Science.gov

Sample records for marine biotechnology culture

  1. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  2. Fish Growth in Marine Culture Systems: A Challenge for Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lyndon

    1999-07-01

    : Aquaculture production is constrained largely by the growth efficiency of the species being produced. Nutritional approaches have played an important part in improving this situation, but, it is argued, the room for further improvement using such established techniques is limited. Alternative ways of improving fish production by utilizing recent biotechnological advances are explored and assessed as to their potential for commercialization in the near future. Transgenic technologies promise a revolution in aquaculture, but it is considered that consumer resistance may delay the use of transgenic fish for food production. An alternative approach could be the breeding of transgenic fodder plants without the amino acid deficiencies of existing alternatives to fish meal in aquaculture diets. The use of probiotics could reduce antibiotic use on fish farms while they might also provide the basis for "smart" diets, tailored to specific purposes by the inclusion of microorganisms. The selection and genetic engineering of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria could also pave the way for fully enclosed, recirculating marine culture systems, which would allow control of the environmental variables that currently restrain marine fish culture. PMID:10489415

  3. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens. PMID:12180100

  4. The Carolina conference on marine biotechnology: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes proceedings of a Carolina Conference on Marine Biotechnology held March 24-26, 1985, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This report consists of the responders' summary of each topic discussed. The topics presented were General Prospects for Marine Biotechnology, Bioactive Substances from Marine Organisms, Fundamental Processes in Marine Organisms as Guides for Biotechnology Development, Genetic Manipulation of Potential Use to Mariculture, Organisms Interactions with Marine Surfaces: Marine Glues, and Biomolecular Engineering Materials Applications.

  5. Ecological dynamics and biotechnological implications of thraustochytrids from marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Purnima; Liu, Ying; Li, Lisa; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-07-01

    Thraustochytrids, a group of osmoheterotrophic marine protists, have recently gained increased attention owing to their spectacular biotechnological potentials. They possess enormous capability of producing omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and several other bioactive metabolites, known to have nutritional implications in human health. They have emerged lately as an efficient economic alternative compared with other fish and algal oil sources by virtue of their simpler PUFA profiles and cost-effective culture conditions. This review is an attempt to summarize the ecological significance of thraustochytrids with an emphasis on their cultured and uncultured diversity from various marine habitats accounted during the last few decades. Moreover, improved technologies such as media optimization in conjugation with metabolic engineering, adopted for biotechnological advancement of ω-3 products of thraustochytrids are highlighted with particular concern on the respective fatty acid biosynthetic pathways. One of the future prospects focuses on utilization of thraustochytrids for biodiesel production owing to their tremendous potentiality of yielding low carbon monounsaturated fatty acids (LC-MUFAs). However, there is utmost need of in-depth diversity assessments from various oceanic ecosystems in order to gain insight on potential thraustochytrids for ameliorated employment toward biotechnological applications. PMID:24805845

  6. New and emerging analytical techniques for marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J Grant

    2012-02-01

    Marine biotechnology is the industrial, medical or environmental application of biological resources from the sea. Since the marine environment is the most biologically and chemically diverse habitat on the planet, marine biotechnology has, in recent years delivered a growing number of major therapeutic products, industrial and environmental applications and analytical tools. These range from the use of a snail toxin to develop a pain control drug, metabolites from a sea squirt to develop an anti-cancer therapeutic, and marine enzymes to remove bacterial biofilms. In addition, well known and broadly used analytical techniques are derived from marine molecules or enzymes, including green fluorescence protein gene tagging methods and heat resistant polymerases used in the polymerase chain reaction. Advances in bacterial identification, metabolic profiling and physical handling of cells are being revolutionised by techniques such as mass spectrometric analysis of bacterial proteins. Advances in instrumentation and a combination of these physical advances with progress in proteomics and bioinformatics are accelerating our ability to harness biology for commercial gain. Single cell Raman spectroscopy and microfluidics are two emerging techniques which are also discussed elsewhere in this issue. In this review, we provide a brief survey and update of the most powerful and rapidly growing analytical techniques as used in marine biotechnology, together with some promising examples of less well known earlier stage methods which may make a bigger impact in the future. PMID:22265377

  7. Marine-derived fungi: diversity of enzymes and biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C.; dos Santos Vasconcelos, Maria R.; Passarini, Michel R. Z.; Vieira, Gabriela A. L.; Lopes, Viviane C. P.; Mainardi, Pedro H.; dos Santos, Juliana A.; de Azevedo Duarte, Lidia; Otero, Igor V. R.; da Silva Yoshida, Aline M.; Feitosa, Valker A.; Pessoa, Adalberto; Sette, Lara D.

    2015-01-01

    The ocean is considered to be a great reservoir of biodiversity. Microbial communities in marine environments are ecologically relevant as intermediaries of energy, and play an important role in nutrient regeneration cycles as decomposers of dead and decaying organic matter. In this sense, marine-derived fungi can be considered as a source of enzymes of industrial and/or environmental interest. Fungal strains isolated from different substrates, such as invertebrates, decaying wood, seawater, sediments, and mangrove detritus, have been reported to be producers of hydrolytic and/or oxidative enzymes, with alginate lyase, amylase, cellulase, chitinase, glucosidase, inulinase, keratinase, ligninase, lipase, nuclease, phytase, protease, and xylanase being among the enzymes produced by fungi of marine origin. These enzymes present temperature and pH optima ranging from 35 to 70∘C, and 3.0 to 11.0, respectively. High-level production in bioreactors is mainly performed using submerged-state fermentation. Certain marine-derived fungal strains present enzymes with alkaline and cold-activity characteristics, and salinity is considered an important condition in screening and production processes. The adaptability of marine-derived fungi to oceanic conditions can be considered an attractive point in the field of fungal marine biotechnology. In this review, we focus on the advances in discovering enzymes from marine-derived fungi and their biotechnological relevance. PMID:25914680

  8. Marine-derived fungi: diversity of enzymes and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C; Dos Santos Vasconcelos, Maria R; Passarini, Michel R Z; Vieira, Gabriela A L; Lopes, Viviane C P; Mainardi, Pedro H; Dos Santos, Juliana A; de Azevedo Duarte, Lidia; Otero, Igor V R; da Silva Yoshida, Aline M; Feitosa, Valker A; Pessoa, Adalberto; Sette, Lara D

    2015-01-01

    The ocean is considered to be a great reservoir of biodiversity. Microbial communities in marine environments are ecologically relevant as intermediaries of energy, and play an important role in nutrient regeneration cycles as decomposers of dead and decaying organic matter. In this sense, marine-derived fungi can be considered as a source of enzymes of industrial and/or environmental interest. Fungal strains isolated from different substrates, such as invertebrates, decaying wood, seawater, sediments, and mangrove detritus, have been reported to be producers of hydrolytic and/or oxidative enzymes, with alginate lyase, amylase, cellulase, chitinase, glucosidase, inulinase, keratinase, ligninase, lipase, nuclease, phytase, protease, and xylanase being among the enzymes produced by fungi of marine origin. These enzymes present temperature and pH optima ranging from 35 to 70(∘)C, and 3.0 to 11.0, respectively. High-level production in bioreactors is mainly performed using submerged-state fermentation. Certain marine-derived fungal strains present enzymes with alkaline and cold-activity characteristics, and salinity is considered an important condition in screening and production processes. The adaptability of marine-derived fungi to oceanic conditions can be considered an attractive point in the field of fungal marine biotechnology. In this review, we focus on the advances in discovering enzymes from marine-derived fungi and their biotechnological relevance. PMID:25914680

  9. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    PubMed

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. PMID:27452170

  10. Development of marine biotechnology as a resource for novel proteases and their role in modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Homaei, Ahmad; Lavajoo, Fatemeh; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2016-07-01

    Marine environment consists of the largest sources diversified genetic pool of material with an enormous potential for a wide variety of enzymes including proteases. A protease hydrolyzes the peptide bond and most of proteases possess many industrial applications. Marine proteases differ considerably from those found in internal or external organs of invertebrates and vertebrates. In common with all enzymes, external factors such as temperature, pH and type of media are important for the activity, catalytic efficiency, stability and proper functioning of proteases. In this review valuable characteristics of proteases in marine organisms and their applications are gathered from a wide literature survey. Considering their biochemical significance and their increasing importance in biotechnology, a thorough understanding of marine proteases functioning could be of prime importance. PMID:27086293

  11. Marine extremophiles: a source of hydrolases for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-04-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications. PMID:25854643

  12. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dalmaso, Gabriel Zamith Leal; Ferreira, Davis; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications. PMID:25854643

  13. Marine Algae: a Source of Biomass for Biotechnological Applications.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dagmar B; Connan, Solène

    2015-01-01

    Biomass derived from marine microalgae and macroalgae is globally recognized as a source of valuable chemical constituents with applications in the agri-horticultural sector (including animal feeds and health and plant stimulants), as human food and food ingredients as well as in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Algal biomass supply of sufficient quality and quantity however remains a concern with increasing environmental pressures conflicting with the growing demand. Recent attempts in supplying consistent, safe and environmentally acceptable biomass through cultivation of (macro- and micro-) algal biomass have concentrated on characterizing natural variability in bioactives, and optimizing cultivated materials through strain selection and hybridization, as well as breeding and, more recently, genetic improvements of biomass. Biotechnological tools including metabolomics, transcriptomics, and genomics have recently been extended to algae but, in comparison to microbial or plant biomass, still remain underdeveloped. Current progress in algal biotechnology is driven by an increased demand for new sources of biomass due to several global challenges, new discoveries and technologies available as well as an increased global awareness of the many applications of algae. Algal diversity and complexity provides significant potential provided that shortages in suitable and safe biomass can be met, and consumer demands are matched by commercial investment in product development. PMID:26108496

  14. The ARS Culture Collection and Developments in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) has played a prominent role in the development of biotechnology since its founding in 1940 when the Northern Regional Research Laboratory opened. Early discoveries included selection of production strains for penicillin, dextran blood extender, xanthan gum and the v...

  15. From Discovery to Production: Biotechnology of Marine Fungi for the Production of New Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Silber, Johanna; Kramer, Annemarie; Labes, Antje; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics. Methods and technologies applied in marine fungal biotechnology largely derive from analogous terrestrial processes and rarely reflect the specific demands of the marine fungi. The current developments in metabolic engineering and marine microbiology are not yet transferred into processes, but offer numerous options for improvement of production processes and establishment of new process chains. This review summarises the current state in biotechnological production of marine fungal antibiotics and points out the enormous potential of biotechnology in all stages of the discovery-to-development pipeline. At the same time, the literature survey reveals that more biotechnology transfer and method developments are needed for a sustainable and innovative production of marine fungal antibiotics. PMID:27455283

  16. From Discovery to Production: Biotechnology of Marine Fungi for the Production of New Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Silber, Johanna; Kramer, Annemarie; Labes, Antje; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics. Methods and technologies applied in marine fungal biotechnology largely derive from analogous terrestrial processes and rarely reflect the specific demands of the marine fungi. The current developments in metabolic engineering and marine microbiology are not yet transferred into processes, but offer numerous options for improvement of production processes and establishment of new process chains. This review summarises the current state in biotechnological production of marine fungal antibiotics and points out the enormous potential of biotechnology in all stages of the discovery-to-development pipeline. At the same time, the literature survey reveals that more biotechnology transfer and method developments are needed for a sustainable and innovative production of marine fungal antibiotics. PMID:27455283

  17. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  18. Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vranken, Nancy S., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The field of biotechnology, and specifically recombinant DNA technology, is transforming the way that many feel about the nature and purposes of biology. This newsletter annual supplement contains several articles addressing the topic of biotechnology and the importance that the topic should be given in science classes. James D. Watson's article,…

  19. The Challenge of Ecophysiological Biodiversity for Biotechnological Applications of Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Barra, Lucia; Chandrasekaran, Raghu; Corato, Federico; Brunet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we aim to explore the potential of microalgal biodiversity and ecology for biotechnological use. A deeper exploration of the biodiversity richness and ecophysiological properties of microalgae is crucial for enhancing their use for applicative purposes. After describing the actual biotechnological use of microalgae, we consider the multiple faces of taxonomical, morphological, functional and ecophysiological biodiversity of these organisms, and investigate how these properties could better serve the biotechnological field. Lastly, we propose new approaches to enhancing microalgal growth, photosynthesis, and synthesis of valuable products used in biotechnological fields, mainly focusing on culture conditions, especially light manipulations and genetic modifications. PMID:24663117

  20. Marine metagenomics: strategies for the discovery of novel enzymes with biotechnological applications from marine environments

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jonathan; Marchesi, Julian R; Dobson, Alan DW

    2008-01-01

    Metagenomic based strategies have previously been successfully employed as powerful tools to isolate and identify enzymes with novel biocatalytic activities from the unculturable component of microbial communities from various terrestrial environmental niches. Both sequence based and function based screening approaches have been employed to identify genes encoding novel biocatalytic activities and metabolic pathways from metagenomic libraries. While much of the focus to date has centred on terrestrial based microbial ecosystems, it is clear that the marine environment has enormous microbial biodiversity that remains largely unstudied. Marine microbes are both extremely abundant and diverse; the environments they occupy likewise consist of very diverse niches. As culture-dependent methods have thus far resulted in the isolation of only a tiny percentage of the marine microbiota the application of metagenomic strategies holds great potential to study and exploit the enormous microbial biodiversity which is present within these marine environments. PMID:18717988

  1. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

  2. Marine microbial biodiversity, bioinformatics and biotechnology (M2B3) data reporting and service standards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Contextual data collected concurrently with molecular samples are critical to the use of metagenomics in the fields of marine biodiversity, bioinformatics and biotechnology. We present here Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology (M2B3) standards for “Reporting” and “Serving” data. The M2B3 Reporting Standard (1) describes minimal mandatory and recommended contextual information for a marine microbial sample obtained in the epipelagic zone, (2) includes meaningful information for researchers in the oceanographic, biodiversity and molecular disciplines, and (3) can easily be adopted by any marine laboratory with minimum sampling resources. The M2B3 Service Standard defines a software interface through which these data can be discovered and explored in data repositories. The M2B3 Standards were developed by the European project Micro B3, funded under 7th Framework Programme “Ocean of Tomorrow”, and were first used with the Ocean Sampling Day initiative. We believe that these standards have value in broader marine science. PMID:26203332

  3. Biotechnology Education as Social and Cultural Production/Reproduction of the Biotechnology Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study…

  4. Envrionmental applications of marine biotechnology: Summary of a program development workshop. Held in La Jolla, California on August 2, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Tebo, B.M.

    1995-12-31

    The California Sea Grant College System held a workshop on environmental applications of marine biotechnology on August 2, 1994 at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California. The goal of this workshop was to bring agency representatives, researchers and potential users together in an open dialogue on the needs, opportunities, and potential applications of biological and biochemical technologies in monitoring, remediation, and restoration of contaminated marine environments. Specifically the workshop assessed the current state of knowledge of `environmental marine biotechnology` in California, cited some examples of environmental problems, and attempted to identify some of the key scientific questions and areas for future Sea Grant research. The intent of this document is not to exhaustively review all the existing problems within the State of California, nor all the current and future applications of marine environmental technologies, but rather to touch upon some of the examples where marine biotechnology may make important contributions and to make some recommendations with regard to future program initiatives.

  5. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  6. Current developments in marine microbiology: high-pressure biotechnology and the genetic engineering of piezophiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Xuegong; Bartlett, Douglas H; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    A key aspect of marine environments is elevated pressure; for example, ∼70% of the ocean is at a pressure of at least 38MPa. Many types of Bacteria and Archaea reside under these high pressures, which drive oceanic biogeochemical cycles and catalyze reactions among rocks, sediments and fluids. Most marine prokaryotes are classified as piezotolerant or as (obligate)-piezophiles with few cultivated relatives. The biochemistry and physiology of these organisms are largely unknown. Recently, high-pressure cultivation technology has been combined with omics and DNA recombination methodologies to examine the physiology of piezophilic marine microorganisms. We are now beginning to understand the adaptive mechanisms of these organisms, along with their ecological functions and evolutionary processes. This knowledge is leading to the further development of high-pressure-based biotechnology. PMID:25776196

  7. Ecological roles and biotechnological applications of marine and intertidal microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sayani; Sana, Barindra; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    This review is a retrospective of ecological effects of bioactivities produced by biofilms of surface-dwelling marine/intertidal microbes as well as of the industrial and environmental biotechnologies developed exploiting the knowledge of biofilm formation. Some examples of significant interest pertaining to the ecological aspects of biofilm-forming species belonging to the Roseobacter clade include autochthonous bacteria from turbot larvae-rearing units with potential application as a probiotic as well as production of tropodithietic acid and indigoidine. Species of the Pseudoalteromonas genus are important examples of successful surface colonizers through elaboration of the AlpP protein and antimicrobial agents possessing broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against medical and environmental isolates. Further examples of significance comprise antiprotozoan activity of Pseudoalteromonas tunicata elicited by violacein, inhibition of fungal colonization, antifouling activities, inhibition of algal spore germination, and 2-n-pentyl-4-quinolinol production. Nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse gas, emanates from surface-attached microbial activity of marine animals. Marine and intertidal biofilms have been applied in the biotechnological production of violacein, phenylnannolones, and exopolysaccharides from marine and tropical intertidal environments. More examples of importance encompass production of protease, cellulase, and xylanase, melanin, and riboflavin. Antifouling activity of Bacillus sp. and application of anammox bacterial biofilms in bioremediation are described. Marine biofilms have been used as anodes and cathodes in microbial fuel cells. Some of the reaction vessels for biofilm cultivation reviewed are roller bottle, rotating disc bioreactor, polymethylmethacrylate conico-cylindrical flask, fixed bed reactor, artificial microbial mats, packed-bed bioreactors, and the Tanaka photobioreactor. PMID:24817086

  8. Diversity, ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of marine fungi associated to the seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    PubMed

    Panno, Luigi; Bruno, Maurizio; Voyron, Samuele; Anastasi, Antonella; Gnavi, Giorgio; Miserere, Luca; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment is characterized by high salinity and exerts a strong selective pressure on the biota, favouring the development of halo-tolerant microorganisms. Part of this microbial diversity is made up of fungi, important organisms from ecological and biotechnological points of view. In this study, for the first time, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the mycoflora associated to leaves, rhizomes, roots and matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica was estimated. A total of 88 fungal taxa, mainly belonging to Ascomycota, were identified by morphological and molecular methods. The most represented genera were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Acremonium. Most of the species (70) were selectively associated with one district; only two species (Penicillium chrysogenum var. chrysogenum and P. janczewskii) were isolated from all the districts. Moreover the capability to produce laccases, peroxidases and tannases by 107 fungal isolated by the different districts of P. oceanica was carried out. These results show that the mycoflora associated to P. oceanica is very rich and characterized by fungi able to produce ligninolytic enzymes and tannases useful to degrade and detoxify lignocellulose residues in presence of high salt concentrations. These fungi, hence, may play important ecological roles in marine environments but can also be very useful in different biotechnological areas. PMID:23410985

  9. Final technical report: Partial support for US participants in the 5th International Marine Biotechnology Conference, Townsville, Australia, Sept 29 - Oct 5, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Zohar, Yonathan; Hill, R.; Robb, F.

    2001-04-09

    Funding was provided for US participants in the 5th International Marine Biotechnology Conference held in Townsville, Australia from September 29 to October 5, 2000. DOE funds were used for travel awards for six US participants in this conference. DOE funds were successfully used to advance participation of US scientists in the important emerging field of marine biotechnology.

  10. Marine biotechnologies and synthetic biology, new issues for a fair and equitable profit-sharing commercial use.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jean-François; Tardieu-Guigues, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    The sea will be a source of economic development in the next years. Today the research works in marine biotechnologies supply new products and processes. The introduction in the laboratories of a new technology, synthesis biology, is going to increase the possibilities of creation of new products. Exploitation of product stemming from marine biodiversity has to be made with regard to various rights among which industrial property law, maritime law and the Convention on BioDiversity. All participants involved in the promotion of research in marine biotechnology must address the fair and equitable sharing of any commercial exploitation. Carrying out work involving synthetic biology has increased the number of unanswered questions about how operators should manage in order to avoid any threat of being sued for infringements of IP rights or for alleged bio-piracy. This paper, by no means exhaustive in the field, analyzes some of the issues raised on the modification to the landscape in marine biotechnology by the advent of synthetic biology. Such issues indicate how important the collaboration between researchers, industrialists, lawyers is for allowing proper use of marine biotech. PMID:25116370

  11. Production of isoprene by marine phytoplankton cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.M.; Oram, D.E.; Penkett, S.A.

