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Sample records for marine bryozoan taxon

  1. Growth and calcification of marine bryozoans in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Smith, Abigail M

    2014-06-01

    Bryozoans are colonial benthic marine invertebrate calcifiers, important and especially abundant and diverse in southern hemisphere shelf environments. Large heavily calcified colonies can be up to 50 years old, but most longer-lived bryozoans are limited to 10-20 y. Many smaller species are annual. Radial extension in flat encrusting bryozoans is generally on the order of 1-5 mm/y. Erect calcified species generally grow vertically 2-15 mm/y, though articulated species such as Cellaria may reach rates of 40 mm/y. Corresponding calcification rates are generally 10(1)-10(2) mg/y, but there can be an order of magnitude variation in rate among years in high-latitude bryozoans. Multi-branched bryozoans produce up to 24 g of CaCO3/y. The carbonate produced by bryozoans varies from calcite to aragonite and mixtures of both. Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of bryozoans is complex and appears to be strongly genetically controlled. Global climate change, leading to increasing water temperatures, will generally increase marine bryozoan metabolic rates, and may increase Mg in calcite. On the other hand, decreasing pH (ocean acidification) causes corrosion, changes in mineralogy, and decreased survival. This review of bryozoan growth and calcification allows a general perspective, but also reveals gaps in our knowledge which need to be addressed. PMID:25070865

  2. Bryozoans are returning home: recolonization of freshwater ecosystems inferred from phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Koletić, Nikola; Novosel, Maja; Rajević, Nives; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrates that inhabit all types of aquatic ecosystems. They are small animals that form large colonies by asexual budding. Colonies can reach the size of several tens of centimeters, while individual units within a colony are the size of a few millimeters. Each individual within a colony works as a separate zooid and is genetically identical to each other individual within the same colony. Most freshwater species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata class, while several species that tolerate brackish water belong to the Gymnolaemata class. Tissue samples for this study were collected in the rivers of Adriatic and Danube basin and in the wetland areas in the continental part of Croatia (Europe). Freshwater and brackish taxons of bryozoans were genetically analyzed for the purpose of creating phylogenetic relationships between freshwater and brackish taxons of the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata classes and determining the role of brackish species in colonizing freshwater and marine ecosystems. Phylogenetic relationships inferred on the genes for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, COI, and ITS2 region confirmed Phylactolaemata bryozoans as radix bryozoan group. Phylogenetic analysis proved Phylactolaemata bryozoan's close relations with taxons from Phoronida phylum as well as the separation of the Lophopodidae family from other families within the Plumatellida genus. Comparative analysis of existing knowledge about the phylogeny of bryozoans and the expansion of known evolutionary hypotheses is proposed with the model of settlement of marine and freshwater ecosystems by the bryozoans group during their evolutionary past. In this case study, brackish bryozoan taxons represent a link for this ecological phylogenetic hypothesis. Comparison of brackish bryozoan species Lophopus crystallinus and Conopeum seurati confirmed a dual colonization of freshwater ecosystems throughout evolution of this group of animals. PMID:25691955

  3. Bryozoans are returning home: recolonization of freshwater ecosystems inferred from phylogenetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Koletić, Nikola; Novosel, Maja; Rajević, Nives; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrates that inhabit all types of aquatic ecosystems. They are small animals that form large colonies by asexual budding. Colonies can reach the size of several tens of centimeters, while individual units within a colony are the size of a few millimeters. Each individual within a colony works as a separate zooid and is genetically identical to each other individual within the same colony. Most freshwater species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata class, while several species that tolerate brackish water belong to the Gymnolaemata class. Tissue samples for this study were collected in the rivers of Adriatic and Danube basin and in the wetland areas in the continental part of Croatia (Europe). Freshwater and brackish taxons of bryozoans were genetically analyzed for the purpose of creating phylogenetic relationships between freshwater and brackish taxons of the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata classes and determining the role of brackish species in colonizing freshwater and marine ecosystems. Phylogenetic relationships inferred on the genes for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, COI, and ITS2 region confirmed Phylactolaemata bryozoans as radix bryozoan group. Phylogenetic analysis proved Phylactolaemata bryozoan's close relations with taxons from Phoronida phylum as well as the separation of the Lophopodidae family from other families within the Plumatellida genus. Comparative analysis of existing knowledge about the phylogeny of bryozoans and the expansion of known evolutionary hypotheses is proposed with the model of settlement of marine and freshwater ecosystems by the bryozoans group during their evolutionary past. In this case study, brackish bryozoan taxons represent a link for this ecological phylogenetic hypothesis. Comparison of brackish bryozoan species Lophopus crystallinus and Conopeum seurati confirmed a dual colonization of freshwater ecosystems throughout evolution of this group of animals. PMID:25691955

  4. Neritinaceramides A-E, new ceramides from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina inhabiting South China Sea and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Hai-Feng; Feng, Jun-Tao; Li, Yu-Shan; Lin, Hou-Wen; Fan, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Xing

    2014-04-01

    Five new ceramides, neritinaceramides A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4) and E (5), together with six known ceramides (6-11), two known alkyl glycerylethers (12 and 13) and a known nucleoside (14), were isolated from marine bryozoan Bugula neritina, which inhabits the South China Sea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as (2S,3R,3'S,4E,8E,10E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,3'-triol (1), (2S,3R,2'R,4E,8E,10E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2'-triol (2), (2S,3R,2'R,4E,8E,10E)-2-(octadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2'-triol (3), (2S,3R,3'S,4E,8E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8-octadecadiene-l,3,3'-triol (4) and (2S,3R,3'S,4E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4-octadecene-l,3,3'-triol (5) on the basis of extensive spectral analysis and chemical evidences. The characteristic C-3'S hydroxyl group in the fatty acid moiety in compounds 1, 4 and 5, was a novel structural feature of ceramides. The rare 4E,8E,10E-triene structure in the sphingoid base of compounds 1-3, was found from marine bryozoans for the first time. The new ceramides 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HepG2, NCI-H460 and SGC7901 tumor cell lines, and all of them exhibited selective cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 cells with a range of IC50 values from 47.3 μM to 58.1 μM. These chemical and cytotoxic studies on the new neritinaceramides A-E (1-5) added to the chemical diversity of B. neritina and expanded our knowledge of the chemical modifications and biological activity of ceramides. PMID:24699114

  5. Neritinaceramides A–E, New Ceramides from the Marine Bryozoan Bugula neritina Inhabiting South China Sea and Their Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Hai-Feng; Feng, Jun-Tao; Li, Yu-Shan; Lin, Hou-Wen; Fan, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Five new ceramides, neritinaceramides A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4) and E (5), together with six known ceramides (6–11), two known alkyl glycerylethers (12 and 13) and a known nucleoside (14), were isolated from marine bryozoan Bugula neritina, which inhabits the South China Sea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as (2S,3R,3′S,4E,8E,10E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,3′-triol (1), (2S,3R,2′R,4E,8E,10E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2′-triol (2), (2S,3R,2′R,4E,8E,10E)-2-(octadecanoylamino)-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2′-triol (3), (2S,3R,3′S,4E,8E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4,8-octadecadiene-l,3,3′-triol (4) and (2S,3R,3′S,4E)-2-(hexadecanoylamino)-4-octadecene-l,3,3′-triol (5) on the basis of extensive spectral analysis and chemical evidences. The characteristic C-3′S hydroxyl group in the fatty acid moiety in compounds 1, 4 and 5, was a novel structural feature of ceramides. The rare 4E,8E,10E-triene structure in the sphingoid base of compounds 1–3, was found from marine bryozoans for the first time. The new ceramides 1–5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HepG2, NCI-H460 and SGC7901 tumor cell lines, and all of them exhibited selective cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 cells with a range of IC50 values from 47.3 μM to 58.1 μM. These chemical and cytotoxic studies on the new neritinaceramides A–E (1–5) added to the chemical diversity of B. neritina and expanded our knowledge of the chemical modifications and biological activity of ceramides. PMID:24699114

  6. Biomineralization in bryozoans: present, past and future.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul D; Lombardi, Chiara; Cocito, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Many animal phyla have the physiological ability to produce biomineralized skeletons with functional roles that have been shaped by natural selection for more than 500 million years. Among these are bryozoans, a moderately diverse phylum of aquatic invertebrates with a rich fossil record and importance today as bioconstructors in some shallow-water marine habitats. Biomineralizational patterns and, especially, processes are poorly understood in bryozoans but are conventionally believed to be similar to those of the related lophotrochozoan phyla Brachiopoda and Mollusca. However, bryozoan skeletons are more intricate than those of these two phyla. Calcareous skeletons have been acquired independently in two bryozoan clades - Stenolaemata in the Ordovician and Cheilostomata in the Jurassic - providing an evolutionary replicate. This review aims to highlight the importance of biomineralization in bryozoans and focuses on their skeletal ultrastructures, mineralogy and chemistry, the roles of organic components, the evolutionary history of bimineralization in bryozoans with respect to changes in seawater chemistry, and the impact of contemporary global changes, especially ocean acidification, on bryozoan skeletons. Bryozoan skeletons are constructed from three different wall types (exterior, interior and compound) differing in the presence/absence and location of organic cuticular layers. Skeletal ultrastructures can be classified into wall-parallel (i.e. laminated) and wall-perpendicular (i.e. prismatic) fabrics, the latter apparently found in only one of the two biomineralizing clades (Cheilostomata), which is also the only clade to biomineralize aragonite. A plethora of ultrastructural fabrics can be recognized and most occur in combination with other fabrics to constitute a fabric suite. The proportion of aragonitic and bimineralic bryozoans, as well as the Mg content of bryozoan skeletons, show a latitudinal increase into the warmer waters of the tropics. Responses

  7. Feeding repellence in Antarctic bryozoans.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Avila, Conxita

    2013-11-01

    The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied. In this study we evaluated the presence of defenses against predation in selected species of Antarctic bryozoans. The sympatric omnivorous consumers O. validus and C. femoratus were selected to perform feeding assays with 16 ether extracts (EE) and 16 butanol extracts (BE) obtained from 16 samples that belonged to 13 different bryozoan species. Most species (9) were active (12 EE and 1 BE) in sea star bioassays. Only 1 BE displayed repellence, indicating that repellents against the sea star are mainly lipophilic. Repellence toward C. femoratus was found in all species in different extracts (10 EE and 12 BE), suggesting that defenses against the amphipod might be both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Interspecific and intraspecific variability of bioactivity was occasionally detected, suggesting possible environmental inductive responses, symbiotic associations, and/or genetic variability. Multivariate analysis revealed similarities among species in relation to bioactivities of EE and/or BE. These findings support the hypothesis that, while in some cases alternative chemical or physical mechanisms may also provide protection, repellent compounds play an important role in Antarctic bryozoans as defenses against predators. PMID:24221581

  8. Bryozoans from rio grande do sul continental shelf, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro

    2015-01-01

    The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani). PMID:25947873

  9. Bryozoan paleoecology indicates mid-Phanerozoic extinctions were the product of long-term environmental stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Catherine M.; Bottjer, David J.

    2007-11-01

    We compiled the global onshore-offshore distribution of marine bryozoans within 396 Permian-Early Jurassic bryozoan assemblages and show that bryozoan assemblage generic richness declined significantly in advance of the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions, starting as early as the Capitanian prior to the end-Permian and the Norian prior to the end-Triassic. We also show that offshore settings were affected first, prior to both extinctions, suggesting that environmental stress resulted from the gradual encroachment of some deep-water phenomenon onto the shelves. These patterns support long-term oceanographic, rather than extraterrestrial, extinction mechanisms, such as widespread euxinia triggered by massive volcanism and global warming. Tracking the onshore-offshore environmental distribution of these marine invertebrates provides a unique approach to assessing prolonged environmentally induced stress through this ˜120 m.y. time interval.

  10. Isolation and stereospecific synthesis of janolusimide B from a New Zealand collection of the bryozoan Bugula flabellata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayi; Prinsep, Michèle R; Gordon, Dennis P; Page, Michael J; Copp, Brent R

    2015-03-27

    NMR-directed screening of New Zealand marine organisms has led to the isolation of the modified tripeptide janolusimide B from the common invasive bryozoan Bugula flabellata. The structure was established by NMR and MS analysis, degradative hydrolysis and derivatization, and stereoselective fragment synthesis. The bryozoan natural product is an N-methyl analogue of janolusimide, previously reported from the Mediterranean nudibranch Janolus cristatus, a species known to prey upon bryozoa. PMID:25494238

  11. Early Pliocene Weddell Sea climate and seasonality reconstructed from bivalves and bryozoans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M.; Clark, N.; Okamura, B.; Zalasiewicz, J.; Johnson, A.; Leng, M. J.; Smellie, J.; Haywood, A.; Nelson-Laloe, A.; Taylor, P.

    2010-12-01

    Early Pliocene marine cheilostome bryozoans and bivalves are preserved in glacigenic and interglacial marine deposits of James Ross Island and Cockburn Island, northern Antarctic Peninsula. Several different marine bryozoan genera were incorporated into diamictites during Pliocene ice advance(s). Bryozoan zooid-size Mean Annual Range of Temperature (zs-MART) analysis provides estimates of seasonality which suggest annual marine temperatures for the James Ross Island region varied by at least 4°C and possibly by as much as 10°C during Early Pliocene warm intervals (compared with ca 2°C for present day). Coupled with evidence from oxygen isotope data from bivalves, Early Pliocene Weddell Sea warm intervals were evidently much warmer than present, with summer sea temperatures probably exceeding 5°C. Morphological (growth-increment) and oxygen isotope data from bivalves in the marine interglacial Cockburn Island Formation (dated at 4.7 Ma) indicate little or no sea ice present, supporting the theory that Chlamys-like bivalves have retreated from the Antarctic as sea ice increased in the late Pliocene. We demonstrate that bivalve and bryozoan growth-related morphologies, interpreted in conjunction with stable oxygen and carbon isotope data, provide a powerful tool for tracking high latitude climate in the Pliocene.

  12. Bryozoan faunal composition and community structure from the continental shelf off Cap de Creus (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurell, T.; Zabala, M.; Dominguez-Carrió, C.; Gili, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Bryozoan specimens obtained in 2009-2010 from the continental shelf off Cap de Creus (Northwestern Mediterranean) were studied. Samples were collected using a Rauschert sled at depths ranging from 61 to 225 m. Bryozoans were present in all 26 samples examined, although they were only abundant in 20 of them. A total of 113 species of Bryozoa were identified (2 Ctenostomata, 90 Cheilostomata and 21 Cyclostomata), most of them are well known to science, although a few of the species have barely or never been cited in the Mediterranean Sea (Hincksinoflustra octodon, Alderina imbellis, Escharella immersa, Neolagenipora collaris and Escharina johnstoni), or are currently poorly described (Lagenipora lepralioides). The species Palmicellaria aff. aviculifera (sensu Gautier, 1957) is redescribed, for which the new name of Palmiskenea gautieri is proposed. Species richness, abundance and biomass were linked to the availability of suitable substrates. Multivariate analysis in relation to environmental data showed that the spatial distribution of the bryozoan species was related to the sediment type. Samples from areas dominated by silt and sandy sediments showed few or no bryozoans, whereas coarse sands and gravels presented higher diversity, abundance and biomass. Within the depth range studied, the faunistic composition of the bryozoan assemblages was similar for the whole continental shelf off Cap de Creus. The bulk of bryozoans was found near the canyon rim. This is related to the proximity of the submarine canyon and its associated hydrological processes. The high diversity and abundance of the bryozoan community located on the circalittoral and shelf-edge off Cap de Creus reflect the presence of critical habitats that are essential for the design of marine protected areas.

  13. Skeletal mineralogy of bryozoans: Taxonomic and temporal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Key, Marcus M., Jr.; Gordon, Dennis P.

    2006-10-01

    Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of 1183 specimens of marine bryozoans from the literature was examined for phylogenetic patterns in order to elucidate the effects of bryozoan mineralogy on geochemical and paleoenvironmental analysis. Colonies are composed of calcite (66% of specimens), aragonite (17% of specimens) or various mixtures of the two (17% specimens) (phylum mean = 72.9 wt.% calcite, n = 1051). When calcite is present, it ranges from 0.0 to 13.7 wt.% MgCO 3 (mean = 5.0 wt.% MgCO 3, n = 873). Most (61%) calcitic specimens are formed of intermediate-Mg calcite (4 to 8 wt.% MgCO 3), others (28%) of low-Mg calcite (0 to 4 wt.% MgCO 3), and few of high-Mg calcite (> 8 wt.% MgCO 3). The phylum occupies at least 63% of the theoretical mineralogical "space" available to biomineralisation. Most of this variation occurs in the class Gymnolaemata, order Cheilostomata, suborder Neocheilostomata. Fossil and Recent stenolaemate taxa are generally low- to intermediate-Mg calcite (mean = 99.7 wt.% calcite, 2.6 wt.% MgCO 3, 17% of available biomineral space). Variability among families is related in a general way to first appearance datum: families younger than 100 Ma display greater mineralogical complexity than older ones. The cheilostome infraorder Flustrina includes unusual free-living aragonitic families, dual-calcite skeletons (mainly low-Mg calcite, but with secondary high-Mg calcite), and some genera with considerable mineralogical variability. Families (e.g., Membraniporidae and Phidoloporidae) and species (e.g., Schizoporella unicornis) with the highest degree of variability have potential for environmental correlations with mineralogy, paleoenvironmental interpretation, and possibly molecular investigation for potential cryptic species. Stenolaemate families, genera and species with low variability, on the other hand, are well-suited for geochemical work such as stable isotope analysis. Variability in the skeletal mineralogy of bryozoans suggests that they may be

  14. In Silico Prediction of Neuropeptides/Peptide Hormone Transcripts in the Cheilostome Bryozoan Bugula neritina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The bryozoan Bugula neritina has a biphasic life cycle that consists of a planktonic larval stage and a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transition between these two stages is crucial for the development and recruitment of B. neritina. Metamorphosis in B. neritina is mediated by both the nervous system and the release of developmental signals. However, no research has been conducted to investigate the expression of neuropeptides (NP)/peptide hormones in B. neritina larvae. Here, we report a comprehensive study of the NP/peptide hormones in the marine bryozoan B. neritina based on in silico identification methods. We recovered 22 transcripts encompassing 11 NP/peptide hormone precursor transcript sequences. The transcript sequences of the 11 isolated NP precursors were validated by cDNA cloning using gene-specific primers. We also examined the expression of three peptide hormone precursor transcripts (BnFDSIG, BnILP1, BnGPB) in the coronate larvae of B. neritina, demonstrating their distinct expression patterns in the larvae. Overall, our findings serve as an important foundation for subsequent investigations of the peptidergic control of bryozoan larval behavior and settlement. PMID:27537380

  15. In Silico Prediction of Neuropeptides/Peptide Hormone Transcripts in the Cheilostome Bryozoan Bugula neritina.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yue Him; Yu, Li; Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The bryozoan Bugula neritina has a biphasic life cycle that consists of a planktonic larval stage and a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transition between these two stages is crucial for the development and recruitment of B. neritina. Metamorphosis in B. neritina is mediated by both the nervous system and the release of developmental signals. However, no research has been conducted to investigate the expression of neuropeptides (NP)/peptide hormones in B. neritina larvae. Here, we report a comprehensive study of the NP/peptide hormones in the marine bryozoan B. neritina based on in silico identification methods. We recovered 22 transcripts encompassing 11 NP/peptide hormone precursor transcript sequences. The transcript sequences of the 11 isolated NP precursors were validated by cDNA cloning using gene-specific primers. We also examined the expression of three peptide hormone precursor transcripts (BnFDSIG, BnILP1, BnGPB) in the coronate larvae of B. neritina, demonstrating their distinct expression patterns in the larvae. Overall, our findings serve as an important foundation for subsequent investigations of the peptidergic control of bryozoan larval behavior and settlement. PMID:27537380

  16. Rearing gymnolaemate bryozoan larvae for cellular and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Temkin, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Gymnolaemates represent the largest group of extant bryozoans, having more than 3,000 described species. Gymnolaemates display a diverse array of reproductive and developmental patterns including planktotrophy, lecithotrophy, and matrotrophy. The larvae of gymnolaemates have been broadly grouped into three types, cyphonautes (shelled, feeding), pseudocyphonautes (shelled, nonfeeding), and coronate (unshelled, nonfeeding), although each group is heterogeneous and probably includes various morphologies that are largely undescribed. Here, methods for rearing bryozoan colonies and larvae are presented. PMID:24567208

  17. Bryozoans as indicators of global change: predictable shifts in morphology and carbonate mineralogy in response to warming and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, D. S.; Bean, J. R.; Ninokawa, A. T.; Sanford, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have documented variation in skeletal structure and carbonate mineralogy across a broad range of marine invertebrate taxa. Intraspecific changes in growth, morphology, and carbonate composition may occur in response to local and global changes in temperature, carbonate saturation state, and nutrient availability. Recurring upwelling along the west coast of the United States creates an alongshore mosaic of Ocean Acidification (OA), which may induce plastic responses and/or select for adaptive skeletal construction that can withstand pCO2 and temperature changes. Calcifying bryozoans provide a unique study system for investigating carbonate precipitation under variable conditions. Using a newly constructed flow-through CO2 control apparatus, we tested whether three laboratory-reared populations of the bryozoans Membranipora serrilamella, M. tuberculata and Celleporella cornuta showed differences in growth, calcification, and skeletal composition in response to simulated future OA conditions. Under elevated pCO2 (1200 μatm), bryozoans showed no significant differences in growth rate (new zooids added) compared to clones reared under current atmospheric values. However, C. cornuta colonies raised under high CO2 were significantly lighter, with less carbonate per zooid compared to colonies grown in present-day conditions (400 μatm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that elevated pCO2 led to dissolution of bryozoan skeletons, which did not occur at 400 μatm. Structural changes in M. tuberculata and C. cornuta colonies may be related to the dissolution of high magnesium calcite skeletal components. Analyses of bryozoan morphological responses along with environmental proxies (δ13C, δ18O, and Mg/Ca ratios) could yield high resolution records of temperature and pH, which could be used to help reconstruct environmental variation along the California coast.

