgh Extension School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Clarifying the concept Keith Atkin 14 Cortworth Road, Ecclesall, Sheffield S11 9LP, UK

  14. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Physics and history Arthur I Miller Department of Science & Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Physics and history: a reply David Miller Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Cathode rays, the electron and Thomson's discovery John Harris 33 Glentham Road, London SW13 9JD, UK Vectors: swallow them whole! David Wheeler Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

  15. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  16. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  17. The letter height superiority illusion.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Cavézian, Céline; Pallier, Christophe; Barra, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Letters are identified better when they are embedded within words rather than within pseudowords, a phenomenon known as the word superiority effect (Reicher in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280, 1969). This effect is, inter alia, accounted for by the interactive-activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart in Psychological Review, 88, 375-407, 1981) through feedback from word to letter nodes. In this study, we investigated whether overactivation of features could lead to perceptual bias, wherein letters would be perceived as being taller than pseudoletters, or words would be perceived as being taller than pseudowords. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of letter and lexical status on the perception of size. Participants who had to compare the heights of letters and pseudoletters, or of words and pseudowords, indeed perceived the former stimuli as being taller than the latter. Possible alternative interpretations of this height superiority effect for letters and words are discussed. PMID:26370216

  18. 50 CFR 18.126 - What does a Letter of Authorization allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What does a Letter of Authorization allow? 18.126 Section 18.126 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Nonlethal Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental...

  19. The letters of John Dastin.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, Wilfred

    2008-07-01

    John Dastin, a noted alchemist who lived ca. 1300, followed the lead of many of his contemporaries and predecessors in using letters to propagate his views on alchemy. This article identifies a number of letters that Dastin wrote, and includes one text addressed to a cardinal of the city of Naples. This letter is virtually a copy of a work by Arnold of Villanova. I believe that other works ascribed to Dastin will also show a great dependence on Arnold's works. PMID:19048973

  20. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  1. Marine Indole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-08-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  2. Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Geo-Marine Letters, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaltırak, Cenk; Ülgen, Umut B.; Zabcı, Cengiz; Franz, Sven Oliver; Ön, Sena Akçer; Sakınç, Mehmet; Çağatay, M. Namık; Alpar, Bedri; Öztürk, Kurultay; Tunoğlu, Cemal; Ünlü, Selma

    2012-06-01

    The identification of past connection routes between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, other than the traditional one through to the Bosphorus Strait, would be of considerable interest to the international scientific community. Nazik et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 31:75-86 (2011) doi:10.1007/s00367-010-0216-9) suggest the possibility of two alternative waterway connections via lakes Sapanca and İznik. Their Black Sea to Sea of Marmara multi-connection hypothesis, which is based on undated marine fossils collected in both lakes from surficial grab samples, conflicts with many earlier studies. In this contribution, the hypothesis and the underlying data are discussed in the light of previous tectonic, sedimentological and limnological findings showing that it is impossible to have had marine connections through lakes Sapanca and İznik during the last 11.5 ka. Global sea-level trends and tectonic uplift rates would accommodate a connection between the Sea of Marmara and Lake İznik in the middle Pleistocene. Uplift rates for the northern block of the North Anatolian Fault, when compared with the global sea-level curve, clearly indicate that there cannot have been a connection through the İzmit Gulf-Lake Sapanca-Sakarya Valley for at least the past 500 ka. Moreover, borehole sediments along the western shores of Lake Sapanca, which reach down to the bedrock, do not contain any marine fossils.

  3. Impacts of biological parameterization, initial conditions, and environmental forcing on parameter sensitivity and uncertainty in a marine ecosystem model for the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, G. A.; Spitz, Y. H.

    2011-11-01

    We use a series of Monte Carlo experiments to explore simultaneously the sensitivity of the BEST marine ecosystem model to environmental forcing, initial conditions, and biological parameterizations. Twenty model output variables were examined for sensitivity. The true sensitivity of biological and environmental parameters becomes apparent only when each parameter is allowed to vary within its realistic range. Many biological parameters were important only to their corresponding variable, but several biological parameters, e.g., microzooplankton grazing and small phytoplankton doubling rate, were consistently very important to several output variables. Assuming realistic biological and environmental variability, the standard deviation about simulated mean mesozooplankton biomass ranged from 1 to 14 mg C m - 3 during the year. Annual primary productivity was not strongly correlated with temperature but was positively correlated with initial nitrate and light. Secondary productivity was positively correlated with primary productivity and negatively correlated with spring bloom timing. Mesozooplankton productivity was not correlated with water temperature, but a shift towards a system in which smaller zooplankton undertake a greater proportion of the secondary production as the water temperature increases appears likely. This approach to incorporating environmental variability within a sensitivity analysis could be extended to any ecosystem model to gain confidence in climate-driven ecosystem predictions.

  4. What Can Reduce Letter Migrations in Letter Position Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2014-01-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter position within words, such as reading "cloud" as "could." In this study, we assessed the effect of various display manipulations and reading methods on the reading of 10 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD. These manipulations included…

  5. Visually discriminating upper case letters, lower case letters and numbers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Janet; Waugh, Russell F; Konza, Deslea

    2015-01-01

    English and number literacy are important for successful learning and testing student literacy and numeracy standards enables early identification and remediation of children who have difficulty. Rasch measures were created with the RUMM2020 computer program for the perceptual constructs of visual discrimination upper case letters, lower case letters and numbers. Thirty items for Visual Discrimination of Upper Case Letters (VDUCL), 36 for Lower Case Letters (VDLCL) and 20 for Visual Discrimination of Numbers (VDN) were presented to 324 Pre-Primary through Year 4 children, aged 4-9 years old. All students attended school in Perth, Western Australia. Eighteen of the initial 30 items for VDUCL, thirty-one of the original 36 items for VDLCL and thirteen of the original 20 items for VDN were used to create linear scales (the others were deleted due to misfit) and these clearly showed which letters and numbers children said were easy and which were hard. PMID:25562334

  6. Neurotic love letters.

    PubMed

    Tierra, Tatiana De La

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The intensity of falling in love is expressed through sexual longing and is focused on pleasures of the body. Fresh fruits and vegetables and other elements of nature-wind, birds, foliage-form part of the setting of seduction. Being in love with another woman makes the entire world beautiful. But the lesbian paradise is eventually eclipsed by bitter realities that intrude upon the relationship-the ever-present ex-lover (still in the picture), family ties (with homophobic overtones), business connections (that imperil lesbian economic independence), and issues of commitment and honesty that eventually lead to betrayal and a bittersweet breakup. Based on correspondence originally written in Spanish, "Neurotic Love Letters" is a testament to an unfortunate fact-that all the love and lust between two women cannot always conquer dubious circumstances and harsh realities unique to lesbian relationships. PMID:24821038

  7. Letters in Biographies and Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterra, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    This is an annotated bibliography of biographies, historical fiction, contemporary stories, and discussion questions related to letter writing. A sidebar suggests an activity that involves reading a book about Ludwig van Beethoven, listening to Beethoven's music, and discussing letters in the story. (DGM)

  8. Spatial patterns of benthic foraminifera as a support to the oceanographic characterisation of Arvoredo biological marine reserve (South Atlantic, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Paquette, Marie-Laurence; Bonetti, Carla; Bitencourt, Volney; Bonetti, Jarbas

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benthic foraminifera in a sector of the inner continental shelf of Santa Catarina State (Brazil), which comprises a Marine Protected Area (MPA). Species indicators of continental input suggest that waters under the influence of continental drainage can eventually reach the southwestern part of the reserve, which might jeopardise the ecosystems of this MPA due to the transport of contaminants related to human activities. Species known to be indicators of high marine benthic productivity were more abundant below 30 m, and were associated with areas under the stronger influence of nutrient-enriched water mass. The high density of foraminifera and the low dominance of species found in most samples inside the reserve might be evidence for the positive effects of the prohibition of bottom trawling, ensuring a higher ecological equilibrium of benthic communities. These results can contribute to the current debate about the reclassification and change in the extent of this MPA. PMID:26760969

  9. Study to determine the aquatic biological effects on the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). [technique for monitoring marine microbial fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. R.; Zachary, A.

    1979-01-01

    The surface of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB), which are jettisoned from the Shuttle Orbiter to parachute in the sea, are studied for colonization by marine life. Techniques for monitoring the marine microbial fouling of SRB materials are presented. An assessment of the nature and degree of the biofouling expected on the SRB materials in the recovery zone is reported. A determination of the degree and the effects of seasonal variation occurring on microbial fouling in the retrieval zone waters is made. The susceptibility of the SRB parachute recovery system to microbial fouling and biodeterioration is investigated. The development of scanning electron microscopy and epifluorescence microscopic observation techniques for rapid assessment of microbial fouling is discussed.