    1994-11-15

    The authors report experiments which demonstrate the production of light volatile hydrocarbons, including isoprene, by different marine phytoplankton cultures. This indicates that the ocean is a potential source of natural releases of isoprene to the atmosphere. Laboratory results do not allow extrapolation to atmospheric release rates.

  12. Partial Support for U.S. Participants in the International Marine Biotechnology Conference 2005, in Newfoundland, Canada, June 7-12, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Feng

    2006-09-30

    This proposal requests inter-agency support for U.S. scientists to attend the IMBC2005. This meeting is the premier international Marine Biotechnology meeting and emphasizes the use of molecular approaches in studying the protection and enhancement of global marine resources. The scientific programs of IMBC2005 include Marine Microbiology, Genomics and Proteomics, Extremophiles, Bioremediation, Cell and Molecular Biology, Bioactives, Transgenics, Aquaculture, Seafood Safety, and Biodiversity. For more information, please refer to http://www.imbc2005.org/welcome_e.html. The objectives of this proposal are to: 1. Facilitate attendance by a broad range of U.S. scientists, technologists, and students at the MBC2005 2. Ensure that U.S. scientists are exposed to the latest global advances in Marine Biotechnology 3. Encourage collaboration between U.S. and other scientists in the important and rapidly developing field of Marine Biotechnology.

  13. Chain Elongation with Reactor Microbiomes: Open-Culture Biotechnology To Produce Biochemicals.

    PubMed

    Angenent, Largus T; Richter, Hanno; Buckel, Wolfgang; Spirito, Catherine M; Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Plugge, Caroline M; Strik, David P B T B; Grootscholten, Tim I M; Buisman, Cees J N; Hamelers, Hubertus V M

    2016-03-15

    Chain elongation into medium-chain carboxylates, such as n-caproate and n-caprylate, with ethanol as an electron donor and with open cultures of microbial consortia (i.e., reactor microbiomes) under anaerobic conditions is being developed as a biotechnological production platform. The goal is to use the high thermodynamic efficiency of anaerobic fermentation to convert organic biomass or organic wastes into valuable biochemicals that can be extracted. Several liter-scale studies have been completed and a first pilot-plant study is underway. However, the underlying microbial pathways are not always well understood. In addition, an interdisciplinary approach with knowledge from fields ranging from microbiology and chemical separations to biochemistry and environmental engineering is required. To bring together research from different fields, we reviewed the literature starting with the microbiology and ending with the bioprocess engineering studies that already have been performed. Because understanding the microbial pathways is so important to predict and steer performance, we delved into a stoichiometric and thermodynamic model that sheds light on the effect of substrate ratios and environmental conditions on product formation. Finally, we ended with an outlook. PMID:26854969

  14. Electromagnetic biostimulation of living cultures for biotechnology, biofuel and bioenergy applications.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ryan W; Zavalin, Andrey; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C

    2009-10-01

    The surge of interest in bioenergy has been marked with increasing efforts in research and development to identify new sources of biomass and to incorporate cutting-edge biotechnology to improve efficiency and increase yields. It is evident that various microorganisms will play an integral role in the development of this newly emerging industry, such as yeast for ethanol and Escherichia coli for fine chemical fermentation. However, it appears that microalgae have become the most promising prospect for biomass production due to their ability to grow fast, produce large quantities of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, thrive in poor quality waters, sequester and recycle carbon dioxide from industrial flue gases and remove pollutants from industrial, agricultural and municipal wastewaters. In an attempt to better understand and manipulate microorganisms for optimum production capacity, many researchers have investigated alternative methods for stimulating their growth and metabolic behavior. One such novel approach is the use of electromagnetic fields for the stimulation of growth and metabolic cascades and controlling biochemical pathways. An effort has been made in this review to consolidate the information on the current status of biostimulation research to enhance microbial growth and metabolism using electromagnetic fields. It summarizes information on the biostimulatory effects on growth and other biological processes to obtain insight regarding factors and dosages that lead to the stimulation and also what kind of processes have been reportedly affected. Diverse mechanistic theories and explanations for biological effects of electromagnetic fields on intra and extracellular environment have been discussed. The foundations of biophysical interactions such as bioelectromagnetic and biophotonic communication and organization within living systems are expounded with special consideration for spatiotemporal aspects of electromagnetic topology, leading to the

  15. Electromagnetic Biostimulation of Living Cultures for Biotechnology, Biofuel and Bioenergy Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Ryan W.; Zavalin, Andrey; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C.

    2009-01-01

    The surge of interest in bioenergy has been marked with increasing efforts in research and development to identify new sources of biomass and to incorporate cutting-edge biotechnology to improve efficiency and increase yields. It is evident that various microorganisms will play an integral role in the development of this newly emerging industry, such as yeast for ethanol and Escherichia coli for fine chemical fermentation. However, it appears that microalgae have become the most promising prospect for biomass production due to their ability to grow fast, produce large quantities of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, thrive in poor quality waters, sequester and recycle carbon dioxide from industrial flue gases and remove pollutants from industrial, agricultural and municipal wastewaters. In an attempt to better understand and manipulate microorganisms for optimum production capacity, many researchers have investigated alternative methods for stimulating their growth and metabolic behavior. One such novel approach is the use of electromagnetic fields for the stimulation of growth and metabolic cascades and controlling biochemical pathways. An effort has been made in this review to consolidate the information on the current status of biostimulation research to enhance microbial growth and metabolism using electromagnetic fields. It summarizes information on the biostimulatory effects on growth and other biological processes to obtain insight regarding factors and dosages that lead to the stimulation and also what kind of processes have been reportedly affected. Diverse mechanistic theories and explanations for biological effects of electromagnetic fields on intra and extracellular environment have been discussed. The foundations of biophysical interactions such as bioelectromagnetic and biophotonic communication and organization within living systems are expounded with special consideration for spatiotemporal aspects of electromagnetic topology, leading to the

  16. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

  17. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

  18. Pichia pastoris production of a prolyl 4-hydroxylase derived from Chondrosia reniformis sponge: A new biotechnological tool for the recombinant production of marine collagen.

    PubMed

    Pozzolini, Marina; Scarfì, Sonia; Mussino, Francesca; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Benatti, Umberto; Giovine, Marco

    2015-08-20

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) is a α2β2 tetramer catalyzing the post-translational hydroxylation of prolines in collagen. Its recombinant production is mainly pursued to realize biotechnological tools able to generate animal contaminant-free hydroxylated collagen. One promising candidate for biomedical applications is the collagen extracted from the marine sponge Chondrosia reniformis, because of its biocompatibility and because is devoid of the health risks associated with bovine and porcine collagens. Here we report on the production and selection, by enzymatic and biomolecular analyses, of a triple transformed Pichia pastoris strain expressing a stable P4H tetramer derived from C. reniformis sponge and a hydroxylated non fibrillar procollagen polypeptide from the same animal. The percentage of recombinant procollagen hydroxylated prolines inside the transformed yeast was of 36.3% analyzed by mass spectrometry indicating that the recombinant enzyme is active on its natural substrate inside the yeast cell host. Furthermore, the recombinant sponge P4H has the ability to hydroxylate its natural substrate in both X and Y positions in the Xaa-Yaa-Gly collagenous triplets. In conclusion this Pichia system seems ideal for high-level production of hydroxylated sponge- or marine-derived collagen polypeptides as well as of conotoxins or other marine proteins of high pharmacological interest needing this particular post-translational modification. PMID:26022422

  19. Biotechnology apprenticeship for secondary-level students: teaching advanced cell culture techniques for research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer R; Kotur, Mark S; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  20. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  1. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry. PMID:24780860

  2. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26070432

  3. Mass culture strategy for bacterial yeast co-culture for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Priya, Anchal; Mandal, Ajoy K; Ball, Andrew S; Manefield, Mike; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-11-15

    In the present study a metabolically versatile co-culture with two Bacilli and one yeast strain was developed using enrichment culture techniques. The developed co-culture had affinity to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of petroleum crude oil. Degradation kinetics was established for designing the fermentation protocol of the co-culture. The developed mass culture strategy led to achieve the reduction in surface tension (26dynescm(-1) from 69 dynescm(-1)) and degradation of 67% in bench scale experiments. The total crude oil degradation of 96% was achieved in 4000l of natural seawater after 28days without adding any nutrients. The survival of the augmented co-culture was maintained (10(9)cellsml(-1)) in contaminated marine environment. The mass culture protocol devised for the bioaugmentation was a key breakthrough that was subsequently used for pilot scale studies with 100l and 4000l of natural seawater for potential application in marine oil spills. PMID:26384865

  4. Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion

    PubMed Central

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N.; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  5. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  6. An Overview of NASA Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Biotechnology research at NASA has comprised three separate areas; cell science and tissue culture, separations methods, and macromolecular crystal growth. This presentation will primarily focus on the macromolecular crystal growth.

  7. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology. PMID:25058832

  8. Biotechnology for the 21st century, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report outlines the Federal role in biotechnology research and describes the foundation for a coordinated national initiative that will, over the coming years, maximize the effectiveness of the Federal investment in biotechnology research. Specifically, this report: (1) Defines the baseline of programmatic activity and Federal funding in biotechnology research, (2) Highlights ongoing agency programs and new initiatives, (3) Outlines national strategic objectives for biotechnology research, (4) Presents the first interagency Federal biotechnology research budget, and (5) Suggests directions for future efforts. Biotechnology Research Areas include: Agriculture, Energy, Environment, Health, Manufacturing/Bioprocessing, General Foundations, Genome Projects, Marine Biotechnology, Structural Biology, Social Impact Research, and Infrastructure.

  9. Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Cathrine Sumathi; Raghukumar, Chandralata

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the molecular diversity of the micro-eukaryotic community have shown that fungi occupy a central position in a large number of marine habitats. Environmental surveys using molecular tools have shown the presence of fungi from a large number of marine habitats such as deep-sea habitats, pelagic waters, coastal regions, hydrothermal vent ecosystem, anoxic habitats, and ice-cold regions. This is of interest to a variety of research disciplines like ecology, evolution, biogeochemistry, and biotechnology. In this review, we have summarized how molecular tools have helped to broaden our understanding of the fungal diversity in various marine habitats. Majority of the environmental phylotypes could be grouped as novel clades within Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota or as basal fungal lineages. Deep-branching novel environmental clusters could be grouped within Ascomycota as the Pezizomycotina clone group, deep-sea fungal group-I, and soil clone group-I, within Basidiomycota as the hydrothermal and/or anaerobic fungal group, and within Chytridiomycota as Cryptomycota or the Rozella clade. However, a basal true marine environmental cluster is still to be identified as most of the clusters include representatives from terrestrial regions. The challenge for future research is to explore the true marine fungi using molecular techniques. PMID:23363246

  10. Biotechnology: Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airozo, Diana; Warmbrodt, Robert D.

    Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized the fields of agriculture and the health sciences; however, there are concerns with this technology. This document is designed to help foster dialogue with emphasis on education and the development of a public understanding of the principals involved in…

  11. Crop Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of crop biotechnology on outcomes of agricultural practices and economics is readily evidenced by the escalating acreage of genetically engineered crops, all occurring in a relatively short time span. Until the mid 1990s, virtually no acreage was planted with commercial genetically mo...

  12. Biotechnology Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby G.; Spenciner, Loraine

    There have been few initiatives addressing the improvement of science education for students with disabilities. Funded by the National Science Foundation, Biotechnology Works is a summer institute in immunology and genetics for students with disabilities, high school science teachers, and high school counselors. During the 1998 summer session,…

  13. Cell biotechnology of rhodophytes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su-Juan; Kuang, Mei; Ma, Ling-Bo

    1998-03-01

    Cell biotechnology of rhodophytes is important not only in theoretical research but also in cultural practice and for exploitation of genetic resources. In this paper, cell biotechnology of Porphyra is reviewed. Tissue culture and protoplast studies on other rhodophytes in China are discussed.

  14. Ammonificins C and D, Hydroxyethylamine Chromene Derivatives from a Cultured Marine Hydrothermal Vent Bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans

    PubMed Central

    Andrianasolo, Eric H.; Haramaty, Liti; Rosario-Passapera, Richard; Vetriani, Costantino; Falkowski, Paul; White, Eileen; Lutz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Chemical and biological investigation of the cultured marine hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonifican led to the isolation of two hydroxyethylamine chromene derivatives, ammonificins C and D. Their structures were elucidated using combination of NMR and mass spectrometry. Absolute stereochemistry was ascertained by comparison of experimental and calculated CD spectra. Biological evaluation and assessment were determined using the patented ApopScreen cell-based screen for apoptosis-induction. Ammonificins C and D induce apoptosis in micromolar concentrations. To our knowledge, this finding is the first report of chemical compounds that induce apoptosis from the cultured deep-sea marine organism, hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans. PMID:23170085

  15. Microbial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Demain, A L

    2000-01-01

    For thousands of years, microorganisms have been used to supply products such as bread, beer and wine. A second phase of traditional microbial biotechnology began during World War I and resulted in the development of the acetone-butanol and glycerol fermentations, followed by processes yielding, for example, citric acid, vitamins and antibiotics. In the early 1970s, traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield more than 40 biopharmaceutical products, such as erythropoietin, human growth hormone and interferons. Today, microbiology is a major participant in global industry, especially in the pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. PMID:10631778

  16. Biotechnological approaches for improvement and conservation of prunus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology has contributed to improvement and conservation of Prunus species. Biotechnological approaches involving in vitro tissue culture, genetic transformation, molecular marker development and cryopreservation were applied to various Prunus species. This report provides an overview of biotec...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND OVERVIEW OF BIOTECHNOLOGY PROCESS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of industrial biotechnology processes, waste streams associated with these processes, and the effectiveness of current control technologies in treating process waste streams. (Biotechnology is defined here as processes that employ microbial cultures or e...

  18. Investigation of Interspecies Interactions within Marine Micromonosporaceae Using an Improved Co-Culture Approach

    PubMed Central

    Adnani, Navid; Vazquez-Rivera, Emmanuel; Adibhatla, Srikar N.; Ellis, Gregory A.; Braun, Doug R.; Bugni, Tim S.

    2015-01-01

    With respect to bacterial natural products, a significant outcome of the genomic era was that the biosynthetic potential in many microorganisms surpassed the number of compounds isolated under standard laboratory growth conditions, particularly among certain members in the phylum Actinobacteria. Our group, as well as others, investigated interspecies interactions, via co-culture, as a technique to coax bacteria to produce novel natural products. While co-culture provides new opportunities, challenges exist and questions surrounding these methods remain unanswered. In marine bacteria, for example, how prevalent are interspecies interactions and how commonly do interactions result in novel natural products? In an attempt to begin to answer basic questions surrounding co-culture of marine microorganisms, we have tested both antibiotic activity-based and LC/MS-based methods to evaluate Micromonosporaceae secondary metabolite production in co-culture. Overall, our investigation of 65 Micromonosporaceae led to the identification of 12 Micromonosporaceae across three genera that produced unique metabolites in co-culture. Our results suggest that interspecies interactions were prevalent between marine Micromonosporaceae and marine mycolic acid-containing bacteria. Furthermore, our approach highlights a sensitive and rapid method for investigating interspecies interactions in search of novel antibiotics, secondary metabolites, and genes. PMID:26404321

  19. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome. PMID:17070947

  20. Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Richard Harrison

    According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is

  1. Culturing Embryos and Larvae of Marine Molluscs and Protochordates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, R.; Turner, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a description for maintaining adult forms of molluscs and protochordates in order to obtain gametes for laboratory studies of animal development. The methods also include those for culturing embryonic larvae forms in vitro. (Author/SA)

  2. Arsenoriboside degradation in marine systems: the use of bacteria culture incubation experiments as model systems.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elliott G; Maher, William A; Foster, Simon D; Mikac, Katarina M; Krikowa, Frank; Florance, Anthea

    2014-01-01

    Arsenoribosides (as glycerol; phosphate; sulfate and sulfonate) persisted in all bacteria-inoculated cultures irrespective of the source of bacteria (seawater, macro-algae surface) or the culture media used (DIFCO Marine Broth 2216 or novel blended Hormosira banksii tissue-based). This is unlike observations from traditional macro-algae tissue decomposition studies or in nature. In addition known arsenoriboside degradation products such as dimethylarsenoethanol (DMAE), dimethylarsenate (DMA), methylarsenate (MA) and arsenate - As(V) were not detected in any cultures. Consequently, the use of bacterial culture incubation experiments to explain the fate of arsenoribosides in marine systems appears limited as the processes governing arsenoriboside degradation in these experiments appear to be different to those in macro-algae tissue decomposition studies or in nature. PMID:24025537

  3. Rational selection of alternative, environmentally compatible surfactants for biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals--a step toward green biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Straub, Jürg Oliver; Shearer, Russel; Studer, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The biotechnological production of pharmaceutical active substances needs ancillary substances. Surfactants are used at the end of the cell culture as a protection against potential viral or bacterial contamination and to lyse the producing cells for isolation and purification of the products. To find a replacement for a surfactant that had raised environmental concern, environmentally relevant data for potential alternatives were searched for in the literature. Significant data gaps were filled with additional tests: biodegradability, algal growth inhibition, acute daphnid immobilization and chronic daphnid reproduction toxicity, acute fish toxicity, and activated sludge respiration inhibition. The results were used to model removal in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving 3 biotechnological production sites in the Roche Group. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated using realistic amounts of surfactants and site-specific wastewater fluxes, modeled removals for the WWTPs and dilution factors by the respective receiving waters. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived for WWTPs and for both fresh and marine receiving waters as the treated wastewater of 1 production site is discharged into a coastal water. This resulted in a spreadsheet showing PECs, PNECs, and PEC ÷ PNEC risk characterization ratios for the WWTPs and receiving waters for all investigated surfactants and all 3 sites. This spreadsheet now serves as a selection support for the biotechnological developers. This risk-based prioritization of surfactants is a step toward green biotechnological production. PMID:24917475

  4. Diversity and characterization of culturable fungi from marine sediment collected from St. Helena Bay, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Marnel; Postma, Ferdinand; Wilsenach, Jac; Botha, Alfred

    2012-08-01

    Marine fungi are known to originate from a wide variety of habitats within the marine environment. Marine sediment represents one environmental niche, with most fungi occurring in these sediments being facultative marine fungi with terrestrial origins. It has not been proven whether these fungi merely survive the harsh environmental conditions presented by the ocean sediment, as opposed to playing an active role in this ecological niche. During this study, marine sediment was collected from St. Helena Bay, on the west coast of the Western Cape, South Africa. Using dilution, enrichment, and repetitive culturing techniques, 59 fungal isolates were obtained from marine sediments and identified to at least genus level using morphological and molecular methods. Moreover, a series of tests were performed to characterize the physical and physicochemical attributes of the isolates. Results showed that the isolates not only survived but also had the potential to grow in the natural conditions present in this environment. Extracellular cellulase was produced by the filamentous fungal isolates indicating their probable role in detrital decay processes and therefore the carbon cycle on the ocean bed. Also, denitrification patterns were observed when isolates were grown in liquid media amended with NaNO(2), NaNO(3), and (NH(4))SO(4), implicating that these fungi have the potential to play an active role in denitrification, co-denitrification, and ammonification phases of nitrogen cycles occurring in the marine sediments. PMID:22430506

  5. Explant exenisation for tissue culture in marine macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuewu; Kloareg, Bernard

    1992-09-01

    Unialgal explants from Laminaria digitata, and from a variety of red algae, were obtained by hand removing the visible epiphytes, and stirring the tissue in the presence of glass beads. Two antibiotic mixtures were found to be efficient in removing the contaminating fungi and bacteria from the algae. The procedure proved suitable as a primary step in the tissue culture of the investigated species.

  6. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them. PMID:12402751

  7. Chromium uptake and adsorption in cultured marine phytoplankton - implications for the marine Cr cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, D.; Maldonado, M. T.; Jaccard, S.