  18. Bryozoan beds in northern Italy as a shallow-water expression of environmental changes during the Oligocene isotope event 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo-Vogel, David; Bover-Arnal, Telm; Strasser, André

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in carbonate-producing biotic communities in the geological record provide evidence of past environmental changes in the neritic realm. The shallow-marine Calcare di Nago Formation exposed in the San Valentino section (northern Italy) covers the Late Eocene and Earliest Oligocene. The succession is characterized by the occurrence of light-dependent biota such as coralline algae and larger benthic foraminifera. In the uppermost part of the section, however, the fossil association is dominated by bryozoans, which are filter-feeder organisms. This ca. 12 m thick interval locally contains up to 86% bryozoans, while coralline algae as well as larger benthic foraminifera are absent. Coralline algae and nummulitid foraminifera recover in the upper part of the bryozoan beds, whereas orthophragminids do not recover. The gradual disappearance of larger foraminifera and coralline algae within the bryozoan-dominated deposits is coeval with a pronounced positive shift in δ13C. Based on its biostratigraphic position, this positive shift is interpreted to be linked to the positive shift in δ13C recognized in deep-sea records shortly above the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, which in turn is associated to the positive shift in δ18O leading to the Oi-1 (Oligocene isotope event 1) cooling phase. Total phosphorus content increases in the bryozoan beds, suggesting enhanced nutrient supply to the neritic ecosystem. This phosphorous peak is coeval with the globally recognized increment in ocean productivity around the Oi-1 and δ13C positive shift. Thus, disappearance of light-dependent biota and the dominance of bryozoans in the platform carbonates studied are interpreted to result not necessarily from a deepening of the depositional environment but from the combination of lower sea-surface temperatures and the deterioration of underwater light conditions on account of elevated turbidity in surface waters, resulting from enhanced primary productivity. As bryozoan beds occur in

  19. Environmental change drove macroevolution in cupuladriid bryozoans.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Aaron; Jackson, Jeremy

    2009-10-22

    Most macroevolutionary events are correlated with changes in the environment, but more rigorous evidence of cause and effect has been elusive. We compiled a 10 Myr record of origination and extinction, changes in mode of reproduction, morphologies and abundances of cupuladriid bryozoan species, spanning the time when primary productivity collapsed in the southwestern Caribbean as the Isthmus of Panama closed. The dominant mode of reproduction shifted dramatically from clonal to aclonal, due in part to a pulse of origination followed by extinction that was strongly selective in favour of aclonal species. Modern-day studies predict reduced clonality in increasingly oligotrophic conditions, thereby providing a mechanistic explanation supporting the hypothesis that the collapse in primary productivity was the cause of turnover. However, whereas originations were synchronous with changing environments, extinctions lagged 1-2 Myr. Extinct species failed to become more robust and reduce their rate of cloning when the new environmental conditions arose, and subsequently saw progressive reductions in abundance towards their delayed demise. Environmental change is therefore established as the root cause of macroevolutionary turnover despite the lag between origination and extinction. PMID:19640882

  20. Calcified algae and bryozoans from the Ordovician - Silurian successions of the Spiti Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shivani; Parcha, Suraj Kumar

    2015-04-01

    The Tethys Himalaya contains an extensive record of sediments ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous. These successions are well exposed in Pin, Parahio, Kunzum La and in the Takche sections. The present work is focused on the Ordovician and Silurian succession in the Pin Valley. The Ordovician succession consists of purple coloured quartzite, shale, siltstone, grits, dolarenites etc. Whereas, the Silurian succession comprises of thick sequence of slate, dolomite, calcarenites, olive green shale, limestone and pink dolomite. Both the successions contain a rich assemblage of the microfossils along with other body fossils. These successions show a wide variety of marine calcareous algae, along with corals and bryozoans. The calcified algae and bryozoans reported from the Ordovician - Silurian succession are mostly in carbonate beds. The various genera of bryozoan identified are as Calloporella, Cyphotrypa, Dekayai, Eridotrypa, Insignia, Trematopora, etc. along with them are various forms of calcified algae which were found in association in the same thin sections. The prominent genera of calcified algae are as: Dasyporella, Moniliporella, and Vermiporella. The algal assemblages mainly consist of the order Dasycladales, which predominants in the entire successions. Three genera of Dasycladacean algae were identified, among them genus Moniliporella was reported first time from the Pin section. The presence of bryozoans and calcified green algae in these successions indicates shallow marine to near shore environmental conditions followed by different stages of regression and transgression during this time span. Based on the faunal elements, middle to late Ordovician age can be assigned to Thango Formation and late Ordovician to late Silurian to the Takche Formation.The bryozoan communities identified indicates a correlation with that of southern China, Russia, Siberia, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The genera Insignia and Tremaptopora which are reported from the Spiti Basin

  1. Modular Growth in Bryozoans and the Inference of Pliocene Climate Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, B.; O'Dea, A.; Knowles, T.; Clark, N.; Williams, M.

    2010-12-01

    We describe how variation in the modular growth of marine cheilostome bryozoans can be used to infer mean annual ranges in temperature (MART) through the application of the zooid-size MART technique (zs-MART) - an underutilised proxy for estimating seasonal temperature regimes in present-day and ancient environments. Inferences of temperature variation based on analyses of modular growth in bryozoans provide insights on both intra- and interannual environmental variation, and thereby enhance the climate records that are gleaned from foraminifers and other microfossils. The growing body of research to establish and utilise the zs-MART approach demonstrates its wide potential for gaining robust estimates of ancient temperature regimes, particularly when incorporated as part of a multi-proxy toolkit. We review how the zooid-size MART approach has enabled reconstruction of palaeoseasonality for the Pliocene across the North Atlantic, during the closure of the isthmus of Panama and in Antarctica and compare these data with those generated by other biological proxies and with output from GCMs.

  2. [FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN BRYOZOAN COLONY: A PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS].

    PubMed

    Kutyumov, V A; Maltseva, A L; Kotenko, N; Ostrovsky, A N

    2016-01-01

    Bryozoans are typical modular organisms. They consist of repetitive structural units, the zooids. Bryozoan colonies grow by zooidal budding, with the distribution pattern of the budding loci underlying the diversity of colony forms. Budding is usually restricted to the zooids at the periphery of the colony, which form a "growing edge" or local terminal growth zones. Non-budding parts of the colony can be functionally subdivided, too. In many species colonies consists of regular, often repetitive zones of feeding and non-feeding modules, associated with a periodical degeneration and regeneration of the polypide, retractile tentacle crown with a gut and the accompanying musculature. So, there is functional differentiation in bryozoan colonies but its mechanisms are unknown. Presumably, budding and/or polypide recycling in different colony parts are induced or inhibited by certain determinants of functional specialization. An effective tool of their identification is the comparison of proteomes of functionally different zones. Here we report the results of proteomic analysis of three bryozoan species from the White Sea, which have a different colony form: Flustrellidra hispida, Terminoflustra membranaceotruncata and Securiflustra securifrons. Using differential two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we compared proteomes of the growing edge and the zones consisting of feeding and non-feeding zooids in these species. We estimated the overall proteome variability, revealed proteins whose relative abundance gradually changed along the proximal-distal colony axis and suggested that they might be involved in the functional differentiation of the colony. PMID:27220253

  3. Competitive displacement among post-Paleozoic cyclostome and cheilostome bryozoans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; McKinney, F. K.; Lidgard, S.; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Encrusting bryozoans provide one of the few systems in the fossil record in which ecological competition can be observed directly at local scales. The macroevolutionary history of diversity of cyclostome and cheilostome bryozoans is consistent with a coupled-logistic model of clade displacement predicated on species within clades interacting competitively. The model matches observed diversity history if the model is perturbed by a mass extinction with a position and magnitude analogous to the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary event, Although it is difficult to measure all parameters in the model from fossil data, critical factors are intrinsic rates of extinction, which can be measured. Cyclostomes maintained a rather low rate of extinction, and the model solutions predict that they would lose diversity only slowly as competitively superior species of cheilostomes diversified into their environment. Thus, the microecological record of preserved competitive interactions between cyclostome and cheilostome bryozoans and the macroevolutionary record of global diversity are consistent in regard to competition as a significant influence on diversity histories of post-Paleozoic bryozoans.

  4. Oil reservoirs in grainstone aprons around Bryozoan Mounds, Upper Harrodsburg Limestone, Mississippian, Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jobe, H.; Saller, A.

    1995-06-01

    Several oil pools have been discovered recently in the upper Harrodsburg Limestone (middle Mississippian) of the Illinois basin. A depositional model for bryozoan mound complexes has allowed more successful exploration and development in this play. In the Johnsonville area of Wayne County, Illinois, three lithofacies are dominant in the upper Harrodsburg: (1) bryozoan boundstones, (2) bryozoan grainstones, and (3) fossiliferous wackestones. Bryozoan boundstones occur as discontinuous mounds and have low porosity. Although bryozoan boundstones are not the main reservoir lithofacies, they are important because they influenced the distribution of bryozoan grainstones and existing structure. Bryozoan grainstones have intergranular porosity and are the main reservoir rock. Bryozoan fragments derived from bryozoan boundstone mounds were concentrated in grainstones around the mounds. Fossiliferous wackestones are not porous and form vertical and lateral seals for upper Harrodsburg grainstones. Fossiliferous wackestones were deposited in deeper water adjacent to bryozoan grainstone aprons, and above grainstones and boundstones after the mounds were drowned. Upper Harrodsburg oil reservoirs occur where grainstone aprons are structurally high. The Harrodsburg is a good example of a carbonate mound system where boundstone cores are not porous, but adjacent grainstones are porous. Primary recovery in these upper Harrodsburg reservoirs is improved by strong pressure support from an aquifer in the lower Harrodsburg. Unfortunately, oil production is commonly decreased by water encroaching from that underlying aquifer.

  5. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids. PMID:25300304

  6. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids. PMID:25300304

  7. Environmental stability and morphologic variation in the bryozoan Homotrypa obliqua

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M.M. Jr

    1985-01-01

    Bryozoans as colonial organisms permit the separation of environmental and genetic contributions to morphologic variation. Previous analyses attempted to establish the effects of environmental stability on the partitioning of morphologic variation. Regrettably they utilized multiple species in different environments. To test this model definitively, colonies of the Ordovician bryozoan Homotrypa obliqua were sampled from paleoenvironments of different stabilities from Cincinnati. The Corryville and Fairmount beds provided ten colonies on which measures of zooecial shape and spacing on and between monticules were made. ANOVA and discriminant function analysis revealed that colonies from the deeper more stable environment of the Corryville beds exhibit more between colony variation. Colonies from the less stable Fairmount beds show relatively more within colony variation. This difference most likely results from less microenvironmental perturbation and/or greater within genotype developmental regulation in colonies from more stable environments. This is confirmed by correlation coefficient matrices that show biologically expected interdependence between characters only in the Corryville colonies. Thus, the partitioning of morphologic variation is a useful tool for predicting paleoenvironmental stability.

  8. Freshwater and brackish bryozoan species of Croatia (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata, Phylactolaemata) and their genetic identification.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Novosel, Maja; Koletić, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater and brackish species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata and Gymnolaemata class. Twelve species of bryozoans were recorded and morphologically determined at eight locations in the Black Sea and the Adriatic basin in Croatia. Twelve species of Bryozoa have been listed in the taxonomic index for Croatia (Conopeum seurati, Lophopus crystallinus Paludicella articulata, Cristatella mucedo, Fredericella sultana, Hyalinella punctata, Plumatella casmiana, Plumatella emarginata, Plumatella fruticosa, Plumatella fungosa, Plumatella geimermassardi and Plumatella repens). For the purposes of gene identification of recorded species, molecular markers for nuclear 18S and 28S genes, ITS2 region and mitochondrial COI gene were amplified. Genetic identifications of morphologically determined bryozoan species were confirmed using highly similar sequences local alignment analysis. Proliferation of freshwater bryozoan species over long distances with the help of the vector animals was confirmed by defining haplotypes on the base of 18S, 28S and ITS2 sequences associated with the Black Sea-Mediterranean waterfowl flyway. PMID:26624355

  9. Incrusting and boring bryozoans from the Dessau Chalk Formation (Cretaceous), Little Walnut Creek, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Four sections were measured along a 1/4 mi length of Little Walnut Creek. The first section was 165 ft north of the US. 290 bridge while the fourth was 1/4 mi upstream. Structurally, the stream follows the fault in this section. Small faults can be found perpendicular to the primary fault and apparently account not only for minor variation in local dip (8{degrees}SE, parallel to 5{degrees}NW) but also for the placement of at least one tributary. Megainvertebrate exoskeletons were found to have been inhabited by incrusting bryozoans, boring bryozoans, and sponges. These fossils were found on both interior and exterior surfaces of Exogyra laeviuscula E tigrina, and interior surfaces of Inoceramus. A low-energy environment allowed exposure of megainvertebrate exoskeletons after death but also prevented fracturing. Low siltation rates also extended exoskeleton availability after organismic death. The nonboring bryozoans are cheilostomes and at least one species, Pyripora, has been described from the Kansas Cretaceous as well as European Cretaceous sites. The boring bryozoans are primarily represented by Terebripora sp. In conclusion, this section of Dessau Chalk Formation, Upper Austin Group, was mostly a low-energy environment, shallow, limy mud platform. This substrate was probably not stable enough for bryozoan colonization as unattached colonies have not been found in sediments. Therefore, bryozoan substrates were limited to living and dead Exogyra sp. and dead Inoceramus sp. exoskeletons.

  10. Antioxidant volatiles of the freshwater bryozoan Hyalinella punctata.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Nakarada, Djura; Novakovic, Miroslav; Tesevic, Vele; Savic, Aleksandar; Radotic, Ksenija; Mojovic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Two volatile samples of the bryozoan Hyalinella punctata (seasonally collected from the same locality) were isolated (hydrodistillation, Clevenger apparatus), identified (GC and GC-MS) and screened in vitro (EPR) for anti-hydroxyl radical activity. The main components of sample 1 (2-ethyl-1-hexanol 37.00%, dodecanol 21.40% and hexanal 8.40%) and sample 2 (2-ethyl-1-hexanol 30.50%, 7-tridecanol 24.60% and 1-hexadecanol 11.80%) were relatively similar. However, more components were present in the sample 2 (17 and 25, respectively). EPR measurements indicated significant anti-hydroxyl radical activity of the both samples (75.00 ± 6.00% and 87.00 ± 8.00%, respectively) whereas the generation of other types of free radicals in reaction with hydroxyl radicals was not observed. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of 31 organic compounds from the phylum Bryozoa. Alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and ethers of lower molecular mass appear to be characteristic for the volatiles of these organisms commonly known as moss animals. PMID:24716585

  11. Cross-taxon congruence and environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diversity patterns of different taxa typically covary in space, a phenomenon called cross-taxon congruence. This pattern has been explained by the effect of one taxon diversity on taxon diversity, shared biogeographic histories of different taxa, and/or common responses to environmental conditions. A meta-analysis of the association between environment and diversity patterns found that in 83 out of 85 studies, more than 60% of the spatial variability in species richness was related to variables representing energy, water or their interaction. The role of the environment determining taxa diversity patterns leads us to hypothesize that this would explain the observed cross-taxon congruence. However, recent analyses reported the persistence of cross-taxon congruence when environmental effect was statistically removed. Here we evaluate this hypothesis, analyzing the cross-taxon congruence between birds and mammals in the Brazilian Cerrado, and assess the environmental role on the spatial covariation in diversity patterns. Results We found a positive association between avian and mammal richness and a positive latitudinal trend for both groups in the Brazilian Cerrado. Regression analyses indicated an effect of latitude, PET, and mean temperature over both biological groups. In addition, we show that NDVI was only associated with avian diversity; while the annual relative humidity, was only correlated with mammal diversity. We determined the environmental effects on diversity in a path analysis that accounted for 73% and 76% of the spatial variation in avian and mammal richness. However, an association between avian and mammal diversity remains significant. Indeed, the importance of this link between bird and mammal diversity was also supported by a significant association between birds and mammal spatial autoregressive model residuals. Conclusion Our study corroborates the main role of environmental conditions on diversity patterns, but suggests that other

  12. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Early to Middle Miocene Central Paratethys using stable isotopes from bryozoan skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Marcus M.; Zágoršek, Kamil; Patterson, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope values from single bryozoan colonies were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironments of the Early to Middle Miocene (Ottnangian to Badenian) sediments of the Central Paratethys. This approach utilizes a locally abundant allochem while avoiding matrix and multiple allochem contamination from bulk rock samples. Bryozoan colonies (and a few foraminifera and rock matrix samples) from 14 localities yielded 399 carbon and oxygen isotope values. Data from six of the localities (15 % of the total number of samples) were interpreted as having been diagenetically altered and were rejected. The remaining data indicate a primarily localized upwelling signal with lesser variation caused by global climatic and regional tectonic forcing of sea level, salinity, and temperature. Paleotemperatures were calculated to range from 12 to 21 °C. Despite potential taxonomic and diagenetic problems, bryozoan colonies are a powerful, underutilized source of paleoenvironmental carbon and oxygen isotope data.

  13. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-01-01

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent. PMID:25544525

  14. Late Pleistocene bryozoan reef mounds of the Great Australian Bight: Isotope stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; James, Noel

    2002-08-01

    Cores from Sites 1129, 1131, and 1132 (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 182) on the uppermost slope at the edge of the continental shelf in the Great Australian Bight reveal the existence of upper Pleistocene bryozoan reef mounds, previously only detected on seismic lines. Benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope data for the last 450,000 years indicate that bryozoan reef mounds predominantly accumulated during periods of lower sea level and colder climate since stage 8 at Sites 1129 and 1132 and since stage 4 at the deeper Site 1131. During glacials and interstadials (stages 2-8) the combination of lowered sea level, increased upwelling, and absence of the Leeuwin Current probably led to an enhanced carbon flux at the seafloor that favored prolific bryozoan growth and mound formation at Site 1132. At Site 1129, higher temperatures and downwelling appear to have inhibited the full development of bryozoan mounds during stages 2-4. During that time, favorable hydrographic conditions for the growth of bryozoan mounds shifted downslope from Site 1129 to Site 1131. Superimposed on these glacial-interglacial fluctuations is a distinct long-term paleoceanographic change. Prior to stage 8, benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate low carbon flux to the seafloor, and bryozoan mounds, although present closer inshore, did not accumulate significantly at Sites 1129 and 1132, even during glacials. Our results show that the interplay of sea level change (eustatic and local, linked to platform progradation), glacial-interglacial carbon flux fluctuations (linked to local hydrographic variations), and possibly long-term climatic change strongly influenced the evolution of the Great Australian Bight carbonate margin during the late Pleistocene.