  10. A roadmap for hazard monitoring and risk assessment of marine biotoxins on the basis of chemical and biological test systems.

    PubMed

    Daneshian, Mardas; Botana, Luis M; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Buckland, Gemma; Campàs, Mònica; Dennison, Ngaire; Dickey, Robert W; Diogène, Jorge; Fessard, Valérie; Hartung, Thomas; Humpage, Andrew; Leist, Marcel; Molgó, Jordi; Quilliam, Michael A; Rovida, Costanza; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Tubaro, Aurelia; Wagner, Kristina; Zoller, Otmar; Dietrich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic food accounts for over 40% of global animal food products, and the potential contamination with toxins of algal origin--marine biotoxins--poses a health threat for consumers. The gold standards to assess toxins in aquatic food have traditionally been in vivo methods, i.e., the mouse as well as the rat bioassay. Besides ethical concerns, there is also a need for more reliable test methods because of low inter-species comparability, high intra-species variability, the high number of false positive and negative results as well as questionable extrapolation of quantitative risk to humans. For this reason, a transatlantic group of experts in the field of marine biotoxins was convened from academia and regulatory safety authorities to discuss future approaches to marine biotoxin testing. In this report they provide a background on the toxin classes, on their chemical characterization, the epidemiology, on risk assessment and management, as well as on their assumed mode of action. Most importantly, physiological functional assays such as in vitro bioassays and also analytical techniques, e.g., liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS), as substitutes for the rodent bioassay are reviewed. This forms the basis for recommendations on methodologies for hazard monitoring and risk assessment, establishment of causality of intoxications in human cases, a roadmap for research and development of human-relevant functional assays, as well as new approaches for a consumer directed safety concept. PMID:24173170

  11. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence. PMID:24433792

  12. Limited MHC polymorphism in the southern elephant seal: implications for MHC evolution and marine mammal population biology.

    PubMed

    Slade, R W

    1992-08-22

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic in most terrestrial mammal populations so far studied. Exceptions to this are typically populations that lack genome-wide diversity. Here I show that two populations of the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) have low DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism at MHC loci when compared with terrestrial mammals. Limited studies on MHC polymorphism in two cetacean species suggest this is a feature of marine mammal populations in general. MHC polymorphism is thought to be maintained by balancing selection, and several types of disease-based and reproductive-based mechanisms have been proposed. For the three marine mammal species examined, the low MHC polymorphism cannot be explained by low genome-wide diversity, or by any reproductive-based selection pressure. It can, however, be explained by diminished exposure to pathogenic selection pressure compared with terrestrial mammals. Reduced exposure to pathogens would also mean that marine mammal populations may be susceptible to occasional pathogen-induced mass mortalities. PMID:1360677

  13. Two New Letters by Denning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Two letters written by W. F. Denning to R. P. Greg in March and April of 1879 that had been tucked into the folds of an 1876 edition of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Reports were recently found at the Carnegie Institution in Washington D.C. The letters are wonderfully preserved, and offer us a snap-shot of the work being performed by a young Denning at the time when his influence in the field of meteor studies was in its ascendency. The contents of these two letters is analyzed and placed within context to Denning's other publications and private life.

  14. 48 CFR 42.504 - Postaward letters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Postaward Orientation 42.504 Postaward letters. In some... orientation (in lieu of a conference). The letter should identify the Government representative...

  15. USE OF THE BLUE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, IN WATER QUALITY TOXICITY TESTING AND IN SITU MARINE BIOLOGICAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    An effort was undertaken at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett (ERL-N),Rhode Island, to evaluate the integration of in situ biological monitoring with the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. into EPA's Complex Effluent Toxicity ...

  16. Vitamin B1 in marine sediments: pore water concentration gradient drives benthic flux with potential biological implications

    PubMed Central

    Monteverde, Danielle R.; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Cutter, Lynda; Chong, Lauren; Berelson, William; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B1, or thiamin, can limit primary productivity in marine environments, however the major marine environmental sources of this essential coenzyme remain largely unknown. Vitamin B1 can only be produced by organisms that possess its complete synthesis pathway, while other organisms meet their cellular B1 quota by scavenging the coenzyme from exogenous sources. Due to high bacterial cell density and diversity, marine sediments could represent some of the highest concentrations of putative B1 producers, yet these environments have received little attention as a possible source of B1 to the overlying water column. Here we report the first dissolved pore water profiles of B1 measured in cores collected in two consecutive years from Santa Monica Basin, CA. Vitamin B1 concentrations were fairly consistent between the two years ranging from 30 pM up to 770 pM. A consistent maximum at ~5 cm sediment depth covaried with dissolved concentrations of iron. Pore water concentrations were higher than water column levels and represented some of the highest known environmental concentrations of B1 measured to date, (over two times higher than maximum water column concentrations) suggesting increased rates of cellular production and release within the sediments. A one dimensional diffusion-transport model applied to the B1 profile was used to estimate a diffusive benthic flux of ~0.7 nmol m−2 d−1. This is an estimated flux across the sediment-water interface in a deep sea basin; if similar magnitude B-vitamin fluxes occur in shallow coastal waters, benthic input could prove to be a significant B1-source to the water column and may play an important role in supplying this organic growth factor to auxotrophic primary producers. PMID:26029181

  17. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    PubMed

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods. PMID:24981692

  18. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language biology students within the context of a marine theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-02-01

    The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) was launched in 1991 at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa in an attempt to equip a selected number of matriculants from historically disadvantaged schools with the skills, resources and self-confidence needed to embark on their tertiary studies. Previous research within the SFP biology component suggests that a major contributor to poor achievement and low retention rates among English second language (ESL) students in the Life Sciences is the inadequate background knowledge in natural history. In this study, SFP student background knowledge was assessed along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Improved student performance in each of the respective assessments examined the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to ESL proficiency. Student profiles and attitudes to biology were also examined. Results indicated that students did not perceive language to be a problem in biology. However, analysis of the student performance in the assessment probes indicated that, although the marine course provided the students with the background knowledge that they were initially lacking, they continued to perform better in the drawing and MCQ tools in the post-tests, suggesting that it is their inability to express themselves in the written form that hampers their development. These results have implications for curriculum development within the constructivist framework of the SFP.

  19. Early predictors of letter knowledge.

    PubMed

    de Jong, P F; Olson, R K

    2004-07-01

    This study examined the influence of phonological memory and rapid naming on the development of letter knowledge. Participants were 77 Dutch children, who were followed from the start of their first kindergarten year (mean age 4 years 6.8 months) to the end of their second kindergarten year. Phonological memory was assessed by a nonword repetition test and a sentence repetition test. Rapid naming involved object naming. The study revealed found a substantial effect of phonological memory on the acquisition of letter knowledge that was particularly related to the ability to repeat nonwords. Vocabulary knowledge did not have an independent effect on letter learning after phonological memory was controlled. The study also showed a small effect of rapid naming on the acquisition of letter knowledge that was independent of the effect of phonological memory. Finally, the study also provided further evidence for a specific relation between phonological memory and vocabulary acquisition. PMID:15203300

  20. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  1. Letters to a Young Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  2. Reply to Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Geo-Marine Letters, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazik, Atike; Meriç, Engin; Avşar, Niyazi

    2012-06-01

    In their discussion of our 2011 paper dealing with possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the "late" Quaternary, based on data from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) essentially reject the idea of any links whatsoever, be they between the Marmara Sea and the lakes İznik and Sapanca, or further to the Black Sea via the valley of the Sakarya River. The evidence they provide in support of their view, however, is essentially circumstantial, in part conjectural, and also inconclusive considering the findings in favour of linkage between the Marmara Sea and the lakes at the very least, while the proposed connection with the Sakarya River valley remains speculative because of the lack of unambiguous data. On the other hand, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) do raise valid points of concern which deserve careful future investigation, the most important being the possibility of sample contamination from dumped marine sediment used for construction purposes along some parts of the shore of Lake İznik. We agree that a concerted multidisciplinary effort is required to address the many unresolved issues in connection with the potential waterways proposed by us and others before us.

  3. Understanding the Transport of Patagonian Dust and Its Influence on Marine Biological Activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

  4. Combining Methods to Describe Important Marine Habitats for Top Predators: Application to Identify Biological Hotspots in Tropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Thiers, Laurie; Louzao, Maite; Ridoux, Vincent; Le Corre, Matthieu; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns) and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas). To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs), we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry) and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature) factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators). PMID:25494047

  5. Northeastern Gulf of Mexico coastal and marine ecosystem program: Data search and synthesis, annotated bibliography. Appendix E: Biology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This study summarizes environmental and socioeconomic information related to the Florida Panhandle Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). It contains a conceptual model of active processes and identification of information gaps that will be useful in the design of future environmental studies in the geographic area. The annotated bibliography for this study is printer in six volumes, each pertaining to a specific topic. They are as follows: Appendix A--Physical Oceanography; Appendix B--Meteorology; Appendix C--Geology; Appendix D--Chemistry; Appendix E--Biology; and Appendix F--Socioeconomics. This volume contains bibliographic references pertaining to biology.