    2015-12-01

    While chromium (Cr) is a known carcinogen and pervasive industrial contaminant, little is known about the processes that affect the distribution and speciation of Cr in uncontaminated seawater. Given the recent development and application of the stable Cr isotope system in the marine environment, a full account of the sources, sinks, and internal processes affecting the modern marine Cr cycle is prudent. Using the radioisotope 51Cr, we investigated the controls of cellular Cr accumulation in an array of marine phytoplankton grown in environmentally relevant Cr concentrations (1-10 nM). Given the affinity of Cr(III) for amorphous Fe-hydroxide mineral surfaces, and the formation of these mineral phases on the outside of phytoplankton cells, extracellular Cr was monitored in a model diatom species (Thalassiosira weissflogii) as extracellular Fe concentrations varied. Extracellular Cr in T. weissflogii increased with increasing extracellular Fe, demonstrating that Cr may be removed from seawater via extracellular adsorption to phytoplankton. Short-term Cr(VI) and Cr(III) uptake experiments performed with T. weissflogii demonstrated that Cr(III) both adsorbed to and was internalized by the cells ~20x faster than Cr(VI). This suggests that Cr(III) is the dominant oxidation state associated with phytoplankton cells. Cellular Cr:C ratios (<0.5 µmol Cr mol C-1) of the nine phytoplankton species surveyed were significantly lower than previously reported Cr:C ratios of sinking particulate organic matter (~500 µmol Cr mol C-1). Thus, Cr accumulates in sinking particles- likely as Cr(III) - as it travels to the seafloor. Given the large fractionation of stable Cr isotopes during Cr(VI) reduction, Cr associated with exported phytoplankton may be enriched in lighter Cr isotopes. These data will assist investigators using stable Cr isotopes to examine past and present Cr biogeochemical cycles.

  8. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra: isolation and phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Joseph; Gandhimathi, R.; Kiran, G. Seghal; Priya, S. Shanmugha; Ravji, T. Rajeetha; Hema, T. A.

    2009-09-01

    Culturable heterotrophic bacterial composition of marine sponge Dendrilla nigra was analysed using different enrichments. Five media compositions including without enrichment (control), enriched with sponge extract, with growth regulator (antibiotics), with autoinducers, and complete enrichment containing sponge extract, antibiotics, and autoinducers were developed. DNA hybridization assay was performed to explore host specific bacteria and ecotypes of culturable sponge-associated bacteria. Enrichment with selective inducers (AHLs and sponge extract) and regulators (antibiotics) considerably enhanced the cultivation potential of sponge-associated bacteria. It was found that Marinobacter (MSI032), Micromonospora (MSI033), Streptomyces (MSI051), and Pseudomonas (MSI057) were sponge-associated obligate symbionts. The present findings envisaged that “ Micromonospora-Saccharomonospora-Streptomyces” group was the major culturable actinobacteria in the marine sponge D. nigra. The DNA hybridization assay was a reliable method for the analysis of culturable bacterial community in marine sponges. Based on the culturable community structure, the sponge-associated bacteria can be grouped (ecotypes) as general symbionts, specific symbionts, habitat flora, and antagonists.

  9. Biotechnology touches the forest

    SciTech Connect

    Powledge, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Both the United States and New Zealand are doing research in forest biotechnology and much of the interest is in speedy propagation from seed to mature tree. A number of propagation techniques are discussed, such as tissue culture, the culture of tissue from mature trees and somatic embryo genesis. Much of the tissue culture work has been done on radiata pine. Field testing results are considered. The aims and the advantages of forest biotechnology are discussed under the following headings. 1) Disease resistance: research is being carried out on a loblolly pine which would be resistant to fusiform rust. 2) Animal feed: some trees have been discovered to have lower lignin content and similar cellulose and hemicellulose to alfalfa. 3) Specialty chemicals: terpenes, in the tree resin, could be turned into hormones, drugs and other chemicals: the genetic system for the overall biosynthesis of terpenes has been studied. 4) Herbicide resistance. The resistance to glyphosate in poplars is being studied. In conclusion, further research into forest species, using molecular biology is considered essential.

  10. Integrating ecology into biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Katherine D; Martin, Hector Garcia; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-06-01

    New high-throughput culture-independent molecular tools are allowing the scientific community to characterize and understand the microbial communities underpinning environmental biotechnology processes in unprecedented ways. By creatively leveraging these new data sources, microbial ecology has the potential to transition from a purely descriptive to a predictive framework, in which ecological principles are integrated and exploited to engineer systems that are biologically optimized for the desired goal. But to achieve this goal, ecology, engineering and microbiology curricula need to be changed from the very root to better promote interdisciplinarity. PMID:17509863

  11. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  12. Cryopreservation of primary cell cultures of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, N; Kiselev, K; Sanina, N; Kostetsky, E

    2001-01-01

    Primary cell cultures obtained from somatic and larval tissues of bivalve molluscs and from embryos of sea urchins were frozen to -196 degrees C by two-step freezing using 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or/and trehalose (3-30 mg/ml) as cryoprotectants. We estimated both cell viability and the RNA synthetic activity after freeze-thaw. Total lipid extracts from the tissues of echinoderms examined as possible cryoprotective agents demonstrated a weak cryoprotective capacity. Mussel lipid extract was found to possess a considerable cryoprotective activity. Cryoprotective capacity of tested lipids correlated with their thermotropic behaviour. DMSO + trehalose combination was shown to be a favourable cryoprotectant and sea urchin blastula cells the most freezing-tolerant cells. PMID:11788872

  13. Effect of salinity on methanogenic propionate degradation by acclimated marine sediment-derived culture.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toyokazu; Kita, Akihisa; Okamura, Yoshiko; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Degradation of propionate under high salinity is needed for biomethane production from salt-containing feedstocks. In this study, marine sediment-derived culture was evaluated to determine the effect of salinity on methanogenic propionate degradation. Microbes in marine sediments were subjected to fed-batch cultivation on propionate for developing acclimatized cultures. The rate of propionate degradation increased eightfold during 10 rounds of cultivation. Microbial community composition was determined through pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons after 10 rounds of cultivation. Taxa analysis was conducted for the reads obtained by pyrosequencing. Known propionate degraders were undetectable in the acclimated culture. Comparison of bacterial taxa in the original sediment with those in the acclimated culture revealed that the populations of four bacterial taxa were significantly increased during acclimation. Methanolobus was the predominant archaea genus in the acclimated culture. The propionate degradation rate of the acclimated culture was not affected by salinity of up to equivalent of 1.9 % NaCl. The rate decreased at higher salinity levels and was more than 50 % of the maximum rate even at equivalent of 4.3 % NaCl. PMID:26364311

  14. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  15. Diversity of Marine-Derived Fungal Cultures Exposed by DNA Barcodes: The Algorithm Matters

    PubMed Central

    Andreakis, Nikos; Høj, Lone; Kearns, Philip; Hall, Michael R.; Ericson, Gavin; Cobb, Rose E.; Gordon, Benjamin R.; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Marine fungi are an understudied group of eukaryotic microorganisms characterized by unresolved genealogies and unstable classification. Whereas DNA barcoding via the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) provides a robust and rapid tool for fungal species delineation, accurate classification of fungi is often arduous given the large number of partial or unknown barcodes and misidentified isolates deposited in public databases. This situation is perpetuated by a paucity of cultivable fungal strains available for phylogenetic research linked to these data sets. We analyze ITS barcodes produced from a subsample (290) of 1781 cultured isolates of marine-derived fungi in the Bioresources Library located at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS). Our analysis revealed high levels of under-explored fungal diversity. The majority of isolates were ascomycetes including representatives of the subclasses Eurotiomycetidae, Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetidae, Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetidae, Xylariomycetidae and Saccharomycetidae. The phylum Basidiomycota was represented by isolates affiliated with the genera Tritirachium and Tilletiopsis. BLAST searches revealed 26 unknown OTUs and 50 isolates corresponding to previously uncultured, unidentified fungal clones. This study makes a significant addition to the availability of barcoded, culturable marine-derived fungi for detailed future genomic and physiological studies. We also demonstrate the influence of commonly used alignment algorithms and genetic distance measures on the accuracy and comparability of estimating Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) by the automatic barcode gap finder (ABGD) method. Large scale biodiversity screening programs that combine datasets using algorithmic OTU delineation pipelines need to ensure compatible algorithms have been used because the algorithm matters. PMID:26308620

  16. Parasitic diseases in marine cage culture--an example of experimental evolution of parasites?

    PubMed

    Nowak, Barbara F

    2007-05-01

    Rapid development of fish culture in marine cages has been associated with an emergence of parasitic diseases. There is a general trend to an increase in infections with ectoparasites with direct life cycles and a reduced diversity of parasites in aquaculture. Some mariculture creates conditions that are similar to serial passage experiments, which are used to study adaptation during experimental evolution of pathogens. In particular, increased density of fish, repeated introduction of naive hosts, homogenous host populations, fast growth and a potential decrease in genetic diversity are attributes of both aquaculture and serial passage experiments. Some free-living organisms, for example Neoparamoeba spp. and Uronema spp. parasitise fish in culture, but have not been reported from wild populations. Farming fish in marine cages can increase the risk of outbreaks of parasitic diseases, including those caused by opportunistic parasites. However, aquaculture has the potential to control parasitic diseases through selective breeding, vaccination and general fish health management. PMID:17316650

  17. Cytotoxicity assessment of antibiofouling compounds and by-products in marine bivalve cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Domart-Coulon, I; Auzoux-Bordenave, S; Doumenc, D; Khalanski, M

    2000-06-01

    Short-term primary cell cultures were derived from adult marine bivalve tissues: the heart of oyster Crassostrea gigas and the gill of clam Ruditapes decussatus. These cultures were used as experimental in vitro models to assess the acute cytotoxicity of an organic molluscicide, Mexel-432, used in antibiofouling treatments in industrial cooling water systems. A microplate cell viability assay, based on the enzymatic reduction of tetrazolium dye (MTT) in living bivalve cells, was adapted to test the cytotoxicity of this compound: in both in vitro models, toxicity thresholds of Mexel-432 were compared to those determined in vivo with classic acute toxicity tests. The clam gill cell model was also used to assess the cytotoxicity of by-products of chlorination, a major strategy of biofouling control in the marine environment. The applications and limits of these new in vitro models for monitoring aquatic pollutants were discussed, in reference with the standardized Microtox test. PMID:10806375

  18. Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Chen, C; Li, J; Xiang, W; Wu, H; Wu, J; Dai, S; Wu, H; Li, T; Wang, G

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, red, non-spore-forming, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain A4T, was isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium. Cells were flexible rods with gliding motility. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain A4T formed a coherent cluster with members of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter, and represents a distinct lineage in the family Flammeovirgaceae. Thermotolerance and a distinctive cellular fatty acid profile could readily distinguish this isolate from any bacteria of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter with a validly published name. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain A4T is suggested to represent a novel species in a novel genus, for which the name Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A4T ( = KCTC 42507T = CGMCC 1.15111T). PMID:26652750

  19. Biotechnology in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

    2004-02-01

    Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood. PMID:12937955

  20. Isolation of marine bacteria with antimicrobial activities from cultured and field-collected soft corals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hsin; Kuo, Jimmy; Sung, Ping-Jung; Chang, Yu-Chia; Lu, Mei-Chin; Wong, Tit-Yee; Liu, Jong-Kang; Weng, Ching-Feng; Twan, Wen-Hung; Kuo, Fu-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Bacteria associated with eight field-collected and five cultured soft corals of Briareum sp., Sinularia sp., Sarcophyton sp., Nephtheidae sp., and Lobophytum sp. were screened for their abilities in producing antimicrobial metabolites. Field-collected coral samples were collected from Nanwan Bay in southern Taiwan. Cultured corals were collected from the cultivating tank at National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium. A total of 1,526 and 1,138 culturable, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from wild and cultured corals, respectively; seawater requirement and antimicrobial activity were then assessed. There is no significant difference between the ratio of seawater-requiring bacteria on the wild and cultured corals. The ratio of antibiotic-producing bacteria within the seawater-requiring bacteria did not differ between the corals. Nineteen bacterial strains that showed high antimicrobial activity were selected for 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains could be assigned at the family level (Rhodobacteraceae). The remaining 16 strains belong to eight genera: Marinobacterium (2 strains), Pseudoalteromonas (1), Vibrio (5), Enterovibrio (1), Tateyamaria (1), Labrenzia (2), and Pseudovibrio (4). The crude extract from bacteria strains CGH2XX was found to have high cytotoxicity against the cancer cell line HL-60 (IC(50) = 0.94 μg/ml) and CCRF-CEM (IC(50) = 1.19 μg/ml). Our results demonstrate that the marine bacteria from corals have great potential in the discovery of useful medical molecules. PMID:22872580

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in marine fishes collected from fish culture sites in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, C K; Wong, P P; Chu, L M

    2001-01-01

    The levels of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in different tissues of three species of cultured marine fishes (Epinephelus areolatus, Lutjanus russelli, and Sparus sarba) collected from three fish culture sites in Hong Kong were evaluated. Metal pollution problems in the fish culture sites were serious, as reflected by the high metal concentrations recorded in sea water, sediments, and the biomonitor Perna viridis. In general, tissues of all three species contained high concentrations of Zn and Cu, but much lower concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr. Similar pattern of heavy metal concentrations was observed in sea water, sediment, and P. viridis. Metal concentrations in various tissues varied greatly among species and among fish culture sites. Different tissues showed different capacity for accumulating heavy metals. Gonad of all three species contained high concentrations of Zn. On the other hand, liver seemed to be the primary organ for Cu accumulation. Overall, metal concentrations in the tissues of culture marine fishes were much lower than those in P. viridis. Despite high metal levels in sea water and sediments, concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb in edible tissues, including muscle and skin, did not exceed permissible levels recommended by the Hong Kong Government for human consumption. PMID:11116341

  2. Production of volatile organic compounds in the culture of marine α-proteobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, M.; Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) release halogens in the troposphere and in the stratosphere by photolysis and released halogens catalyze ozone depletion . In the ocean, macroalgae, phytoplankton, and bacteria are considered to be the main producers of VOCs. Recent investigations have shown that marine bacteria produce halomethanes such as chloromethane, bromomethane, and iodomethane. However, knowledge of aquatic VOC production, particularly through bacteria, is lacking. We studied the production of VOCs, including halomethanes, through the bacterium HKF-1. HKF-1 was isolated from brackish water in Sanaru Lake, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. The bacterium belongs to the α-proteobacteria. Bacteria were incubated in marine broth 2216 (Difco) added with KI and KIO3 (each at 0.02 μmol/L) at 25°C. VOCs in the gas phase above the cultured samples was determined using a dynamic headspace (GESTEL DHS)—gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)—mass spectrometer (Agilent 5975C) at 0, 4, 7, 10 and 12 incubation days. In addition, the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was measured during the culture period. Measurement of VOCs showed that chloromethane, bromomethane, iodomethane, isoprene, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were produced in the culture of HKF-1. Dihalomethanes and trihalomethanes, such as dibromomethane, chloroiodomethane, bromoiodomethane, and tribromomethane, were not detected. Given that monohalomethanes and sulfur-containing VOCs were abundant in the culture, HKF-1 is one of the possible candidates as a producer of monohalomethane and sulfur-containing VOCs in marine environment, but not of di- or trihalomethanes.

  3. Biotechnology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.H.; Kung, S.D.

    1989-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to formulate strategies to continue and expand cooperation with China in biotechnology. Toward this end, the report focuses on three areas: (1) the mechanisms by which China sets priorities and funds biotechnology research; (2) the current status of China`s biotechnology research. Particular emphasis is placed on areas of potential interest to American scientists; and (3) the roles of various types of international cooperation programs in the development of biotechnology in China.

  4. Floating cultivation of marine cyanobacteria using coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Yoshida, E; Takeyama, H; Matsunaga, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop improved methodologies for bulk culturing of biotechnologically useful marine cyanobacteria in the open ocean. We have investigated the viability of using coal fly ash (CFA) blocks as the support medium in a novel floating culture system for marine micro-algae. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG 040607 was found to adhere to floating CFA blocks in liquid culture medium. Maximum density of attached cells of 2.0 x 10(8) cells/cm2 was achieved using seawater. The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902 weakly adhered to floating CFA blocks in BG-11 medium. Increasing the concentration of calcium ion in the culture medium enhanced adherence to CFA blocks. PMID:10849778

  5. Biotechnology in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibner, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes programs used by European countries and companies for advancing the commercialization of biotechnology. Compares European strategies and efforts in biotechnology with those undertaken in the United States. Includes listings of the European countries and the areas of biotechnology research. (ML)

  6. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Rua, Cintia P.J.; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Appolinario, Luciana R.; Venas, Tainá M.; Garcia, Gizele D.; Carvalho, Lucas S.; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Valle, Rogério A.B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health. PMID:25024903

  7. Chronic ulcerative dermatopathy in cultured marine fishes. Comparative study in sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Katharios, P; Papadaki, M; Ternengo, S; Kantham, P K; Zeri, C; Petraki, P E; Divanach, P

    2011-06-01

    Chronic ulcerative dermatopathy (CUD) also known as chronic erosive dermatopathy, hole-in-the-head, head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLE) and lateral line depigmentation (LLD) is a chronic disease of unknown aetiology that affects the lateral line canals of the head and the trunk of various fish species. It has been described only in freshwater species although there are reports that it also affects marine fish. Here, we describe the disease in cultured sharpsnout sea bream using histology and scanning electron microscopy and identify several marine species as CUD sensitive. The results of this study correlate the development of the disease with the use of borehole water, indicating that the aetiology is probably associated with water quality rather than nutritional imbalance or infectious agents. PMID:21545440

  8. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology. PMID:19831210

  9. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily. PMID:27318470

  10. Extracellular enzyme activity in anaerobic bacterial cultures: evidence of pullulanase activity among mesophilic marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Arnosti, C; Repeta, D J

    1994-03-01

    The extracellular enzymatic activity of a mixed culture of anaerobic marine bacteria enriched on pullulan [alpha(1,6)-linked maltotriose units] was directly assessed with a combination of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Hydrolysis products of pullulan were separated by GPC into three fractions with molecular weights of > or = 10,000, approximately 5,000, and < or = 1,200. NMR spectra of these fractions demonstrated that pullulan was rapidly and specifically hydrolyzed at alpha(1,6) linkages by pullulanase enzymes, most likely type II pullulanase. Although isolated pullulanase enzymes have been shown to hydrolyze pullulan completely to maltotriose (S. H. Brown, H. R. Costantino, and R. M. Kelly, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:1985-1991, 1990; M. Klingeberg, H. Hippe, and G. Antranikian, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 69:145-152, 1990; R. Koch, P. Zablowski, A. Spreinat, and G. Antranikian, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 71:21-26, 1990), the smallest carbohydrate detected in the bacterial cultures consisted of two maltotriose units linked through one alpha(1,6) linkage. Either the final hydrolysis step was closely linked to substrate uptake, or specialized porins similar to maltoporin might permit direct transport of large oligosaccharides into the bacterial cell. This is the first report of pullulanase activity among mesophilic marine bacteria. The combination of GPC and NMR could easily be used to assess other types of extracellular enzyme activity in bacterial cultures. PMID:8161177

  11. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  12. The evolution of cultural adaptations: Fijian food taboos protect against dangerous marine toxins.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie

    2010-12-22

    The application of evolutionary theory to understanding the origins of our species' capacities for social learning has generated key insights into cultural evolution. By focusing on how our psychology has evolved to adaptively extract beliefs and practices by observing others, theorists have hypothesized how social learning can, over generations, give rise to culturally evolved adaptations. While much field research documents the subtle ways in which culturally transmitted beliefs and practices adapt people to their local environments, and much experimental work reveals the predicted patterns of social learning, little research connects real-world adaptive cultural traits to the patterns of transmission predicted by these theories. Addressing this gap, we show how food taboos for pregnant and lactating women in Fiji selectively target the most toxic marine species, effectively reducing a woman's chances of fish poisoning by 30 per cent during pregnancy and 60 per cent during breastfeeding. We further analyse how these taboos are transmitted, showing support for cultural evolutionary models that combine familial transmission with selective learning from locally prestigious individuals. In addition, we explore how particular aspects of human cognitive processes increase the frequency of some non-adaptive taboos. This case demonstrates how evolutionary theory can be deployed to explain both adaptive and non-adaptive behavioural patterns. PMID:20667878

  13. Diseases of cultured marine fishes caused by Platyhelminthes (Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K

    2015-01-01

    Mariculture is a rapidly developing industrial sector. Generally, fish are maintained in net cages with high density. Cage culture systems allow uncontrolled flow of sea water containing potentially infectious stages of fish parasites. In such culture conditions, prevention of such parasitic infections is difficult for parasites with life cycles that complete within culture sites, among which monogeneans and blood flukes are the most important platyhelminthes. Intense monogenean infections induce respiratory and osmo-regulatory dysfunctions. A variety of control measures have been developed, including freshwater bath treatment and chemotherapy. The potential to control monogenean infections through selective breeding, modified culture techniques to avoid infection, and general fish health management are discussed. It should be noted that mariculture conditions have provided some host-specific monogeneans with a chance to expand their host ranges. Blood flukes sometimes induce mass mortality among farmed fish. In-feed administration of praziquantel is the best solution to treat infected fish. Some cases are described that show how international trade in marine fish has resulted in the spread of hitherto unknown parasites into indigenous farmed and wild fish. PMID:24998438

  14. Environmentally compatible applications of biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, R.J.; Egan, M.

    1994-09-01

    Using living organisms to minimize harmful human impact on the environment is relatively recent thrust of biotechnology. Biotechnology developments are being employed as green technologies in a variety of applications that fall into the category of environmental biotechnology. The following aspects of biotechnology are discussed in this article: biosensors; bioremediation; bioleaching; natural plastics; clean fuels; pesticides; regulation of biotechnology products and processes. 58 refs.