  15. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:26837534

  16. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:24389707

  17. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:25620233

  18. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2013-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2011 for marine natural products, with 870 citations (558 for the period January to December 2011) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1152 for 2011), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:23263727

  19. Early Visean bryozoans from the Shishtu II Member, Shishtu Formation, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikova, Zoya; Yazdi-Moghadam, Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    Four bryozoan species are described from the upper member (Shishtu II) (Visean, Early Carboniferous=Mississippian) of the Shishtu Formation of central Iran: Nikiforovella ulbensis Nekhoroshev, 1956, Nicklesopora elegantulaformis (Nekhoroshev, 1956), Primorella cf. iranica Gorjunova, 2006, and Nikiforopora intermedia (Nikiforova, 1950). This Visean assemblage shows close palaeogeographical affinities of Iran with Kazakhstan and Russia (eastern Transbaikalia, Kurgan region).

  20. 76 FR 20558 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 44 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Adding 10 Taxa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are amending the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife (List) by adding 10 marine taxa, delisting 1 marine taxon, reclassifying 1 marine taxon, and revising 32 marine taxa in accordance with the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). These amendments are based on previously published determinations by the National Marine......

  1. Regional and temporal changes in epizoobiontic bryozoan-communities of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) and implications for North Sea ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitschofsky, F.; Forster, S.; Scholz, J.

    2011-02-01

    Until recently, bryozoans have not been used as indicators for changes in bottom communities or climate control in the North Sea Basin, despite a 200-year history of bryozoan collecting. The epizoobiontic bryozoan fauna of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) was analysed on 51 sample stations kept in four German museums. The samples cover the entire North Sea and different time periods (1776-2008, mainly the period of 1904/1905 compared to 1980-87). Cluster analysis shows a differentiation into a northern and a southern North Sea assemblage. The northern assemblage is characterized by Amphiblestrum flemingii (Busk, 1854), Callopora dumerilii (Audouin, 1826) and Tricellaria ternata (Ellis & Solander, 1786), while the southern North Sea is characterized by Electra pilosa (Linnaeus, 1767), Crisia eburnea (Linnaeus, 1758) and Plagioecia patina (Lamarck, 1816). Spatial separation approximately follows the 50 m depth contour. The temporal distribution patterns of bryozoans are discussed in terms of NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and temperature variations.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Antarctic bryozoans: an ecological perspective with potential for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Blanca; Sala-Comorera, Laura; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Vázquez, Jennifer; Jesús Montes, M; García-Aljaro, Cristina; Mercadé, Elena; Blanch, Anicet R; Avila, Conxita

    2014-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Antarctic bryozoans and the ecological functions of the chemical compounds involved remain largely unknown. To determine the significant ecological and applied antimicrobial effects, 16 ether and 16 butanol extracts obtained from 13 different bryozoan species were tested against six Antarctic (including Psychrobacter luti, Shewanella livingstonensis and 4 new isolated strains) and two bacterial strains from culture collections (Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus). Results from the bioassays reveal that all ether extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. Only one butanol extract produced inhibition, indicating that antimicrobial compounds are mainly lipophilic. Ether extracts of the genus Camptoplites inhibited the majority of bacterial strains, thus indicating a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Moreover, most ether extracts presented activities against bacterial strains from culture collections, suggesting the potential use of these extracts as antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25232675

  3. Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans from the South Atlantic Ocean .

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana Carolina S; Souza, Facelucia B C

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of cheilostome bryozoans are described from Bahia and Espírito Santo States, Brazil-Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. and Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. Both genera are registered for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean. Inter alia, Calyptooecia conuma n. sp. is characterized by the presence of dimorphic brooding zooids with relatively small orifices and no perioral tubercles, contrasting with bigger non-brooding zooids having larger orifices surrounded by perioral tubercles. Hippotrema fissurata n. sp. differs from congeners in colony morphology and colour, in details of the ooecium and in zooidal metrics. Specimens were collected on varied substrata, commonly calcareous nodules and shells as well as other bryozoans and sponges.  PMID:24872298

  4. Epiphytic bryozoans on Neptune grass – a sample-based data set

    PubMed Central

    Lepoint, Gilles; Heughebaert, André; Michel, Loïc N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The seagrass Posidonia oceanica L. Delile, commonly known as Neptune grass, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea. It hosts a distinctive and diverse epiphytic community, dominated by various macroalgal and animal organisms. Mediterranean bryozoans have been extensively studied but quantitative data assessing temporal and spatial variability have rarely been documented. In Lepoint et al. (2014a, b) occurrence and abundance data of epiphytic bryozoan communities on leaves of Posidonia oceanica inhabiting Revellata Bay (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) were reported and trophic ecology of Electra posidoniae Gautier assessed. New information Here, metadata information is provided on the data set discussed in Lepoint et al. (2014a) and published on the GBIF portal as a sampling-event data set: http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource?r=ulg_bryozoa&v=1.0). The data set is enriched by data concerning species settled on Posidonia scales (dead petiole of Posidonia leaves, remaining after limb abscission). PMID:27551218

  5. The Lilliput effect in colonial organisms: cheilostome bryozoans at the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Sogot, Caroline E; Harper, Elizabeth M; Taylor, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Consistent trends towards decreasing body size in the aftermath of mass extinctions--Lilliput effects--imply a predictable response among unitary animals to these events. The occurrence of Lilliput effects has yet to be widely tested in colonial organisms, which are of particular interest as size change may potentially occur at the two hierarchical levels of the colony and the individual zooids. Bryozoans are particularly useful organisms in which to study colonial size response as they have well-defined zooids. Additionally, a number of analyses of present-day bryozoans have shown that zooid size reflects local environmental conditions, most notably seawater temperature and possibly also food supply. Following the hypothesised decline in primary productivity at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction, it is predicted that bryozoan zooid size should decline in the early Paleogene, resulting in a Lilliput effect. To test this prediction, zooid size was compared across the K-Pg boundary at the assemblage level and also within 4 surviving genera. Analysis of 59 bryozoan species from assemblages on either side of the K-Pg boundary showed no significant change in zooid length. Zooid size was also measured in 98 Maastrichtian colonies and 162 Danian colonies belonging to four congeneric species. Only one of these genera showed a significant size decrease across the K-Pg boundary, the other three maintaining constant zooidal lengths, widths and areas. Additionally, the sizes of 210 Maastrichtian colonies and 163 Danian colonies did not show consistent size decrease across the K-Pg boundary in these same species, although maximum colony size did decline in three out of four genera. Furthermore, this lack of consistent size change is uniform between two distinct biogeographical regions, Denmark and the southeastern USA. PMID:24505275

  6. New species and new records of bryozoans from shallow waters of Madeira Island.

    PubMed

    Souto, Javier; Kaufmann, Manfred J; Canning-Clode, João

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of bryozoans encrusting subtidal rocks are described from the shallow waters of Madeira Island. We describe one cyclostome, Favosipora purpurea sp. nov., which represents the first record of this genus in the Atlantic Ocean, and one cheilostome, Rhynchozoon papuliferum sp. nov. In addition, one species, Beania maxilladentata, is recorded for the first time outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Six other species previously recorded in Madeira are redescribed to provide new data and SEM images. PMID:25781763

  7. The Lilliput Effect in Colonial Organisms: Cheilostome Bryozoans at the Cretaceous–Paleogene Mass Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Sogot, Caroline E.; Harper, Elizabeth M.; Taylor, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent trends towards decreasing body size in the aftermath of mass extinctions – Lilliput effects – imply a predictable response among unitary animals to these events. The occurrence of Lilliput effects has yet to be widely tested in colonial organisms, which are of particular interest as size change may potentially occur at the two hierarchical levels of the colony and the individual zooids. Bryozoans are particularly useful organisms in which to study colonial size response as they have well-defined zooids. Additionally, a number of analyses of present-day bryozoans have shown that zooid size reflects local environmental conditions, most notably seawater temperature and possibly also food supply. Following the hypothesised decline in primary productivity at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) mass extinction, it is predicted that bryozoan zooid size should decline in the early Paleogene, resulting in a Lilliput effect. To test this prediction, zooid size was compared across the K–Pg boundary at the assemblage level and also within 4 surviving genera. Analysis of 59 bryozoan species from assemblages on either side of the K–Pg boundary showed no significant change in zooid length. Zooid size was also measured in 98 Maastrichtian colonies and 162 Danian colonies belonging to four congeneric species. Only one of these genera showed a significant size decrease across the K–Pg boundary, the other three maintaining constant zooidal lengths, widths and areas. Additionally, the sizes of 210 Maastrichtian colonies and 163 Danian colonies did not show consistent size decrease across the K–Pg boundary in these same species, although maximum colony size did decline in three out of four genera. Furthermore, this lack of consistent size change is uniform between two distinct biogeographical regions, Denmark and the southeastern USA. PMID:24505275

  8. Foundational issues concerning taxa and taxon names.

    PubMed

    Ereshefsky, Marc

    2007-04-01

    In a series of articles, Rieppel (2005, Biol. Philos. 20:465-487; 2006a, Cladistics 22:186-197; 2006b, Systematist 26:5-9), Keller et al. (2003, Bot. Rev. 69:93-110), and Nixon and Carpenter (2000, Cladistics 16:298-318) criticize the philosophical foundations of the PhyloCode. They argue that species and higher taxa are not individuals, and they reject the view that taxon names are rigid designators. Furthermore, they charge supporters of the individuality thesis and rigid designator theory with assuming essentialism, committing logical inconsistencies, and offering proposals that render taxonomy untestable. These charges are unsound. Such charges turn on confusions over rigid designator theory and the distinction between kinds and individuals. In addition, Rieppel's, Keller et al.'s, and Nixon and Carpenter's proposed alternatives are no better and have their own problems. The individuality thesis and rigid designator theory should not be quickly abandoned. PMID:17464884

  9. Interaction between Locale and Taxon Strategies in Human Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redhead, Edward S.; Hamilton, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    Three computer-based experiments which tested human participants in a non-immersive virtual watermaze task sought to determine factors which dictate whether the presence of a visual platform disrupts locale learning and taxon learning. In Experiment 1, the visible platform disrupted locale but not taxon learning based on viewpoint-independent and…

  10. The epizoic diatom community on four bryozoan species from Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuchter, Cornelia; Marquardt, Jürgen; Krumbein, Wolfgang

    2002-09-01

    The composition of the diatom community on the bryozoans Electra pilosa, Membranipora membranacea, Flustra foliacea, and Alcyonidium gelatinosum from the German Bight was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. In total, members of 26 diatom genera were found, with Cocconeis, Tabularia, Licmophora, Amphora, and Navicula being the most abundant. The amount and the composition of the diatom covering seem to be typical for single bryozoan species. Electra pilosa and Membranipora membranacea showed a rather dense covering with 71-547 cells/mm2 and 77-110 cells/mm2, respectively. The most prominent genus on Electra pilosa was Cocconeis, reaching up to 58% of all diatoms in one sample, followed by Navicula, Tabularia and Amphora. The most abundant genera on Membranipora membranacea were Tabularia and Licmophora, making up almost 70% of all diatoms in one sample, followed by Navicula, Cocconeis and Amphora. The diatom composition was very stable on all Electra samples, but varied on Membranipora samples. With <1-27 cells/mm2, diatoms were much less abundant on Alcyonidium gelatinosum. Members of the genera Tabularia and Navicula were the most frequently found benthic diatoms, whereas the planktonic forms Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, and Thalassiosira made up 35% of the diatoms. On Flustra foliacea, diatoms were virtually absent, with fewer than 5 cells/mm2. The low diatom numbers are probably due to toxic metabolites produced by the host. The same may be true for Alcyonidium gelatinosum, but here they might also be a consequence of the surface properties of the bryozoan.

  11. The epizoic diatom community on four bryozoan species from Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuchter, Cornelia; Marquardt, Jürgen; Krumbein, Wolfgang E.

    2003-03-01

    The composition of the diatom community on the bryozoans Electra pilosa, Membranipora membranacea, Flustra foliacea, and Alcyonidium gelatinosum from the German Bight was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. In total, members of 26 diatom genera were found, with Cocconeis, Tabularia, Licmophora, Amphora, and Navicula being the most abundant. The amount and the composition of the diatom covering seem to be typical for single bryozoan species. Electra pilosa and Membranipora membranacea showed a rather dense covering with 71-547 cells/mm2 and 77-110 cells/mm2, respectively. The most prominent genus on Electra pilosa was Cocconeis, reaching up to 58% of all diatoms in one sample, followed by Navicula, Tabularia and Amphora. The most abundant genera on Membranipora membranacea were Tabularia and Licmophora, making up almost 70% of all diatoms in one sample, followed by Navicula, Cocconeis and Amphora. The diatom composition was very stable on all Electra samples, but varied on Membranipora samples. With <1-27 cells/mm2, diatoms were much less abundant on Alcyonidium gelatinosum. Members of the genera Tabularia and Navicula were the most frequently found benthic diatoms, whereas the planktonic forms Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, and Thalassiosira made up 35% of the diatoms. On Flustra foliacea, diatoms were virtually absent, with fewer than 5 cells/mm2. The low diatom numbers are probably due to toxic metabolites produced by the host . The same may be true for Alcyonidium gelatinosum, but here they might also be a consequence of the surface properties of the bryozoan.

  12. Bryozoans from RV Sonne deep-sea cruises SO 167 'Louisville' and SO 205 'Mangan'.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Kei; Janssen, Annika; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez; Martha, Silviu O; Freiwald, André

    2014-01-01

    The German research vessel Sonne is operating in the Pacific, Southern and Indian Oceans. In the current stage of development in Pacific deep-sea mining projects, prior understanding of biodiversity patterns in the affected regions is one of the major research goals of the RV Sonne cruises. In the present study, nine bryozoan species are reported from the Equatorial East Pacific and the Kermadec-Tonga Ridge, collected during RV Sonne cruises SO 167 "Louisville" and SO 205 "Mangan", from 356-4007 m. Two new species, Raxifabia oligopora n. sp. and Opaeophora triangula n. sp., are described. PMID:25284647

  13. Cytotoxic Bryostatin Derivatives from the South China Sea Bryozoan Bugula neritina.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao-Bing; Yang, Fan; Li, Yan-Yun; Gan, Jian-Hong; Jiao, Wei-Hua; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2015-05-22

    Four new macrocyclic lactones, bryostatin 21 (1) and 9-O-methylbryostatins 4, 16, and 17 (2-4), together with three known related compounds, bryostatins 4, 16, and 17 (5-7), have been isolated from an extract of the South China Sea bryozoan Bugula neritina. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated using detailed spectroscopic analysis. Structurally, the presence of a single methyl group at C-18 in compound 1 has not been observed before for known bryostatins. The isolated macrolides exhibited inhibitory effects against a small panel of human cancer cell lines. PMID:25932671

  14. Application of Bryozoan zoarial growth-form studies in facies analysis of non-tropical carbonate deposits in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Campbell S.; Hyden, Fiona M.; Keane, Sandra L.; Leask, William L.; Gordon, Dennis P.

    1988-11-01

    The fragmental remains of bryozoan colonies are the dominant skeletal contributor in many modern and ancient occurrences of non-tropical shelf carbonate deposits. The taxonomic complexity of the Bryozoa, the difficulties of systematic classification except by specialists, the wide range of particle sizes and of preservation state in the carbonate deposits, and the often well-cemented nature of host limestones, all limit the sedimentological interpretation of the commonly diverse bryozoan component. However, following the pioneer work of Stach in the 1930's, the potential exists for sedimentologists to obtain useful (paleo)environmental information about the deposits by recording simply the nature and relative abundances of the various growth shapes of the bryozoan material, known as their zoarial (colonial) growth forms. Here we propose a simple descriptive terminology, covering both cheilostome and cyclostome bryozoans, that involves four main growth forms (encrusting, erect rigid, erect flexible and free-living) and a selection of subcategories based on shape. Identification of these habitat-related growth-form types is aided by reference to line drawings, specimen photographs and photomicrographs of thin-section slices. The scheme is illustrated by examining briefly some possible environmental controls on the spatial and/or time variations in the nature and distribution of colonial growth forms in several examples of modern and Tertiary bryozoan-dominated carbonate deposits in New Zealand. We anticipate that the routine description and quantification of bryozoan colonial growth types in non-tropical carbonates generally will facilitate the recognition and interpretation of contrasting (sub)facies within the global foramol/bryomol group of carbonate deposits.

  15. Phylogenetic diversity and antimicrobial activities of bryozoan-associated bacteria isolated from Mediterranean and Baltic Sea habitats.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Herwig; Wiese, Jutta; Thiel, Vera; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2010-03-01

    To date, only a small number of investigations covering microbe-bryozoa associations have been carried out. Most of them have focused on a few bryozoan species and none have covered the antibacterial activities of associated bacteria. In the current study, the proportion and phylogenetic classification of Bryozoan-associated bacteria with antimicrobial properties were investigated. Twenty-one specimens of 14 different bryozoan species were collected from several sites in the Baltic and the Mediterranean Sea. A total of 340 associated bacteria were isolated, and 101 displayed antibiotic activities. While antibiosis was predominantly directed against Gram-positive test strains, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed affiliation of the isolates to Gram-negative classes (Flavobacteria, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria). One isolate was related to the Gram-positive Actinobacteria. The sequences were grouped into 27 phylotypes on the basis of similarity values >or=99.5%. A host-specific affiliation was not revealed as members of the same phylotype were derived from different bryozoan species. Site-specific patterns, however, were demonstrated. Strains of the genera Sphingomonas and Alteromonas were exclusively isolated from Mediterranean sites, whereas Shewanella, Marinomonas and Vibrio-related isolates were only from Baltic sites. Although Pseudoalteromonas affiliated strains were found in both habitats, they were separated into respective phylotypes. Isolates with 16S rDNA similarity values <98%, which could possibly represent new species, belonged to the genera Shewanella, Pseudoalteromonas and Tenacibaculum. PMID:20153592

  16. Habitat-forming bryozoans in New Zealand: their known and predicted distribution in relation to broad-scale environmental variables and fishing effort.