  6. Marine-derived myxobacteria of the suborder Nannocystineae: An underexplored source of structurally intriguing and biologically active metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Schäberle, Till F

    2016-01-01

    Summary Myxobacteria are famous for their ability to produce most intriguing secondary metabolites. Till recently, only terrestrial myxobacteria were in the focus of research. In this review, however, we discuss marine-derived myxobacteria, which are particularly interesting due to their relatively recent discovery and due to the fact that their very existence was called into question. The to-date-explored members of these halophilic or halotolerant myxobacteria are all grouped into the suborder Nannocystineae. Few of them were chemically investigated revealing around 11 structural types belonging to the polyketide, non-ribosomal peptide, hybrids thereof or terpenoid class of secondary metabolites. A most unusual structural type is represented by salimabromide from Enhygromyxa salina. In silico analyses were carried out on the available genome sequences of four bacterial members of the Nannocystineae, revealing the biosynthetic potential of these bacteria. PMID:27340488

  7. Identification and Biological Activities of Long-Chain Peptaibols Produced by a Marine-Derived Strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Benkada, Mustapha; François Pouchus, Yves; Vérité, Philippe; Pagniez, Fabrice; Caroff, Nathalie; Ruiz, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Six long-chain peptaibols, 1 - 6, were identified from agar cultures of a marine-derived Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai strain (MMS151) isolated from blue mussels. The structure elucidation was carried out using electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS) and GC/EI-MS. The long-chain peptaibols exhibited the general building scheme Ac-Aib-Ala-Aib-Ala-Aib-XXX-Gln-Aib-Vxx-Aib-Gly-XXX-Aib-Pro-Vxx-Aib-XXX-Gln-Gln-Pheol and were similar or identical to recurrent 20-residue peptaibols produced by Trichoderma spp. Three new sequences were identified and were called longibrachins A-0, A-II-a, and A-IV-b. The isolated peptaibols were assayed for cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities, and acute toxicity on Dipteran larvae. PMID:27009018

  8. Seven naphtho-γ-pyrones from the marine-derived fungus Alternaria alternata: structure elucidation and biological properties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Eight bioactive pyrone derivatives were identified from the culture of Alternaria alternata strain D2006, isolated from the marine soft coral Denderonephthya hemprichi, which was selected as its profound antimicrobial activities. The compounds were assigned as pyrophen (1), rubrofusarin B (2), fonsecin (3), and fonsecin B (5) beside to the four dimeric naphtho-γ-pyrones; aurasperone A (6), aurasperone B (7), aurasperone C (8), and aurasperone F (9). Structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass (EI, ESI, HRESI) data, and by comparison with the literature. Configuration of the four dimeric naphtho-γ-pyrones 6-9 was analyzed by CD spectra, exhibiting an identical stereochemistry. PMID:22377027

  9. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites. PMID:26938082

  10. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    PubMed

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites. PMID:26938082

  11. Overproduction and biological activity of prodigiosin-like pigments from recombinant fusant of endophytic marine Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Bassyouni, Rasha H

    2012-11-01

    Thirty-four endophytic marine Actinomycetes isolates were recovered from the Egyptian marine sponge Latrunculia corticata, out of them 5 isolates (14.7 %) showed red single colonies on yeast-CzAPEK plates. Isolates under the isolation code NRC50 and NRC51 were observed with the strongest red biomass. After application of protoplast fusion between NRC50 and NRC51 isolates, 26 fusants were selected and produced widely different amounts of prodigiosin-like pigments (PLPs) on different fermentation media. Among them fusant NRCF69 produced 79 and 160.4 % PLPs more than parental strains NRC50 and NRC51, respectively. According to the analysis of 16S rDNA sequence (amplified, sequenced, and submitted to GenBank under Accession no. JN232405 and JN232406, respectively), together with their morphological and biochemical characteristics, parental strains NRC50 (P1) and NRC51 (P2) were identified as Streptomyces sp. and designated as Streptomyces sp. NRC50 and Streptomyces sp. NRC51. This study describes a low cost, effective production media by using peanut seed broth, sunflower oil broth or dairy processing wastewater broth alone, or supplemented with 0.5 % mannitol that supports the production of PLPs by the Streptomyces fusant NRCF69 under study (42.03, 40.11, 36.7 and 47 g L(-1), respectively). PLPs compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines: colon cancer cell line (HCT-116), liver cancer cell line (HEPG-2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and antimycotic activity against clinical dermatophyte isolates of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. PMID:22777253

  12. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  13. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  14. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  15. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  16. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  17. 46 CFR 115.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that all pages are... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability letter. 115.306 Section 115.306 Shipping COAST... of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 115.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance...

  18. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  19. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... letter, the stability letter must be posted under glass or other suitable transparent material, such that... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306...

  20. Letter Writing: A Tool for Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rachel M.

    2008-01-01

    Letter writing is an integral component of narrative therapy practice. In addition to the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice, letter writing may hold interesting possibilities for use in counselor education. This article provides a brief review of the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice and discusses the potential use…

  1. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.202 Charge letter. Charge letter means the written notice, as well as any... HHS administrative actions. If the charge letter includes a debarment or suspension action, it may...

  2. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs... Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter. (a) Contents of letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a charging letter to each charged party and affected party which includes: (1)...

  3. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.202 Charge letter. Charge letter means the written notice, as well as any... HHS administrative actions. If the charge letter includes a debarment or suspension action, it may...

  4. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs... Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter. (a) Contents of letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a charging letter to each charged party and affected party which includes: (1)...

  5. Embedded Picture Mnemonics to Learn Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmidman, Adina; Ehri, Linnea

    2010-01-01

    Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the…

  6. Examining the reproducibility of stable isotope ratios in the marine bivalve, Astarte borealis, from populations in the White Sea, Russia: implications for biological consequences of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, Justin; Surge, Donna

    2015-04-01

    Shells of the marine bivalve, Astarte, are uniquely suited to investigate links between environmental/climate change and biological consequences because of their change in size and biogeographic distribution through time. For example, are there corresponding changes in lifespan and biogeographic distribution depending on warm vs. cold climate states? Does warm vs. cold climate state result in longer or shorter lifespans? Early studies of Astarte have documented a decrease in shell size through geologic time. Modern specimens are much smaller than those from the mid Pliocene at similar latitudes. Astarte had a wide latitudinal and cosmopolitan distribution in the western North Atlantic during the Oligocene to Pliocene. During the early Pleistocene, most of the warm-water species became extinct, and today, their biogeographic distribution is mostly restricted to the northern Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans. To answer questions linking biological consequences and climate change, we must first decipher ontogenetic changes in shell growth of modern specimens. Preliminary data using isotope sclerochronology identified slowed shell growth from late summer to winter in modern specimens from the White Sea, Russia, possibly triggered by increasing freshwater input and decreasing temperatures. Here, we present new data examining the reproducibility of isotopic time series and season of slowed growth among modern individuals collected at the same time from the same population.

  7. Language General and Specific Factors in Letter Acquisition: Considering Child and Letter Characteristics in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the extent to which child level factors (i.e., phonological awareness) and letter level factors (i.e., letter name structures, letter frequency, visual similarity, and letter order) contributed to letter name and sound acquisition, using data from Korean-speaking children (N = 169) and cross-classified…

  8. Effects of Letter-Identification Training on Letter Naming in Prereading Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Schmidt, Anna C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Three prereading children who named 0 to 3 of 20 targeted letters were taught to select the 20 printed letters when they heard spoken letter names. For all participants, letter-identification training resulted in naming for the majority of letters.

  9. Aplyronine A, a potent antitumour macrolide of marine origin, and the congeners aplyronines B-H: chemistry and biology.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kiyoyuki; Ojika, Makoto; Kigoshi, Hideo; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2009-01-01

    Aplyronines A-H are cytotoxic macrolides isolated from the sea hare Aplysia kurodai. Aplyronine A is the major constituent among the aplyronines, and this review concentrates on the results of chemical and biological research into this natural product. The isolation, determination of stereostructure and enantioselective total synthesis of the aplyronines are covered, together with discussion of their antitumour activity and structure-activity relationships, and the three-dimensional X-ray structure of the actin-aplyronine A complex. PMID:19374121

  10. 77 FR 43270 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that a 5-year Letter of Authorization (LOA) has been issued to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) to incidentally take, by Level B harassment only, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) incidental to professional......