  15. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  16. Ohio Biotechnology Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lavonna; Bowermeister, Bob; Boudreau, Joyce

    This document, which lists the biotechnology competencies identified by representatives from biotechnology businesses and industries as well as secondary and post-secondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through…

  17. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  18. Ornamental Marine Species Culture in the Coral Triangle: Seahorse Demonstration Project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Susan L.; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R. Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O.; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species (`OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse ( Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

  19. Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS. PMID:25082298

  20. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J.

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production. PMID:26716833

  1. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production. PMID:26716833

  2. Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Rick, Torben C.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary study of coastal archaeological sites provides a wealth of information on the ecology and evolution of ancient marine animal populations, the structure of past marine ecosystems, and the history of human impacts on coastal fisheries. In this paper, we review recent methodological developments in the archaeology and historical ecology of coastal regions around the world. Using two case studies, we examine (a) a deep history of anthropogenic effects on the marine ecosystems of California's Channel Islands through the past 12,000 years and (b) geographic variation in the effects of human fishing on Pacific Island peoples who spread through Oceania during the late Holocene. These case studies—the first focused on hunter-gatherers, the second on maritime horticulturalists—provide evidence for shifting baselines and timelines, documenting a much deeper anthropogenic influence on many coastal ecosystems and fisheries than considered by most ecologists, conservation biologists, and fisheries managers.

  3. Bioethics and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology is at the intersection of science and ethics. Technological developments are shaped by an ethical vision, which in turn is shaped by available technology. Much in biotechnology can be celebrated for how it benefits humanity. But technology can have a darker side. Biotechnology can produce unanticipated consequences that cause harm or dehumanise people. The ethical implications of proposed developments must be carefully examined. The ethical assessment of new technologies, including biotechnology, requires a different approach to ethics. Changes are necessary because new technology can have a more profound impact on the world; because of limitations with a rights-based approach to ethics; because of the importance and difficulty of predicting consequences; and because biotechnology now manipulates humans themselves. The ethical questions raised by biotechnology are of a very different nature. Given the potential to profoundly change the future course of humanity, such questions require careful consideration. Rather than focussing on rights and freedoms, wisdom is needed to articulate our responsibilities towards nature and others, including future generations. The power and potential of biotechnology demands caution to ensure ethical progress. PMID:19003197

  4. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  5. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned. PMID:19626302

  6. Antimicrobial activity observed among cultured marine epiphytic bacteria reflects their potential as a source of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Penesyan, Anahit; Marshall-Jones, Zoe; Holmstrom, Carola; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2009-07-01

    The surfaces of marine eukaryotes provide a unique habitat for colonizing microorganisms where competition between members of these communities and chemically mediated interactions with their host are thought to influence both microbial diversity and function. For example, it is believed that marine eukaryotes may use their surface-associated bacteria to produce bioactive compounds in defence against competition and to protect the host against further colonization. With the increasing need for novel drug discovery, marine epibiotic bacteria may thus represent a largely underexplored source of new antimicrobial compounds. In the current study, 325 bacterial isolates were obtained from the surfaces of marine algae Delisea pulchra and Ulva australis. Thirty-nine showed to have antimicrobial activity and were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The majority of those isolates belonged to Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Interestingly, the most commonly isolated bacterial strain, Microbulbifer sp., from the surface of D. pulchra has previously been described as an ecologically significant epibiont of different marine eukaryotes. Other antimicrobial isolates obtained in this study belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Phylogenetically, little overlap was observed among the bacteria obtained from surfaces of D. pulchra and U. australis. The high abundance of cultured isolates that produce antimicrobials suggest that culturing remains a powerful resource for exploring novel bioactives of bacterial origin. PMID:19453738

  7. Corporate intelligence in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Persidis

    1999-05-01

    'Know thy neighbor' is a critical component of today's biotechnology practice. The industry is extremely rich in science and business information, and the pace of change is dramatic. Successful participation in biotechnology will always depend on good technology, management and money. In addition, an ingredient that needs more attention is competitive information- gathering and analysis. Competitive intelligence can be defined as actionable information that requires the ability to filter and synthesize relevant knowledge for the benefit of the company. Why is this necessary? How can it be done well? What examples are there? These are good questions that are inevitably faced by all biotechnology practitioners, and some answers are provided herein. PMID:10322287

  8. Comparison of Marine Microalgae Culture Systems for Fuels Production and Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, Joseph C; Polle, Juergen

    2006-05-30

    The dual problems of global fossil fuels supplies and global warming focus attention on the need to develop technologies that can provide large amounts of renewable fuels without contributing to global warming. The capture of power plant flue gas CO2 using microalgae cultures is one potential technology that could meet this objective. The central R&D issues are the design and operation of low-cost algal mass culture systems and the development of algal strains and cultivation techniques that can achieve very high biomass productivities. The major objective of this project was to develop mass culture techniques that could result in greatly increased biomass productivities, well above the about 50 metric tons per hectare per year (mt/ha/y) currently achievable. In this project, two marine microalgae species, the diatom Cyclotella sp.. and the green alga Tetraselmis sp., were cultivated on seawater in both open ponds and closed photo bioreactors, under a variety of different cultivation conditions. Simultaneous operation of the closed photo bioreactors and open ponds demonstrated similar productivities, under the same operating conditions. Thus the very expensive closed systems do not provide any major or inherent advantages in microalgae production over open ponds. Mutants of Cyclotella sp. were developed that exhibited reduced pigment content, which theoretically would result in greatly increased productivities when grown under full sunlight. However, in open ponds, these mutant strains exhibited similar productivities as the parental strains. The mutant strains all grew relatively slowly, suggesting that additional mutations masked whatever inherent potential for increased productivities may have resulted from the reduced pigment content. Research is still required to develop improved low pigment strains. When open pond cultures were exposed to intermittent sunlight, by partially covering the ponds with slats, solar conversion efficiencies increased dramatically

  9. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  10. Biotechnology at the Cutting Edge - Keasling

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab ALD for Biosciences and CEO of the Joint BioEnergy Institute, appears in a video on biotechnology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The video is part of en exhibit titled "Science in American Life," which examines the relationship between science, technology, progress and culture through artifacts, historical photographs and multimedia technology.

  11. Biotechnology, fermentation, foods and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, P.

    1981-02-01

    This article reviews the future of biotechnology in the food industry - the continuing development of methods for controlled fermentation and enzyme reaction, combined with the projected culturing of new and useful organisms through gene-splicing. At present, the largest enzyme market in the food industry is for glucose isomerase to convert glucose to high-fructose corn syrup.

  12. Biotechnology at the Cutting Edge - Keasling

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay

    2013-05-29

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab ALD for Biosciences and CEO of the Joint BioEnergy Institute, appears in a video on biotechnology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The video is part of en exhibit titled "Science in American Life," which examines the relationship between science, technology, progress and culture through artifacts, historical photographs and multimedia technology.

  13. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  14. Growth inhibition of cultured marine phytoplankton by toxic algal-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Ribalet, François; Berges, John A; Ianora, Adrianna; Casotti, Raffaella

    2007-12-15

    Several marine diatoms produce polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) that have been shown to be toxic to a wide variety of model organisms, from bacteria to invertebrates. However, very little information is available on their effect on phytoplankton. Here, we expand previous studies to six species of marine phytoplankton, belonging to different taxonomic groups that are well represented in marine plankton. The effect of three PUAs, 2E,4E-decadienal, 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal, was assessed on growth, cell membrane permeability, flow cytometric properties and morphology. A concentration-dependent reduction in the growth rate was observed for all cultures exposed to PUAs with longer-chained aldehydes having stronger effects on growth than shorter-chained aldehydes. Clear differences were observed among the different species. The prymnesiophyte Isochrysis galbana was the most sensitive species to PUA exposure with a lower threshold for an observed effect triggered by mean concentrations of 0.10 micromol L(-1) for 2E,4E-decadienal, 1.86 micromol L(-1) for 2E,4E-octadienal and 3.06 micromol L(-1) for 2E,4E-heptadienal, and a 50% growth inhibition (EC(50)) with respect to the control at 0.99, 2.25 and 5.90 micromol L(-1) for the three PUAs, respectively. Alternatively, the chlorophyte Tetraselmis suecica and the diatom Skeletonema marinoi (formerly S. costatum) were the most resistant species with 50% growth inhibition occurring at concentrations at least two to three times higher than I. galbana. In all species, the three PUAs caused changes in flow cytometric measures of cell size and cell granulosity and increased membrane permeability, assessed using the viability stain SYTOX Green. For example, after 48 h 51.6+/-2.6% of I. galbana cells and 15.0+/-1.8% of S. marinoi cells were not viable. Chromatin fragmentation was observed in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae while clear DNA degradation was observed in the chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta

  15. PBT-1 Prana Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Huckle, Richard

    2005-01-01

    PBT-1 (clioquinol), is undergoing phase II clinical trials by Prana Biotechnology Ltd for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease. By October 2004, the company had planned phase III trials for the first half of 2005. PMID:15675609

  16. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  17. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  18. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application. PMID:26810078

  19. Respiration and respiratory enzyme activity in aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the marine denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, T. T.; Garfield, P. C.; Martinez, R.

    1983-03-01

    Oxygen consumption, nitrate reduction, respiratory electron transport activity, and nitrate reductase activity were measured in aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the marine bacterium, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus. The respiratory electron transport activity was closely correlated with oxygen consumption ( r = 0.98) in aerobic cultures and nearly as well correlated with nitrate reductase activity ( r = 0.91) and nitrate reduction ( r = 0.85) in anaerobic cultures. It was also well correlated with biomass in both aerobic ( r = 0.99) and anaerobic ( r = 0.94) cultures supporting the use of tetrazolium reduction as an index of living biomass. Time courses of nitrate and nitrate in the anaerobic cultures demonstrated that at nitrate concentrations above 1 mM, denitrification proceeds stepwise. Time courses of pH in anaerobic cultures revealed a rise from 7 to 8.5 during nitrite reduction indicating net proton utilization. This proton utilization is predicted by the stoichiometry of denitrification. Although the experiments were not under 'simulated in situ' conditions, the results are relevant to studies of denitrification, to bacterial ATP production, and to the respiratory activity of marine plankton in the ocean.

  20. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes.

    PubMed

    Raddadi, Noura; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Neifar, Mohamed; Fava, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology. PMID:26272092

  1. Optimization and characterization of a new lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Brevibacterium aureum MSA13 in solid state culture.

    PubMed

    Seghal Kiran, G; Anto Thomas, T; Selvin, Joseph; Sabarathnam, B; Lipton, A P

    2010-04-01

    The biosurfactant production of a marine actinobacterium Brevibacterium aureum MSA13 was optimized using industrial and agro-industrial solid waste residues as substrates in solid state culture (SSC). Based on the optimization experiments, the biosurfactant production by MSA13 was increased to threefold over the original isolate under SSC conditions with pre-treated molasses as substrate and olive oil, acrylamide, FeCl(3) and inoculums size as critical control factors. The strain B. aureum MSA13 produced a new lipopeptide biosurfactant with a hydrophobic moiety of octadecanoic acid methyl ester and a peptide part predicted as a short sequence of four amino acids including pro-leu-gly-gly. The biosurfactant produced by the marine actinobacterium MSA13 can be used for the microbially enhanced oil recovery processes in the marine environments. PMID:19959354

  2. Mixed populations of marine microalgae in continuous culture: Factors affecting species dominance and biomass productivity.

    PubMed

    Regan, D L; Ivancic, N

    1984-11-01

    Marine microalgae were grown in multispecies continuous cultures. Under carbon dioxide limitation, blue-green algae dominated. Under nitrate and light limitation, species dominance depended on the initial conditions. When the inoculum consisted primarily of blue-green algae with smaller amounts of other species, blue-green algae and pennate diatoms dominated. When the inoculum consisted of equal amounts of all species, green flagellates and pennate diatoms dominated. Green flagellates and blue-green algae were incompatible and never shared dominance. When nutrient limitations were overcome, the productivity of seawater was increased 100-fold before light limitation occurred. The productivity could be further increased by reducing photorespiration in the culture. The dilution rates studied (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 day(-1)) had no effect on species dominance, nor did the higher dilution rates select for smaller cells. The maximum productivity occurred at a dilution rate of 0.2 day(-1). Temperature had the greatest effect on species dominance, with green flagellates, pennate diatoms, and blue-green algae dominating at 20 degrees C and only blue-green algae dominating at 35 degrees C. The productivity at 35 degrees C was lower than that at 20 degrees C because of the lower solubility of carbon dioxide at higher temperatures. At 10% salinity, green flagellates and pennate diatoms dominated. The productivity at this salinity was 50% that obtained at the salinity of seawater (3.5%). At 25% salinity, only the green flagellate, Dunaliella salina, survived at a productivity of 1% that obtained at the salinity of seawater. PMID:18551649

  3. Toxicological effects of cypermethrin to marine phytoplankton in a co-culture system under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Hui; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Yue, Wen-Jie

    2011-08-01

    The growth of three marine phytoplankton species Skeletonema costatum, Scrippsiella trochoidea and Chattonella marina and the response of the antioxidant defense system have been investigated on exposure to commercial cypermethrin for 96 h and 32 days in a co-culture system. Growth of the three species was generally comparable over 96 h with an inoculation of 1:3:6.5 (C. marina:S. trochoidea:S. costatum), with stimulation at 5 μg l(-1) and inhibition under higher concentrations (50, 100 μg l(-1)). However, when inoculating at ratios of 1:1:1 during a 32 day test, S. costatum became the most sensitive species and was significantly inhibited in all test groups under the dual stresses of cypermethrin and interspecies competition. The growth of C. marina was significantly inhibited at the concentrations higher than 5 μg l(-1), while the growth of S. trochoidea was significantly promoted at low concentrations. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities significantly increased during 6-12 h exposure periods in test treatments at low concentrations, and enhanced in the control as well due to interspecies competition. The lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde was enhanced at high concentrations, but did not increase in control and low concentration cultures with high SOD activities, indicating that algal cells activated the antioxidant enzymes promptly to protect the cells from lipid membrane damage. Results from this study suggested that cypermethrin pollution in maricultural sea waters might lead to a shift in phytoplankton community structure from diatom to harmful dinoflagellate species, and thus potentially stimulatory for harmful algal blooms. PMID:21499869

  4. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  5. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  6. Biotechnology takes root in the third world

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.

    1990-05-25

    Biotechnology offers the hope of increasing crop yields in the highland of communist Viet Nam. Thirty Vietnamese families have been culturing potato seedlings for planting. Their potato progeny earn the families $100 to $120 a month, a considerable sum in rural Viet Nam. Some of the farmers are starting to use the same techniques to propagate other vegetables in vitro. This is proof that biotechnology can be beneficial in developing nations. Now agriculture in countries from Indonesia to Ecuador is gaining from biotechnology, thereby helping them compete in the international marketplace. Third World leaders want their own biotech centers and to set their own research agendas, rather than relying on the First World to decide what genetically engineered crops would be most useful for them.

  7. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    PubMed

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. PMID:21680172

  8. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  9. Selected Chitinase Genes in Cultured and Uncultured Marine Bacteria in the α- and γ-Subclasses of the Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Matthew T.; Wood, Daniel N.; Yu, Liying; Kirchman, David L.

    2000-01-01

    PCR primers were patterned after chitinase genes in four γ-proteobacteria in the families Alteromonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (group I chitinases) and used to explore the occurrence and diversity of these chitinase genes in cultured and uncultured marine bacteria. The PCR results from 104 bacterial strains indicated that this type of chitinase gene occurs in two major groups of marine bacteria, α- and γ-proteobacteria, but not the Cytophaga-Flavobacter group. Group I chitinase genes also occur in some viruses infecting arthropods. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that similar group I chitinase genes occur in taxonomically related bacteria. However, the overall phylogeny of chitinase genes did not correspond to the phylogeny of 16S rRNA genes, possibly due to lateral transfer of chitinase genes between groups of bacteria, but other mechanisms, such as gene duplication, cannot be ruled out. Clone libraries of chitinase gene fragments amplified from coastal Pacific Ocean and estuarine Delaware Bay bacterioplankton revealed similarities and differences between cultured and uncultured bacteria. We had hypothesized that cultured and uncultured chitin-degrading bacteria would be very different, but in fact, clones having nucleotide sequences identical to those of chitinase genes of cultured α-proteobacteria dominated both libraries. The other clones were similar but not identical to genes in cultured γ-proteobacteria, including vibrios and alteromonads. Our results suggest that a closer examination of chitin degradation by α-proteobacteria will lead to a better understanding of chitin degradation in the ocean. PMID:10698791

  10. Evaluation of antibiotics as a methodological procedure to inhibit free-living and biofilm bacteria in marine zooplankton culture.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Vanessa O; Macedo, Alexandre J; Muxagata, Erik

    2016-01-01

    There is a problem with keeping culture medium completely or partially free from bacteria. The use of prokaryotic metabolic inhibitors, such as antibiotics, is suggested as an alternative solution, although such substances should not harm non-target organisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments in inhibiting free-living and biofilm bacteria and their half-life in artificial marine environment using the copepod Acartia tonsa as bioindicador of non-harmful antibiotic combinations. Regarding to results, the application of 0.025 g L-1 penicillin G potassium + 0.08 g L-1 streptomycin sulphate + 0.04 g L-1 neomycin sulphate showed great potential for use in marine cultures and scientific experiments without lethal effects to non-target organisms. The effect of this combination starts within the first six hours of exposure and reduces up to 93 % the bacterial density, but the half-life is short, requiring replacement. No adverse changes in water quality were observed within 168 hours of exposure. As a conclusion, we can infer that this treatment was an effective procedure for zooplankton cultures and scientific experiments with the aim of measuring the role of free-living and biofilm in the marine community. PMID:27168369

  11. Biotechnological production of vanillin.

    PubMed

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed. PMID:11548997

  12. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  13. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  14. Biological N2O fixation in the Eastern South Pacific Ocean and marine cyanobacterial cultures.