    PubMed

    Wood, Anna C L; Rowden, Ashley A; Compton, Tanya J; Gordon, Dennis P; Probert, P Keith

    2013-01-01

    Frame-building bryozoans occasionally occur in sufficient densities in New Zealand waters to generate habitat for other macrofauna. The environmental conditions necessary for bryozoans to generate such habitat, and the distributions of these species, are poorly known. Bryozoan-generated habitats are vulnerable to bottom fishing, so knowledge of species' distributions is essential for management purposes. To better understand these distributions, presence records were collated and mapped, and habitat suitability models were generated (Maxent, 1 km(2) grid) for the 11 most common habitat-forming bryozoan species: Arachnopusia unicornis, Cellaria immersa, Cellaria tenuirostris, Celleporaria agglutinans, Celleporina grandis, Cinctipora elegans, Diaperoecia purpurascens, Galeopsis porcellanicus, Hippomenella vellicata, Hornera foliacea, and Smittoidea maunganuiensis. The models confirmed known areas of habitat, and indicated other areas as potentially suitable. Water depth, vertical water mixing, tidal currents, and water temperature were useful for describing the distribution of the bryozoan species at broad scales. Areas predicted as suitable for multiple species were identified, and these 'hotspots' were compared to fishing effort data. This showed a potential conflict between fishing and the conservation of bryozoan-generated habitat. Fishing impacts are known from some sites, but damage to large areas of habitat-forming bryozoans is likely to have occurred throughout the study area. In the present study, spatial error associated with the use of historic records and the coarse native resolution of the environmental variables limited both the resolution at which the models could be interpreted and our understanding of the ecological requirements of the study species. However, these models show species distribution modelling has potential to further our understanding of habitat-forming bryozoan ecology and distribution. Importantly, comparisons between hotspots of

  17. Habitat-Forming Bryozoans in New Zealand: Their Known and Predicted Distribution in Relation to Broad-Scale Environmental Variables and Fishing Effort

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Anna C. L.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Compton, Tanya J.; Gordon, Dennis P.; Probert, P. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Frame-building bryozoans occasionally occur in sufficient densities in New Zealand waters to generate habitat for other macrofauna. The environmental conditions necessary for bryozoans to generate such habitat, and the distributions of these species, are poorly known. Bryozoan-generated habitats are vulnerable to bottom fishing, so knowledge of species’ distributions is essential for management purposes. To better understand these distributions, presence records were collated and mapped, and habitat suitability models were generated (Maxent, 1 km2 grid) for the 11 most common habitat-forming bryozoan species: Arachnopusiaunicornis, Cellariaimmersa, Cellariatenuirostris, Celleporariaagglutinans, Celleporinagrandis, Cinctiporaelegans, Diaperoeciapurpurascens, Galeopsisporcellanicus, Hippomenellavellicata, Hornerafoliacea, and Smittoideamaunganuiensis. The models confirmed known areas of habitat, and indicated other areas as potentially suitable. Water depth, vertical water mixing, tidal currents, and water temperature were useful for describing the distribution of the bryozoan species at broad scales. Areas predicted as suitable for multiple species were identified, and these ‘hotspots’ were compared to fishing effort data. This showed a potential conflict between fishing and the conservation of bryozoan-generated habitat. Fishing impacts are known from some sites, but damage to large areas of habitat-forming bryozoans is likely to have occurred throughout the study area. In the present study, spatial error associated with the use of historic records and the coarse native resolution of the environmental variables limited both the resolution at which the models could be interpreted and our understanding of the ecological requirements of the study species. However, these models show species distribution modelling has potential to further our understanding of habitat-forming bryozoan ecology and distribution. Importantly, comparisons between hotspots of suitable

  18. First occurrence of the non-native bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Ryland, John S; Holt, Rohan; Loxton, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Schizoporella japonica Ortmann was described from Japan but was subsequently introduced on Pacific oysters to the Pacific coast of North America, where it is now well established. In this paper we record it for the first time in European waters. The initial discovery was in a marina at Holyhead, North Wales, in July 2010 but S. japonica has since been observed abundantly in the Orkney Islands (from May 2011) and, subsequently, at other localities in northern Scotland. Introduction seems most likely to have been on an ocean-going vessel. The British material is here fully described and illustrated with SEMs and colour photographs; some unusual characters are discussed. Unlike other recently introduced bryozoans, S. japonica is a cold-water species and its breeding season in Britain extends through the winter. Extensive confusion between this and other species of Schizoporella on the west coast of Canada and the USA led us to make thorough morphometric comparisons between the species concerned (Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston in Wood), Schizoporella errata (Waters) and Schizoporella pseudoerrata Soule, Soule and Chaney). Zooid size in cheilostomate bryozoans is variable and often an unreliable character for species separation but shape (and therefore ratios between variables, which are independent of size) are often valuable: S. japonica zooids have a much greater length:width ratio than the other species. Density of frontal pseudopores provides a useful discriminatory character. Schizoporella unicornis, repeatedly reported in error from the Pacific coast of North America, does not occur there; it is a European species. Full comparisons are made between S. japonica and S. unicornis for European identification and between S. japonica, S. errata and S. pseudoerrata (which are also illustrated) for North American localities. PMID:24871847

  19. The placental analogue and the pattern of sexual reproduction in the cheilostome bryozoan Bicellariella ciliata (Gymnolaemata)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Matrotrophy or extraembryonic nutrition – transfer of nutrients from mother to embryo during gestation – is well known and thoroughly studied among vertebrates, but still poorly understood in invertebrates. The current paper focuses on the anatomy and ultrastructure of the oogenesis and placentotrophy as well as formation of the brood chamber (ovicell) in the cheilostome bryozoan Bicellariella ciliata (Linnaeus, 1758). Our research aimed to combine these aspects of the sexual reproduction into an integral picture, highlighting the role of the primitive placenta-like system in the evolution of bryozoan reproductive patterns. Results Follicular and nutrimentary provisioning of the oocyte occur during oogenesis. Small macrolecithal oocytes are produced, and embryos are nourished in the ovicell via a simple placental analogue (embryophore). Every brooding episode is accompanied by the hypertrophy of the embryophore, which collapses after larval release. Nutrients are released and uptaken by exocytosis (embryophore) and endocytosis (embryo). Embryos lack specialized area for nutrient uptake, which occurs through the whole epidermal surface. The volume increase between the ripe oocyte and the larva is ca. 10-fold. Conclusions The ovicell is a complex organ (not a special polymorph as often thought) consisting of an ooecium (protective capsule) and an ooecial vesicle (plugging the entrance to the brooding cavity) that develop from the distal and the fertile zooid correspondingly. Combination of macrolecithal oogenesis and extraembryonic nutrition allows attributing B. ciliata to species with reproductive pattern IV. However, since its oocytes are small, this species represents a previously undescribed variant of this pattern, which appears to represent a transitional state from the insipient matrotrophy (with large macrolecithal eggs) to substantial one (with small microlecithal ones). Altogether, our results substantially added and corrected the data

  20. Macrochaete gen. nov. (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria), a taxon morphologically and molecularly distinct from Calothrix.

    PubMed

    Berrendero Gómez, Esther; Johansen, Jeffrey R; Kaštovský, Jan; Bohunická, Markéta; Čapková, Kateřina

    2016-08-01

    Historically, the genus Calothrix included all noncolonial, tapered, heterocytous filaments within the cyanobacteria. However, recent molecular phylogenies show that "Calothrix" defined in this sense represents five distinct clades. The type species of Calothrix is marine, with solitary basal heterocytes, no akinetes, and distal ends tapering abruptly into short hairs. We examined the morphology and phylogeny of 45 tapering cyanobacteria in the Rivulariaceae, including freshwater and marine representatives of both Calothrix (35 strains) and its sister taxon Rivularia (10 strains). The marine Calothrix fall into two lineages, but we lack the generitype and so cannot identify the clade corresponding to the type species. The freshwater and soil Calothrix fall into the C. parietina clade and are characterized by having a basal heterocyte, no akinetes, and gradual tapering-but not into a long hyaline hair. Macrochaete gen. nov. is a freshwater taxon sister to the Calothrix lineages but clearly separated from Rivularia. The species in this genus differ morphologically from Calothrix by their ability to produce two heteromorphic basal heterocytes and specific secondary structures of the 16S-23S ITS. An additional feature present in most species is the presence of a distal, long hyaline hair, but this character has incomplete penetrance due to its expression only under specific environmental conditions (low phosphate), and in one species appears to be lost. We recognize three species: M. psychrophila (type species) from cold environments (high mountains, Antarctica), M. santannae from wet walls of subtropical South America, and M. lichenoides, a phycobiont of lichens from Europe. PMID:27136320

  1. Improved phylogenomic taxon sampling noticeably affects nonbilaterian relationships.

    PubMed

    Pick, K S; Philippe, H; Schreiber, F; Erpenbeck, D; Jackson, D J; Wrede, P; Wiens, M; Alié, A; Morgenstern, B; Manuel, M; Wörheide, G

    2010-09-01

    Despite expanding data sets and advances in phylogenomic methods, deep-level metazoan relationships remain highly controversial. Recent phylogenomic analyses depart from classical concepts in recovering ctenophores as the earliest branching metazoan taxon and propose a sister-group relationship between sponges and cnidarians (e.g., Dunn CW, Hejnol A, Matus DQ, et al. (18 co-authors). 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452:745-749). Here, we argue that these results are artifacts stemming from insufficient taxon sampling and long-branch attraction (LBA). By increasing taxon sampling from previously unsampled nonbilaterians and using an identical gene set to that reported by Dunn et al., we recover monophyletic Porifera as the sister group to all other Metazoa. This suggests that the basal position of the fast-evolving Ctenophora proposed by Dunn et al. was due to LBA and that broad taxon sampling is of fundamental importance to metazoan phylogenomic analyses. Additionally, saturation in the Dunn et al. character set is comparatively high, possibly contributing to the poor support for some nonbilaterian nodes. PMID:20378579

  2. Improved Phylogenomic Taxon Sampling Noticeably Affects Nonbilaterian Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Pick, K.S.; Philippe, H.; Schreiber, F.; Erpenbeck, D.; Jackson, D.J.; Wrede, P.; Wiens, M.; Alié, A.; Morgenstern, B.; Manuel, M.; Wörheide, G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite expanding data sets and advances in phylogenomic methods, deep-level metazoan relationships remain highly controversial. Recent phylogenomic analyses depart from classical concepts in recovering ctenophores as the earliest branching metazoan taxon and propose a sister-group relationship between sponges and cnidarians (e.g., Dunn CW, Hejnol A, Matus DQ, et al. (18 co-authors). 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452:745–749). Here, we argue that these results are artifacts stemming from insufficient taxon sampling and long-branch attraction (LBA). By increasing taxon sampling from previously unsampled nonbilaterians and using an identical gene set to that reported by Dunn et al., we recover monophyletic Porifera as the sister group to all other Metazoa. This suggests that the basal position of the fast-evolving Ctenophora proposed by Dunn et al. was due to LBA and that broad taxon sampling is of fundamental importance to metazoan phylogenomic analyses. Additionally, saturation in the Dunn et al. character set is comparatively high, possibly contributing to the poor support for some nonbilaterian nodes. PMID:20378579

  3. An insight into antimicrobial activity of the freshwater bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Ciric, Ana; Horvatovic, Mladen; Jurca, Tamara; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Nikolic, Milos; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of five crude extracts of the freshwater bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy, 1851) was evaluated in vitro for the first time. P. magnifica acetone extract exhibited the highest antibacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) 0.004-0.350 mg/mL and MBC 0.007-0.500 mg/mL), while its methanol extract showed the most promising antifungal activity (MIC 0.03-0.12 mg/mL and MFC 0.06-0.25 mg/mL). Furthermore, at a concentration of 0.25 MIC, the methanol extract reduced biofilm formation of the bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in a considerable extent (59.14%). FTIR spectra of the most active extracts indicate the presence of carbonyl compounds, long-chain alcohols and/or sterols. According to the experimental data obtained, P. magnifica methanol extract may be considered as a good resource of novel natural products with potent antibiofilm activity against the bacterium well known for its resistance. PMID:26252786

  4. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  5. Recruitment in invertebrates with short-lived larvae: the case of the bryozoan Disporella hispida (Fleming)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Simone

    2003-03-01

    Temporal and spatial recruitment patterns of the cyclostome bryozoan Disporella hispida were monitored using settlement plates arranged along three benthic communities of an artificial reef at Blanes (NE Spain, NW Mediterranean). At the study site, the species mainly inhabits semi-obscure caves. By studying recruitment over one year I first inferred the larval release period for D. hispida and described its temporal occurrence in the communities and stations studied. Secondly, I attempted to determine whether the predicted restricted dispersal may account for the species' distribution at the study site. To this purpose, I compared the distribution of early recruits (15 days old) with that of adults. I also investigated environmental factors which may affect the extent of larval dispersal, and described the effects of post-recruitment processes occurring over a 4-month period. The brooding period, inferred from the study of early recruitment, was linked to spring-increments and autumn-decrements of water temperatures. Early recruits were distributed non-randomly in the communities and stations studied, being most abundant in the habitats where adults live. Strong hydrodynamic events seemed to modify this pattern, allowing recruitment out of the parental communities, and may hinder settlement. Post-recruitment mortality events were likely to prevent colonisation of habitats where the species do not live. Overall, philopatry and low post-recruitment mortality in the parental communities appeared to be the main mechanisms determining the distribution of D. hispida at the study site.

  6. A bryozoan species may offer novel antioxidants with anti-carbon-dioxide anion radical activity.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Savic, Aleksandar G; Hegedis, Aleksandar; Karaman, Ivo; Horvatovic, Mladen; Mojovic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    The antiradical activity of the freshwater bryozoan Hyalinella punctata water extracts (two samples, seasonal collection) was evaluated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy against hydroxyl (√OH), superoxide anion (√O2(- )), methoxy (√CH2OH), carbon-dioxide anion (√CO2(- )), nitric-oxide (√NO) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (√DPPH) radicals. The extracts reduced the production of all tested radicals but to a varying degree. The better activity was observed against √CO2(- ) and √CH2OH radicals (54 ± 5% and 44 ± 4%, and 58 ± 6% and 22 ± 2%, respectively) than towards √DPPH, √NO, √OH and √O2(- ) radicals (59 ± 6% and 1.0 ± 0.1%, 46 ± 5% and 14 ± 1%, 7.0 ± 0.5% and 34 ± 3%, and 33 ± 3% and 0%, respectively). FTIR spectra of the both extracts indicate the presence of cyclic peptides and polypeptides which might be responsible for the observed activity. According to the experimental data obtained, H. punctata water extract may be considered as a novel promising resource of natural products with anti √CO2(- ) radical activity. PMID:24897340

  7. Tenacibaculum adriaticum sp. nov., from a bryozoan in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Herwig; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2008-03-01

    A rod-shaped, translucent yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative bacterium, strain B390(T), was isolated from the bryozoan Schizobrachiella sanguinea collected in the Adriatic Sea, near Rovinj, Croatia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated affiliation to the genus Tenacibaculum, with sequence similarity levels of 94.8-97.3 % to type strains of species with validly published names. It grew at 5-34 degrees C, with optimal growth at 18-26 degrees C, and only in the presence of NaCl or sea salts. In contrast to other type strains of the genus, strain B390(T) was able to hydrolyse aesculin. The predominant menaquinone was MK-6 and major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH and iso-C(15 : 1). The DNA G+C content was 31.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization and comparative physiological tests were performed with type strains Tenacibaculum aestuarii JCM 13491(T) and Tenacibaculum lutimaris DSM 16505(T), since they exhibit 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities above 97 %. These data, as well as phylogenetic analyses, suggest that strain B390(T) (=DSM 18961(T) =JCM 14633(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species within the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum adriaticum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:18319452

  8. Taxonicity of anxiety sensitivity: an empirical test among youth.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J; Weems, Carl; Stickle, Timothy; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2005-09-01

    Taxometric coherent cut kinetic analyses were used to test the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity (AS) among 371 youth. Anxiety sensitivity was indexed by the 18-item Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI; Silverman et al., J. Clin. Child Psychol. (1991), 20, 162-168). Two sets of manifest indicators of AS were constructed using the CASI: (1) three item-parcel manifest indicators: disease concerns, unsteady concerns, and mental illness concerns; and (2) nine single-item indicators representing each of these three facets of AS. Results from standard and short-scale MAXCOV procedures, internal consistency tests, analyses of simulated Monte Carlo data, and MAMBAC external consistency tests indicated that the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity among youth was taxonic. Estimated base rate of the observed AS taxon ranged between 13.6 and 16.5%. The present findings are discussed in terms of theoretical implications for the study of AS and vulnerability for anxiety psychopathology. PMID:16005702

  9. Bryozoans from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Upper Devonian) of the Tom-Kolyvansk area (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikova, Zoya

    2010-10-01

    Nine bryozoan species are described from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Late Devonian) from Western Siberia, Russia, namely: Leptotrypella pojarkovi Orlovski, 1961, Rhombopora subtilis Nekhoroshev, 1977, Klaucena lalolamina Yang, Hu, Xia, 1988, Eofistulotrypa famennensis sp. n., Atactotoechus cellatus sp. n., Nikiforopora jurgensis sp. n., Eridotrypella tyzhnovi sp. n., Mediapora elegans sp. n., and Klaucena gracilis sp. n. The studied assemblage shows palaeogeographical affinity with Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Transcaucasia, China, and the United States of America.

  10. Taxonicity of anxiety sensitivity: a multi-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J; Kotov, Roman; Arrindell, Willem A; Taylor, Steven; Sandin, Bonifacio; Cox, Brian J; Stewart, Sherry H; Bouvard, Martine; Cardenas, Samuel Jurado; Eifert, Georg H; Schmidt, Norman B

    2006-01-01

    Taxometric coherent cut kinetic analyses were used to test the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity in samples from North America (Canada and United States of America), France, Mexico, Spain, and The Netherlands (total n = 2741). Anxiety sensitivity was indexed by the 36-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised (ASI-R; [J. Anxiety Disord. 12(5) (1998) 463]). Four manifest indicators of anxiety sensitivity were constructed using the ASI-R: fear of cardiovascular symptoms, fear of respiratory symptoms, fear of publicly observable anxiety reactions, and fear of mental incapacitation. Results from MAXCOV-HITMAX, internal consistency tests, analyses of simulated Monte Carlo data, and a MAMBAC external consistency test indicated that the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity was taxonic in each of the samples. The estimated base rate of the anxiety sensitivity taxon differed slightly between nations, ranging from 11.5 to 21.5%. In general, the four ASI-R based manifest indicators showed high levels of validity. Results are discussed in relation to the conceptual understanding of anxiety sensitivity, with specific emphasis on theoretical refinement of the construct. PMID:16325111

  11. Assessing the Value of DNA Barcodes for Molecular Phylogenetics: Effect of Increased Taxon Sampling in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John James

    2011-01-01

    Background A common perception is that DNA barcode datamatrices have limited phylogenetic signal due to the small number of characters available per taxon. However, another school of thought suggests that the massively increased taxon sampling afforded through the use of DNA barcodes may considerably increase the phylogenetic signal present in a datamatrix. Here I test this hypothesis using a large dataset of macrolepidopteran DNA barcodes. Methodology/Principal Findings Taxon sampling was systematically increased in datamatrices containing macrolepidopteran DNA barcodes. Sixteen family groups were designated as concordance groups and two quantitative measures; the taxon consistency index and the taxon retention index, were used to assess any changes in phylogenetic signal as a result of the increase in taxon sampling. DNA barcodes alone, even with maximal taxon sampling (500 species per family), were not sufficient to reconstruct monophyly of families and increased taxon sampling generally increased the number of clades formed per family. However, the scores indicated a similar level of taxon retention (species from a family clustering together) in the cladograms as the number of species included in the datamatrix was increased, suggesting substantial phylogenetic signal below the ‘family’ branch. Conclusions/Significance The development of supermatrix, supertree or constrained tree approaches could enable the exploitation of the massive taxon sampling afforded through DNA barcodes for phylogenetics, connecting the twigs resolved by barcodes to the deep branches resolved through phylogenomics. PMID:21931848

  12. Atlantic origin of the arctic biota? Evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographical analysis of the cheilostome bryozoan genus pseudoflustra.

    PubMed

    Kuklinski, Piotr; Taylor, Paul D; Denisenko, Nina V; Berning, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The intricate geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean is paralleled by complexities in the biogeographical and phylogenetical histories of the Arctic biota, including bryozoans. Here we present revised taxonomic descriptions for all known species of the bryozoan genus Pseudoflustra, and use the present-day distributions and phylogenetic relationships between these species to infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Nine species belonging to the genus Pseudoflustra are recognized in the Arctic and North Atlantic. One new species, previously identified as Ichthyaria aviculata, is described as Pseudoflustra radeki sp. nov. Another species, previously assigned to Smittoidea as S. perrieri, is transferred to Pseudoflustra. Biogeographical analysis of Pseudoflustra reveals that species distributions mostly match current patterns pertaining in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Distributions were probably shaped by recent geological history as present-day current directions in the Arctic Ocean are believed to have been similar for at least the last 120 000 years. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudoflustra places the five Arctic-North Atlantic species in a clade crownward of a paraphyletic grouping of North Atlantic species. Given that the Arctic Ocean was fully glaciated until 18 000 years, the most likely explanation for this phylogeographical pattern is that species of Pseudoflustra colonized the Arctic relatively recently from North Atlantic sources. However, a fuller understanding of the origin of Pseudoflustra in the Arctic will require molecular and fossil data, neither of which are currently available. PMID:23536863

  13. Triticella minini - a new ctenostome bryozoan from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grischenko, Andrei V.; Chernyshev, Alexei V.

    2015-01-01

    A new species of ctenostome bryozoan, Triticella minini sp. nov., is described from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, based on material collected by the Russian-German deep-sea expedition KuramBio 2012. Colonies of T. minini sp. nov. were found attached to the oral spines of irregular sea urchin Echinosigra (Echinogutta) amphoraMironov, 1974 by means of rhizoid fibers that penetrated the substratum through circular borings. The specimens were examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy with phalloidin and nuclear labeling. The description of T. minini sp. nov. combines a general taxonomic description with a description of the anatomy of the muscular system. The new species differs from congeners in lacking a stolon. It has an intertentacular organ. T. minini sp. nov. is the eleventh species described in the genus TriticellaDalyell, 1848, and the first record for this genus from the northwestern Pacific. The new species is the fifth ctenostome bryozoan known to occur in 5001-5500 m depth interval worldwide, and the deepest record reported for Triticella.