  11. 77 FR 46733 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued a Letter of Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to the U.S. Navy's training exercises within the Navy's Mariana Islands Range Complex (MIRC) in the Pacific...

  12. Estimation of biological parameters of marine organisms using linear and nonlinear acoustic scattering model-based inversion methods.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dezhang; Lawson, Gareth L; Wiebe, Peter H

    2016-05-01

    The linear inversion commonly used in fisheries and zooplankton acoustics assumes a constant inversion kernel and ignores the uncertainties associated with the shape and behavior of the scattering targets, as well as other relevant animal parameters. Here, errors of the linear inversion due to uncertainty associated with the inversion kernel are quantified. A scattering model-based nonlinear inversion method is presented that takes into account the nonlinearity of the inverse problem and is able to estimate simultaneously animal abundance and the parameters associated with the scattering model inherent to the kernel. It uses sophisticated scattering models to estimate first, the abundance, and second, the relevant shape and behavioral parameters of the target organisms. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the abundance, size, and behavior (tilt angle) parameters of marine animals (fish or zooplankton) can be accurately inferred from the inversion by using multi-frequency acoustic data. The influence of the singularity and uncertainty in the inversion kernel on the inversion results can be mitigated by examining the singular values for linear inverse problems and employing a non-linear inversion involving a scattering model-based kernel. PMID:27250181

  13. Biological Experiment and Clinical Tests on Mammotropic Action Of Muyingle — A New Type of Healthfood Prepared from Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ba-fan; Hao, Lin-hua; Liu, Xiang-dong

    1996-12-01

    Muyingle is a new type of health food prepared from marine organisms. The mammotropic action of Muyingle was investigated by studying its effect on mammary glands and pituitary glands of lactating mice and the survival rate of suckling mice. The results showed that the mammotropic action of Muyingle was very effective. The survival rates of suckling mice were 92.90% for the treated group and 0 for the control group ( p<0.01). The weights of mammary gland were 163 ± 51.1mg/10g (weight of mouse) for the treated group and 98.5 ± 18.4 mg/10 g for the control group ( p<0.01). Histological examinations suggested that mammary glands from the treated group were at the secreting stages, while those from the control group were at the resting stages. Clinical tests also demonstrated that Muyingle was highly effective in promoting lactation and improving the quality of the puerpera's milk. The efficiency was up to 86.7%.

  14. A new record from China of epiphytic marine algae, Acrochaete leptochaete (Chaetophoraceae, Chlorophyta) with its primary experimental biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunyan; Tang, Xiaorong; Ding, Lanping; Lian, Shaoxing

    2011-03-01

    Acrochaete leptochaete, a species in Chaetophoraceae (Chlorophyta), was observed during our recent laboratory culture of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha that was originally collected from an intertidal pool in Rongcheng, Shandong Province, China. This is the first record of this species in China. Its morphology, taxonomy, and distribution were introduced and discussed in detail. Isolated culture experiments at different temperatures (9-29°C) and light intensities (36-108 μmol/m2·s) were also carried out. The culture-based observations have extended our knowledge of growth morphology and general biology of the species.

  15. Screening and Biological Effects of Marine Pyrroloiminoquinone Alkaloids: Potential Inhibitors of the HIF-1α/p300 Interaction.

    PubMed

    Goey, Andrew K L; Chau, Cindy H; Sissung, Tristan M; Cook, Kristina M; Venzon, David J; Castro, Amaya; Ransom, Tanya R; Henrich, Curtis J; McKee, Tawnya C; McMahon, James B; Grkovic, Tanja; Cadelis, Melissa M; Copp, Brent R; Gustafson, Kirk R; Figg, William D

    2016-05-27

    Inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) pathway by disrupting its association with the transcriptional coactivator p300 inhibits angiogenesis and tumor development. Development of HIF-1α/p300 inhibitors has been hampered by preclinical toxicity; therefore, we aimed to identify novel HIF-1α/p300 inhibitors. Using a cell-free assay designed to test compounds that block HIF-1α/p300 binding, 170 298 crude natural product extracts and prefractionated samples were screened, identifying 25 active extracts. One of these extracts, originating from the marine sponge Latrunculia sp., afforded six pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids that were identified as positive hits (IC50 values: 1-35 μM). Luciferase assays confirmed inhibition of HIF-1α transcriptional activity by discorhabdin B (1) and its dimer (2), 3-dihydrodiscorhabdin C (3), makaluvamine F (5), discorhabdin H (8), discorhabdin L (9), and discorhabdin W (11) in HCT 116 colon cancer cells (0.1-10 μM, p < 0.05). Except for 11, all of these compounds also reduced HIF-1α transcriptional activity in LNCaP prostate cancer cells (0.1-10 μM, p < 0.05). These effects occurred at noncytotoxic concentrations (<50% cell death) under hypoxic conditions. At the downstream HIF-1α target level, compound 8 (0.5 μM) significantly decreased VEGF secretion in LNCaP cells (p < 0.05). In COLO 205 colon cancer cells no activity was shown in the luciferase or cytotoxicity assays. Pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids are a novel class of HIF-1α inhibitors, which interrupt the protein-protein interaction between HIF-1α and p300 and consequently reduce HIF-related transcription. PMID:27140429

  16. Letter from Reykjavik.

    PubMed

    Jónsson, P V

    1998-06-01

    Medical care in Iceland can be viewed as an experiment of nature. This small island society has combined the Nordic social and welfare structures with advanced international medicine. The Vikings settled Iceland in the ninth century, and the population has remained biologically homogeneous because of its remote isolation. This homogeneity may provide a unique opportunity to contribute to the understanding of the genetics of common disorders. Iceland's isolation has also limited the resources that are available for clinical training. Therefore, it has been necessary for most physicians who graduate from the medical school at the University of Iceland to obtain postgraduate training abroad. This has been of enormous benefit to Icelandic medicine. Fewer opportunities for foreign medical graduates to train in the United States would have a substantial effect on the future practice of Icelandic medicine. The Icelandic health care system faces many challenges. Because health care spending has been reined in, priorities must be set more clearly than in the past, and heated discussions have erupted about gatekeeping and merging of hospitals. These have been "interesting times" for Icelandic medicine. Other countries may learn lessons from our medical situation: a microcosm, to be sure, but no longer an isolated one. PMID:9634434

  17. Organic Matter Composition, Recycling Susceptibility and the Effectiveness of the Biological Pump - An Evaluation using NMR Spectra of Marine Plankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.; Cade-Menun, B.

    2005-12-01

    The degree of organic matter biodegradation and recycling depends on the "reactivity" of compounds synthesized by the biota, which in turn is controlled by the structural characteristics of these compounds. Thus, abundance of a wide-range of organic compounds in seawater would lend itself to different susceptibility for biodegradation, which in turn is important for estimating the potential for rapid regeneration in the euphotic zone and thus the effectiveness of the biological pump. We employed 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy on cultures of phytoplankton dominating blooms in the Southern Ocean grown under five light levels at 3oC. We found differences in both C and P compounds synthesized by the different taxa as well as for each species at various light levels. Results suggest variability in synthesized organic compounds by different taxa and by a single species grown in different environmental conditions. understanding of the oceanic C cycle in general and C sequestration effectiveness in particular.

  18. Letter to the next President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Mikuta, Julie; Freeland, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This article takes the form of a letter to the 44th president of the United States, urging the president to pursue an aggressive agenda to improve teacher quality. The authors assert that because teacher quality is the single most important factor shown to impact student outcomes, the next administration must dedicate resources to human capital…

  19. The Principal and Reference Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Agnes E.; Permuth, Steve; Gray, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Requests to write letters of reference for former teachers can be legally problematic. Principals should know relevant state laws; have employees sign a release from liability; provide only factual information; maintain fair personnel files; avoid telephone recommendations; disclose information on a need-to-know basis; and avoid performance…

  20. Resource Letter RC-1: Cosmology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael P., Jr.; Shepley, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    This is one of a series of resource letters on different topics intended to guide college physicists, astronomers, and other scientists to some of the literature and other teaching aids that may help improve course content in specified fields. (Author/CP)

  1. "The Scarlet Letter". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel "The Scarlet Letter," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the ending of a novel does not resolve all of the questions that may occur to readers; and that readers may imagine characters living out their lives beyond the ending the author gave to a novel. The main…

  2. The Harvard Education Letter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 11 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in the volume's six issues are: (1) January-February--"The Old Model of Staff Development Survives in a World Where Everything Else Has Changed" (Miller), "Giving Voice to Our…

  3. Resource Letter N-1: Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cela, Devin; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Helen Zeng, Tingying; Terrones, Mauricio; Souza Filho, Antonio G.; Ferreira, Odair P.