    PubMed

    Farías, Laura; Faúndez, Juan; Fernández, Camila; Cornejo, Marcela; Sanhueza, Sandra; Carrasco, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the global radiative balance and atmospheric ozone chemistry, its sources and sinks within the Earth's system are still poorly understood. In the ocean, N2O is produced by microbiological processes such as nitrification and partial denitrification, which account for about a third of global emissions. Conversely, complete denitrification (the dissimilative reduction of N2O to N2) under suboxic/anoxic conditions is the only known pathway accountable for N2O consumption in the ocean. In this work, it is demonstrated that the biological assimilation of N2O could be a significant pathway capable of directly transforming this gas into particulate organic nitrogen (PON). N2O is shown to be biologically fixed within the subtropical and tropical waters of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, under a wide range of oceanographic conditions and at rates ranging from 2 pmol N L(-1) d(-) to 14.8 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (mean ± SE of 0.522 ± 1.06 nmol N L(-1) d(-1), n = 93). Additional assays revealed that cultured cyanobacterial strains of Trichodesmium (H-9 and IMS 101), and Crocosphaera (W-8501) have the capacity to directly fix N2O under laboratory conditions; suggesting that marine photoautotrophic diazotrophs could be using N2O as a substrate. This metabolic capacity however was absent in Synechococcus (RCC 1029). The findings presented here indicate that assimilative N2O fixation takes place under extreme environmental conditions (i.e., light, nutrient, oxygen) where both autotrophic (including cyanobacteria) and heterotrophic microbes appear to be involved. This process could provide a globally significant sink for atmospheric N2O which in turn affects the oceanic N2O inventory and may also represent a yet unexplored global oceanic source of fixed N. PMID:23717516

  15. Genetic diversity in cultured and wild marine cyanomyoviruses reveals phosphorus stress as a strong selective agent.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Libusha; Ding, Huiming; Huang, Katherine H; Osburne, Marcia S; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2013-09-01

    Viruses that infect marine cyanobacteria-cyanophages-often carry genes with orthologs in their cyanobacterial hosts, and the frequency of these genes can vary with habitat. To explore habitat-influenced genomic diversity more deeply, we used the genomes of 28 cultured cyanomyoviruses as references to identify phage genes in three ocean habitats. Only about 6-11% of genes were consistently observed in the wild, revealing high gene-content variability in these populations. Numerous shared phage/host genes differed in relative frequency between environments, including genes related to phosphorous acquisition, photorespiration, photosynthesis and the pentose phosphate pathway, possibly reflecting environmental selection for these genes in cyanomyovirus genomes. The strongest emergent signal was related to phosphorous availability; a higher fraction of genomes from relatively low-phosphorus environments-the Sargasso and Mediterranean Sea-contained host-like phosphorus assimilation genes compared with those from the N. Pacific Gyre. These genes are known to be upregulated when the host is phosphorous starved, a response mediated by pho box motifs in phage genomes that bind a host regulatory protein. Eleven cyanomyoviruses have predicted pho boxes upstream of the phosphate-acquisition genes pstS and phoA; eight of these have a conserved cyanophage-specific gene (PhCOG173) between the pho box and pstS. PhCOG173 is also found upstream of other shared phage/host genes, suggesting a unique regulatory role. Pho boxes are found upstream of high light-inducible (hli) genes in cyanomyoviruses, suggesting that this motif may have a broader role than regulating phosphorous-stress responses in infected hosts or that these hlis are involved in the phosphorous-stress response. PMID:23657361

  16. The effect of engineered iron nanoparticles on growth and metabolic status of marine microalgae cultures.

    PubMed

    Kadar, Eniko; Rooks, Paul; Lakey, Cara; White, Daniel A

    2012-11-15

    Synthetic zero-valent nano-iron (nZVI) compounds are finding numerous applications in environmental remediation owing to their high chemical reactivity and versatile catalytic properties. Studies were carried out to assess the effects of three types of industrially relevant engineered nZVI on phytoplankton growth, cellular micromorphology and metabolic status. Three marine microalgae (Pavlova lutheri, Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis suecica) were grown on culture medium fortified with the nano-Fe compounds for 23 days and subsequent alterations in their growth rate, size distribution, lipid profiles and cellular ultrastructure were assessed. The added nano Fe concentrations were either equimolar with the EDTA-Fe conventionally added to the generic f/2 medium (i.e. 1.17 × 10(-5)M), or factor 10 lower and higher, respectively. We provide evidence for the: (1) broad size distribution of nZVI particles when added to the nutrient rich f/2 media with the higher relative percentage of the smallest particles with the coated forms; (2) normal algal growth in the presence of all three types of nZVIs with standard growth rates, cellular morphology and lipid content comparable or improved when compared to algae grown on f/2 with EDTA-Fe; (3) sustained algal growth and normal physiology at nZVI levels 10 fold below that in f/2, indicating preference to nanoparticles over EDTA-Fe; (4) increased total cellular lipid content in T. suecica grown on media enriched with uncoated nZVI25, and in P. lutheri with inorganically coated nZVI(powder), when compared at equimolar exposures; (5) significant change in fatty acid composition complementing the nZVI(powder)-mediated increase in lipid content of P. lutheri; (6) a putative NP uptake mechanism is proposed for I. galbana via secretion of an extracellular matrix that binds nZVIs which then become bioavailable via phagocytotic membrane processes. PMID:23059967

  17. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We hav processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture gas shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal ...

  19. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  20. Opportunities for Biotechnology and Policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  2. Projector Center. What Is Biotechnology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Case, Christine L.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a menu designed to illustrate some classical examples of fermentation. This may be used to discuss biotechnology from a technological perspective. Other examples of biotechnology used in the foods industry are described. (CW)

  3. OVERVIEW OF CROP BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of crop biotechnology on outcomes of agricultural practices and economics is readily evidenced by the escalating acreage of genetically engineered crops, all occurring in a relatively short time span. Until the mid 1990s, virtually no acreage was planted with commercial genetically mo...

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with EPA's mission to minimize risks to human health and to safeguard ecological integrity, the EPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) is committed to assessing and mitigating any risk posed by biotechnology-derived crops. Consequently, ...

  5. Applied Biotechnology in Nematology

    PubMed Central

    Caswell-Chen, E. P.; Williamson, V. M.; Westerdahl, B. B.

    1993-01-01

    During the past two decades, rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology have affected the understanding and treatment of human and plant diseases. The human and Caenorhabditis elegans genome-sequencing projects promise further techniques and results useful to applied nematology. Of course, biotechnology is not a panacea for nematological problems, but it provides many powerful tools that have potential use in applied biology and nematode management. The tools will facilitate research on a range of previously intractable problems in nematology, from identification of species and pathotypes to the development of resistant cultivars that have been inaccessible because of technical limitations. However, to those unfamiliar or not directly involved with the new technologies and their extensive terminology, the benefits of the advances in biotechnology may not be readily discerned. The sustainable agriculture of the future will require ecology-based management, and successful integrated nematode management will depend on combinations of control tactics to reduce nematode numbers. In this review we discuss how biotechnology may influence nematode management, define terminology relative to potential applications, and present current and future avenues of research in applied nematology, including species identification, race and pathotype identification, development of resistant cultivars, definition of nematode-host interactions, nematode population dynamics, establishment of optimal rotations, the ecology of biological control and development of useful biological control agents, and the design of novel nematicides. PMID:19279831

  6. Biotechnology, Ethics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental differences between current and past knowledge in the field of biotechnology mean that we now have at our disposal the means to irreversibly change what is meant by "human nature". This paper explores some of the ethical issues that accompany the (as yet tentative) attempt to increase scientific control over the human genetic code in…

  7. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  8. Biotechnology and derived products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  9. Biotechnology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program quide presents the biotechnology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and lists of…

  10. Biotechnology in weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  11. Culturable diversity and antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria from marine sediments in Valparaíso bay, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Claverías, Fernanda P.; Undabarrena, Agustina; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived Actinobacteria are a source of a broad variety of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities, such as antibiotics and antitumorals; many of which have been developed for clinical use. Rare Actinobacteria represent an untapped source of new bioactive compounds that have been scarcely recognized. In this study, rare Actinobacteria from marine sediments were isolated from the Valparaíso bay, Chile, and their potential to produce antibacterial compounds was evaluated. Different culture conditions and selective media that select the growth of Actinobacteria were used leading to the isolation of 68 bacterial strains. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences led to identifying isolates that belong to the phylum Actinobacteria with genetic affiliations to 17 genera: Aeromicrobium, Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Flaviflexus, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Janibacter, Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Ornithinimicrobium, Pseudonocardia, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, and Tessaracoccus. Also, one isolate could not be consistently classified and formed a novel phylogenetic branch related to the Nocardiopsaceae family. The antimicrobial activity of these isolates was evaluated, demonstrating the capability of specific novel isolates to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, this study shows a rich biodiversity of culturable Actinobacteria, associated to marine sediments from Valparaíso bay, highlighting novel rare Actinobacteria, and their potential for the production of biologically active compounds. PMID:26284034

  12. Optimization of culturing condition and medium composition for the production of alginate lyase by a marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Lin, Hong; Kim, Sang Moo

    2008-02-01

    Carbohydrases secreted by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 with strong Laminaria cell wall degrading ability were screened, and among them alginate lyase was found to be dominant. The effects of medium composition and culturing condition on the production of alginate lyase by marine Vibrio sp. YKW-34 in flask were investigated in this study. In the culture medium of marine broth, no alginate lyase was produced. The activity of the alginate lyase, after being induced, reached 5 UmL-1. The best inoculum volume and inoculum age were 10% and 12 h, respectively. The optimal temperature for alginate lyase production was 25°C. The fermentation medium was composed of 0.5% of Laminaria powder and 0.2% of KNO3 with an initial acidity of pH 8.0. Alginate could induce alginate lyase production but not as efficiently as Laminaria powder did. The addition of fucoidan, cellulose and glucose had negative effect on the alginate lyase production. Other kinds of nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract, beef extract and peptone, had positive effect on the growth of the microorganism and negative effect on alginate lyase production. In addition, the time course of alginate lyase production under the optimized condition was described. The optimal harvest time was 48 h.

  13. Pilot-scale bubble column photobioreactor culture of a marine dinoflagellate microalga illuminated with light emission diodes.

    PubMed

    López-Rosales, L; García-Camacho, F; Sánchez-Mirón, A; Martín Beato, E; Chisti, Yusuf; Molina Grima, E

    2016-09-01

    Production of biomass of the shear-sensitive marine algal dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum was successfully scaled-up to 80L using a bubble column photobioreactor. The scale factor exceeded 28,500. Light-emission diodes were used as the light source. The diel irradiance profile mimicked the outdoor profile of natural sunlight. The final cell concentration in the absence of nutrient limitation in the scaled-up photobioreactor was nearly 12×10(5)cellsmL(-1), or the same as in laboratory culture systems. The pH-controlled culture (pH=8.5) was always carbon-sufficient. The culture was mixed pneumatically by using a superficial air velocity of 1.9×10(-3)ms(-1) and the temperature was controlled at 21±1°C. PMID:27318163

  14. The Challenge in Teaching Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, F.; Aubusson, P.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture, industry and medicine are being altered by new biotechnologies. Biotechnology education is important because today's students and citizens will make decisions about the development and application of these new molecular biologies. This article reports an investigation of the teaching of biotechnology in an Australian state, New South…

  15. The Ohio Science Workbook: Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reames, Spencer E., Comp.

    Because of the daily impact of biotechnology, it is important that students have some knowledge and experience with biotechnology in order to enable them to deal with the issues that arise as a result of its implementation. The purpose of this workbook is to assist in the efforts to expose students to the concepts of biotechnology through hands-on…

  16. A culturally appropriate program that works: Native Americans in Marine and Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergun, J. R.

    2001-05-01

    For more than ten years, the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University has carried out the Native Americans in Marine and Space Sciences (NAMSS) Program. Its long-term goal is to increase the number of American Indian and Native Alaskan undergraduates in science who complete degrees, continue to graduate school and enter the professional scientific work force. Ninety-eight percent of NAMSS students have earned BS degrees and almost forty percent have continued in graduate school. These are impressive results considering the high national drop-out rate for Native American studentsaround 70% according to the Chronicle of Higher Education (26 May 1993, page A29). Most often, Native students wishing to earn degrees in science find few programs that fit with their traditional sense of place and community. Most programs are narrowly focused and do not support or nurture Native views of interrelationship of all things. While Western science's recent ecological systems thinking approach more closely resembles the traditional Native view, Traditional Ecological Knowledge is often perceived as anecdotal or storytelling and not real science. This is a problem for Native students who are strongly underrepresented in the U.S. scientific community as a whole and nearly absent from the marine sciences. Undergraduates from this group are without scientific career models or mentors from their ethnic group and experience difficulty establishing contacts with majority scientists. They have limited access to opportunities to explore career possibilities in the sciences through research participation. Once on campus they have difficulty establishing a sense of belonging in the University community and do not have an organized way to enter into the scientific activities that initially attracted them. Representation of Native Americans in the ranks of U.S. scientists will not be increased without special efforts to retain them as undergraduates and to recruit

  17. Coral-Associated Actinobacteria: Diversity, Abundance, and Biotechnological Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Huda M.; Kalendar, Aisha A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with three types of coral thriving in a thermally stressed coral reef system north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola, and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though Brevibacterium and Kocuria were the most dominant actinobacterial isolates, they failed to show any antimicrobial activity, whereas less dominant genera, such as Streptomyces, did show antimicrobial activity. Focusing on the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria may help to understand how corals thrive under harsh environmental conditions and may lead to the discovery of novel antimicrobial metabolites with potential biotechnological applications. PMID:26973601

  18. Coral-Associated Actinobacteria: Diversity, Abundance, and Biotechnological Potentials.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Huda M; Kalendar, Aisha A

    2016-01-01

    Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with three types of coral thriving in a thermally stressed coral reef system north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola, and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though Brevibacterium and Kocuria were the most dominant actinobacterial isolates, they failed to show any antimicrobial activity, whereas less dominant genera, such as Streptomyces, did show antimicrobial activity. Focusing on the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria may help to understand how corals thrive under harsh environmental conditions and may lead to the discovery of novel antimicrobial metabolites with potential biotechnological applications. PMID:26973601

  19. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology - Develop policies outlining

  20. Lichens as natural sources of biotechnologically relevant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Marcelino T; Parrot, Delphine; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The search for microorganisms from novel sources and in particular microbial symbioses represents a promising approach in biotechnology. In this context, lichens have increasingly become a subject of research in microbial biotechnology, particularly after the recognition that a diverse community of bacteria other than cyanobacteria is an additional partner to the traditionally recognized algae-fungus mutualism. Here, we review recent studies using culture-dependent as well as culture-independent approaches showing that lichens can harbor diverse bacterial families known for the production of compounds of biotechnological interest and that several microorganisms isolated from lichens, in particular Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria, can produce a number of bioactive compounds, many of them with biotechnological potential. PMID:26549239

  1. Isolation of Methylophaga spp. from Marine Dimethylsulfide-Degrading Enrichment Cultures and Identification of Polypeptides Induced during Growth on Dimethylsulfide▿

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS)-degrading enrichment cultures were established from samples of coastal seawater, nonaxenic Emiliania huxleyi cultures, and mixed marine methyl halide-degrading enrichment cultures. Bacterial populations from a broad phylogenetic range were identified in the mixed DMS-degrading enrichment cultures by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Sequences of dominant DGGE bands were similar to those of members of the genera Methylophaga and Alcanivorax. Several closely related Methylophaga strains were obtained that were able to grow on DMS as the carbon and energy source. Roseobacter-related populations were detected in some of the enrichment cultures; however, none of the Roseobacter group isolates that were tested were able to grow on DMS. Oxidation of DMS by Methylophaga sp. strain DMS010 was not affected by addition of the inhibitor chloroform or methyl tert-butyl ether, suggesting that DMS metabolism may occur by a route different from those described for Thiobacillus species and other unidentified marine isolates. Addition of DMS and methanethiol to whole-cell suspensions of strain DMS010 induced oxygen uptake when strain DMS010 was grown on DMS but not in cells grown on methanol. The apparent Kms of strain DMS010 for DMS and for methanethiol were 2.1 and 4.6 μM, respectively, when grown on DMS. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the biomass of strain DMS010 and analysis of peptide bands by mass spectrometry techniques and N-terminal sequencing provided the first insight into the identity of polypeptides induced during growth on DMS. These included XoxF, a homolog of the large subunit of methanol dehydrogenase for which a biological role has not been identified previously. PMID:17322322

  2. Carbon isotope fractionation by marine phytoplankton in culture: The effects of CO2 concentration, pH, temperature, and species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinga, Kenneth R.; Arthur, Michael A.; Pilson, Michael E. Q.; Whitaker, Dania

    1994-03-01

    Closed cultures of marine phytoplankton were established under variable conditions of CO2 concentration, temperature, growth rate (by light limitation), and pH (but with nearly identical [CO2aq]) in order to assess the relative influence of these variables on the extent of carbon isotope fractionation relative to dissolved inorganic carbon sources. Culture biomass was not allowed to increase beyond levels that would significantly affect the dissolved carbon system in the closed cultures. In experiments with Skeletonema costatum and Emiliania huxleyi, increasing CO2 concentrations led to increased carbon isotope discrimination (resulting in organic matter progressively depleted in δ13C, i.e., a greater, more negative ɛp). ɛp values for E. huxleyi were 8-10‰ less than for S. costatum under identical conditions. For the S. costatum cultures, there was nearly a 20 ‰ range in [CO2aq]-dependent ɛp. The effect was nonlinear with a leveling off at high [CO2aq]. Over a pH range of 7.5-8.3 but at a constant [CO2aq] there was a variation in carbon isotope fractionation by S. costatum of about 9 ‰ with a minimum at pH 7.8-7.9. There was a temperature effect of ˜8‰ on fractionation even after equilibrium temperature dependency of δ13C of CO2aq was taken into account. No growth rate effect was found for S. costatum over a modest range of growth rates. Culture experiments used to determine the carbon isotope fractionation by phytoplankton species must be conducted under well-defined conditions of temperature, pH, and CO2 concentrations. Hindcasts of ancient atmospheric pCO2 from measurements of δ13C of organic carbon in marine sediments will require careful calibration because of the variety of possible factors that influence δ13Corg.

  3. Porticoccus hydrocarbonoclasticus sp. nov., an aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium identified in laboratory cultures of marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Nichols, Peter D; Whitman, William B; Aitken, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    A marine bacterium, designated strain MCTG13d, was isolated from a laboratory culture of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum CCAP1121/2 by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon source. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the strain was most closely related to Porticoccus litoralis IMCC2115(T) (96.5%) and to members of the genera Microbulbifer (91.4 to 93.7%) and Marinimicrobium (90.4 to 92.0%). Phylogenetic trees showed that the strain clustered in a distinct phyletic line in the class Gammaproteobacteria for which P. litoralis is presently the sole cultured representative. The strain was strictly aerobic, rod shaped, Gram negative, and halophilic. Notably, it was able to utilize hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, whereas sugars did not serve as growth substrates. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain MCTG13d was Q-8, and the dominant fatty acids were C(16:1ω7c), C(18:1ω7c), and C(16:0). DNA G+C content for the isolate was 54.9 ± 0.42 mol%. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of this strain showed that this organism was common in other laboratory cultures of marine phytoplankton. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain MCTG13d represents a novel species of Porticoccus, for which the name Porticoccus hydrocarbonoclasticus sp. nov. is proposed. The discovery of this highly specialized hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium living in association with marine phytoplankton suggests that phytoplankton represent a previously unrecognized biotope of novel bacterial taxa that degrade hydrocarbons in the ocean. PMID:22139001

  4. Porticoccus hydrocarbonoclasticus sp. nov., an Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Identified in Laboratory Cultures of Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Peter D.; Whitman, William B.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    A marine bacterium, designated strain MCTG13d, was isolated from a laboratory culture of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum CCAP1121/2 by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon source. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the strain was most closely related to Porticoccus litoralis IMCC2115T (96.5%) and to members of the genera Microbulbifer (91.4 to 93.7%) and Marinimicrobium (90.4 to 92.0%). Phylogenetic trees showed that the strain clustered in a distinct phyletic line in the class Gammaproteobacteria for which P. litoralis is presently the sole cultured representative. The strain was strictly aerobic, rod shaped, Gram negative, and halophilic. Notably, it was able to utilize hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, whereas sugars did not serve as growth substrates. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain MCTG13d was Q-8, and the dominant fatty acids were C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω7c, and C16:0. DNA G+C content for the isolate was 54.9 ± 0.42 mol%. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of this strain showed that this organism was common in other laboratory cultures of marine phytoplankton. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain MCTG13d represents a novel species of Porticoccus, for which the name Porticoccus hydrocarbonoclasticus sp. nov. is proposed. The discovery of this highly specialized hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium living in association with marine phytoplankton suggests that phytoplankton represent a previously unrecognized biotope of novel bacterial taxa that degrade hydrocarbons in the ocean. PMID:22139001

  5. Environmental Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang Jiang; Liu, Lei; Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Wang, Lei; Chen, Ying Guang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, He; Chen, Jian

    Environmental biotechnology has emerged as an important measure to tackle the environmental pollution as China experiences great economic success. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been paid to the following fields in environmental biotechnology: microbial degradation of toxic and organic chemicals, bio-treatment of wastewater, waste recycling. The Chinese researchers have done a lot of work to understand the natural degradation processes for organic and toxic compounds and finally to clean these compounds from polluted environments. For the treatment of wastewater, many new processes were proposed and optimized to meet the more strict effluent standards in China. Finally, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of discharged wastes. In this chapter we review the development in the above fields.