  14. Atlantic Origin of the Arctic Biota? Evidence from Phylogenetic and Biogeographical Analysis of the Cheilostome Bryozoan Genus Pseudoflustra

    PubMed Central

    Kuklinski, Piotr; Taylor, Paul D.; Denisenko, Nina V.; Berning, Björn

    2013-01-01

    The intricate geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean is paralleled by complexities in the biogeographical and phylogenetical histories of the Arctic biota, including bryozoans. Here we present revised taxonomic descriptions for all known species of the bryozoan genus Pseudoflustra, and use the present-day distributions and phylogenetic relationships between these species to infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Nine species belonging to the genus Pseudoflustra are recognized in the Arctic and North Atlantic. One new species, previously identified as Ichthyaria aviculata, is described as Pseudoflustra radeki sp. nov. Another species, previously assigned to Smittoidea as S. perrieri, is transferred to Pseudoflustra. Biogeographical analysis of Pseudoflustra reveals that species distributions mostly match current patterns pertaining in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Distributions were probably shaped by recent geological history as present-day current directions in the Arctic Ocean are believed to have been similar for at least the last 120 000 years. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudoflustra places the five Arctic-North Atlantic species in a clade crownward of a paraphyletic grouping of North Atlantic species. Given that the Arctic Ocean was fully glaciated until 18 000 years, the most likely explanation for this phylogeographical pattern is that species of Pseudoflustra colonized the Arctic relatively recently from North Atlantic sources. However, a fuller understanding of the origin of Pseudoflustra in the Arctic will require molecular and fossil data, neither of which are currently available. PMID:23536863

  15. Trepostome and cystoporate bryozoans from the Lexington Limestone and the Clays Ferry Formation (Middle and Upper Ordovician) of Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karklins, O.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Lexington Limestone and the Clays Ferry Formation of Kentucky contain an abundant and diversified fossil invertebrate fauna. This report is concerned with the trepostome and cystoporate bryozoans that constitute a major part of that fauna. The Lexington Limestone, largely a biofragmental fossiliferous limestone, rests disconformably on the Tyrone Limestone (Middle Ordovician). The Clays Ferry Formation consists of approximately equal amounts of biofragmentallimestone and shale, and it overlies conformably, or intertongues with, the upper part of the Lexington Limestone. The Clays Ferry Formation is overlain by the Garrard Siltstone (Upper Ordovician) in central Kentucky and intertongues with the Kope Formation (Upper Ordovician) in northern Kentucky. The MiddleUpper Ordovician boundary falls within the upper part of the Lexington Limestone and laterally equivalent strata of the Clays Ferry Formation. The Lexington Limestone has been divided into 12 members, consisting of calcarenites, calcisiltites, calcilutites, nodular limestones, and shales in various amounts, that intertongue complexly. Because of the great abundance of bryozoans this study is generally limited to bryozoans recovered from, in ascending order, the Grier Limestone Member, the Perryville Limestone Member, the Brannon Member, the Tanglewood Limestone Member, and the Millersburg Member of the Lexington Limestone and from the Clays Ferry Formation and its Point Pleasant Tongue. The trepostome and cystoporate bryozoans discussed are referred to 36 species belonging to 22 genera. The trepostome component includes 29 species belonging to 16 genera: Amplexopora, Atactoporella, Balticopora, Batostoma, Cyphotrypa, Dekayia, Eridotrypa, Hetero-_ trypa, Homotrypa, Homotrypella, Mesotrypa, Parvohallopora, Peronopora, Prasopora, Stigmatella, and Tarphophragma, a new genus. Five of the trepostome species are new: Balticopora arcuatilis, Cyphotrypa switzeriensis, Dekayia epetrima, Eridotrypa sadievillensis

  16. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F.; Mohamed, Tarik A.; Alhammady, Montaser A.; Shaheen, Alaa M.; Reda, Eman H.; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I.; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species. PMID:26006713

  17. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Zermoglio, Paula F.; Guralnick, Robert P.; Wieczorek, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume) and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data. PMID:26760296

  18. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    PubMed

    Zermoglio, Paula F; Guralnick, Robert P; Wieczorek, John R

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume) and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data. PMID:26760296

  19. Single-taxon field measurements of bacterial gene regulation controlling DMSP fate.

    PubMed

    Varaljay, Vanessa A; Robidart, Julie; Preston, Christina M; Gifford, Scott M; Durham, Bryndan P; Burns, Andrew S; Ryan, John P; Marin, Roman; Kiene, Ronald P; Zehr, Jonathan P; Scholin, Christopher A; Moran, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    The 'bacterial switch' is a proposed regulatory point in the global sulfur cycle that routes dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) to two fundamentally different fates in seawater through genes encoding either the cleavage or demethylation pathway, and affects the flux of volatile sulfur from ocean surface waters to the atmosphere. Yet which ecological or physiological factors might control the bacterial switch remains a topic of considerable debate. Here we report the first field observations of dynamic changes in expression of DMSP pathway genes by a single marine bacterial species in its natural environment. Detection of taxon-specific gene expression in Roseobacter species HTCC2255 during a month-long deployment of an autonomous ocean sensor in Monterey Bay, CA captured in situ regulation of the first gene in each DMSP pathway (dddP and dmdA) that corresponded with shifts in the taxonomy of the phytoplankton community. Expression of the demethylation pathway was relatively greater during a high-DMSP-producing dinoflagellate bloom, and expression of the cleavage pathway was greater in the presence of a mixed diatom and dinoflagellate community [corrected].These field data fit the prevailing hypothesis for bacterial DMSP gene regulation based on bacterial sulfur demand, but also suggest a modification involving oxidative stress response, evidenced as upregulation of catalase via katG, when DMSP is demethylated. PMID:25700338

  20. Single-taxon field measurements of bacterial gene regulation controlling DMSP fate

    PubMed Central

    Varaljay, Vanessa A; Robidart, Julie; Preston, Christina M; Gifford, Scott M; Durham, Bryndan P; Burns, Andrew S; Ryan, John P; Marin III, Roman; Kiene, Ronald P; Zehr, Jonathan P; Scholin, Christopher A; Ann Moran, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The ‘bacterial switch' is a proposed regulatory point in the global sulfur cycle that routes dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) to two fundamentally different fates in seawater through genes encoding either the cleavage or demethylation pathway, and affects the flux of volatile sulfur from ocean surface waters to the atmosphere. Yet which ecological or physiological factors might control the bacterial switch remains a topic of considerable debate. Here we report the first field observations of dynamic changes in expression of DMSP pathway genes by a single marine bacterial species in its natural environment. Detection of taxon-specific gene expression in Roseobacter species HTCC2255 during a month-long deployment of an autonomous ocean sensor in Monterey Bay, CA captured in situ regulation of the first gene in each DMSP pathway (dddP and dmdA) that corresponded with shifts in the taxonomy of the phytoplankton community. Expression of the cleavage pathway was relatively greater during a high-DMSP-producing dinoflagellate bloom, and expression of the demethylation pathway was greater in the presence of a mixed diatom and dinoflagellate community. These field data fit the prevailing hypothesis for bacterial DMSP gene regulation based on bacterial sulfur demand, but also suggest a modification involving oxidative stress response, evidenced as upregulation of catalase via katG, when DMSP is demethylated. PMID:25700338

  1. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  2. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  3. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  4. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  5. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  6. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  7. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  8. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  9. Oxymonads are closely related to the excavate taxon Trimastix.

    PubMed

    Dacks, J B; Silberman, J D; Simpson, A G; Moriya, S; Kudo, T; Ohkuma, M; Redfield, R J

    2001-06-01

    Despite intensive study in recent years, large-scale eukaryote phylogeny remains poorly resolved. This is particularly problematic among the groups considered to be potential early branches. In many recent systematic schemes for early eukaryotic evolution, the amitochondriate protists oxymonads and Trimastix have figured prominently, having been suggested as members of many of the putative deep-branching higher taxa. However, they have never before been proposed as close relatives of each other. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes from the oxymonad Pyrsonympha and from several Trimastix isolates. Rigorous phylogenetic analyses indicate that these two protist groups are sister taxa and are not clearly related to any currently established eukaryotic lineages. This surprising result has important implications for our understanding of cellular evolution and high-level eukaryotic phylogeny. Given that Trimastix contains small, electron-dense bodies strongly suspected to be derived mitochondria, this study constitutes the best evidence to date that oxymonads are not primitively amitochondriate. Instead, Trimastix and oxymonads may be useful organisms for investigations into the evolution of the secondary amitochondriate condition. All higher taxa involving either oxymonads or Trimastix may require modification or abandonment. Affected groups include four contemporary taxa given the rank of phylum (Metamonada, Loukozoa, Trichozoa, Percolozoa), and the informal excavate taxa. A new "phylum-level" taxon may be warranted for oxymonads and Trimastix. PMID:11371592

  10. Two issues in archaeological phylogenetics: taxon construction and outgroup selection.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Saab, Youssef; Saab, Elias; Darwent, John; Glover, Daniel S

    2002-03-21

    Cladistics is widely used in biology and paleobiology to construct phylogenetic hypotheses, but rarely has it been applied outside those disciplines. There is, however, no reason to suppose that cladistics is not applicable to anything that evolves by cladogenesis and produces a nested hierarchy of taxa. This includes cultural phenomena such as languages and tools recovered from archaeological contexts. Two methodological issues assume primacy in attempts to extend cladistics to archaeological materials: the construction of analytical taxa and the selection of appropriate outgroups. In biology the species is the primary taxonomic unit used, irrespective of the debates that have arisen in phylogenetic theory over the nature of species. Also in biology the phylogenetic history of a group of taxa usually is well enough known that an appropriate taxon can be selected as an outgroup. No analytical unit parallel to the species exists in archaeology, and thus taxa have to be constructed specifically for phylogenetic analysis. One method of constructing taxa is paradigmatic classification, which defines classes (taxa) on the basis of co-occurring, unweighted character states. Once classes have been created, a form of occurrence seriation-an archaeological method based on the theory of cultural transmission and heritability-offers an objective basis for selecting an outgroup. PMID:12051970

  11. A new phylogeny of the Cephalaspidea (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) based on expanded taxon sampling and gene markers.

    PubMed

    Oskars, Trond R; Bouchet, Philippe; Malaquias, Manuel António E

    2015-08-01

    The Cephalaspidea is a diverse marine clade of euthyneuran gastropods with many groups still known largely from shells or scant anatomical data. The definition of the group and the relationships between members has been hampered by the difficulty of establishing sound synapomorphies, but the advent of molecular phylogenetics is helping to change significantly this situation. Yet, because of limited taxon sampling and few genetic markers employed in previous studies, many questions about the sister relationships and monophyletic status of several families remained open. In this study 109 species of Cephalaspidea were included covering 100% of traditional family-level diversity (12 families) and 50% of all genera (33 genera). Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetics analyses based on two mitochondrial (COI, 16S rRNA) and two nuclear gene markers (28S rRNA and Histone-3) were used to infer the relationships of Cephalaspidea. The monophyly of the Cephalaspidea was confirmed. The families Cylichnidae, Diaphanidae, Haminoeidae, Philinidae, and Retusidae were found non-monophyletic. This result suggests that the family level taxonomy of the Cephalaspidea warrants a profound revision and several new family and genus names are required to reflect the new phylogenetic hypothesis presented here. We propose a new classification of the Cephalaspidea including five new families (Alacuppidae, Colinatydidae, Colpodaspididae, Mnestiidae, Philinorbidae) and one new genus (Alacuppa). Two family names (Acteocinidae, Laonidae) and two genera (Laona, Philinorbis) are reinstated as valid. An additional lineage with family rank (Philinidae "Clade 4") was unravelled, but no genus and species names are available to reflect the phylogeny and formal description will take place elsewhere. PMID:25916189

  12. Bryozoan event from Middle Miocene (Early Badenian) lower neritic sediments from the locality Kralice nad Oslavou (Central Paratethys, Moravian part of the Carpathian Foredeep)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zágoršek, Kamil; Holcová, Katarína; Třasoň, Tomáš

    2008-07-01

    Fossil Bryozoa occurs usually in shallow-water environments. One of the rare deep-water associations of Bryozoa has been studied in a profile at Kralice nad Oslavou. According to studies of foraminifera, the paleodepth was more than 150 m and less than 500 m. The bryozoan assemblages are poor, consisting of four species only, dominated by Tervia irregularis (Cyclostomatida) and Reteporella kralicensis sp.n. (Cheilostomatida), a new species being described in detail.

  13. The impact of taxon sampling on phylogenetic inference: a review of two decades of controversy

    PubMed Central

    Nabhan, Ahmed Ragab

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a long-standing debate about the impact of taxon sampling on phylogenetic inference. Studies have been based on both real and simulated data sets, within actual and theoretical contexts, and using different inference methods, to study the impact of taxon sampling. In some cases, conflicting conclusions have been drawn for the same data set. The main questions explored in studies to date have been about the effects of using sparse data, adding new taxa, including more characters from genome sequences and using different (or concatenated) locus regions. These questions can be reduced to more fundamental ones about the assessment of data quality and the design guidelines of taxon sampling in phylogenetic inference experiments. This review summarizes progress to date in understanding the impact of taxon sampling on the accuracy of phylogenetic analysis. PMID:21436145

  14. Depositional facies and sequence stratigraphy of a Lower Carboniferous bryozoan-crinoidal carbonate ramp in the Illinois Basin, mid-continent USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasemi, Z.; Norby, R.D.; Treworgy, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Lower Carboniferous Fort Payne and Ullin Formations in the Illinois Basin form the transgressive and highstand systems tracts that were deposited in a carbonate ramp setting. During deposition of the Ullin Limestone, biotic communities dominated by fenestrate bryozoans and echinoderms (primarily crinoids) proliferated, possibly in response to global tectonic, biological, and oceanographic events that affected bathymetry and nutrient supply. The Fort Payne Formation consists of a dark grey-brown, siliceous and argillaceous lime mudstone in the lower part (transgressive systems tract) and a very fine-grained wackestone to packstone with rare mud mounds in the upper part (early high-stand), and was deposited in an outer ramp to basinal environment. During deposition of the lower Ullin Limestone (mostly early highstand), bryozoan-crinoidal build-ups accreted both laterally and vertically into several relatively large carbonate banks, which were partly surrounded by siliceous Fort Payne sea. Bryozoans (primarily fenestrates) were especially prevalent during the late stage of bank development and formed mud-free bioherms up to 120 m thick. In places, carbonate mud mounds also formed during the early stage of bank deposition. Bioherm development declined during deposition of the upper Ullin Limestone (late highstand), and a broad, storm-dominated carbonate ramp was established that became the site for widespread deposition of bryozoan-crinoidal sandwaves. Gradual shallowing led to ooid formation at the end of Ullin deposition. This sequence was terminated by a relative rise in sea level that resulted in deposition of the transgressive facies of the lower part of the overlying Salem Limestone. The depositional style and the nature of skeletal material of the Fort Payne and Ullin Formations are similar to those of cool-water carbonates. A deep-water setting along with upwelling of cool, nutrient-rich oceanic waters may have been responsible for the proliferation of

  15. In vitro antibiofilm activity of the freshwater bryozoan Hyalinella punctata: a case study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Ciric, Ana; Karaman, Ivo; Horvatovic, Mladen; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Nikolic, Milos; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The antibiofilm and possible antiquorum sensing effects against the strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 of five crude extracts of the freshwater bryozoan Hyalinella punctata (Hancock, 1850) were evaluated in vitro for the first time. H. punctata ethyl acetate extract (HpEtAc) exhibited the highest antibiofilm activity reducing the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 in the range of 80.63-88.13%. While all tested extracts reduced the twitching motility of the aforementioned bacterial strain, HpEtAc showed to be the most effective. Finally, at a concentration of 0.5 MIC, the same extract mostly inhibited the production of pyocyanin by P. aeruginosa PAO1 (71.53%). In comparison both with the positive controls used (streptomycin and ampicillin, 67.13 and 69.77%, respectively), HpEtAc was found to inhibit pyocyanin in a higher extent. An extensive chemical characterisation of this particular extract may result in isolation and identification of novel lead compounds targeting P. aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26264659

  16. Marine-Based Nutraceuticals: An Innovative Trend in the Food and Supplement Industries

    PubMed Central

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Osborne, Simone; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    Recent trends in functional foods and supplements have demonstrated that bioactive molecules play a major therapeutic role in human disease. Nutritionists and biomedical and food scientists are working together to discover new bioactive molecules that have increased potency and therapeutic benefits. Marine life constitutes almost 80% of the world biota with thousands of bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites derived from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, sea slugs and many other marine organisms. These bioactive molecules and secondary metabolites possess antibiotic, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and anticancer activities. They are also inhibitors or activators of critical enzymes and transcription factors, competitors of transporters and sequestrants that modulate various physiological pathways. The current review summaries the widely available marine-based nutraceuticals and recent research carried out for the purposes of isolation, identification and characterization of marine-derived bioactive compounds with various therapeutic potentials. PMID:26473889

  17. Marine-Based Nutraceuticals: An Innovative Trend in the Food and Supplement Industries.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Osborne, Simone; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda

    2015-10-01

    Recent trends in functional foods and supplements have demonstrated that bioactive molecules play a major therapeutic role in human disease. Nutritionists and biomedical and food scientists are working together to discover new bioactive molecules that have increased potency and therapeutic benefits. Marine life constitutes almost 80% of the world biota with thousands of bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites derived from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, sea slugs and many other marine organisms. These bioactive molecules and secondary metabolites possess antibiotic, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and anticancer activities. They are also inhibitors or activators of critical enzymes and transcription factors, competitors of transporters and sequestrants that modulate various physiological pathways. The current review summaries the widely available marine-based nutraceuticals and recent research carried out for the purposes of isolation, identification and characterization of marine-derived bioactive compounds with various therapeutic potentials. PMID:26473889

  18. Cribrilina mutabilis n. sp., an Eelgrass-Associated Bryozoan (Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata) with Large Variationin Zooid Morphology Related to Life History.

    PubMed

    Ito, Minako; Onishi, Takumi; Dick, Matthew H

    2015-10-01

    We describe the cribrimorph cheilostome bryozoan Cribrilina mutabilis n. sp., which we detected as an epibiont on eelgrass (Zostera marina) at Akkeshi, Hokkaido, northern Japan. This species shows three distinct zooid types during summer: the R (rib), I (intermediate), and S (shield) types. Evidence indicates that zooids commit to development as a given type, rather than transform from one type to another with age. Differences in the frontal spinocyst among the types appear to be mediated by a simple developmental mechanism, acceleration or retardation in the production of lateral costal fusions as the costae elongate during ontogeny. Colonies of all three types were identical, or nearly so, in partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene (555-631 bp), suggesting that they represent a single species. Zooid types varied temporally in overall frequency in the population: colonies contained nearly exclusively R-type zooids in mid-June; predominantly I-type, or both R- and I-type, zooids in mid-July; and I-type, S-type, or both I- and S-type zooids (interspersed or in discrete bands) in mid- to late August. Reproduction occurred throughout the season, but peaked in July, with only R- and I-type zooids reproducing. Reproductive zooids bear a vestigial compound (tripartite) ooecium and brood internally; S-type zooids, first appearing in August, were non-reproductive, which suggests that they may serve as an overwintering stage. As this species is easily accessible, common, and simple in form, it is potentially useful as a model system for studying polyphenism at multiple levels (zooid, colony, and population) in the context of life-history adaptations. PMID:26428727

  19. Phosphorus Availability, Phytoplankton Community Dynamics, and Taxon-Specific Phosphorus Status in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.; Labiosa, R. G.; Calhoun, M.; Street, J. H.; Post, A. F.; Paytan, A.

    2006-12-01

    The relationships among phytoplankton taxon-specific phosphorus-status, phytoplankton community composition, and nutrient levels were assessed over three seasons in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. During summer and fall, stratified surface waters were depleted of nutrients and picophytoplankton populations comprised the majority of cells (80% and 88% respectively). In winter, surface nutrient concentrations were higher and larger phytoplankton were more abundant (63%). Cell specific alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) derived from enzyme labeled fluorescence was consistently low (less than 5%) in the picophytoplankton throughout the year, whereas larger cells expressed elevated APA during the summer and fall but less in the winter. A nutrient addition bioassay during the fall showed that, relative to control, APA was reduced by half in larger cells following addition of orthophosphate, whereas the APA of picophytoplankton remained low (less than 1%) across all treatments and the control. These results indicate that the most abundant phytoplankton are not limited by orthophosphate and only some subpopulations (particularly of larger cells) exhibit orthophosphate-limitation throughout the year. Our results indicate that orthophosphate availability influences phytoplankton ecology, correlating with shifts in phytoplankton community structure and the nutrient status of individual cells. The role of dissolved organic phosphorus as an important phosphorus source for marine phytoplankton in oligotrophic settings and the need for evaluating nutrient limitation at the taxa and/or single cell level (rather than inferring it from nutrient concentrations and ratios or bulk enzyme activity measurements) are highlighted.