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on Nanotechnology. Journal articles, books, websites, and other documents are cited on the following topics: attributes of various types of nanomaterials, nanotechnology in the context of different academic fields, and the effects of nanotechnology on society.

  4. The Harvard Education Letter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.; Eaton, Susan, Ed.; Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 14 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary and secondary education. Articles in the six issues of this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Multi-Age Classrooms: An Age-Old Grouping Method Is Still Evolving" (Walser), "Teachers Wanted:…

  5. The Harvard Education Letter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward Ed.; Graves-Desai, Kelly, Ed.; Maloney, Karen, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 12 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary-secondary education. Articles in this volume include the following: (1) January-February--"Early Reports From Kentucky on Cash Rewards for 'Successful' Schools Reveal Many Problems" (Miller), "New Ideas Like…

  6. Status of marine biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, O

    1976-01-01

    A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

  7. Letter from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per Magnus

    2015-04-01

    reflects the position of psychoanalysis outside the mainstream of psychiatric health services and academic psychology. Despite the criticism of Freud's thinking from biologically and cognitively oriented theoretical standpoints, the interest in psychoanalysis endures. PMID:25917651

  8. Defining biological assemblages (biotopes) of conservation interest in the submarine canyons of the South West Approaches (offshore United Kingdom) for use in marine habitat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Jaime S.; Howell, Kerry L.; Stewart, Heather A.; Guinan, Janine; Golding, Neil

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, the upper part of a submarine canyon system located in water depths between 138 and 1165 m in the South West (SW) Approaches (North East Atlantic Ocean) was surveyed over a 2 week period. High-resolution multibeam echosounder data covering 1106 km2, and 44 ground-truthing video and image transects were acquired to characterise the biological assemblages of the canyons. The SW Approaches is an area of complex terrain, and intensive ground-truthing revealed the canyons to be dominated by soft sediment assemblages. A combination of multivariate analysis of seabed photographs (184-1059 m) and visual assessment of video ground-truthing identified 12 megabenthic assemblages (biotopes) at an appropriate scale to act as mapping units. Of these biotopes, 5 adhered to current definitions of habitats of conservation concern, 4 of which were classed as Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Some of the biotopes correspond to descriptions of communities from other megahabitat features (for example the continental shelf and seamounts), although it appears that the canyons host modified versions, possibly due to the inferred high rates of sedimentation in the canyons. Other biotopes described appear to be unique to canyon features, particularly the sea pen biotope consisting of Kophobelemnon stelliferum and cerianthids.

  9. The Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole) and the scientific advancement of women in the early 20th century: the example of Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962).

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, MA provided opportunities for women to conduct research in the late 19th and early 20th century at a time when many barriers existed to their pursuit of a scientific career. One woman who benefited from the welcoming environment at the MBL was Mary Jane Hogue. Her remarkable career as an experimental biologist spanned over 55 years. Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College. She went to Germany to obtain an advanced degree, and her research at the University of Würzburg with Theodor Boveri resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Although her research interests included experimental embryology, and the use of tissue culture to study a variety of cell types, she is considered foremost a protozoologist. Her extraordinary demonstration of chromidia (multiple fission) in the life history of a new species of Flabellula associated with diseased oyster beds is as important as it is ignored. We discuss Hogue's career path and her science to highlight the importance of an informal network of teachers, research advisors, and other women scientists at the MBL all of whom contributed to her success as a woman scientist. PMID:25103622

  10. Effects of cyclonic mesoscale eddies on the marine ecosystem in the Kuroshio Extension region using an eddy-resolving coupled physical-biological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Yoshikazu; Richards, Kelvin J.; Ishida, Akio; Sasaki, Hideharu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of mesoscale eddies on the marine ecosystem in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) region are investigated using an eddy-resolving coupled physical-biological model. The model captures the seasonal and intra-seasonal variability of chlorophyll distribution associated with the mesoscale eddies, front variability, Kuroshio meanders, and upwelling. The model also reproduces the observed interannual variability of sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) in the KE region along a zonal band of 32-34°N from 2002 to 2006. The distribution of high surface chlorophyll corresponds to low SSHA. Cyclonic eddies are found to detach from the KE jet near 150°E and 158°E and propagate westward. The westward propagating cyclonic eddies lift the nutrient-rich thermocline into the euphotic zone and maintain high levels of chlorophyll in summer. In the subsurface layer, the pattern in chlorophyll is influenced by both lateral and vertical advection. In winter, convection inside the eddy entrains high levels of nutrients into the mixed layer, increasing production, and resulting in high chlorophyll concentration throughout the surface mixed layer. There is significant interannual variability in both the cyclonic eddy activity and the surface phytoplankton bloom south of the KE jet, although whether or not there is a causal link is unclear.

  11. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Elissawy, Ahmed M.; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S.; Singab, AbdelNasser B.; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities. PMID:25854644

  12. Letters of Reprimand: The Important Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines two legal cases involving letters of reprimand written by administrators and put in teachers' files. Shows how in these cases the letters did not constitute defamation or a violation of First or Fourteenth Amendment rights. (MD)

  13. How to write an editorial letter?

    PubMed

    Süer, Evren; Yaman, Önder

    2013-09-01

    In most journals, there are letters or answers sections. Letters to the editor are usually a type of short communication that can be written on any topic that attracts the attention of the readers. Although articles are stringently vetted before publication in a journal, some issues can still go unnoticed. In this situation, readers can offer their interpretations by writing a letter to the editor. Thus, letters are also a control mechanism that facilitates progress after an article has been published. One of the most important aspects of a letter to the editor is that it must be short. It is known that a letter is more easily accessible to readers when the message is short and brief. The letter to the editor or author must make reference to objectives or discussions on medical, scientific or general topics that may attract attention. A letter must have a purpose, and it should convey its message in a short and definitive fashion. PMID:26328135

  14. Analysis of EST data of the marine protist Oxyrrhis marina, an emerging model for alveolate biology and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The alveolates include a large number of important lineages of protists and algae, among which are three major eukaryotic groups: ciliates, apicomplexans and dinoflagellates. Collectively alveolates are present in virtually every environment and include a vast diversity of cell shapes, molecular and cellular features and feeding modes including lifestyles such as phototrophy, phagotrophy/predation and intracellular parasitism, in addition to a variety of symbiotic associations. Oxyrrhis marina is a well-known model for heterotrophic protist biology, and is now emerging as a useful organism to explore the many changes that occurred during the origin and diversification of dinoflagellates by virtue of its phylogenetic position at the base of the dinoflagellate tree. Results We have generated and analysed expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from the alveolate Oxyrrhis marina in order to shed light on the evolution of a number of dinoflagellate characteristics, especially regarding the emergence of highly unusual genomic features. We found that O. marina harbours extensive gene redundancy, indicating high rates of gene duplication and transcription from multiple genomic loci. In addition, we observed a correlation between expression level and copy number in several genes, suggesting that copy number may contribute to determining transcript levels for some genes. Finally, we analyze the genes and predicted products of the recently discovered Dinoflagellate Viral Nuclear Protein, and several cases of horizontally acquired genes. Conclusion The dataset presented here has proven very valuable for studying this important group of protists. Our analysis indicates that gene redundancy is a pervasive feature of dinoflagellate genomes, thus the mechanisms involved in its generation must have arisen early in the evolution of the group. PMID:24512041

  15. 46 CFR 50.25-10 - Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan. 50.25-10 Section 50.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-10 Acceptance of piping components by specific...

  16. 76 FR 7824 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The original permit, issued on February 9, 2006 (71 FR 8279...D, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua,...

  17. 48 CFR 3416.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3416.603... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3416.603 Letter contracts....

  18. 48 CFR 3016.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Letter contracts. 3016.603... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 3016.603 Letter contracts....

  19. Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)

  20. 46 CFR 176.306 - Stability letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability letter. 176.306 Section 176.306 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Posting of Certificates, Permits, and Stability Letters § 176.306 Stability letter. When, in accordance with § 178.210...

  1. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  2. Making Routine Letters Have Positive Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, S. M.

    While few business people dispute the importance of carefully crafting persuasive, demanding, conciliatory, and bad-news letters, the regular flow of routine communications receives very little meaningful consideration or scrutiny. These routine communications (letters, inquiries, requests, collection letters, complaints, confirmations,…

  3. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  4. Educators' Liability for Negative Letters of Recommendation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, James A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the protection of "qualified privilege" provided by the law to teachers writing letters of recommendation for students. The letter must be written in good faith and with a belief that it contains no inaccurate information. Reviews some related court decisions and provides seven recommendations for writing such letters. (MD)

  5. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  6. 19 CFR 354.7 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Charging letter. 354.7 Section 354.7 Customs... VIOLATION OF AN ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.7 Charging letter. (a) Contents of Letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a...