  6. Engineering synergy in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens; Fussenegger, Martin; Keasling, Jay; Lee, Sang Yup; Liao, James C; Prather, Kristala; Palsson, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Biotechnology is a central focus in efforts to provide sustainable solutions for the provision of fuels, chemicals and materials. On the basis of a recent open discussion, we summarize the development of this field, highlighting the distinct but complementary approaches provided by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for the creation of efficient cell factories to convert biomass and other feedstocks to desired chemicals. PMID:24743245

  7. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a marine magnetotactic spirillum axenic culture QH-2 from an intertidal zone of the China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kailing; Pan, Hongmiao; Li, Jinhua; Yu-Zhang, Kui; Zhang, Sheng-Da; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Zhou, Ke; Yue, Haidong; Pan, Yongxin; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2010-05-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. Because of their fastidious requirements for growth conditions, only very few axenic MTB cultures have been obtained worldwide. In this study, we report a novel marine magnetotactic spirillum axenic culture, designated as QH-2, isolated from the China Sea. It was able to grow in semi-solid or liquid chemically defined medium. The cells were amphitrichously flagellated and contained one single magnetosome chain with an average number of 16 magnetosomes per cell. Phosphate and lipid granules were also observed in the cells. Both rock magnetism and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy characterizations indicated that the magnetosomes in QH-2 were single-domain magnetites (Fe(3)O(4)). QH-2 cells swam mostly in a straight line at a velocity of 20-50 microm/s and occasionally changed to a helical motion. Unlike other magnetotactic spirilla, QH-2 cells responded to light illumination. As a consequence of illumination, the cells changed the direction in which they swam from parallel to the magnetic field to antiparallel. This response appears to be similar to the effect of an increase in [O(2)]. Analysis of the QH-2 16S rRNA sequence showed that it had greater than 11% sequence divergence from freshwater magnetotactic spirilla. Thus, the marine QH-2 strain seems to be both phylogenetically and magnetotactically distinct from the freshwater Magnetospirillum spp. studied previously. PMID:20178843

  9. Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., an aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium found associated with laboratory cultures of marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Green, David H; Nichols, Peter D; Whitman, William B; Semple, Kirk T; Aitken, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    A strictly aerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TG408, was isolated from a laboratory culture of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (CCAP1077/1C) by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed this organism within the order Xanthomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives included representatives of the Hydrocarboniphaga-Nevskia-Sinobacter clade (<92% sequence similarity) in the family Sinobacteraceae. The strain exhibited a narrow nutritional spectrum, preferring to utilize aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds and small organic acids. Notably, it displayed versatility in degrading two- and three-ring PAHs. Moreover, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was detected in lysates, indicating that this strain utilizes the meta-cleavage pathway for aromatic compound degradation. Cells produced surface blebs and contained a single polar flagellum. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain TG408 was Q-8, and the dominant fatty acids were C(16:0), C(16:1) ω7c, and C(18:1) ω7c. The G+C content of the isolate's DNA was 64.3 mol% ± 0.34 mol%. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG408 represents a novel genus and species in the class Gammaproteobacteria for which the name Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of this strain were developed and used to show that this organism is found associated with other species of marine phytoplankton. Phytoplankton may be a natural biotope in the ocean where new species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria await discovery and which contribute significantly to natural remediation processes. PMID:23087039

  10. Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., an Aromatic-Hydrocarbon-Degrading Marine Bacterium Found Associated with Laboratory Cultures of Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Green, David H.; Nichols, Peter D.; Whitman, William B.; Semple, Kirk T.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    A strictly aerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain TG408, was isolated from a laboratory culture of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum (CCAP1077/1C) by enrichment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed this organism within the order Xanthomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives included representatives of the Hydrocarboniphaga-Nevskia-Sinobacter clade (<92% sequence similarity) in the family Sinobacteraceae. The strain exhibited a narrow nutritional spectrum, preferring to utilize aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds and small organic acids. Notably, it displayed versatility in degrading two- and three-ring PAHs. Moreover, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was detected in lysates, indicating that this strain utilizes the meta-cleavage pathway for aromatic compound degradation. Cells produced surface blebs and contained a single polar flagellum. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain TG408 was Q-8, and the dominant fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1 ω7c, and C18:1 ω7c. The G+C content of the isolate's DNA was 64.3 mol% ± 0.34 mol%. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG408 represents a novel genus and species in the class Gammaproteobacteria for which the name Polycyclovorans algicola gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. Quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of this strain were developed and used to show that this organism is found associated with other species of marine phytoplankton. Phytoplankton may be a natural biotope in the ocean where new species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria await discovery and which contribute significantly to natural remediation processes. PMID:23087039

  11. Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of marine aquaculture is challenged by the high cost and limited availability of coastal land and water resources, effluent concerns, high production costs, restricted growing seasons, lack of quality seedstock, and inadequate regulatory and permitting processes. Many of these constraints...

  12. Isolation and cultivation of fungal strains from in vitro cell cultures of two marine sponges (Porifera: Halichondrida and Haplosclerida)

    PubMed Central

    Rozas, Enrique E.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Müller, Werner E.G.; Schröder, Heinz-C.; Custódio, Márcio R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large number of reports describing sponge-microbe associations, limited knowledge is available about associated fungi and their relationships with the hosts. In this work, specific fungal strains were obtained directly from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and single sponge cells (cytospins) and compared with those obtained from whole tissue preparations. A total of 27 fungal strains were isolated from the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona melana. Fifteen strains, nine from H. heliophila and six from H. melana, were obtained from whole tissue and were considered as possible mesohyl associated or transient fungi. Twelve strains were isolated from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and were, therefore, considered as cell associated. From these, five different strains were obtained from H. heliophila isolated cells, while five were identified from cytospins and two from primmorphs of H. melana. The fungal strains obtained from cell cultures from both sponge species were different, and none of them were detected in the whole tissue preparations of the same species. Nine H. heliophila and seven H. melana strains shows low similarity with the sequences available in public databases and belong to potentially new species. This is the first report of fungi isolated directly from sponge cells, which allowed the observation and selection of specific strains that probably would not be obtained by usual culture dependent techniques. PMID:24031790

  13. Isolation and cultivation of fungal strains from in vitro cell cultures of two marine sponges (Porifera: Halichondrida and Haplosclerida).

    PubMed

    Rozas, Enrique E; Albano, Rodolpho M; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz-C; Custódio, Márcio R

    2011-10-01

    Despite the large number of reports describing sponge-microbe associations, limited knowledge is available about associated fungi and their relationships with the hosts. In this work, specific fungal strains were obtained directly from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and single sponge cells (cytospins) and compared with those obtained from whole tissue preparations. A total of 27 fungal strains were isolated from the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona melana. Fifteen strains, nine from H. heliophila and six from H. melana, were obtained from whole tissue and were considered as possible mesohyl associated or transient fungi. Twelve strains were isolated from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and were, therefore, considered as cell associated. From these, five different strains were obtained from H. heliophila isolated cells, while five were identified from cytospins and two from primmorphs of H. melana. The fungal strains obtained from cell cultures from both sponge species were different, and none of them were detected in the whole tissue preparations of the same species. Nine H. heliophila and seven H. melana strains shows low similarity with the sequences available in public databases and belong to potentially new species. This is the first report of fungi isolated directly from sponge cells, which allowed the observation and selection of specific strains that probably would not be obtained by usual culture dependent techniques. PMID:24031790

  14. Influence of strong monsoon winds on the water quality around a marine cage-culture zone in a shallow and semi-enclosed bay in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Chao Angelo; Huang, Shou-Chung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-04-01

    Influences of marine cage culture and monsoonal disturbances, northeasterly (NE) and southwesterly (SW) monsoons on the proximal marine environment were investigated across a gradient of sites in a semi-enclosed bay, Magong Bay (Penghu Islands, Taiwan). Elevated levels of ammonia produced by the cages were the main pollutant and distinguished the cage-culture and intermediary zones (1000 m away from the cages) from the reference zone in the NE monsoon, indicating currents produced by the strong monsoon may have extended the spread of nutrient-enriched waters without necessarily flushing such effluents outside Magong Bay. Moreover, the levels of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were distinguishable between two seasons, suggesting that resuspension caused by the NE monsoon winds may also influence the water quality across this bay. It indicated that the impacts of marine cage culture vary as a function of distance, and also in response to seasonal movements of water driven by local climatic occurrences. PMID:22306313

  15. History of biotechnology in Austria.

    PubMed

    Roehr, M

    2000-01-01

    Austria has contributed significantly to the progress of the biotechnologies in the past and is actively engaged in doing so today. This review describes the early history of biotechnology in Austria, beginning with the Vienna process of baker's yeast manufacture in 1846, up to the achievements of the 20th century, e.g. the submerged vinegar process, penicillin V, immune biotechnology, biomass as a renewable source of fermentation products (power alcohol, biogas, organic acids etc.), biopulping, biopolymers, biocatalysis, mammalian cell technology, nanotechnology of bacterial surface layers, and environmental biotechnology. PMID:11036693

  16. Development of Marine Science and Technology in Africa. Working Group of Experts Sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). Unesco Reports in Marine Sciences, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Beginning in the late 1970's, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) increased their efforts to formulate and implement African development programs. Reported in this document is a meeting on marine resource technology which was jointly convened by…

  17. Biotechnology-a sustainable alternative for chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Chisti, Yusuf

    2005-11-01

    This review outlines the current and emerging applications of biotechnology, particularly in the production and processing of chemicals, for sustainable development. Biotechnology is "the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents". Some of the defining technologies of modern biotechnology include genetic engineering; culture of recombinant microorganisms, cells of animals and plants; metabolic engineering; hybridoma technology; bioelectronics; nanobiotechnology; protein engineering; transgenic animals and plants; tissue and organ engineering; immunological assays; genomics and proteomics; bioseparations and bioreactor technologies. Environmental and economic benefits that biotechnology can offer in manufacturing, monitoring and waste management are highlighted. These benefits include the following: greatly reduced dependence on nonrenewable fuels and other resources; reduced potential for pollution of industrial processes and products; ability to safely destroy accumulated pollutants for remediation of the environment; improved economics of production; and sustainable production of existing and novel products. PMID:15919172

  18. Patho-biotechnology: using bad bugs to do good things.

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D; Hill, Colin

    2006-04-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have evolved sophisticated strategies to overcome host defences, to interact with the immune system and to interfere with essential host systems. We coin the term 'patho-biotechnology' to describe the exploitation of these valuable traits in biotechnology, medicine and food. This approach shows promise for the development of novel vaccine and drug delivery systems, as well as for the design of more technologically robust and effective probiotic cultures with improved biotechnological and clinical applications. The genetic tractability of Listeria monocytogenes, the availability of the complete genome sequence of this intracellular pathogen, its ability to cope with stress, and its ability to traverse the gastrointestinal tract and induce a strong cellular immune response make L. monocytogenes an ideal model organism for demonstrating the patho-biotechnology concept. PMID:16459072

  19. Sulfide induces phosphate release from polyphosphate in cultures of a marine Beggiatoa strain

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Jörg; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur bacteria such as Beggiatoa or Thiomargarita have a particularly high capacity for storage because of their large size. In addition to sulfur and nitrate, these bacteria also store phosphorus in the form of polyphosphate. Thiomargarita namibiensis has been shown to release phosphate from internally stored polyphosphate in pulses creating steep peaks of phosphate in the sediment and thereby inducing the precipitation of phosphorus-rich minerals. Large sulfur bacteria populate sediments at the sites of recent phosphorite formation and are found as fossils in ancient phosphorite deposits. Therefore, it can be assumed that this physiology contributes to the removal of bioavailable phosphorus from the marine system and thus is important for the global phosphorus cycle. We investigated under defined laboratory conditions which parameters stimulate the decomposition of polyphosphate and the release of phosphate in a marine Beggiatoa strain. Initially, we tested phosphate release in response to anoxia and high concentrations of acetate, because acetate is described as the relevant stimulus for phosphate release in activated sludge. To our surprise, the Beggiatoa strain did not release phosphate in response to this treatment. Instead, we could clearly show that increasing sulfide concentrations and anoxia resulted in a decomposition of polyphosphate. This physiological reaction is a yet unknown mode of bacterial polyphosphate usage and provides a new explanation for high phosphate concentrations in sulfidic marine sediments. PMID:20827290

  20. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops. PMID:26798073

  1. Species-Specific Detection of Vibrio anguillarum in Marine Aquaculture Environments by Selective Culture and DNA Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Picado, J.; Alsina, M.; Blanch, A. R.; Cerda, M.; Jofre, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for specific detection of Vibrio anguillarum in complex microbial communities within diverse marine aquaculture environments were evaluated. A system for the detection of culturable cells based on the combined use of a selective medium and a nonradioactively labeled oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to 16S rRNA was developed. Four hundred fourteen bacterial cultures were evaluated in order to assess the specificity of the method. When both the selective medium and the specific probe gave positive results, the cultures were always identified as V. anguillarum. The selectivity for colony hybridization was 1 V. anguillarum cell in 10,000 total bacterial cells in environmental samples. The utility of the method was also compared with detection by dot blot hybridization of either raw DNA purified from environmental samples or PCR-amplified DNA of 16S rRNA genes, using universal eubacterial primers. The post-PCR hybridization was more sensitive (8 x 10(sup2) cells) than direct hybridization of the whole purified DNA (10(sup6) cells). However, the selective medium-probe combined method was as sensitive as post-PCR hybridization, albeit more specific. PMID:16535233

  2. Biotechnology: from university to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the birth of the biotechnology industry in the US. It is argued that biotechnology may have important implications for the future of American capitalism. The study is contextualized theoretically through the use of the idea of the capitalism experiences waves of innovations at certain historical periods. Finally, the idea of a new regime of accumulation based on information technologies is explored and biotechnology's potential position in the information society is explored. The first section of the study examines the role of the university in biotechnology. The various objectives of administrators and professors are explored as is the role of corporate gift giving in transforming the university into an institution more useful for capitalist accumulation. The second section examines the corporate role in biotechnology: both from the viewpoint of the small venture capital-financed biotechnology firms and the large multinational oil, chemical, and pharmaceutical companies that have made a number of important investments in biotechnology. The last chapter describes the unique effects that biotechnology will have upon the US agricultural sector.

  3. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  4. On Teaching Biotechnology in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dan C.; Kemp, Michael C.; Hall, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    One study surveyed 187 Kentucky teachers (36% agriculture, 32% science, 32% technology education); they rated importance of content organizers, topics, transferable skills, and delivery methods for biotechnology. A second study received responses from 70 of 150 teachers; 45 thought science teachers or an integrated team should teach biotechnology;…

  5. The Challenge in Teaching Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, F.; Aubusson, P.

    2004-08-01

    Agriculture, industry and medicine are being altered by new biotechnologies. Biotechnology education is important because todays students and citizens will make decisions about the development and application of these new molecular biologies. This article reports an investigation of the teaching of biotechnology in an Australian state, New South Wales (NSW). In NSW few students were electing to answer examination questions related to biotechnology, suggesting that few students were studying the topic. This study looks at why electives relating to biotechnology are chosen or not chosen by students and teachers, with the intention of developing a greater understanding of the requirements for provision of a successful unit of study in this subject. Data was obtained through a survey of secondary science teachers, interviews with teachers and two case studies of the teaching of a biotechnology unit. Teachers reported a range of obstacles to the teaching of biotechnology including the difficulty of the subject matter and a lack of practical work that was suited to the content of the teaching unit. If biotechnology is worth learning in school science, then further research is needed to identify ways to promote the effective teaching of this topic, which teachers regard as important for, and interesting to, students but which most teachers choose not to teach.

  6. A Sourcebook of Biotechnology Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Alison M., Ed.; Matheson, Robert H., III, Ed.

    This book contains 22 lessons using hands-on activities designed to present some aspect of biotechnology in a usable form that teachers can adapt for their classrooms. The introductory section serves as a resource that introduces the teacher and student to the history of biotechnology. The activities are divided into five units that group lessons…

  7. Biotechnology Outlines for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolella, Mary Jane

    1991-01-01

    Presents a course outline for the study of biotechnology at the high school or college level. The outline includes definitions, a history, and the vocabulary of biotechnology. Presents a science experiment to analyze the effects of restriction enzymes on DNA. (MDH)

  8. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  9. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  10. Toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene to marine phytoplankton in culture: does cell size really matter?

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Hiba; Leboulanger, Christophe; Le Floc'h, Emilie; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Hlaili, Asma Sakka

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) was evaluated on seven species of marine algae in culture belonging to pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton, exposed to increasing concentrations of up to 2 mg L(-1). The short-term (24h) toxicity was assessed using chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, linked to photosynthetic parameters. The maximum quantum yield Fv/Fm was lower at the highest concentrations tested and the toxicity thresholds were species-dependent. For acute effects, fluoranthene was more toxic than benz(a)anthracene, with LOECs of 50.6 and 186 μg L(-1), respectively. After 72 h exposure, there was a dose-dependent decrease in cell density, fluoranthene being more toxic than benz(a)anthracene. The population endpoint at 72 h was affected to a greater extent than the photosynthetic endpoint at 24h. EC50 was evaluated using the Hill model, and species sensitivity was negatively correlated to cell biovolume. The largest species tested, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, was almost insensitive to either PAH. The population endpoint EC50s for fluoranthene varied from 54 μg L(-1) for the picophytoplankton Picochlorum sp. to 418 μg L(-1) for the larger diatom Chaetoceros muelleri. The size/sensitivity relationship is proposed as a useful model when there is a lack of ecotoxicological data on hazardous chemicals, especially in marine microorganisms. PMID:23122731

  11. Pyruvatibacter mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium from the culture broth of Picochlorum sp. 122.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Tang, Mingxing; Wu, Hualian; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Chen, Chenghao; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain GYP-11T, was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochloruma sp. 122. Cells were dimorphic rods; free living cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum, and star-shaped-aggregate-forming cells were attached with stalks and non-motile. Sodium pyruvate or Tween 20 was required for growth on marine agar 2216.16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate shared 94.07 % similarity with its closest type strain, Parvibaculum hydrocarboniclasticum EPR92T. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain GYP-11T represents a distinct lineage in a robust clade consisting of strain GYP-11T, alphaproteobacterium GMD21A06 and Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi Ec32. This clade was close to the genera Parvibaculum and Tepidicaulis in the order Rhizobiales. Chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics, including cellular fatty acids and carbon source profiles, also readily distinguished strain GYP-11T from all established genera and species. Thus, it is concluded that strain GYP-11T represents a novel species of a new genus in the order Rhizobiales, for which the name Pyruvatibacter mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pyruvatibacter mobilis is GYP-11T ( = CGMCC 1.15125T = KCTC 42509T). PMID:26476620

  12. Occurrence, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. in marine species of shrimps cultured at inland low salinity ponds.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yutaka; Hamano, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Isao; Aue-Umneoy, Dusit; Ban, Masatoshi; Satomi, Masataka

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to document the risk of Aeromonas spp. in marine shrimp species cultured in inland low salinity ponds in Thailand. In 14 of 18 shrimp samples retrieved from inland grow-up ponds, Aeromonas spp. were detected at ranges from 4667 to 1,500,000 CFU/g body weight. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the gyrB and cpn60 concatenated sequences indicated that the 87 isolates consisted of Aeromonas veronii (70%), Aeromonas aquariorum (18%), Aeromonas caviae (7%), Aeromonas jandaei (2%), and Aeromonas schubertii (2%). The potential virulence of the isolates was examined by phenotypic and PCR assays. Hemolytic activity and the extracellular activity of lipase, DNase, and gelatinase were observed in most isolates (94-99%). PCR revealed the presence of 9 genes related to virulence in the 87 isolates: act (75%), aer (74%), alt (30%), ast (1%), ascV (34%), aexT (24%), fla (92%), ela (34%), and lip (24%). The susceptibility profiles to 14 antimicrobial agents of isolates were typical for the genus, but resistance to cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin, and imipenem were found in two A. aquariorum and in three A. veronii isolates, respectively. These resistances were confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations. Our results indicate that the microbiological risk posed by Aeromonas should be considered for marine shrimp species that are cultured in low-salinity ponds. These shrimps may also be a vehicle for the transfer of different genotypes of Aeromonas and antibiotic-resistant determinants to regions worldwide through trade. PMID:25583334

  13. [Biotechnology and vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Peret, R

    1990-12-01

    Current biotechnologies used in the manufacture of new vaccines are of three kinds: Genetic recombinations leading to either vaccinal sub-units or living vaccines represented by recombinant vectors; Chemical synthesis techniques; Use of the spatial configuration of an anti-antibody similar to the initial antigen. These are the anti-idiotype vaccines. Genetic engineering is the basis of a new generation of vaccines, sought with the aim of attempting to eradicate a number of diseases throughout the world. However, there is presently an inadequacy in resources, most often linked to financial considerations, which limits widespread systematic vaccination. In the future, vaccines against dental caries will probably be obtained from purified proteins of hydrolase fractions common to cariogenic bacteria and resulting from genetic recombinations in the form of vaccinal sub-units. PMID:2077866

  14. Biotechnological Applications of Transglutaminases

    PubMed Central

    Rachel, Natalie M.; Pelletier, Joelle N.