  20. Dimensionality vs Taxonicity of Schizotypy: Some New Data and Challenges Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Kirsty V.; Linscott, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the expression of schizotypy may arise from underlying dimensional processes or a taxonic population structure. In a 2-phase study, we tested the taxonicity of self-reported schizotypy within a general psychiatric sample (n = 109) and examined taxon validity by testing its association with clinical schizotaxia in follow-up subsamples. Taxometric analyses indicated a taxonic structure (schizotypy prevalence = 38.8%) provided the best description of the underlying population distribution. After a year, schizotypal (n = 14) and nonschizotypal (n = 14) subsamples returned for diagnosis of clinical schizotaxia by assessment of executive functioning, attention, memory, and negative symptoms. Seven patients met diagnostic criteria, all members of the schizotypy class. Schizotypy was associated with impaired attention and memory, more negative symptoms, poorer global functioning, and more extensive psychiatric histories. We reconcile inconsistencies in the literature by discussing threats to the validity of this and similar research on Meehl’s taxonomic model of schizotypy, including conceptual limitations of the lexical hypothesis and conventions of factor analysis. Scrutiny of Meehl’s model should involve disambiguation and better measurement of the schizotaxia-schizotypy phenotype. PMID:25810059

  1. Psychopathy as a Taxon: Evidence That Psychopaths Are a Discrete Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Grant T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Applied taxometric analyses to construct of psychopathy (as measured by Psychopathy Checklist) and to several variables reflecting antisocial childhood, adult criminality, and criminal recidivism. Findings from 653 serious offenders assessed or treated in maximum-security institution supported existence of taxon underlying psychopathy. Childhood…

  2. Dimensionality vs taxonicity of schizotypy: some new data and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Everett, Kirsty V; Linscott, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneity in the expression of schizotypy may arise from underlying dimensional processes or a taxonic population structure. In a 2-phase study, we tested the taxonicity of self-reported schizotypy within a general psychiatric sample (n = 109) and examined taxon validity by testing its association with clinical schizotaxia in follow-up subsamples. Taxometric analyses indicated a taxonic structure (schizotypy prevalence = 38.8%) provided the best description of the underlying population distribution. After a year, schizotypal (n = 14) and nonschizotypal (n = 14) subsamples returned for diagnosis of clinical schizotaxia by assessment of executive functioning, attention, memory, and negative symptoms. Seven patients met diagnostic criteria, all members of the schizotypy class. Schizotypy was associated with impaired attention and memory, more negative symptoms, poorer global functioning, and more extensive psychiatric histories. We reconcile inconsistencies in the literature by discussing threats to the validity of this and similar research on Meehl's taxonomic model of schizotypy, including conceptual limitations of the lexical hypothesis and conventions of factor analysis. Scrutiny of Meehl's model should involve disambiguation and better measurement of the schizotaxia-schizotypy phenotype. PMID:25810059

  3. Lake sediment multi-taxon DNA from North Greenland records early post-glacial appearance of vascular plants and accurately tracks environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, L. S.; Gussarova, G.; Boessenkool, S.; Olsen, J.; Haile, J.; Schrøder-Nielsen, A.; Ludikova, A.; Hassel, K.; Stenøien, H. K.; Funder, S.; Willerslev, E.; Kjær, K.; Brochmann, C.

    2015-06-01

    High Arctic environments are particularly sensitive to climate changes, but retrieval of paleoecological data is challenging due to low productivity and biomass. At the same time, Arctic soils and sediments have proven exceptional for long-term DNA preservation due to their constantly low temperatures. Lake sediments contain DNA paleorecords of the surrounding ecosystems and can be used to retrieve a variety of organismal groups from a single sample. In this study, we analyzed vascular plant, bryophyte, algal (in particular diatom) and copepod DNA retrieved from a sediment core spanning the Holocene, taken from Bliss Lake on the northernmost coast of Greenland. A previous multi-proxy study including microscopic diatom analyses showed that this lake experienced changes between marine and lacustrine conditions. We inferred the same environmental changes from algal DNA preserved in the sediment core. Our DNA record was stratigraphically coherent, with no indication of leaching between layers, and our cross-taxon comparisons were in accordance with previously inferred local ecosystem changes. Authentic ancient plant DNA was retrieved from nearly all layers, both from the marine and the limnic phases, and distinct temporal changes in plant presence were recovered. The plant DNA was mostly in agreement with expected vegetation history, but very early occurrences of vascular plants, including the woody Empetrum nigrum, document terrestrial vegetation very shortly after glacial retreat. Our study shows that multi-taxon metabarcoding of sedimentary ancient DNA from lake cores is a valuable tool both for terrestrial and aquatic paleoecology, even in low-productivity ecosystems such as the High Arctic.

  4. The taxonicity of schizotypy: does the same taxonic class structure emerge from analyses of different attributes of schizotypy and from fundamentally different statistical methods?

    PubMed

    Linscott, Richard J

    2013-12-15

    Findings on the population distribution of schizotypy consistently point toward an underlying class structure. However, past research is methodologically homogeneous, chiefly involving analysis of attribute-specific indicators and coherent cut kinetic methods such as maximum covariance (MAXCOV) analysis. Two questions are examined. Are different or overlapping classes identified from different attributes of the schizophrenia phenotype? Do fundamentally different approaches to analysis yield consistent results? Participants (n=1074) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Following item screening, MAXCOV analyses were conducted iteratively on attribute-specific item sets (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized) and a general item set. Latent variable modeling (factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor-mixture modeling) was used to examine the consistency of the MAXCOV results using items retained in the general set following MAXCOV analysis. Attribute-specific and general item sets gave taxonic MAXCOV curves and base rates of 8.4-10.4% and 3.6%, respectively. Classes were not independent. No latent variable model emerged as uniquely superior but five models distinguished a small high-scoring class populated by members of the MAXCOV general class. Different attributes distinguished overlapping yet nonredundant taxa, and a general schizotypy taxon identified with MAXCOV was also identified in latent variable modeling. PMID:23932839

  5. A cryptic taxon of Galápagos tortoise in conservation peril

    PubMed Central

    Russello, Michael A; Glaberman, Scott; Gibbs, James P; Marquez, Cruz; Powell, Jeffrey R; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2005-01-01

    As once boldly stated, ‘bad taxonomy can kill’, highlighting the critical importance of accurate taxonomy for the conservation of endangered taxa. The concept continues to evolve almost 15 years later largely because most legal protections aimed at preserving biological diversity are based on formal taxonomic designations. In this paper we report unrecognized genetic divisions within the giant tortoises of the Galápagos. We found three distinct lineages among populations formerly considered a single taxon on the most populous and accessible island of Santa Cruz; their diagnosability, degree of genetic divergence and phylogenetic placement merit the recognition of at least one new taxon. These results demonstrate the fundamental importance of continuing taxonomic investigations to recognize biological diversity and designate units of conservation, even within long-studied organisms such as Galápagos tortoises, whose evolutionary heritage and contribution to human intellectual history warrant them special attention. PMID:17148189

  6. Comparative genomics of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis reveals a strict monophyletic bifidobacterial taxon.

    PubMed

    Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Bottacini, Francesca; Strati, Francesco; Arioli, Stefania; Foroni, Elena; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2013-07-01

    Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are extensively exploited by the food industry as health-promoting bacteria, although the genetic variability of members belonging to this taxon has so far not received much scientific attention. In this article, we describe the complete genetic makeup of the B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl12 genome and discuss the genetic relatedness of this strain with other sequenced strains belonging to this taxon. Moreover, a detailed comparative genomic analysis of B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes was performed, which revealed a closely related and isogenic nature of all currently available B. animalis subsp. lactis strains, thus strongly suggesting a closed pan-genome structure of this bacterial group. PMID:23645200

  7. Use of cross-taxon congruence for hotspot identification at a regional scale.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Simone; Dennis, Roger L H; Cook, Laurence M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most debated problems in conservation biology is the use of indicator (surrogate) taxa to predict spatial patterns in other taxa. Cross-taxon congruence in species richness patterns is of paramount importance at regional scales to disclose areas of high conservation value that are significant in a broader biogeographical context but yet placed in the finer, more practical, political context of decision making. We analysed spatial patterns of diversity in six arthropod taxa from the Turkish fauna as a regional case study relevant to global conservation of the Mediterranean basin. Although we found high congruence in cross-taxon comparisons of species richness (0.241taxon to capture diversity of other taxa was usually modest (on average, 50 percent of diversity of non-target taxa), limiting the use of hotspots for effective conservation of non-target groups. Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that a given group may partially stand in for another with similar ecological needs and biogeographical histories. We therefore advocate the use of multiple sets of taxa, chosen so as to be representative of animals with different ecological needs and biogeographical histories. PMID:22761947

  8. Evidence of taxon cycles in an Indo-Pacific passerine bird radiation (Aves: Pachycephala)

    PubMed Central

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Irestedt, Martin; Christidis, Les; Clegg, Sonya M.; Holt, Ben G.; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Many insular taxa possess extraordinary abilities to disperse but may differ in their abilities to diversify and compete. While some taxa are widespread across archipelagos, others have disjunct (relictual) populations. These types of taxa, exemplified in the literature by selections of unrelated taxa, have been interpreted as representing a continuum of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). Here, we use molecular data of 35 out of 40 species of the avian genus Pachycephala (including 54 out of 66 taxa in Pachycephala pectoralis (sensu lato), to assess the spatio-temporal evolution of the group. We also include data on species distributions, morphology, habitat and elevational ranges to test a number of predictions associated with the taxon-cycle hypothesis. We demonstrate that relictual species persist on the largest and highest islands across the Indo-Pacific, whereas recent archipelago expansions resulted in colonization of all islands in a region. For co-occurring island taxa, the earliest colonists generally inhabit the interior and highest parts of an island, with little spatial overlap with later colonists. Collectively, our data support the idea that taxa continuously pass through phases of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). PMID:24403319

  9. Merging ancient and modern DNA: extinct seabird taxon rediscovered in the North Tasman Sea.

    PubMed

    Steeves, Tammy E; Holdaway, Richard N; Hale, Marie L; McLay, Emma; McAllan, Ian A W; Christian, Margaret; Hauber, Mark E; Bunce, Michael

    2010-02-23

    Ancient DNA has revolutionized the way in which evolutionary biologists research both extinct and extant taxa, from the inference of evolutionary history to the resolution of taxonomy. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first study to report the rediscovery of an 'extinct' avian taxon, the Tasman booby (Sula tasmani), using classical palaeontological data combined with ancient and modern DNA data. Contrary to earlier work, we show an overlap in size between fossil and modern birds in the North Tasman Sea (classified currently as S. tasmani and Sula dactylatra fullagari, respectively). In addition, we show that Holocene fossil birds have mitochondrial control region sequences that are identical to those found in modern birds. These results indicate that the Tasman booby is not an extinct taxon: S. dactylatra fullagari O'Brien & Davies, 1990 is therefore a junior synonym of Sula tasmani van Tets, Meredith, Fullagar & Davidson, 1988 and all North Tasman Sea boobies should be known as S. d. tasmani. In addition to reporting the rediscovery of an extinct avian taxon, our study highlights the need for researchers to be cognizant of multidisciplinary approaches to understanding taxonomy and past biodiversity. PMID:19675005

  10. DNA Barcode Sequence Identification Incorporating Taxonomic Hierarchy and within Taxon Variability

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.

    2011-01-01

    For DNA barcoding to succeed as a scientific endeavor an accurate and expeditious query sequence identification method is needed. Although a global multiple–sequence alignment can be generated for some barcoding markers (e.g. COI, rbcL), not all barcoding markers are as structurally conserved (e.g. matK). Thus, algorithms that depend on global multiple–sequence alignments are not universally applicable. Some sequence identification methods that use local pairwise alignments (e.g. BLAST) are unable to accurately differentiate between highly similar sequences and are not designed to cope with hierarchic phylogenetic relationships or within taxon variability. Here, I present a novel alignment–free sequence identification algorithm–BRONX–that accounts for observed within taxon variability and hierarchic relationships among taxa. BRONX identifies short variable segments and corresponding invariant flanking regions in reference sequences. These flanking regions are used to score variable regions in the query sequence without the production of a global multiple–sequence alignment. By incorporating observed within taxon variability into the scoring procedure, misidentifications arising from shared alleles/haplotypes are minimized. An explicit treatment of more inclusive terminals allows for separate identifications to be made for each taxonomic level and/or for user–defined terminals. BRONX performs better than all other methods when there is imperfect overlap between query and reference sequences (e.g. mini–barcode queries against a full–length barcode database). BRONX consistently produced better identifications at the genus–level for all query types. PMID:21857897

  11. Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John

    2011-05-01

    Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

  12. Body weight prediction in early fossil hominids: towards a taxon-"independent" approach.

    PubMed

    Hartwig-Scherer, S

    1993-09-01

    The choice of a model taxon is crucial when investigating fossil hominids that clearly do not resemble any extant species (such as Australopithecus) or show significant differences from modern human proportions (such as Homo habilis OH 62). An "interhominoid" combination is not adequate either, as scaling with body weight is strongly divergent in African apes and humans for most skeletal predictors investigated here. Therefore, in relation to a study of seven long bone dimensions, a new taxon-"independent" approach is suggested. For a given predictor, its taxonomic "independence" is restricted to the size range over which the body weight-predictor relationship for African apes and humans converges. Different predictors produce converging body weight estimates (BWEs) for different size ranges: taxon-"independent" estimates can be calculated for small- and medium-sized hominids (e.g., for weights below 50 kg) using femoral and tibial dimensions, whereas upper limb bones provide converging results for large hominids (above 50 kg). If the remains of Australopithecus afarensis really belong to one species, the relationship of male (above 60 kg) to female body weight (approximately 30 kg) does not fall within the observed range of modern hominoids. Considering Sts 14 (22 kg) to represent a small-sized Australopithecus africanus, the level of encephalization lies well above that of extant apes. If OH 62 (approximately 25 kg), with limb proportions less human-like than those of australopithecines, indeed represents Homo habilis (which has been questioned previously), an increase in relative brain size would have occurred well before full bipedality, an assumption running counter to current assumptions concerning early human evolution. PMID:8238289

  13. Biofilm history and oxygen availability interact to affect habitat selection in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Marcelo E; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-07-01

    In marine systems, oxygen availability varies at small temporal and spatial scales, such that current oxygen levels may not reflect conditions of the past. Different studies have shown that marine invertebrate larvae can select settlement sites based on local oxygen levels and oxygenation history of the biofilm, but no study has examined the interaction of both. The influence of normoxic and hypoxic water and oxygenation history of biofilms on pre-settlement behavior and settlement of the bryozoan Bugula neritina was tested. Larvae used cues in a hierarchical way: the oxygen levels in the water prime larvae to respond, the response to different biofilms is contingent on oxygen levels in the water. When oxygen levels varied throughout biofilm formation, larvae responded differently depending on the history of the biofilm. It appears that B. neritina larvae integrate cues about current and historical oxygen levels to select the appropriate microhabitat and maximize their fitness. PMID:27169475

  14. Delineating Species with DNA Barcodes: A Case of Taxon Dependent Method Performance in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Kekkonen, Mari; Mutanen, Marko; Kaila, Lauri; Nieminen, Marko; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    The accelerating loss of biodiversity has created a need for more effective ways to discover species. Novel algorithmic approaches for analyzing sequence data combined with rapidly expanding DNA barcode libraries provide a potential solution. While several analytical methods are available for the delineation of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), few studies have compared their performance. This study compares the performance of one morphology-based and four DNA-based (BIN, parsimony networks, ABGD, GMYC) methods on two groups of gelechioid moths. It examines 92 species of Finnish Gelechiinae and 103 species of Australian Elachistinae which were delineated by traditional taxonomy. The results reveal a striking difference in performance between the two taxa with all four DNA-based methods. OTU counts in the Elachistinae showed a wider range and a relatively low (ca. 65%) OTU match with reference species while OTU counts were more congruent and performance was higher (ca. 90%) in the Gelechiinae. Performance rose when only monophyletic species were compared, but the taxon-dependence remained. None of the DNA-based methods produced a correct match with non-monophyletic species, but singletons were handled well. A simulated test of morphospecies-grouping performed very poorly in revealing taxon diversity in these small, dull-colored moths. Despite the strong performance of analyses based on DNA barcodes, species delineated using single-locus mtDNA data are best viewed as OTUs that require validation by subsequent integrative taxonomic work. PMID:25849083

  15. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum', a novel taxon associated with virescence and phyllody of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus).

    PubMed

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Vadamalai, Ganesan; Davis, Robert E; Harrison, Nigel A; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Dickinson, Matthew; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Zhao, Yan

    2013-02-01

    This study addressed the taxonomic position and group classification of a phytoplasma responsible for virescence and phyllody symptoms in naturally diseased Madagascar periwinkle plants in western Malaysia. Unique regions in the 16S rRNA gene from the Malaysian periwinkle virescence (MaPV) phytoplasma distinguished the phytoplasma from all previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Pairwise sequence similarity scores, calculated through alignment of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that the MaPV phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene shared 96.5 % or less sequence similarity with that of previously described 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species, justifying the recognition of the MaPV phytoplasma as a reference strain of a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum'. The 16S rRNA gene F2nR2 fragment from the MaPV phytoplasma exhibited a distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profile and the pattern similarity coefficient values were lower than 0.85 with representative phytoplasmas classified in any of the 31 previously delineated 16Sr groups; therefore, the MaPV phytoplasma was designated a member of a new 16Sr group, 16SrXXXII. Phytoplasmas affiliated with this novel taxon and the new group included diverse strains infecting periwinkle, coconut palm and oil palm in Malaysia. Three phytoplasmas were characterized as representatives of three distinct subgroups, 16SrXXXII-A, 16SrXXXII-B and 16SrXXXII-C, respectively. PMID:22523165

  16. Detection and Polarization of Introgression in a Five-Taxon Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Pease, James B; Hahn, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    When multiple speciation events occur rapidly in succession, discordant genealogies due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) can complicate the detection of introgression. A variety of methods, including the [Formula: see text]-statistic (a.k.a. the "ABBA-BABA test"), have been proposed to infer introgression in the presence of ILS for a four-taxon clade. However, no integrated method exists to detect introgression using allelic patterns for more complex phylogenies. Here we explore the issues associated with previous systems of applying [Formula: see text]-statistics to a larger tree topology, and propose new [Formula: see text] tests as an integrated framework to infer both the taxa involved in and the direction of introgression for a symmetric five-taxon phylogeny. Using theory and simulations, we show that the [Formula: see text] statistics correctly identify the introgression donor and recipient lineages, even at low rates of introgression. [Formula: see text] is also shown to have extremely low false-positive rates. The [Formula: see text] tests are computationally inexpensive to calculate and can easily be applied to phylogenomic data sets, both genome-wide and in windows of the genome. In addition, we explore both the principles and problems of introgression detection in even more complex phylogenies. PMID:25888025

  17. Marine benthic ecological functioning over decreasing taxonomic richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnroos, Anna; Bonsdorff, Erik; Bremner, Julie; Blomqvist, Mats; Josefson, Alf B.; Garcia, Clement; Warzocha, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Alterations to ecosystem function due to reductions in species richness are predicted to increase as humans continue to affect the marine environment, especially in coastal areas, which serve as the interface between land and sea. The potential functional consequences due to reductions in species diversity have attracted considerable attention recently but little is known about the consequence of such loss in natural communities. We examined how the potential for function is affected by natural reductions in taxon richness using empirical (non-simulated) coastal marine benthic macrofaunal data from the Skagerrak-Baltic Sea region (N. Europe), where taxon richness decreases 25-fold, from 151 to 6 taxa. To estimate functional changes we defined multiple traits (10 traits and 51 categories) on which trait category richness, functional diversity (FD) and number of taxa per trait category were calculated. Our results show that decrease in taxon richness leads to an overall reduction in function but functional richness remains comparatively high even at the lowest level of taxon richness. Although the taxonomic reduction was sharp, up to 96% of total taxon richness, we identified both potential thresholds in functioning and subtler changes where function was maintained along the gradient. The functional changes were not only caused by reductions in taxa per trait category, some categories were maintained or even increased. Primarily, the reduction in species richness altered trait categories related to feeding, living and movement and thus potentially could have an effect on various ecosystem processes. This highlights the importance of recognising ecosystem multifunctionality, especially at low taxonomic richness. We also found that in this system rare species (singletons) did not stand for the functional complexities and changes. Our findings were consistent with theoretical and experimental predictions and suggest that a large proportion of the information about

  18. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  19. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  20. Natural and anthropogenic dispersal mechanisms in the marine environment: a study using cheilostome Bryozoa

    PubMed Central

    Watts, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    The global geographic ranges occupied by 197 species of cheilostomate Bryozoa found in British waters were obtained by a literature survey. Morphological grade, larval mode, environmental tolerance, species abundance and the ability to raft and to foul shipping were all investigated as traits potentially able to affect the geographic ranges of these bryozoan species. When considered independently all variables except larval mode had a significant correlation with the geographic range occupied by a species. However, when controlling for the potentially confounding effects of the other covariates, only the ability to foul or raft and species abundance had a significant effect on median geographic range and only fouling and abundance had a significant effect over global ranges. The strength of the association between fouling ability and range suggests that transport upon the hulls of ships is a very important dispersal mechanism for bryozoans, as it is thought to be also for various other marine taxa. Potential long-term (evolutionary) consequences of increased ranges brought about by anthropogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  1. The influence of taxon sampling on Bayesian divergence time inference under scenarios of rate heterogeneity among lineages.