  7. 19 CFR 354.7 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charging letter. 354.7 Section 354.7 Customs... VIOLATION OF AN ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.7 Charging letter. (a) Contents of Letter. The Deputy Under Secretary will initiate proceedings by issuing a...

  8. Letter Dice. Technical Note No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Jock

    Letter and syllable dice devised for a project in rural Ecuador provide inexpensive, easily reproducible learning materials for practice in basic literary skills. Eleven wooden cubes with six letters on each cube are cast onto a surface and the player constructs words from the letters on the top side of the dice. After a word is formed and…

  9. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  10. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  11. 24 CFR 200.1505 - Warning letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP... letter, which specifies problems or violations identified by HUD, to a MAP lender. (b) Effect of warning letter. The warning letter: (1) Does not suspend a lender's MAP privileges; (2) May impose a higher...

  12. Advances in Biological Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  13. Assessment of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for the measurement of lead isotope ratios in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costas-Rodríguez, M.; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was evaluated as a sample preparation procedure for lead isotope ratio measurements in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 20 mg of marine biological tissue and 1 mL of acid extractant were sonicated for 3 min at 60% ultrasound amplitude. Matrix separation was performed in the supernatant using a chromatographic exchange resin (Sr-Spec™). Total elimination of organic matter was achieved during the separation step. Microwave-assisted digestion and dry-ashing were used for comparative purposes. No significant differences were found in lead isotope ratios at 95% of confidence level. UAE emerges as an advantageous alternative to classical methods for sample preparation owing to its simplicity and rapidity ( i.e. operation steps were reduced), low reagent consumption and low contamination risks.

  14. 78 FR 19288 - Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... INFORMATION: On August 3, 2011, we published in the Federal Register a final rule (76 FR 47010) establishing... Deployment Program. On June 11, 2008, we published in the Federal Register a final rule (73 FR 33212.......... Exploration........ Simpson Lagoon Seismic Survey..... July 16, 2012. Brooks Range Petroleum...

  15. 75 FR 44010 - Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... (71 FR 43926) establishing regulations that allow us to authorize the nonlethal, incidental... Program. On June 11, 2008, we published in the Federal Register a final rule (73 FR 33212) establishing... the Federal Register on December 8, 2009 (74 FR 64710), and October 15, 2008 (73 FR 61158 and...

  16. 76 FR 68777 - Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... final rule (71 FR 43926) establishing regulations that allow us to authorize the nonlethal, incidental... effective until August 2, 2011. New regulations were issued on August 3, 2011 (76 FR 47010), effective... the Federal Register a final rule (73 FR 33212) establishing regulations that allow us to...

  17. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-age children (N = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in…

  18. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  19. An Attempt to Simulate Letter-by-Letter Dyslexia in Normal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiset, Stephanie; Arguin, Martin; Fiset, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We attempted to simulate the main features of letter-by-letter (LBL) dyslexia in normal readers through stimulus degradation (i.e. contrast reduction and removal of high spatial frequencies). The results showed the word length and the letter confusability effects characteristic of LBL dyslexia. However, the interaction of letter confusability and…

  20. Open letter to the Vatican.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    An open letter was published by Latin American and Caribbean women during the Special Session of the UN General Assembly on the International Conference on Population and Development. The letter generally focused on the Church¿s stand on women's reproductive rights. In particular, it questioned the Church on the following aspects of reproductive health, which include: 1) maternal death related to lack of access to reproductive health care; 2) Vatican representatives insisting that only parents can supervise their children education and health, which also lead to many cases of sexual abuse and incest; 3) women's sexual inequality and daily violence; 4) the Vatican delegation blocking the advances of contraception, sexual education, and HIV prevention; 5) problems of migrants and allocation of resources; and 6) the Church failing to recognize the capacity of young people to make decisions based on their own conscience. PMID:12178905

  1. 50 years of JETP Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, V. P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly traces the 50-year history of the journal Pis'ma v Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (JETP Letters), whose first issue was published on 1 April 1965. The journal is intended for a wide circle of physicists-readers as a fast publication channel for short communications on new results from research of the highest significance and highest priority in all areas of experimental and theoretical physics. Today, the journal celebrates numerous important contributions to the development of physics both in Russia and worldwide. Over a historically short period, JETP Letters developed into a highly authoritative and influential source for physicists engaged in a wide range of fields. Due to the wise and well-timed editorial policy, the journal continues to retain its leadership position, despite the difficulties the entire science periodical literature - and indeed the whole of science - is currently experiencing in Russia.

  2. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  3. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Susana T L

    2016-04-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  4. Thoughts on the condolence letter.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, B M

    2000-11-15

    Genuine, specific, timely emotional support of caregivers at the time of euthanasia is an important part of the veterinary professional obligation. Such support helps ease client pain during the grieving process. However, caution and sensitivity are essential when assessing and responding to caregiver-companion animal relationships.(1) For example, some caregivers are highly bonded but conceal their emotions, so our perceptions and responses must be thoughtful and discerning. My veterinary technician and I are supportive of our clients during euthanasia. I later write the condolence letter according to our perceptions of that particular human-companion animal bond. The only exceptions to our attempt to be thoroughly supportive at the time of euthanasia are those instances when we perceive that there has been obvious and willful abuse or neglect. At such times, we try to maintain emotional neutrality. The condolence letter and its variations described here are intended to serve as a guide. We send the condolence letter to caregivers within 24 hours of euthanasia, and it is addressed to the entire family. In addition, a euthanasia packet is provided at the time of euthanasia. The packet includes 2 brochures on coping with the loss of a companion animal, (2,3) contact information for a pet loss support hotline and a pet loss support group, an essay and a poem about the death of a companion animal, and a how-to article on dealing with children and their emotions on the loss of a pet. (4) My veterinary technician almost always phones the caregiver 1 to 3 days after euthanasia of their companion animal. The timing of the call depends on the circumstances of death and our judgment as to the emotional needs of the caregiver and family. Where emotions around euthanasia and loss are especially deep, the follow-up call may be made as early as that night or the next morning, with a second call 2 to 3 days later. The nature of the conversation depends on the technician

  5. Writing More Informative Letters of Reference

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-01-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess “intangibles” that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference. PMID:15109330

  6. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters is an important component of emergent literacy. We explored the possibility that parent speech provides information about letters, and also that children’s speech reflects their own letter knowledge. By studying conversations transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) between parents and children aged one to five, we found that alphabetic order influenced use of individual letters and letter sequences. The frequency of letters in children’s books influenced parent utterances throughout the age range studied, but children’s utterances only after age two. Conversations emphasized some literacy-relevant features of letters, such as their shapes and association with words, but not letters’ sounds. Describing these patterns and how they change over the preschool years offers important insight into the home literacy environment. PMID:25598577

  7. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding by Lawrence J. Sacks and by Derek W. Smith Re: articles by R. J. Gillespie and by D. W. Smith D. W. Smith replies Capsaicin Hazard by Paul E. Vorndam Re: article by J. D. Batchelor and B. T. Jones B. T. Jones reply Editor's Note: Hazards Re: JCE 1999, 76, 240 and JCE 2000, 77, 266.

  8. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... part 216). The original permit, issued on May 17, 2007 (72 FR 29127) authorizes the permit holder to conduct acoustic studies on captive marine mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May....D., Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106,...

  9. An overview on the role of Hexanchiformes in marine ecosystems: biology, ecology and conservation status of a primitive order of modern sharks.

    PubMed

    Barnett, A; Braccini, J M; Awruch, C A; Ebert, D A

    2012-04-01

    The large size, high trophic level and wide distribution of Hexanchiformes (cow and frilled sharks) should position this order as important apex predators in coastal and deep-water ecosystems. This review synthesizes available information on Hexanchiformes, including information not yet published, with the purpose of evaluating their conservation status and assessing their ecological roles in the dynamics of marine ecosystems. Comprising six species, this group has a wide global distribution, with members occurring from shallow coastal areas to depths of c. 2500 m. The limited information available on their reproductive biology suggests that they could be vulnerable to overexploitation (e.g. small litter sizes for most species and suspected long gestation periods). Most of the fishing pressure exerted on Hexanchiformes is in the form of commercial by-catch or recreational fishing. Comprehensive stock and impact assessments are unavailable for most species in most regions due to limited information on life history and catch and abundance time series. When hexanchiform species have been commercially harvested, however, they have been unable to sustain targeted fisheries for long periods. The potentially high vulnerability to intense fishing pressure warrants a conservative exploitation of this order until thorough quantitative assessments are conducted. At least some species have been shown to be significant apex predators in the systems they inhabit. Should Hexanchiformes be removed from coastal and deep-water systems, the lack of sympatric shark species that share the same resources suggests no other species would be capable of fulfilling their apex predator role in the short term. This has potential ecosystem consequences such as meso-predator release or trophic cascades. This review proposes some hypotheses on the ecology of Hexanchiformes and their role in ecosystem dynamics, highlighting the areas where critical information is required to stimulate research

  10. SECOND US/USSR SYMPOSIUM: BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON MARINE ORGANISMS HELD AT TERSKOL, USSR ON JUNE 4-9, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Symposium was conducted under a US/USSR Environmental Agreement, Project 02.06-21 titled 'Effect of Pollutants on Marine Organisms. Papers by American and Soviet specialists present advances in hydrobiological analysis of basic structural components of marine ecosystems and ...