    2013-01-01

    In nature, transglutaminases catalyze the formation of amide bonds between proteins to form insoluble protein aggregates. This specific function has long been exploited in the food and textile industries as a protein cross-linking agent to alter the texture of meat, wool, and leather. In recent years, biotechnological applications of transglutaminases have come to light in areas ranging from material sciences to medicine. There has also been a substantial effort to further investigate the fundamentals of transglutaminases, as many of their characteristics that remain poorly understood. Those studies also work towards the goal of developing transglutaminases as more efficient catalysts. Progress in this area includes structural information and novel chemical and biological assays. Here, we review recent achievements in this area in order to illustrate the versatility of transglutaminases. PMID:24970194

  15. [Ethical aspects of biotechnology].

    PubMed

    de Jong, O J

    1987-01-15

    The relationship between man and animals usually receives little if any attention in ethics. Albert Schweitzer and his 'reverence for life' (1923) was the only exception. The rapid and recent developments of biotechnological possibilities in the field of veterinary medicine have so far not been considered from the point of view of ethics. In agreement with Schweitzer, Karl Barth (1951) stressed the principle of life which man and animals have in common. Passages in the Bible attribute one and the same 'life' ('soul') to both (Book of Proverbs 12: 10) and presuppose 'salvation' or 'preservation' of the two (Psalm 36:7c). Human responsibility in associating with this related species will therefore have to be apparent from careful maintenance of the conditions of this form of life, in research as well as in management. PMID:3824339

  16. Digital and analog gene circuits for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells. PMID:24677719

  17. CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLL A FLOURESCENCE AND PIGMENT RATIOS DURING DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES OF A UNICELLULAR MARINE CHAETOCEROS (BACILLAROPHYCEAE) IN BATCH CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interpretations of chlorophyll a fluorescence data are based largely on application with green algae and higher plants. This study evaluated the interpretation of fluorescence data for a unicellular marine diatom. Chaetoceros sp. was grown in 4-liter batch cultures on a 16:8, L:D...

  18. The Biotechnological Potential of Thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Lewis; Nichols; McMeekin

    1999-11-01

    Thraustochytrids are common marine microheterotrophs, taxonomically aligned with heterokont algae. Recent studies have shown that some thraustochytrid strains can be cultured to produce high biomass, containing substantial amounts of lipid rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). It is also evident that cell yield and PUFA production by some thraustochytrid strains can be varied by manipulation of physical and chemical parameters of the culture. At present, fish oils and cultured phototrophic microalgae are the main commercial sources of PUFA. The possible decline of commercial fish stocks and the relatively complex technology required to commercially produce microalgae have prompted research into possible alternative sources of PUFA. The culture of thraustochytrids and other PUFA-producing microheterotrophs is seen as one such alternative. Indeed, several thraustochytrid-based products are already on the market, and research into further applications is continuing. Many fish and microalgal oils currently available have relatively complex PUFA profiles, increasing the cost of preparation of high-purity PUFA oils. In contrast, some of the thraustochytrids examined to date have simpler PUFA profiles. If these or other strains can be grown in sufficient quantities and at an appropriate cost, the use of thraustochytrid-derived oils may decrease the high expense currently involved with producing high-purity microbial oils. As more is learned about the health and nutritional benefits of PUFA, demand for PUFA-rich products is expected to increase. Results to date suggest that thraustochytrids could form an important part in the supply of such products. PMID:10612683

  19. Diversity and Biosynthetic Potential of Culturable Microbes Associated with Toxic Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Rocky; Kalaitzis, John A.; Wood, Susanna A.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2013-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin that has been reported from taxonomically diverse organisms across 14 different phyla. The biogenic origin of tetrodotoxin is still disputed, however, TTX biosynthesis by host-associated bacteria has been reported. An investigation into the culturable microbial populations from the TTX-associated blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena sp. and sea slug Pleurobranchaea maculata revealed a surprisingly high microbial diversity. Although TTX was not detected among the cultured isolates, PCR screening identifiedsome natural product biosynthesis genes putatively involved in its assembly. This study is the first to report on the microbial diversity of culturable communities from H. maculosa and P. maculata and common natural product biosynthesis genes from their microbiota. We also reassess the production of TTX reported from three bacterial strains isolated from the TTX-containing gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus. PMID:23917066

  20. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable microbes associated with toxic marine animals.

    PubMed

    Chau, Rocky; Kalaitzis, John A; Wood, Susanna A; Neilan, Brett A

    2013-08-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin that has been reported from taxonomically diverse organisms across 14 different phyla. The biogenic origin of tetrodotoxin is still disputed, however, TTX biosynthesis by host-associated bacteria has been reported. An investigation into the culturable microbial populations from the TTX-associated blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena sp. and sea slug Pleurobranchaea maculata revealed a surprisingly high microbial diversity. Although TTX was not detected among the cultured isolates, PCR screening identifiedsome natural product biosynthesis genes putatively involved in its assembly. This study is the first to report on the microbial diversity of culturable communities from H. maculosa and P. maculata and common natural product biosynthesis genes from their microbiota. We also reassess the production of TTX reported from three bacterial strains isolated from the TTX-containing gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus. PMID:23917066

  1. European Union research and innovation perspectives on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Claxton, John; Economidis, Ioannis; Högel, Jens; Venturi, Piero; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2011-12-20

    "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology" is one of 10 thematic areas in the Cooperation programme of the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (FP7). With a budget of nearly €2 billion for the period 2007-2013, its objective is to foster the development of a European Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) by bringing together science, industry and other stakeholders that produce, manage or otherwise exploit biological resources. Biotechnology plays an important role in addressing social, environmental and economic challenges and it is recognised as a key enabling technology in the transition to a green, low carbon and resource-efficient economy. Biotechnologies for non-health applications have received a considerable attention in FP7 and to date 61 projects on industrial, marine, plant, environmental and emerging biotechnologies have been supported with a contribution of €262.8 million from the European Commission (EC). This article presents an outlook of the research, technological development and demonstration activities in biotechnology currently supported in FP7 within the Cooperation programme, including a brief overview of the policy context. PMID:21745504

  2. Biomass, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition of marine Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured in desalination concentrate.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ângelo Paggi; Feller, Rafael; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

    2015-12-01

    In this study the feasibility of growing marine Nannochloropsis gaditana in desalination concentrate (DC) was explored and the influence of the DC concentration on the biomass growth, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition was assessed. The reuse of the medium with the optimum DC concentration in successive algal cultivation cycles and the additional of a carbon source to the optimized medium were also evaluated. On varying the DC concentration, the maximum biomass concentration (0.96gL(-1)) and lipid content (12.6%) were obtained for N. gaditana in the medium with the optimum DC concentration (75%). Over the course of the reuse of the optimum DC medium, three cultivation cycles were performed, observing that the biomass productivity is directly correlated to lipid productivity. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid found in N. gaditana cells. The saturated fatty acids content of the algae enhanced significantly on increasing the DC concentration. PMID:26318921

  3. Rapid and qualitative fluorescence-based method for the assessment of PHA production in marine bacteria during batch culture.

    PubMed

    Elain, Anne; Le Fellic, Magali; Corre, Yves-Marie; Le Grand, Adélaïde; Le Tilly, Véronique; Audic, Jean-Luc; Bruzaud, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The expansion of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) into the biodegradable polymers market is mainly prevented by their production process which is still complicated with a low efficiency, resulting in relatively expensive products. In this study, we developed a method that used the lipophilic fluorescent probe Nile Red (1 mg l(-1) solution in DMSO) directly into the culture broth to stain the PHA inclusions inside bacterial cells followed by detection of the emitted fluorescence by both microscopic and spectrometric techniques. Epifluorescence microscopy provides a rapid tool to distinguish producing from non-producing bacterial species and the relative fluorescence intensity (FI) determined at the maximum of emission spectra in the wavelength region of 560-710 nm (λ(ex): 543 nm), allows a fast assessment of the cultural conditions that may enhance PHA production yield. During two-step cultivation in 500-ml flasks with glucose as the sole carbon source, the method aimed to select bacterial strains efficient for PHA synthesis among a marine collection. Subsequently, the NR assay was used to determine the C0/N0 ratio of the producing media that may improve the polymer yield as well as to follow the time course of fermentation. Characterization by GC-MS and DSC confirmed the production of the P(3-HB) homopolymer. PMID:26187125

  4. Identification of Candida tropicalis BH-6 and synergistic effect with Pantoea agglomerans BH-18 on hydrogen production in marine culture.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daling; Ma, Yingchao; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua

    2015-03-01

    A marine yeast was isolated from mangrove sludge and named Candida tropicalis BH-6. The optimum temperature and the initial pH value for growth of the isolated strain were 37 °C and 5.0, respectively. The strain had high salt tolerance and could survive at NaCl concentrations of 0-6 %. Additionally, the yield of hydrogen production by C. tropicalis BH-6 was only 66.30 ml/l. However, when the yeast was mixed with Pantoea agglomerans BH-18, hydrogen production increased significantly to a maximum of 1707.5 ml/l, which was 36.94 and 247.54 % higher than the monoculture of P. agglomerans BH-18 and C. tropicalis BH-6, respectively. Taken together, these results revealed that in mixed culture, the yeast strain isolated from the same ecosystem as P. agglomerans BH-18 likely consumed the organic acids produced by fermentation, thus eliminating the factor inhibiting hydrogen production by P. agglomerans BH-18. As a result, the yield of hydrogen production during mixed culture increased significantly. PMID:25561052

  5. Bisthiodiketopiperazines and Acorane Sesquiterpenes Produced by the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium adametzioides AS-53 on Different Culture Media.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Xiao-Ming; Meng, Ling-Hong; Jiang, Wen-Li; Xu, Gang-Ming; Huang, Cai-Guo; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2015-06-26

    Chemical investigation of the marine-sponge-derived fungus Penicillium adametzioides AS-53 resulted in the identification of two new bisthiodiketopiperazine derivatives, adametizines A (1) and B (2), from cultivation in a liquid potato-dextrose broth (PDB) culture medium, whereas two new acorane sesquiterpenes, adametacorenols A (3) and B (4), were isolated from a rice solid culture medium. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, and that of 3 was determined by modified Mosher's method. Compound 1 exhibited lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LD50 value of 4.8 μM and inhibitory activities against Staphyloccocus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophilia, Vibrio spp. V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus, and Gaeumannomyces graminis with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 8, 8, 32, 8, and 16 μg/mL, respectively. Chlorination at C-7 significantly increased the brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial activity of the bisthiodiketopiperazines. PMID:26039736

  6. Biotechnology: Economic and Behavioral Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhan, William F.; Beardsley, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews factors related to effects of biotechnology on the discipline of pharmacy administration including needs assessment, diffusion of technology, cost benefit analysis, marketing, cost containment, patient education and compliance, ethics, and health professions training. (DB)

  7. Biotechnology as an intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Adler, R G

    1984-04-27

    Recent advances in biotechnology have created many public policy and legal issues, one of the most significant of which is the treatment of biotechnological industrial products, particularly under the patent system. Patents represent one of several types of intellectual property; their ownership confers the right to exclude others from benefitting from the tangible products of a proprietary subject matter. Intellectual property law and its protections will play a major role in the rate at which biotechnology develops in the United States. In this article biotechnological intellectual property issues are reviewed in the context of their underlying legal requirements. The implications of other factors, such as international competition, research funding, and gene ownership, are also considered. PMID:6584975

  8. Biotechnology of oil seed crops

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.T.

    1985-02-01

    A general summary of possibilities and limitation application of biotechnology processes to processing and/or production of fats and oils is presented. Enzymatic processes, cloning of premium perennial oil crops and genetic manipulation of oil seed compositions are discussed.

  9. New Directions in Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  10. Biotechnology of riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Schwechheimer, Susanne Katharina; Park, Enoch Y; Revuelta, José Luis; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) production has shifted from chemical synthesis to exclusive biotechnological synthesis in less than 15 years. The underlying extraordinary achievement in metabolic engineering and bioprocess engineering is reviewed in this article with regard to the two most important industrial producers Bacillus subtilis and Ashbya gossypii. The respective biosynthetic routes and modifications are discussed, and also the regulation of riboflavin synthesis. As the terminal biosynthesis of riboflavin starts from the two precursors, ribulose 5-phosphate and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), both strains have been optimized for an improved flux through the pentose phosphate pathway as well as the purine biosynthetic pathway. Specific targets for improvement of A. gossypii were the increase of the glycine pool and the increase of carbon flow through the glyoxylic shunt. In B. subtilis, research interest, amongst others, has focused on gluconeogenesis and overexpression of the rib operon. In addition, insight into large-scale production of vitamin B2 is given, as well as future prospects and possible developments. PMID:26758294

  11. Haloalkane dehalogenases: biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Koudelakova, Tana; Bidmanova, Sarka; Dvorak, Pavel; Pavelka, Antonin; Chaloupkova, Radka; Prokop, Zbynek; Damborsky, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Haloalkane dehalogenases (EC 3.8.1.5, HLDs) are α/β-hydrolases which act to cleave carbon-halogen bonds. Due to their unique catalytic mechanism, broad substrate specificity and high robustness, the members of this enzyme family have been employed in several practical applications: (i) biocatalytic preparation of optically pure building-blocks for organic synthesis; (ii) recycling of by-products from chemical processes; (iii) bioremediation of toxic environmental pollutants; (iv) decontamination of warfare agents; (v) biosensing of environmental pollutants; and (vi) protein tagging for cell imaging and protein analysis. This review discusses the application of HLDs in the context of the biochemical properties of individual enzymes. Further extension of HLD uses within the field of biotechnology will require currently limiting factors - such as low expression, product inhibition, insufficient enzyme selectivity, low affinity and catalytic efficiency towards selected substrates, and instability in the presence of organic co-solvents - to be overcome. We propose that strategies based on protein engineering and isolation of novel HLDs from extremophilic microorganisms may offer solutions. PMID:22965918

  12. Biodiesel production from marine cyanobacteria cultured in plate and tubular photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Selvan, B Karpanai; Revathi, M; Piriya, P Sobana; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Prabhu, D Immuanual Gilwax; Vennison, S John

    2013-03-01

    Carbon (neutral) based renewable liquid biofuels are alternative to petroleum derived transport fuels that contribute to global warming and are of a limited availability. Microalgae based biofuels are considered as promising source of energy. Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. were studied for the possibility of biodiesel production in different media such as ASNIII, sea water enrichment medium and BG11. The sea water enrichment medium was found superior in enhancing the growth rate of these microalgae. Nitrogen depletion has less effect in total chlorophyll a content, at the same time the lipid content was increased in both Lyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp. by 1.4 and 1.2 % respectively. Increase in salinity from 0.5-1.0 M also showed an increase in the lipid content to 2.0 and 0.8 % in these strains; but a salinity of 1.5 M has a total inhibitory effect in the growth. The total biomass yield was comparatively higher in tubular LED photobioreactor than the fluorescent flat plated photobioreactor. Lipid extraction was obtained maximum at 60 degrees C in 1:10 sample: solvent ratio. GC-MS analysis of biodiesel showed high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 4.86 %) than saturated fatty acid (SFA; 4.10 %). Biodiesel production was found maximum in Synechococcus sp. than Lyngbya sp. The viscosity of the biodiesel was closely related to conventional diesel. The results strongly suggest that marine microalgae could be used as a renewable energy source for biodiesel production. PMID:23678548

  13. Connecting Biotechnology and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, John; Glasson, George

    2003-01-01

    Points out the importance of socioscientific aspects of laboratory activities for the development of understanding of different cultures' contributions to science. Describes a lesson on gene splicing using the 5E Learning Model. (YDS)

  14. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. PMID:23563183

  15. Yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate chemical composition of dense cultures of marine microalgae. A subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.H.; Seibert, D.L.R.; Alden, M.; Eldridge, P.; Neori, A.

    1983-07-01

    The yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate composition of several microalgae were compared in dense cultures grown at light intensities up to 70% sunlight. Yields ranged from 3.4 to 21.7 g dry weight/m/sup 2/ day. The highest yield was obtained with Phaeodactylum; the lowest in Botryococcus cultures. The same species had the highest and lowest efficiencies of utilization of photosynthetically active radiation. In nitrogen-sufficient cells of all but one species, most of the dry weight consisted of protein. Lipid content of all species was 20 to 29%, and carbohydrate content 11 to 23%. Lipid content increased somewhat in N-deficient Phaeodactylum and Isochrysis cells, but decreased in deficient Monallanthus cells. Because the overall dry weight yield was reduced by deficiency, lipid yields did not increase. However, since the carbohydrate content increased to about 65% in N-deficient Dunaliella and Tetraselmis cells, the carbohydrate yield increased. In Phaeodactylum the optimum light intensity was about 40% of full sunlight. Most experimets with this alga included a CUSO/sub 4/ filter to decrease infrared irradiance. When this filter was removed, the yield increased because more red light in the photosynthetically active spectral range was included. These results should prove useful to workers attempting to maximize yields and efficiencies, but additional studies are needed. 69 references, 27 figures, 18 tables.

  16. (Workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities)

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, P.A.

    1988-10-12

    P.A. Layton attended a workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities,'' which was organized by the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA) Task II. The traveler spent 1 d prior to the meeting to visit scientists and administrators of Shell Research Limited. Physiology and Biological Chemistry Division to discus their interest in biomass production research as well as their other research interests in tissue culture, biotechnology, and management of forests and agricultural crops that are pertinent to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biomass Production program.

  17. A 7-d toxicity test for marine pollutants using the Pacific mysid Mysidopsis intii. 1: Culture and protocol development

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, C.J.; Vance, M.M.; Harmon, V.L.; Kreeger, K.E.; Kreeger, D.A.; Chapman, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a short term (7-d) toxicity test for marine pollutants that is practical to perform at sites remote from a source of test organisms. Laboratory culture methods were developed that allowed successful long-term rearing of populations of the mysid Mysidopsis intii, a species indigenous to the Pacific coast of the United States. Mysidopsis intii was found to have a short life cycle of 20 d at 20 C, making it useful for chronic toxicity tests. A 7-d toxicity test was developed by comparing the sensitivities of various life stages of M. intii to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The most sensitive end point was found to be growth (final body length) of juveniles during the first 7 d after release. The sensitivity of mysids to SDS decreased with increasing age. To allow for shipping newly released juveniles to remote sites, a 7-d test was evaluated starting with 2-d-old mysids. The median lethal concentration for M. intii exposed to SDS at ages from 2 to 9 d was 4.59 mg/L (95% confidence limits, 4.21--5.00), and the maximum acceptable SDS concentration was 4.99 mg/L for both survival and growth.

  18. Species specificity in the magnitude and duration of the acute stress response in Mediterranean marine fish in culture.