    PubMed

    Soares, André E R; Schrago, Carlos G

    2015-01-01

    Although taxon sampling is commonly considered an important issue in phylogenetic inference, it is rarely considered in the Bayesian estimation of divergence times. In fact, the studies conducted to date have presented ambiguous results, and the relevance of taxon sampling for molecular dating remains unclear. In this study, we developed a series of simulations that, after six hundred Bayesian molecular dating analyses, allowed us to evaluate the impact of taxon sampling on chronological estimates under three scenarios of among-lineage rate heterogeneity. The first scenario allowed us to examine the influence of the number of terminals on the age estimates based on a strict molecular clock. The second scenario imposed an extreme example of lineage specific rate variation, and the third scenario permitted extensive rate variation distributed along the branches. We also analyzed empirical data on selected mitochondrial genomes of mammals. Our results showed that in the strict molecular-clock scenario (Case I), taxon sampling had a minor impact on the accuracy of the time estimates, although the precision of the estimates was greater with an increased number of terminals. The effect was similar in the scenario (Case III) based on rate variation distributed among the branches. Only under intensive rate variation among lineages (Case II) taxon sampling did result in biased estimates. The results of an empirical analysis corroborated the simulation findings. We demonstrate that taxonomic sampling affected divergence time inference but that its impact was significant if the rates deviated from those derived for the strict molecular clock. Increased taxon sampling improved the precision and accuracy of the divergence time estimates, but the impact on precision is more relevant. On average, biased estimates were obtained only if lineage rate variation was pronounced. PMID:25218869

  2. On the Complexity of the Saccharomyces bayanus Taxon: Hybridization and Potential Hybrid Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A.; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2014-01-01

    Although the genus Saccharomyces has been thoroughly studied, some species in the genus has not yet been accurately resolved; an example is S. bayanus, a taxon that includes genetically diverse lineages of pure and hybrid strains. This diversity makes the assignation and classification of strains belonging to this species unclear and controversial. They have been subdivided by some authors into two varieties (bayanus and uvarum), which have been raised to the species level by others. In this work, we evaluate the complexity of 46 different strains included in the S. bayanus taxon by means of PCR-RFLP analysis and by sequencing of 34 gene regions and one mitochondrial gene. Using the sequence data, and based on the S. bayanus var. bayanus reference strain NBRC 1948, a hypothetical pure S. bayanus was reconstructed for these genes that showed alleles with similarity values lower than 97% with the S. bayanus var. uvarum strain CBS 7001, and of 99–100% with the non S. cerevisiae portion in S. pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70 and with the new species S. eubayanus. Among the S. bayanus strains under study, different levels of homozygosity, hybridization and introgression were found; however, no pure S. bayanus var. bayanus strain was identified. These S. bayanus hybrids can be classified into two types: homozygous (type I) and heterozygous hybrids (type II), indicating that they have been originated by different hybridization processes. Therefore, a putative evolutionary scenario involving two different hybridization events between a S. bayanus var. uvarum and unknown European S. eubayanus-like strains can be postulated to explain the genomic diversity observed in our S. bayanus var. bayanus strains. PMID:24705561

  3. On the complexity of the Saccharomyces bayanus taxon: hybridization and potential hybrid speciation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2014-01-01

    Although the genus Saccharomyces has been thoroughly studied, some species in the genus has not yet been accurately resolved; an example is S. bayanus, a taxon that includes genetically diverse lineages of pure and hybrid strains. This diversity makes the assignation and classification of strains belonging to this species unclear and controversial. They have been subdivided by some authors into two varieties (bayanus and uvarum), which have been raised to the species level by others. In this work, we evaluate the complexity of 46 different strains included in the S. bayanus taxon by means of PCR-RFLP analysis and by sequencing of 34 gene regions and one mitochondrial gene. Using the sequence data, and based on the S. bayanus var. bayanus reference strain NBRC 1948, a hypothetical pure S. bayanus was reconstructed for these genes that showed alleles with similarity values lower than 97% with the S. bayanus var. uvarum strain CBS 7001, and of 99-100% with the non S. cerevisiae portion in S. pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70 and with the new species S. eubayanus. Among the S. bayanus strains under study, different levels of homozygosity, hybridization and introgression were found; however, no pure S. bayanus var. bayanus strain was identified. These S. bayanus hybrids can be classified into two types: homozygous (type I) and heterozygous hybrids (type II), indicating that they have been originated by different hybridization processes. Therefore, a putative evolutionary scenario involving two different hybridization events between a S. bayanus var. uvarum and unknown European S. eubayanus-like strains can be postulated to explain the genomic diversity observed in our S. bayanus var. bayanus strains. PMID:24705561

  4. Development of taxon-specific sequences of common wheat for the detection of genetically modified wheat.

    PubMed

    Iida, Mayu; Yamashiro, Satomi; Yamakawa, Hirohito; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Kuribara, Hideo; Kodama, Takashi; Furui, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Hino, Akihiro

    2005-08-10

    Qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems aimed at the specific detection and quantification of common wheat DNA are described. Many countries have issued regulations to label foods that include genetically modified organisms (GMOs). PCR technology is widely recognized as a reliable and useful technique for the qualitative and quantitative detection of GMOs. Detection methods are needed to amplify a target GM gene, and the amplified results should be compared with those of the corresponding taxon-specific reference gene to obtain reliable results. This paper describes the development of a specific DNA sequence in the waxy-D1 gene for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the design of a specific primer pair and TaqMan probe on the waxy-D1 gene for PCR analysis. The primers amplified a product (Wx012) of 102 bp. It is indicated that the Wx012 DNA sequence is specific to common wheat, showing homogeneity in qualitative PCR results and very similar quantification accuracy along 19 distantly related common wheat varieties. In Southern blot and real-time PCR analyses, this sequence showed either a single or a low number of copy genes. In addition, by qualitative and quantitative PCR using wx012 primers and a wx012-T probe, the limits of detection of the common wheat genome were found to be about 15 copies, and the reproducibility was reliable. In consequence, the PCR system using wx012 primers and wx012-T probe is considered to be suitable for use as a common wheat-specific taxon-specific reference gene in DNA analyses, including GMO tests. PMID:16076109

  5. Taxon interactions control the distributions of cryoconite bacteria colonizing a High Arctic ice cap.

    PubMed

    Gokul, Jarishma K; Hodson, Andrew J; Saetnan, Eli R; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D L; Westall, Philippa J; Detheridge, Andrew P; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Bussell, Jennifer; Mur, Luis A J; Edwards, Arwyn

    2016-08-01

    Microbial colonization of glacial ice surfaces incurs feedbacks which affect the melting rate of the ice surface. Ecosystems formed as microbe-mineral aggregates termed cryoconite locally reduce ice surface albedo and represent foci of biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling. Consequently, greater understanding the ecological processes in the formation of functional cryoconite ecosystems upon glacier surfaces is sought. Here, we present the first bacterial biogeography of an ice cap, evaluating the respective roles of dispersal, environmental and biotic filtration occurring at local scales in the assembly of cryoconite microbiota. 16S rRNA gene amplicon semiconductor sequencing of cryoconite colonizing a Svalbard ice cap coupled with digital elevation modelling of physical parameters reveals the bacterial community is dominated by a ubiquitous core of generalist taxa, with evidence for a moderate pairwise distance-decay relationship. While geographic position and melt season duration are prominent among environmental predictors of community structure, the core population of taxa appears highly influential in structuring the bacterial community. Taxon co-occurrence network analysis reveals a highly modular community structured by positive interactions with bottleneck taxa, predominantly Actinobacteria affiliated to isolates from soil humus. In contrast, the filamentous cyanobacterial taxon (assigned to Leptolyngbya/Phormidesmis pristleyi) which dominates the community and binds together granular cryoconite are poorly connected to other taxa. While our study targeted one ice cap, the prominent role of generalist core taxa with close environmental relatives across the global cryosphere indicate discrete roles for cosmopolitan Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria as respective keystone taxa and ecosystem engineers of cryoconite ecosystems colonizing ice caps. PMID:27261672

  6. Problems with the claim of ecotype and taxon status of the wolf in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Mech, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Koblmuller et al. (2009) analysed molecular genetic data of the wolf in the Great Lakes (GL) region of the USA and concluded that the animal was a unique ecotype of grey wolf and that genetic data supported the population as a discrete wolf taxon. However, some of the literature that the researchers used to support their position actually did not, and additional confusion arises from indefinite use of terminology. Herein, we discuss the problems with designation of a wolf population as a taxon or ecotype without proper definition and assessment of criteria.

  7. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. PMID:26682944

  8. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-02-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates. PMID:24634733

  9. The Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium moukalabense DSM 27321 Highlights the Close Phylogenetic Relatedness with the Bifidobacterium dentium Taxon.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Viappiani, Alice; Mangifesta, Marta; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium moukalabense DSM 27321 is the reference strain for a recently described new bifidobacterial species that has been isolated from a wild west lowland gorilla. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of DSM 27321, which supports very close phylogenetic relatedness with members of the Bifidobacterium adolescentis phylogenetic group and, in particular, the Bifidobacterium dentium taxon. PMID:24558236

  10. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species

    PubMed Central

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates. PMID:24634733

  11. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  12. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  13. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  14. Taxon-specific PCR for DNA barcoding arthropod prey in bat faeces.

    PubMed

    Zeale, Matt R K; Butlin, Roger K; Barker, Gary L A; Lees, David C; Jones, Gareth

    2011-03-01

    The application of DNA barcoding to dietary studies allows prey taxa to be identified in the absence of morphological evidence and permits a greater resolution of prey identity than is possible through direct examination of faecal material. For insectivorous bats, which typically eat a great diversity of prey and which chew and digest their prey thoroughly, DNA-based approaches to diet analysis may provide the only means of assessing the range and diversity of prey within faeces. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in determining the diets of bat species that specialize in eating different taxa of arthropod prey. We designed and tested a novel taxon-specific primer set and examined the performance of short barcode sequences in resolving prey species. We recovered prey DNA from all faecal samples and subsequent cloning and sequencing of PCR products, followed by a comparison of sequences to a reference database, provided species-level identifications for 149/207 (72%) clones. We detected a phylogenetically broad range of prey while completely avoiding detection of nontarget groups. In total, 37 unique prey taxa were identified from 15 faecal samples. A comparison of DNA data with parallel morphological analyses revealed a close correlation between the two methods. However, the sensitivity and taxonomic resolution of the DNA method were far superior. The methodology developed here provides new opportunities for the study of bat diets and will be of great benefit to the conservation of these ecologically important predators. PMID:21429129

  15. Negevirus: a Proposed New Taxon of Insect-Specific Viruses with Wide Geographic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Forrester, Naomi L.; Palacios, Gustavo; Nasar, Farooq; Savji, Nazir; Rossi, Shannan L.; Guzman, Hilda; Wood, Thomas G.; Popov, Vsevolod; Gorchakov, Rodion; González, Ana Vázquez; Haddow, Andrew D.; Watts, Douglas M.; da Rosa, Amelia P. A. Travassos; Weaver, Scott C.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2013-01-01

    Six novel insect-specific viruses, isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sand flies collected in Brazil, Peru, the United States, Ivory Coast, Israel, and Indonesia, are described. Their genomes consist of single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs with poly(A) tails. By electron microscopy, the virions appear as spherical particles with diameters of ∼45 to 55 nm. Based on their genome organization and phylogenetic relationship, the six viruses, designated Negev, Ngewotan, Piura, Loreto, Dezidougou, and Santana, appear to form a new taxon, tentatively designated Negevirus. Their closest but still distant relatives are citrus leposis virus C (CiLV-C) and viruses in the genus Cilevirus, which are mite-transmitted plant viruses. The negeviruses replicate rapidly and to high titer (up to 1010 PFU/ml) in mosquito cells, producing extensive cytopathic effect and plaques, but they do not appear to replicate in mammalian cells or mice. A discussion follows on their possible biological significance and effect on mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. PMID:23255793

  16. Negevirus: a proposed new taxon of insect-specific viruses with wide geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Forrester, Naomi L; Palacios, Gustavo; Nasar, Farooq; Savji, Nazir; Rossi, Shannan L; Guzman, Hilda; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod; Gorchakov, Rodion; González, Ana Vázquez; Haddow, Andrew D; Watts, Douglas M; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Weaver, Scott C; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-03-01

    Six novel insect-specific viruses, isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sand flies collected in Brazil, Peru, the United States, Ivory Coast, Israel, and Indonesia, are described. Their genomes consist of single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs with poly(A) tails. By electron microscopy, the virions appear as spherical particles with diameters of ∼45 to 55 nm. Based on their genome organization and phylogenetic relationship, the six viruses, designated Negev, Ngewotan, Piura, Loreto, Dezidougou, and Santana, appear to form a new taxon, tentatively designated Negevirus. Their closest but still distant relatives are citrus leposis virus C (CiLV-C) and viruses in the genus Cilevirus, which are mite-transmitted plant viruses. The negeviruses replicate rapidly and to high titer (up to 10(10) PFU/ml) in mosquito cells, producing extensive cytopathic effect and plaques, but they do not appear to replicate in mammalian cells or mice. A discussion follows on their possible biological significance and effect on mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. PMID:23255793

  17. Developing terrestrial, multi-taxon indices of biological integrity: An example from coastal sage scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, J.E.; Fleming, G.M.; Duggan, J.M.; Chapman, R.E.; Rahn, M.E.; Mitrovich, M.J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    We screened 351 species or genera for their response to disturbance in coastal sage scrub (CSS) to develop a 15-metric, 5-taxon Index of Biological Integrity (IBI). We collected data on ants, birds, herpetofauna, small mammals, and plants for two years on 46 sites established across a gradient of disturbance in three reserves. The gradient spanned relatively intact CSS with thick stands of shrubs, to former CSS stands type-converted to exotic grasses. ANOVAs and clustering analyses indicated the IBI could distinguish four levels of disturbance in CSS. General measures of community structure, such as richness, did not show changes across the gradient for most taxa, and responses of taxa across the gradient were varied and rarely correlated. However, turnover in species or genera across the gradient was common across all taxa as shrub-obligate life forms were replaced by those favoring grassy or disturbed habitats. Our data indicate index-based approaches based on data collected across disturbance gradients may outperform more traditional community level metrics when responses to anthropogenic influences are complex and vary across species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Taxon of Basal Ceratopsian from China and the Early Evolution of Ceratopsia.

    PubMed

    Han, Fenglu; Forster, Catherine A; Clark, James M; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Ceratopsia is one of the best studied herbivorous ornithischian clades, but the early evolution of Ceratopsia, including the placement of Psittacosaurus, is still controversial and unclear. Here, we report a second basal ceratopsian, Hualianceratops wucaiwanensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Shishugou Formation of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. This new taxon is characterized by a prominent caudodorsal process on the subtemporal ramus of the jugal, a robust quadrate with an expansive quadratojugal facet, a prominent notch near the ventral region of the quadrate, a deep and short dentary, and strongly rugose texturing on the lateral surface of the dentary. Hualianceratops shares several derived characters with both Psittacosaurus and the basal ceratopsians Yinlong, Chaoyangsaurus, and Xuanhuaceratops. A new comprehensive phylogeny of ceratopsians weakly supports both Yinlong and Hualianceratops as chaoyangsaurids (along with Chaoyangsaurus and Xuanhuaceratops), as well as the monophyly of Chaoyangosauridae + Psittacosaurus. This analysis also weakly supports the novel hypothesis that Chaoyangsauridae + Psittacosaurus is the sister group to the rest of Neoceratopsia, suggesting a basal split between these clades before the Late Jurassic. This phylogeny and the earliest Late Jurassic age of Yinlong and Hualianceratops imply that at least five ceratopsian lineages (Yinlong, Hualianceratops, Chaoyangsaurus + Xuanhuaceratops, Psittacosaurus, Neoceratopsia) were present at the beginning of the Late Jurassic. PMID:26649770

  19. Biological richness of a large urban cemetery in Berlin. Results of a multi-taxon approach

    PubMed Central

    Blick, Theo; Hannig, Karsten; Kowarik, Ingo; Lemke, Andreas; Otte, Volker; Scharon, Jens; Schönhofer, Axel; Teige, Tobias; von der Lippe, Moritz; Seitz, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Urban green spaces can harbor a considerable species richness of plants and animals. A few studies on single species groups indicate important habitat functions of cemeteries, but this land use type is clearly understudied compared to parks. Such data are important as they (i) illustrate habitat functions of a specific, but ubiquitous urban land-use type and (ii) may serve as a basis for management approaches. New information We sampled different groups of plants and animals in the Weißensee Jewish Cemetery in Berlin (WJC) which is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. With a total of 608 species of plants and animals, this first multi-taxon survey revealed a considerable biological richness in the WJC. In all, 363 wild-growing vascular plant, 72 lichen and 26 bryophyte taxa were recorded. The sampling also yielded 34 bird and 5 bat species as well as 39 ground beetle, 5 harvestman and 64 spider species. Some species are new records for Berlin. PMID:27099549

  20. A New Taxon of Basal Ceratopsian from China and the Early Evolution of Ceratopsia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fenglu; Forster, Catherine A.; Clark, James M.; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Ceratopsia is one of the best studied herbivorous ornithischian clades, but the early evolution of Ceratopsia, including the placement of Psittacosaurus, is still controversial and unclear. Here, we report a second basal ceratopsian, Hualianceratops wucaiwanensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Shishugou Formation of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. This new taxon is characterized by a prominent caudodorsal process on the subtemporal ramus of the jugal, a robust quadrate with an expansive quadratojugal facet, a prominent notch near the ventral region of the quadrate, a deep and short dentary, and strongly rugose texturing on the lateral surface of the dentary. Hualianceratops shares several derived characters with both Psittacosaurus and the basal ceratopsians Yinlong, Chaoyangsaurus, and Xuanhuaceratops. A new comprehensive phylogeny of ceratopsians weakly supports both Yinlong and Hualianceratops as chaoyangsaurids (along with Chaoyangsaurus and Xuanhuaceratops), as well as the monophyly of Chaoyangosauridae + Psittacosaurus. This analysis also weakly supports the novel hypothesis that Chaoyangsauridae + Psittacosaurus is the sister group to the rest of Neoceratopsia, suggesting a basal split between these clades before the Late Jurassic. This phylogeny and the earliest Late Jurassic age of Yinlong and Hualianceratops imply that at least five ceratopsian lineages (Yinlong, Hualianceratops, Chaoyangsaurus + Xuanhuaceratops, Psittacosaurus, Neoceratopsia) were present at the beginning of the Late Jurassic. PMID:26649770

  1. Framing the Salmonidae Family Phylogenetic Portrait: A More Complete Picture from Increased Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Crête-Lafrenière, Alexis; Weir, Laura K.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research efforts have focused on elucidating the systematic relationships among salmonid fishes; an understanding of these patterns of relatedness will inform conservation- and fisheries-related issues, as well as provide a framework for investigating evolutionary mechanisms in the group. However, uncertainties persist in current Salmonidae phylogenies due to biological and methodological factors, and a comprehensive phylogeny including most representatives of the family could provide insight into the causes of these difficulties. Here we increase taxon sampling by including nearly all described salmonid species (n = 63) to present a time-calibrated and more complete portrait of Salmonidae using a combination of molecular markers and analytical techniques. This strategy improved resolution by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and helped discriminate methodological and systematic errors from sources of difficulty associated with biological processes. Our results highlight novel aspects of salmonid evolution. First, we call into question the widely-accepted evolutionary relationships among sub-families and suggest that Thymallinae, rather than Coregoninae, is the sister group to the remainder of Salmonidae. Second, we find that some groups in Salmonidae are older than previously thought and that the mitochondrial rate of molecular divergence varies markedly among genes and clades. We estimate the age of the family to be 59.1 MY (CI: 63.2-58.1 MY) old, which likely corresponds to the timing of whole genome duplication in salmonids. The average, albeit highly variable, mitochondrial rate of molecular divergence was estimated as ∼0.31%/MY (CI: 0.27–0.36%/MY). Finally, we suggest that some species require taxonomic revision, including two monotypic genera, Stenodus and Salvethymus. In addition, we resolve some relationships that have been notoriously difficult to discern and present a clearer picture of the evolution of the group. Our findings

  2. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii', a novel taxon from creeping thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop].