  11. Trends in Sea Ice Cover, Sea Surface Temperature, and Chlorophyll Biomass Across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, K. E.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Wood, C.; Panday, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    The northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Pacific Arctic Region (PAR) are among the most productive marine ecosystems in the world and act as important carbon sinks, particularly during May and June when seasonal sea ice-associated phytoplankton blooms occur throughout the region. Recent dramatic shifts in seasonal sea ice cover across the PAR should have profound consequences for this seasonal phytoplankton production as well as the intimately linked higher trophic levels. In order to investigate ecosystem responses to these observed recent shifts in sea ice cover, the development of a prototype Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is now underway in the PAR. The DBO is being developed as an internationally-coordinated change detection array that allows for consistent sampling and monitoring at five spatially explicit biologically productive locations across a latitudinal gradient: (1) DBO-SLP (south of St. Lawrence Island (SLI)), (2) DBO-NBS (north of SLI), (3) DBO-SCS (southern Chukchi Sea), (4) DBO-CCS (central Chukchi Sea), and (5) DBO-BCA (Barrow Canyon Arc). Standardized measurements at many of the DBO sites were made by multiple research cruises during the 2010 and 2011 pilot years, and will be expanded with the development of the DBO in coming years. In order to provide longer-term context for the changes occurring across the PAR, we utilize multi-sensor satellite data to investigate recent trends in sea ice cover, chlorophyll biomass, and sea surface temperatures for each of the five DBO sites, as well as a sixth long-term observational site in the Bering Strait. Satellite observations show that over the past three decades, trends in sea ice cover in the PAR have been heterogeneous, with significant declines in the Chukchi Sea, slight declines in the Bering Strait region, but increases in the northern Bering Sea south of SLI. Declines in the persistence of seasonal sea ice cover in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait region are due to both earlier sea

  12. Marine Isonitriles and Their Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Emsermann, Jens; Kauhl, Ulrich; Opatz, Till

    2016-01-01

    Marine isonitriles represent the largest group of natural products carrying the remarkable isocyanide moiety. Together with marine isothiocyanates and formamides, which originate from the same biosynthetic pathways, they offer diverse biological activities and in spite of their exotic nature they may constitute potential lead structures for pharmaceutical development. Among other biological activities, several marine isonitriles show antimalarial, antitubercular, antifouling and antiplasmodial effects. In contrast to terrestrial isonitriles, which are mostly derived from α-amino acids, the vast majority of marine representatives are of terpenoid origin. An overview of all known marine isonitriles and their congeners will be given and their biological and chemical aspects will be discussed. PMID:26784208

  13. Paleo-ocean chemistry records in marine opal: Implications for fluxes of trace elements, cosmogenic nuclides ( 10Be and 26Al), and biological productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, D.; Charles, C.; Vacher, L.; Goswami, J. N.; Jull, A. J. T.; McHargue, L.; Finkel, R. C.

    2006-07-01

    Here, we provide evidence suggesting that marine (diatom) opal contains not only a high fidelity record of dissolved oceanic concentrations of cosmic ray-produced radionuclides, 10Be and 26Al, but also a record of temporal variations in a large number of trace elements such as Ti, Fe, Zn and Mn. This finding is derived from measurements in purified biogenic opal that can be separated from detrital materials using a newly developed technique based on surface charge characteristics. Initial results from a sediment core taken near the present-day position of the Antarctic Polar Front (ODP Site 1093) show dramatic changes in the intrinsic concentrations of, Be, Al, Ti, Fe, Mn and Zn in the opal assemblages during the past ˜140 kyr BP. The results imply appreciable climatically controlled fluctuations in the level of bioreactive trace elements. The time series of total Be, Al, Ti, Fe and 10Be in the sediment core are all well correlated with each other and with dust records in the polar ice cores. The observations suggest that a significant flux of these trace metals to oceans is contributed by the aeolian dust, in this case, presumably from the Patagonia. This observation also allows determination of fluxes of dust-contributed 10Be to the Antarctica ice sheets. However, our data show that the relationships among the various metals are not perfectly linear. During periods of higher dissolved concentrations of trace elements (indicated by Fe and Ti) the relative concentrations of bioreactive elements, Be, Al, Mn and Zn are decreased. By contrast, the Fe/Zn and Fe/Mn ratios decrease significantly during each transition from cold to warm periods. The relative behavior could be consistent with any of the following processes: (i) enhanced biological productivity due to greater supply of the bioreactive elements (e.g. Zn) during cold periods (ii) increased biological and inorganic scavenging of particle active elements (e.g. Be and Al) during early interglacial periods (iii

  14. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is

  15. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  16. On Becoming a Doctor of Humane Letters.

    PubMed

    Tribble Md, Curt

    2016-01-01

    In an era of rapid, cheap, and efficient electronic communication, the practice-and art-of letter writing has faded. There are many reasons for us as physicians and surgeons to resist this evolution. And, there are many opportunities to employ letter writing to the benefit of ourselves, our patients, and our colleagues. A true Doctor of Humane Letters is an honorary degree, generally awarded for significant contributions to society.  However, given that humane can be defined as showing compassion, understanding, mercy, and tolerance, we can all strive to be worthy of such a distinction. There are many mundane letters familiar to us all, such as letters of recommendation, letters of thanks, and letters of commendation. However, I would like to offer some suggestions about other less common, but useful, types of letters that might prove valuable to physicians both in training and in practice. These include letters of inquiry, condolence, reflection, and explanation, as well as some notes about missives that are often best written but not sent. PMID:27585190

  17. Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children’s phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds, regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:20097352

  18. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  19. Letters from the Future: Suggestions for Using Letter Writing as a School Counselling Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hinkle, Michelle Gimenez; Protivnak, Jake J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a school counselling intervention that utilises letters written from the future. Few peer-reviewed articles have addressed the use of letter writing in a school counselling context, and none have focused on the use of letters from the future as a means of school counsellor intervention. The authors present a theoretical…

  20. Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

  1. Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

  2. Letter Names: Effect on Letter Saying, Spelling, and Word Recognition in Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Patel, Sigal; Margalit, Tamar; Barad, Noa

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether letter names, which bridge the gap between oral and written language among English speaking children, have a similar function in Hebrew. In findings from studies of Israeli kindergartners and first graders, children were found to rely on letter names in performing a number of letter saying, spelling, and word recognition tasks.…

  3. Osler and the Infected Letter

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The spread of infectious agents through the mail has concerned public health officials for 5 centuries. The dissemination of anthrax spores in the US mail in 2001 was a recent example. In 1901, two medical journals reported outbreaks of smallpox presumably introduced by letters contaminated with variola viruses. The stability and infectivity of the smallpox virus are reviewed from both a historical (anecdotal) perspective and modern virologic studies. Bubonic plague was the contagious disease that led to quarantines as early as the 14th century in port cities in southern Europe. Later, smallpox, cholera, typhus, and yellow fever were recognized as also warranting quarantine measures. Initially, attempts were made to decontaminate all goods imported from pestilential areas, particularly mail. Disinfection of mail was largely abandoned in the early 20th century with newer knowledge about the spread and stability of these 5 infectious agents. PMID:15890120

  4. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

  5. Marine mammals of Hawaii: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography is a product of a literature survey on marine mammals at proposed OTEC sites in the Hawaiian Islands. Emphasis is on publications about abundance and distribution, migration routes, and feeding ecology of the marine mammals known to inhabit the main and leeward Hawaiian Islands. Some works on the general biology of marine mammals are also included. 214 references.

  6. The Source Book of Marine Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beakley, John C.; And Others

    Included is a teachers resource collection of 42 marine science activities for high school students. Both the biological and the physical factors of the marine environment are investigated, including the study of tides, local currents, microscope measuring, beaches, turbidity, sea water solids, pH, and salinity, marine bacteriology, microbiology,…

  7. 48 CFR 16.603 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter contracts. 16.603 Section 16.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts...