    PubMed

    Fanouraki, E; Mylonas, C C; Papandroulakis, N; Pavlidis, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the species-specific stress response for seven Mediterranean fishes in culture. Also, to evaluate the method of measuring free cortisol concentration in the rearing water as a non-invasive and reliable indicator of stress in marine species, of aquaculture importance. Gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata (Sparidae); common dentex, Dentex dentex (Sparidae); common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Sparidae); sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae); dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae); meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Sciaenidae) and European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Moronidae) were subjected to identical acute stress (5-6 min chasing and 1-1.5 min air exposure) under the same environmental conditions and samples were analyzed by the same procedures. Results indicated that there was a clear species-specificity in the magnitude, timing and duration of the stress response in terms of cortisol, glucose and lactate. European sea bass showed a very high response and dusky grouper and meagre a very low response, except plasma glucose concentrations of dusky grouper which was constantly high, while sharpsnout sea bream presented a protracted stress response, up to 8h. The present study confirmed that free cortisol release rate into the water can be used as a reliable stress indicator. PMID:21712040

  19. Zooplankton community structure of the sea surface microlayer near nuclear power plants and marine fish culture zones in Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Zhao-Ding; Pan, Ming-Xiang; Jiao, Nian-Zhi

    2002-06-01

    The authors' surveys in May June 1999 (two cruises) at six sampling stations near nuclear power plants (NPP) and marine fish culture zones in Daya Bay, Guangdong, revealed species composition, densities and body-size of the sea surface microlayer (SM) zooplankton (>35 μm). Results showed that protozoans and copepod nauplii were the predominant components, accounting for 65.40% to 95.56% of total zooplankton in abundance. The size-frequency distributions showed that the frequency of micro-zooplankton (0.02 0.2 mm) reached 0.8235. The SM zooplankton community structure revealed in the present study was quite different from that revealed by investigations in the 1980s in Daya Bay. Difference of sampling method has important influence on the obtained zooplankton community structure. SM zooplankton consisted of micro- and mesozooplankton (0.2 2.0 mm), with micro-zooplankton being predominant. Some possible cause-effect relations between the zooplankton community structure and mariculture, nuclear power plants cooling systems and sampling method are discussed.

  20. Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System Fluid Dynamics Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Tissue Culture Medium (TCM) is the bioreactor vessel in which cell cultures are grown. With its two syringe ports, it is much like a bag used to administer intravenous fluid, except it allows gas exchange needed for life. The TCM contains cell culture medium, and when frozen cells are flown to the ISS, they are thawed and introduced to the TCM through the syringe ports. In the Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support System-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI) experiment, several mixing procedures are being assessed to determine which method achieves the most uniform mixing of growing cells and culture medium.

  1. Ergosterols from the Culture Broth of Marine Streptomyces anandii H41-59

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang-Mei; Li, Hong-Yu; Hu, Chen; Sheng, Hui-Fan; Zhang, Ying; Lin, Bi-Run; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, H41-59, isolated from sea sediment in a mangrove district, was identified as Streptomyces anandii on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis as well as the investigation of its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Three new ergosterols, ananstreps A–C (1–3), along with ten known ones (4–13), were isolated from the culture broth of this strain. The gross structures of these new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, including HR-ESI-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxicities of these isolates against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, human glioblastoma cell line SF-268, and human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 and their antibacterial activities in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans and some other pathogenic microorganisms were tested. Compounds 3–8, 10 and 11 displayed cytotoxicity with IC50 values in a range from 13.0 to 27.8 μg/mL. However, all the tested compounds showed no activity on C. albicans and other bacteria at the test concentration of 1 mg/mL with the paper disc diffusion method. PMID:27153073

  2. Ergosterols from the Culture Broth of Marine Streptomyces anandii H41-59.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang-Mei; Li, Hong-Yu; Hu, Chen; Sheng, Hui-Fan; Zhang, Ying; Lin, Bi-Run; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, H41-59, isolated from sea sediment in a mangrove district, was identified as Streptomyces anandii on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis as well as the investigation of its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Three new ergosterols, ananstreps A-C (1-3), along with ten known ones (4-13), were isolated from the culture broth of this strain. The gross structures of these new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, including HR-ESI-MS, and NMR. The cytotoxicities of these isolates against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, human glioblastoma cell line SF-268, and human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 and their antibacterial activities in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans and some other pathogenic microorganisms were tested. Compounds 3-8, 10 and 11 displayed cytotoxicity with IC50 values in a range from 13.0 to 27.8 μg/mL. However, all the tested compounds showed no activity on C. albicans and other bacteria at the test concentration of 1 mg/mL with the paper disc diffusion method. PMID:27153073

  3. Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted. PMID:24798925

  4. Carbon isotope fractionation by marine phytoplankton in culture: The effects of CO[sub 2] concentration, pH, temperature, and species

    SciTech Connect

    Hinga, K.R.; Arthur, M.A.; Pilson, M.E.Q.; Whitaker, D. )

    1994-03-01

    Carbon isotopes are fractionated during many biological and geological processes and often one can infer the nature of the conditions and processes by looking at the isotopic ratios. This study investigates how dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, pH, and phytoplankton species affect the fractionation of carbon isotopes during the growth of marine phytoplankton using single species cultures. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Management in biophotonics and biotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2005-10-01

    Biophotonics, one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas, offers vast potential for changing traditional approaches to meeting many critical needs in medicine, biology, pharmacy, food, health care and cosmetic industries. Follow the market trends we developed new MSc course Management in Biophotonics and Biotechnologies (MBB) that provide students of technical disciplines with the necessary training, education and problem-solving skills to produce professionals and managers who are better equipped to handle the challenges of modern science and business in biophotonics and biotechnology. A major advantage of the course is that it provides skills not currently available to graduates in other Master programs.

  6. Antimicrobial metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Habbu, Prasanna; Warad, Vijayanand; Shastri, Rajesh; Madagundi, Smita; Kulkarni, Venkatrao H

    2016-02-01

    Marine ecological niches have recently been described as "particularly promising" sources for search of new antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. Marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products, but they are partly explored. Over 30 000 compounds have been isolated from marine sources. Bacteria, fungi, and cyanobacteria obtained from various marine sources secret several industrially useful bioactive compounds, possessing antibacterial, antifungal, and antimycobacterial activities. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising marine organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, along with the establishment of biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The semisynthetic modifications of marine-based bioactive compounds produce their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as novel lead compounds against resistant pathogens. The present review focuses on promising antimicrobial compounds isolated from marine microbes from 1991-2013. PMID:26968676

  7. High production of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) in a massive marine phytoplankton culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez-Leiva, L.; Tarifeño, E.; Cornejo, M.; Kiene, R.; Farías, L.

    2010-09-01

    The production of large amounts of algal biomass for different purposes such as aquaculture or biofuels, may cause impacts on the marine environment. One such impact is the production of radiatively active trace gases and aerosols with climate cooling (dimethyl sulfide DMS and its precursor DMSP) and warming (N2O and CH4) effects. Total and dissolved DMSP, N2O and CH4, together with other environmental variables were monitored daily for 46 days within a massive microalgae monoculture of Nannochloris (Chlorophyceae) in an open pond system. The growth of this green microalgae was stimulated by the addition of N- and P-rich salts, resulting in exponential growth (growth phase) during the first 17 days observed by cell abundance (1 × 106 to 4.4 × 106 cell mL-1) and Chl-a levels (from 1.4 to 96 mg Chl-a m-3) followed by a decrease in both Chl-a and cell abundance (senescence phase). Total DMSP (from 6.3 to 142 μmol m-3), dissolved DMSP i.e. 5.8 to 137 μmol m-3 and N2O (from 8 to 600 μmol m-3) abruptly peaked during the senescence phase, whereas CH4 steadily increased between 2 and 10 μmol m-3 during the growth phase. Different ratios between tracers and Chl-a during both phases reveal different biochemical processes involved in the cycling of these gases and tracers. Our results show that despite the consumption of large quantities of CO2 by the massive algal culture, a minor amount of DMS and huge amounts of greenhouse gases were produced, in particular N2O, which has a greater radiative effect per molecule than CO2. These findings have important implications for biogeochemical studies and for environmental management of aquaculture activities.

  8. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  9. Does the 14C method estimate net photosynthesis? Implications from batch and continuous culture studies of marine phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Shaofeng; Laws, Edward A.

    2013-12-01

    We carried out batch culture studies with seven species of marine phytoplankton and chemostat studies with two of the seven species to determine whether and to what extent 14C uptake approximated net photosynthesis. In two of seven cases, Isochrysis galbana and Dunaliella tertiolecta, cells uniformly labeled with 14C lost no activity when they were transferred to a 14C-free medium and allowed to grow in the light. In similar experiments with four other species, uniformly labeled cells lost activity when incubated in the light, but the loss rates were only a few percent per day. Thus these six species appear to respire primarily recently fixed carbon. In the case of the remaining species, Chlorella kessleri, loss rates of 14C in the light from uniformly labeled cells were about 29% per day, the apparent ratio of respiration to net photosynthesis being 0.4. Follow-up chemostat studies with I. galbana and C. kessleri grown under both light- and nitrate-limited conditions produced results consistent with the implications of the batch culture work: uptake of 14C by I. galbana after incubations of 24 h yielded estimates of photosynthetic carbon fixation equal to the product of the chemostat dilution rate and the concentration of organic carbon in the growth chamber. Similar experiments with C. kessleri produced 14C-based estimates of photosynthetic carbon fixation that exceeded the net rates of organic carbon production in the growth chamber by roughly 55%. Time-course studies with both species indicated that at high growth rates recently fixed carbon began to enter the respiratory substrate pool after a time lag of several hours, a result consistent with previous work with D. tertiolecta. The lag time appeared to be much shorter at low growth rates. The results with C. kessleri are similar to results previously reported for Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Amphidium carteri. Collectively these results suggest that 14C uptake by species with relatively high ratios of

  10. Scrutinizing the Scaffolds of Marine Biosynthetics from Different Source Organisms: Gram-Negative Cultured Bacterial Products Enter Center Stage

    PubMed Central

    Still, Patrick C.; Johnson, Tyler A.; Theodore, Christine M.; Loveridge, Steven T.; Crews, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Compounds from macro marine organisms are presumed to owe their biosynthetic origins to associated microbial symbionts, although few definitive examples exist. An upsurge in the recent literature from 2012 to 2013 has shown that four compounds previously reported from macro marine organisms are in fact biosynthesized by non-photosynthetic Gram-negative bacteria (NPGNB). Structural parallels between compounds isolated from macro marine organisms and NPGNB producers form the basis of this review. Although less attention has been given to investigating the chemistry of NPGNB sources, there exists a significant list of structural parallels between NPGNB and macro marine organism-derived compounds. Alternatively, of the thousands of compounds isolated from Gram-positive actinomycetes, few structural parallels with macro marine organisms are known. A summary of small molecules isolated from marine NPGNB sources is presented, including compounds isolated from marine myxobacteria. From this assemblage of structural parallels and diverse chemical structures, it is hypothesized that the potential for the discovery of inspirational molecules from NPGNB sources is vast and that the recent spike in the literature of macro marine compounds owing their biosynthetic origin to NPGNB producers represents a turning point in the field. PMID:24571234

  11. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment. PMID:26896316

  12. Biotechnology Facility (BTF) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Engineering mockup shows the general arrangement of the plarned Biotechnology Facility inside an EXPRESS rack aboard the International Space Station. This layout includes a gas supply module (bottom left), control computer and laptop interface (bottom right), two rotating wall vessels (top right), and support systems.

  13. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in "World J Microbiol Biotechnol" 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in "Int J Sci Educ" 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in "Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia" (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in "Am Biol Teach" 64(2):93-99, 2002). A…

  14. The Future of Plant Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant biotechnology has been wildly successful and has literally transformed plant agriculture. There are still undulating concerns about safety and sustainability that critics demand to be addressed. In that light, there are some biotechnoloogies that are being developed that might not only improve...

  15. Biotechnology and Open University Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobstein, Clifford

    1985-01-01

    Discusses whether biotechnology commercial application will significantly inhibit the free flow of information traditional in academic environments. Background factors, crux of the concern, assessment, and current options are given. Although little evidence that industry-university collaboration has impaired academic molecular genetics exists,…

  16. Biotechnology Gains Brighten Resource Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1979-01-01

    This report details recent advances in fermentation biotechnology as presented by speakers at the 27th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Congress. Discussion centered around the use of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi as future sources of essential materials as food, fuel, and medicine. (BT)

  17. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  18. Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Curtis D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the role of schools of pharmacy in (1) preparing future practitioners to assimilate and shape the impact of biotechnology; (2) establish graduate and research programs to enhance and apply products of biotechnology; and (3) identify manpower needs to fully realize potential advances caused by biotechnology. (DB)

  19. Synthesis of aromatic cytokinins for plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Plíhalová, Lucie; Vylíčilová, Hana; Doležal, Karel; Zahajská, Lenka; Zatloukal, Marek; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinins represent an important group of plant growth regulators that can modulate several biotechnological processes owing to their ability to influence almost all stages of plant development and growth. In addition, the use of purine based cytokinins with aromatic substituent in C6 position of the purine moiety in tissue culture techniques is currently experiencing a surge in interest, made possible by the ongoing systematic synthesis and study of these compounds. This review article outlines progress in the synthesis of aromatic cytokinins, the in vitro and in vivo effects of these substances and insights gleaned from their synthesis. As the purine moiety in these compounds can be substituted at several positions, we examine each of the substitution possibilities in relation to the derivatives prepared so far. The discussion highlights the gradual simplification of their preparation in relation to their application in practice and summarizes the relevant organic chemistry literature and published patents. PMID:26703810

  20. Advances in biotechnology and genomics of switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial warm season grass indigenous to the North American tallgrass prairie. A number of its natural and agronomic traits, including adaptation to a wide geographical distribution, low nutrient requirements and production costs, high water use efficiency, high biomass potential, ease of harvesting, and potential for carbon storage, make it an attractive dedicated biomass crop for biofuel production. We believe that genetic improvements using biotechnology will be important to realize the potential of the biomass and biofuel-related uses of switchgrass. Tissue culture techniques aimed at rapid propagation of switchgrass and genetic transformation protocols have been developed. Rapid progress in genome sequencing and bioinformatics has provided efficient strategies to identify, tag, clone and manipulate many economically-important genes, including those related to higher biomass, saccharification efficiency, and lignin biosynthesis. Application of the best genetic tools should render improved switchgrass that will be more economically and environmentally sustainable as a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock. PMID:23663491

  1. Applications of capillary electrophoresis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lagu, A L

    1999-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-related techniques are increasingly being used as a matter of routine practice in the biotechnology discipline. Since recombinant DNA-derived proteins and the antisense oligonucleotides constitute a large portion of the applications of these techniques, they have been emphasized in this review. Analyses by CE of Escherichia coli-derived proteins and glycosylated proteins derived from mammalian cell cultures are summarized, as well as those of the carbohydrate chains that have been enzymatically removed from the protein. Applications of CE in the analysis of the antisense oligonucleotides for the determination of purity and the analytical studies on the metabolism of these modified oligonucleotides, by CE are reviewed. The literature mainly covers the period from 1996. PMID:10596822

  2. A novel cost effective and high-throughput isolation and identification method for marine microalgae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Marine microalgae are of major ecologic and emerging economic importance. Biotechnological screening schemes of microalgae for specific traits and laboratory experiments to advance our knowledge on algal biology and evolution strongly benefit from culture collections reflecting a maximum of the natural inter- and intraspecific diversity. However, standard procedures for strain isolation and identification, namely DNA extraction, purification, amplification, sequencing and taxonomic identification still include considerable constraints increasing the time required to establish new cultures. Results In this study, we report a cost effective and high-throughput isolation and identification method for marine microalgae. The throughput was increased by applying strain isolation on plates and taxonomic identification by direct PCR (dPCR) of phylogenetic marker genes in combination with a novel sequencing electropherogram based screening method to assess the taxonomic diversity and identity of the isolated cultures. For validation of the effectiveness of this approach, we isolated and identified a range of unialgal cultures from natural phytoplankton communities sampled in the Arctic Ocean. These cultures include the isolate of a novel marine Chlorophyceae strain among several different diatoms. Conclusions We provide an efficient and effective approach leading from natural phytoplankton communities to isolated and taxonomically identified algal strains in only a few weeks. Validated with sensitive Arctic phytoplankton, this approach overcomes the constraints of standard molecular characterisation and establishment of unialgal cultures. PMID:25114712

  3. Type Culture Collections and Their Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial culture collections, also known as Biological Resource Centers, are primary suppliers of microbial cultures (germplasm) for medical, agricultural and biotechnological research and development. Many countries have one or more culture collections, which may specialize in certain microbial g...

  4. Non-contact temperature measurements for biotechnology discipline working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In the biotechnology research areas, there is interest in measuring temperature changes over very small dimensions, such as the surface of a 10-micrometer diameter biological cell immersed in cell culture fluid. Non-interference measurements of other properties, such as chemical constituents and their concentrations, are also needed. Contacting probes for pH have recently been developed to penetrate a cell but questions have been raised about their accuracy and net value.

  5. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinch, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology. PMID:24747562

  6. Space and biotechnology: An industry profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Richard S.; Norton, David J.; Tom, Baldwin H.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Center for Space and Advanced Technology (CSAT) for NASA-JSC are presented. The objectives were to determine the interests and attitudes of the U.S. biotechnology industry toward space biotechnology and to prepare a concise review of the current activities of the biotechnology industry. In order to accomplish these objectives, two primary actions were taken. First, a questionnaire was designed, reviewed, and distributed to U.S. biotechnology companies. Second, reviews of the various biotechnology fields were prepared in several aspects of the industry. For each review, leading figures in the field were asked to prepare a brief review pointing out key trends and current industry technical problems. The result is a readable narrative of the biotechnology industry which will provide space scientists and engineers valuable clues as to where the space environment can be explored to advance the U.S. biotechnology industry.

  7. Biotechnology Science Experiments on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity biotechnology experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. Four experiments investigated the growth of protein crystals, and three investigated cellular growth. Many hundreds of protein samples were processed using four different techniques. The objective of these experiments was to determine optimum conditions for the growth of very high quality single crystals to be used for structure determination. The Biotechnology System (BTS) was used to process the three cell growth investigations. The samples processed by these experiments were: bovine chondrocytes, human renal epithelial cells, and human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. The objective was to determine the unique properties of cell aggregates produced in the microgravity environment.

  8. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage. PMID:27062304

  9. Selenium biomineralization for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-06-01

    Selenium (Se) is not only a strategic element in high-tech electronics and an essential trace element in living organisms, but also a potential toxin with low threshold concentrations. Environmental biotechnological applications using bacterial biomineralization have the potential not only to remove selenium from contaminated waters, but also to sequester it in a reusable form. Selenium biomineralization has been observed in phylogenetically diverse microorganisms isolated from pristine and contaminated environments, yet it is one of the most poorly understood biogeochemical processes. Microbial respiration of selenium is unique because the microbial cells are presented with both soluble (SeO(4)(2-) and SeO(3)(2-)) and insoluble (Se(0)) forms of selenium as terminal electron acceptor. Here, we highlight selenium biomineralization and the potential biotechnological uses for it in bioremediation and wastewater treatment. PMID:25908504

  10. Draft genome sequence of strain HIMB100, a cultured representative of the SAR116 clade of marine Alphaproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Jana; Bayindirli, Cansu; Bergauer, Kristin; Carpintero de Moraes, Paula; Chen, Huan; D’Ambrosio, Lindsay; Edwards, Bethanie; Fernández-Gómez, Beatriz; Hamisi, Mariam; Logares, Ramiro; Nguyen, Dan; Rii, Yoshimi M.; Saeck, Emily; Schutte, Charles; Widner, Brittany; Church, Matthew J.; Steward, Grieg F.; Karl, David M.; DeLong, Edward F.; Eppley, John M.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Rappé, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Strain HIMB100 is a planktonic marine bacterium in the class Alphaproteobacteria. This strain is of interest because it is one of the first known isolates from a globally ubiquitous clade of marine bacteria known as SAR116 within the family Rhodospirillaceae. Here we describe preliminary features of the organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. This is the second genome sequence of a member of the SAR116 clade. The 2,458,945 bp genome contains 2,334 protein-coding and 42 RNA genes. PMID:22675578