  8. 48 CFR 18.112 - Letter contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Letter contracts. 18.112 Section 18.112 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.112 Letter...

  9. An Open Letter to Premier Wen Jiabao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article is an open letter of a group of early childhood education (ECE) practitioners to Premier Wen Jiabao. This open letter was written with one goal in mind: to ask Premier Wen's government to take measures to protect young children and support early childhood education. These practitioners have become worried about the many accidents that…

  10. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  11. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  12. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  13. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  14. Transmittal Letters: Communicating the Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    The transmittal letter, part of a school district's comprehensive annual financial report, provides a creative opportunity to communicate the financial picture of a district to readers. After the introduction, the letter should include sections on (1) mission, services, and environment; (2) financial highlights; (3) systems and controls; and (4)…

  15. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request the Commissioner to undertake a feasibility analysis of an equity or acquisition loan, and issue a feasibility... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feasibility letter....

  16. Genre Analysis of Business Letters of Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, V. B. M. Pinto

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings of a survey on genre analysis of 117 commercial letters in English exchanged by fax between a Brazilian company and two European companies. The letters were analyzed in terms of shared communicative purposes and rhetorical features that together contribute to the building-up of the resulting generic structure named "Business…

  17. 19 CFR 356.16 - Charging letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Charging letter. 356.16 Section 356.16 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURES AND RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure Undertaking § 356.16 Charging letter....

  18. 7 CFR 1773.33 - Management letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than as allowed under 7 CFR part 1744, subpart E; (ii) The requirement for a borrower to prepare and... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Management letter. 1773.33 Section 1773.33 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.33 Management letter. The...

  19. Statistical Learning, Letter Reversals, and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Gordon, Jessica; Boada, Richard; Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Reversal errors play a prominent role in theories of reading disability. We examined reversal errors in the writing of letters by 5- to 6-year-old children. Of the 130 children, 92 had a history of difficulty in producing speech sounds, a risk factor for reading problems. Children were more likely to reverse letter forms that face left, such as…

  20. Letter to, and Paintings by, George Catlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David; Potter, Lee Ann; Eder, Elizabeth K.

    2008-01-01

    Letters received and sent by Secretary of War Lewis Cass in the 1830s reveal much about relations between the U.S. government and Native Americans. In the immediate aftermath of the Indian Removal Act, signed into law on May 28, 1830, by President Andrew Jackson, some letters came from interpreters and school teachers seeking payment for their…

  1. An Open Letter to Tomorrow's Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The article takes the form of a letter written to pre-service or beginning teachers at the secondary level in the public school system. The letter acknowledges the attributes they bring to the profession (enthusiasm, optimism, creativity, and open-mindedness) and calls on them to make the most of and work to sustain these traits as they begin…

  2. Letter to Editor - "Reply to RP Heaney"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A letter to the editor was submitted in reply to a letter written to the editor of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition regarding a recent publication (Hunt, CD. and Johnson, LK. Calcium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance...

  3. Developing a Standardized Letter of Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Alyssa M.; Kyllonen, Patrick C.; Plante, Janice W.

    2006-01-01

    The Standardized Letter of Recommendation (SLR) is a Web-based admission tool designed to replace traditional, narrative letters of recommendation with a more systematic and equitable source of information about applicants to institutions of higher education. The SLR includes a rating scale and open-ended response space that prompt evaluators to…

  4. Letter Writing Seminar for Word Processing Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunsch, Alan P.

    1978-01-01

    A business letter writing seminar was developed by the Center for Executive Development at Arizona State University at the request of the American Express Company's credit card division in Phoenix. Sessions were held on company premises and included basic correspondence and writing techniques for company production form letters, pattern…

  5. Linguistic Prescriptivism in Letters to the Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukac, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The public's concern with the fate of the standard language has been well documented in the history of the complaint tradition. The print media have for centuries featured letters to the editor on questions of language use. This study examines a corpus of 258 language-related letters to the editor published in the English-speaking print media. By…

  6. Letters in Time and Retinotopic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Various phenomena in tachistoscopic word identification and priming (WRODS and LTRS are confused with and prime WORDS and LETTERS) suggest that position-specific channels are not used in the processing of letters in words. Previous approaches to this issue have sought alternative matching rules because they have assumed that these phenomena reveal…

  7. Cognitive Determinants of Early Letter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Suha; Weil-Barais, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the general cognitive determinants of alphabetic letter knowledge. It involved 60 French kindergarten children (mean age: five years six months). Two test batteries were used: the CMS to evaluate general cognitive abilities (memory, attention, and learning), and the LKT to assess letter knowledge and its various…

  8. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  9. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  10. 12 CFR 208.24 - Letters of credit and acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section, standby letters of credit include every letter of credit (or similar arrangement however named or... default by the party procuring the issuance of the letter of credit in the performance of an obligation. 6 6 A standby letter of credit does not include: (1) Commercial letters of credit and...

  11. Lectins of marine hydrobionts.

    PubMed

    Chernikov, O V; Molchanova, V I; Chikalovets, I V; Kondrashina, A S; Li, W; Lukyanov, P A

    2013-07-01

    Data from the literature and results of our research on lectins isolated from some kinds of marine hydrobionts such as clams, ascidians, sea worms, sponges, and algae are presented in this review. Results of comparative analysis of the basic physicochemical properties and biological activity of lectins isolated from various sources are discussed. PMID:24010839

  12. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory. PMID:25540333

  13. Seasonal spatial patterns in seabird and marine mammal distribution in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas: Identifying biologically important pelagic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuletz, Kathy J.; Ferguson, Megan C.; Hurley, Brendan; Gall, Adrian E.; Labunski, Elizabeth A.; Morgan, Tawna C.

    2015-08-01

    The Chukchi and Beaufort seas are undergoing rapid climate change and increased human activity. Conservation efforts for upper trophic level predators such as seabirds and marine mammals require information on species' distributions and identification of important marine areas. Here we describe broad-scale distributions of seabirds and marine mammals. We examined spatial patterns of relative abundance of seabirds and marine mammals in the eastern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas during summer (15 June-31 August) and fall (1 September-20 November) from 2007 to 2012. We summarized 49,206 km of shipboard surveys for seabirds and 183,157 km of aerial surveys for marine mammals into a grid of 40-km × 40-km cells. We used Getis-Ord Gi∗ hotspot analysis to test for cells with higher relative abundance than expected when compared to all cells within the study area. We identified cells representing single species and taxonomic group hotspots, cells representing hotspots for multiple species, and cells representing hotspots for both seabirds and marine mammals. The locations of hotspots varied among species but often were located near underwater canyons or over continental shelf features and slopes. Hotspots for seabirds, walrus, and gray whales occurred primarily in the Chukchi Sea. Hotspots for bowhead whales and other pinnipeds (i.e., seals) occurred near Barrow Canyon and along the Beaufort Sea shelf and slope. Hotspots for belugas occurred in both the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. There were three hotspots shared by both seabirds and marine mammals in summer: off Wainwright in the eastern Chukchi Sea, south of Hanna Shoal, and at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. In fall, the only identified shared hotspot occurred at the mouth of Barrow Canyon. Shared hotspots are characterized by strong fronts caused by upwelling and currents, and these areas can have high densities of euphausiids in summer and fall. Due to the high relative abundance of animals and diversity of taxa

  14. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    With 63,000 chemicals in common use, the task of identifying specific pollutants and their effects in relation to marine life is immense. The interdisciplinary approach to this complex issue includes studies in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, vertebrate and invertebrate pathology, electron microscopy, immunology, and behavioral biology. Primary concerns are whether pollutants are available to organisms and whether they are transferred through marine food webs. Studies on marine and estuarine pollution in the New York Bight and Puget Sound, Washington, are summarized. Among other results it is interactive effects between two pollutants in marine organism that account for substantial alterations in certain biochemical systems and in cellular morphology. (JGB)

  15. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  16. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is

  17. 50 CFR 18.125 - What criteria does the Service use to evaluate Letter of Authorization requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What criteria does the Service use to evaluate Letter of Authorization requests? 18.125 Section 18.125 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities...

  18. 50 CFR 18.125 - What criteria does the Service use to evaluate Letter of Authorization requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What criteria does the Service use to evaluate Letter of Authorization requests? 18.125 Section 18.125 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities...

  19. 50 CFR 18.125 - What criteria does the Service use to evaluate Letter of Authorization requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What criteria does the Service use to evaluate Letter of Authorization requests? 18.125 Section 18.125 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities...

  20. 50 CFR 217.76 - Letter of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suspended or revoked, will be valid for a period of time specified in the Letter of Authorization, but a Letter of Authorization may not be valid beyond the effective period of the regulations. (b) A Letter...