    PubMed

    Šafárová, Dana; Zemánek, Tomáš; Válová, Pavla; Navrátil, Milan

    2016-04-01

    Creeping thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] and dahlia (Dahlia sp.) plants showing typical symptoms of phytoplasma infection including yellowing, stunting, inflorescence and proliferation, were sampled; the presence of phytoplasma was confirmed by standard PCR using universal primers. RFLP analysis allowed classification of the detected phytoplasma strains CirYS, CirYS1 and DahlP within the 16SrXI group, the unique restriction profile F2nR2 fragment obtained in silico by iPhyClassifier indicated that they belong to the new 16SrXI-E subgroup. Genetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the studied strains shared less than 97.5% similarity with all of the previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. The closest relatives are 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae' with 96.8% and 96.6% similarity. All strains studied bear three specific regions in the 16S rRNA gene, discriminating them from the other phytoplasma species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and secA genes confirmed this specificity, as the creeping thistle and dahlia phytoplasma strains clustered in a distinguishable lineage group. The uniqueness of the genetic analysis agrees with the biological characterization of the studied phytoplasma strains, their host range, and geographical distribution. The strains only infect dicotyledonous plants in Europe, contrary to their closest relatives. Based on their unique properties, it could be concluded that the studied phytoplasma strains represent a discrete group that is proposed as a novel taxon 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii', with strain CirYS as a reference strain. PMID:26849880

  3. Two new cytotypes reinforce that Micronycteris hirsuta Peters, 1869 does not represent a monotypic taxon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genus Micronycteris is a diverse group of phyllostomid bats currently comprising 11 species, with diploid number (2n) ranging from 26 to 40 chromosomes. The karyotypic relationships within Micronycteris and between Micronycteris and other phyllostomids remain poorly understood. The karyotype of Micronycteris hirsuta is of particular interest: three different diploid numbers were reported for this species in South and Central Americas with 2n = 26, 28 and 30 chromosomes. Although current evidence suggests some geographic differentiation among populations of M. hirsuta based on chromosomal, morphological, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, the recognition of new species or subspecies has been avoided due to the need for additional data, mainly chromosomal data. Results We describe two new cytotypes for Micronycteris hirsuta (MHI) (2n = 26 and 25, NF = 32), whose differences in diploid number are interpreted as the products of Robertsonian rearrangements. C-banding revealed a small amount of constitutive heterochromatin at the centromere and the NOR was located in the interstitial portion of the short arm of a second pair, confirmed by FISH. Telomeric probes hybridized to the centromeric regions and weakly to telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The G-banding analysis and chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes from Carollia brevicauda (CBR) and Phyllostomus hastatus (PHA) enabled the establishment of genome-wide homologies between MHI, CBR and PHA. Conclusions The karyotypes of Brazilian specimens of Micronycteris hirsuta described here are new to Micronycteris and reinforce that M. hirsuta does not represent a monotypic taxon. Our results corroborate the hypothesis of karyotypic megaevolution within Micronycteris, and strong evidence for this is that the entire chromosome complement of M. hirsuta was shown to be derivative with respect to species compared in this study. PMID:24359225

  4. Assessing Phylogenetic Relationships among Galliformes: A Multigene Phylogeny with Expanded Taxon Sampling in Phasianidae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Braun, Edward L.; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Zhengwang

    2013-01-01

    Galliform birds (relatives of the chicken and turkey) have attracted substantial attention due to their importance to society and value as model systems. This makes understanding the evolutionary history of Galliformes, especially the species-rich family Phasianidae, particularly interesting and important for comparative studies in this group. Previous studies have differed in their conclusions regarding galliform phylogeny. Some of these studies have suggested that specific clades within this order underwent rapid radiations, potentially leading to the observed difficulty in resolving their phylogenetic relationships. Here we presented analyses of six nuclear intron sequences and two mitochondrial regions, an amount of sequence data larger than many previous studies, and expanded taxon sampling by collecting data from 88 galliform species and four anseriform outgroups. Our results corroborated recent studies describing relationships among the major families, and provided further evidence that the traditional division of the largest family, the Phasianidae into two major groups (“pheasants” and “partridges”) is not valid. Within the Phasianidae, relationships among many genera have varied among studies and there has been little consensus for the placement of many taxa. Using this large dataset, with substantial sampling within the Phasianidae, we obtained strong bootstrap support to confirm some previously hypothesized relationships and we were able to exclude others. In addition, we added the first nuclear sequence data for the partridge and quail genera Ammoperdix, Caloperdix, Excalfactoria, and Margaroperdix, placing these taxa in the galliform tree of life with confidence. Despite the novel insights obtained by combining increased sampling of taxa and loci, our results suggest that additional data collection will be necessary to solve the remaining uncertainties. PMID:23741315

  5. Millimeter-sized marine plastics: a new pelagic habitat for microorganisms and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Proietti, Maira; Barnes, David K A; Thums, Michele; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter-sized plastics are abundant in most marine surface waters, and known to carry fouling organisms that potentially play key roles in the fate and ecological impacts of plastic pollution. In this study we used scanning electron microscopy to characterize biodiversity of organisms on the surface of 68 small floating plastics (length range = 1.7-24.3 mm, median = 3.2 mm) from Australia-wide coastal and oceanic, tropical to temperate sample collections. Diatoms were the most diverse group of plastic colonizers, represented by 14 genera. We also recorded 'epiplastic' coccolithophores (7 genera), bryozoans, barnacles (Lepas spp.), a dinoflagellate (Ceratium), an isopod (Asellota), a marine worm, marine insect eggs (Halobates sp.), as well as rounded, elongated, and spiral cells putatively identified as bacteria, cyanobacteria, and fungi. Furthermore, we observed a variety of plastic surface microtextures, including pits and grooves conforming to the shape of microorganisms, suggesting that biota may play an important role in plastic degradation. This study highlights how anthropogenic millimeter-sized polymers have created a new pelagic habitat for microorganisms and invertebrates. The ecological ramifications of this phenomenon for marine organism dispersal, ocean productivity, and biotransfer of plastic-associated pollutants, remains to be elucidated. PMID:24941218

  6. Millimeter-Sized Marine Plastics: A New Pelagic Habitat for Microorganisms and Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Proietti, Maira; Barnes, David K. A.; Thums, Michele; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter-sized plastics are abundant in most marine surface waters, and known to carry fouling organisms that potentially play key roles in the fate and ecological impacts of plastic pollution. In this study we used scanning electron microscopy to characterize biodiversity of organisms on the surface of 68 small floating plastics (length range = 1.7–24.3 mm, median = 3.2 mm) from Australia-wide coastal and oceanic, tropical to temperate sample collections. Diatoms were the most diverse group of plastic colonizers, represented by 14 genera. We also recorded ‘epiplastic’ coccolithophores (7 genera), bryozoans, barnacles (Lepas spp.), a dinoflagellate (Ceratium), an isopod (Asellota), a marine worm, marine insect eggs (Halobates sp.), as well as rounded, elongated, and spiral cells putatively identified as bacteria, cyanobacteria, and fungi. Furthermore, we observed a variety of plastic surface microtextures, including pits and grooves conforming to the shape of microorganisms, suggesting that biota may play an important role in plastic degradation. This study highlights how anthropogenic millimeter-sized polymers have created a new pelagic habitat for microorganisms and invertebrates. The ecological ramifications of this phenomenon for marine organism dispersal, ocean productivity, and biotransfer of plastic-associated pollutants, remains to be elucidated. PMID:24941218

  7. Testing comparative phylogeographic models of marine vicariance and dispersal using a hierarchical Bayesian approach

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Marine allopatric speciation is an enigma because pelagic larval dispersal can potentially connect disjunct populations thereby preventing reproductive and morphological divergence. Here we present a new hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation model (HABC) that tests two hypotheses of marine allopatric speciation: 1.) "soft vicariance", where a speciation involves fragmentation of a large widespread ancestral species range that was previously connected by long distance gene flow; and 2.) peripatric colonization, where speciations in peripheral archipelagos emerge from sweepstakes colonizations from central source regions. The HABC approach analyzes all the phylogeographic datasets at once in order to make across taxon-pair inferences about biogeographic processes while explicitly allowing for uncertainty in the demographic differences within each taxon-pair. Our method uses comparative phylogeographic data that consists of single locus mtDNA sequences from multiple co-distributed taxa containing pairs of central and peripheral populations. We use the method on two comparative phylogeographic data sets consisting of cowrie gastropod endemics co-distributed in the Hawaiian (11 taxon-pairs) and Marquesan archipelagos (7 taxon-pairs). Results Given the Marquesan data, we find strong evidence of simultaneous colonization across all seven cowrie gastropod endemics co-distributed in the Marquesas. In contrast, the lower sample sizes in the Hawaiian data lead to greater uncertainty associated with the Hawaiian estimates. Although, the hyper-parameter estimates point to soft vicariance in a subset of the 11 Hawaiian taxon-pairs, the hyper-prior and hyper-posterior are too similar to make a definitive conclusion. Both results are not inconsistent with what is known about the geologic history of the archipelagos. Simulations verify that our method can successfully distinguish these two histories across a wide range of conditions given sufficient sampling

  8. Asymmetric hybridization in Rhododendron agastum: a hybrid taxon comprising mainly F1s in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Hong-Guang; Milne, Richard I.; Sun, Hang

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhododendron (Ericaceae) is a large woody genus in which hybridization is thought to play an important role in evolution and speciation, particularly in the Sino-Himalaya region where many interfertile species often occur sympatrically. Rhododendron agastum, a putative hybrid species, occurs in China, western Yunnan Province, in mixed populations with R. irroratum and R. delavayi. Methods Material of these taxa from two sites 400 km apart (ZhuJianYuan, ZJY and HuaDianBa, HDB) was examined using cpDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci, to test the possibility that R. agastum was in fact a hybrid between two of the other species. Chloroplast trnL-F and trnS-trnG sequences together distinguished R. irroratum, R. delavayi and some material of R. decorum, which is also considered a putative parent of R. agastum. Key Results All 14 R. agastum plants from the HDB site had the delavayi cpDNA haplotype, whereas at the ZJY site 17 R. agastum plants had this haplotype and four had the R. irroratum haplotype. R. irroratum and R. delavayi are distinguished by five unequivocal point mutations in their ITS sequences; every R. agastum accession had an additive pattern (double peaks) at each of these sites. Data from AFLP loci were acquired for between ten and 21 plants of each taxon from each site, and were analysed using a Bayesian approach implemented by the program NewHybrids. The program confirmed the identity of all accessions of R. delavayi, and all R. irroratum except one, which was probably a backcross. All R. agastum from HDB and 19 of 21 from ZJY were classified as F1 hybrids; the other two could not be assigned a class. Conclusions Rhododendron agastum represents populations of hybrids between R. irroratum and R. delavayi, which comprise mostly or only F1s, at the two sites examined. The sites differ in that at HDB there was no detected variation in cpDNA type or hybrid class

  9. Snake mitochondrial genomes: phylogenetic relationships and implications of extended taxon sampling for interpretations of mitogenomic evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    alethinophidians. Conclusions Mitochondrial gene sequence data alone may not be able to robustly resolve basal divergences among alethinophidian snakes. Taxon sampling plays an important role in identifying mitogenomic evolutionary events within snakes, and in testing hypotheses explaining their origin. Dramatic rate shifts in mitogenomic evolution occur within Scolecophidia as well as Alethinophidia, thus falsifying the hypothesis that these shifts in snakes are associated exclusively with evolution of a non-burrowing lifestyle, macrostomatan feeding ecology and/or duplication of the control region, both restricted to alethinophidians among living snakes. PMID:20055998

  10. Marine Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark W.; Gaylord, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of marine ecomechanics provides an explicit physical framework for exploring interactions among marine organisms and between these organisms and their environments. It exhibits particular utility through its construction of predictive, mechanistic models, a number of which address responses to changing climatic conditions. Examples include predictions of (a) the change in relative abundance of corals as a function of colony morphology, ocean acidity, and storm intensity; (b) the rate of disturbance and patch formation in beds of mussels, a competitive dominant on many intertidal shores; (c) the dispersal and recruitment patterns of giant kelps, an important nearshore foundation species; (d) the effects of turbulence on external fertilization, a widespread method of reproduction in the sea; and (e) the long-term incidence of extreme ecological events. These diverse examples emphasize the breadth of marine ecomechanics. Indeed, its principles can be applied to any ecological system.

  11. Orbitally paced phosphogenesis in Mediterranean shallow marine carbonates during the middle Miocene Monterey event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Reuter, Markus; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-04-01

    During the Oligo-Miocene major phases of phosphogenesis occurred in the Earth's oceans. Particularly in the Mediterranean region phosphate-rich sediments are well-known during this time. However, most phosphate-rich beds represent condensed or allochthonous hemipelagic deposits, formed by a complex interplay of physical and chemical enrichment processes. These underlying processes limit the application of these records for the study of a possible Milankovitch-scale climate control on Miocene phosphogenesis. In this regard the middle Miocene "Monterey event" is of particular interest, as it represents a documented phase of phosphogenesis coupled with a prominent carbon isotope excursion containing nine orbitally paced carbon isotope maxima (CM-events). The Oligo-Miocene shallow marine Decontra section located on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), is a widely continuous carbonate succession in a mostly outer to middle neritic setting. Of particular interest are the well-winnowed grain- to packstones of the Middle Miocene Bryozoan Limestone, were occurrences of authigenic phosphate grains coincide with the Monterey event. The depositional setting of the Bryozoan Limestone allows to resolve the influence of orbital forcing on phosphogenesis, within a bio-, chemo- and cyclostratigraphically constrained stratigraphic model. LA-ICP-MS analyses revealed a significant enrichment of Uranium in the studied authigenic phosphate grains compared to the surrounding carbonate sediment. Notably, the Uranium enrichment allowed the use of natural gamma radiation (GR) as a proxy for the qualitative estimation of autochthonous phosphate content within the section, based on the absence of any other major gamma ray sources within the sediment. Time series analyses of high-resolution GR data indicate a strong influence of the 405kyr long-eccentricity cycle on natural gamma radiation in the Bryozoan Limestone. Our results link maxima in the GR record and thus phosphate

  12. Disentangling effects of abiotic factors and biotic interactions on cross-taxon congruence in species turnover patterns of plants, moths and beetles

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Meichun; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Baudry, Jacques; Li, Liangtao; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan C.

    2016-01-01

    High cross-taxon congruence in species diversity patterns is essential for the use of surrogate taxa in biodiversity conservation, but presence and strength of congruence in species turnover patterns, and the relative contributions of abiotic environmental factors and biotic interaction towards this congruence, remain poorly understood. In our study, we used variation partitioning in multiple regressions to quantify cross-taxon congruence in community dissimilarities of vascular plants, geometrid and arciinid moths and carabid beetles, subsequently investigating their respective underpinning by abiotic factors and biotic interactions. Significant cross-taxon congruence observed across all taxon pairs was linked to their similar responses towards elevation change. Changes in the vegetation composition were closely linked to carabid turnover, with vegetation structure and associated microclimatic conditions proposed causes of this link. In contrast, moth assemblages appeared to be dominated by generalist species whose turnover was weakly associated with vegetation changes. Overall, abiotic factors exerted a stronger influence on cross-taxon congruence across our study sites than biotic interactions. The weak congruence in turnover observed particularly between plants and moths highlights the importance of multi-taxon approaches based on groupings of taxa with similar turnovers, rather than the use of single surrogate taxa or environmental proxies, in biodiversity assessments. PMID:27032533

  13. Disentangling effects of abiotic factors and biotic interactions on cross-taxon congruence in species turnover patterns of plants, moths and beetles.

    PubMed

    Duan, Meichun; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Baudry, Jacques; Li, Liangtao; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan C

    2016-01-01

    High cross-taxon congruence in species diversity patterns is essential for the use of surrogate taxa in biodiversity conservation, but presence and strength of congruence in species turnover patterns, and the relative contributions of abiotic environmental factors and biotic interaction towards this congruence, remain poorly understood. In our study, we used variation partitioning in multiple regressions to quantify cross-taxon congruence in community dissimilarities of vascular plants, geometrid and arciinid moths and carabid beetles, subsequently investigating their respective underpinning by abiotic factors and biotic interactions. Significant cross-taxon congruence observed across all taxon pairs was linked to their similar responses towards elevation change. Changes in the vegetation composition were closely linked to carabid turnover, with vegetation structure and associated microclimatic conditions proposed causes of this link. In contrast, moth assemblages appeared to be dominated by generalist species whose turnover was weakly associated with vegetation changes. Overall, abiotic factors exerted a stronger influence on cross-taxon congruence across our study sites than biotic interactions. The weak congruence in turnover observed particularly between plants and moths highlights the importance of multi-taxon approaches based on groupings of taxa with similar turnovers, rather than the use of single surrogate taxa or environmental proxies, in biodiversity assessments. PMID:27032533

  14. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  15. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  16. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  17. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  18. Baseline seabed habitat and biotope mapping for a proposed marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sonny T M; Kelly, Michelle; Langlois, Tim J; Costello, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Seabed mapping can quantify the extent of benthic habitats that comprise marine ecosystems, and assess the impact of fisheries on an ecosystem. In this study, the distribution of seabed habitats in a proposed no-take Marine Reserve along the northeast coast of Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, was mapped using underwater video combined with bathymetry and substratum data. As a result of the boundary extending to the 12 nautical mile Territorial Limit, it would have been the largest coastal Marine Reserve in the country. Recreational and commercial fisheries occur in the region and would be expected to affect species' abundance. The seabed of the study area and adjacent coastal waters has been trawled up to five times per year. Benthic communities were grouped by multivariate cluster analysis into four biotope classes; namely (1) shallow water macroalgae Ecklonia sp. and Ulva sp. on rocky substrata (Eck.Ulv); and deeper (2) diverse epifauna of sponges and bryozoans on rocky substrata (Por.Bry), (3) brittle star Amphiura sp. and sea anemone Edwardsia sp. on muddy sand (Amph.Edw), and (4) hydroids on mud (Hyd). In biotopes Por.Bry, Amph.Edw and Hyd, there where boulders and rocks were present, and diverse sponge, bryozoan and coral communities. Fifty species were recorded in the deep water survey including significant numbers of the shallow-water hexactinellid glass sponges Symplectella rowi Dendy, 1924 and Rossella ijimai Dendy, 1924, the giant pipe demosponge Isodictya cavicornuta Dendy, 1924, black corals, and locally endemic gorgonians. The habitats identified in the waters to the northeast of Great Barrier Island are likely to be representative of similar depth ranges in northeast New Zealand. This study provides a baseline of the benthic habitats so that should the area become a Marine Reserve, any habitat change might be related to protection from fishing activities and impacts, such as recovery of epifauna following cessation of trawling. The habitat map may

  19. Baseline seabed habitat and biotope mapping for a proposed marine reserve

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michelle; Langlois, Tim J.; Costello, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Seabed mapping can quantify the extent of benthic habitats that comprise marine ecosystems, and assess the impact of fisheries on an ecosystem. In this study, the distribution of seabed habitats in a proposed no-take Marine Reserve along the northeast coast of Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, was mapped using underwater video combined with bathymetry and substratum data. As a result of the boundary extending to the 12 nautical mile Territorial Limit, it would have been the largest coastal Marine Reserve in the country. Recreational and commercial fisheries occur in the region and would be expected to affect species’ abundance. The seabed of the study area and adjacent coastal waters has been trawled up to five times per year. Benthic communities were grouped by multivariate cluster analysis into four biotope classes; namely (1) shallow water macroalgae Ecklonia sp. and Ulva sp. on rocky substrata (Eck.Ulv); and deeper (2) diverse epifauna of sponges and bryozoans on rocky substrata (Por.Bry), (3) brittle star Amphiura sp. and sea anemone Edwardsia sp. on muddy sand (Amph.Edw), and (4) hydroids on mud (Hyd). In biotopes Por.Bry, Amph.Edw and Hyd, there where boulders and rocks were present, and diverse sponge, bryozoan and coral communities. Fifty species were recorded in the deep water survey including significant numbers of the shallow-water hexactinellid glass sponges Symplectella rowi Dendy, 1924 and Rossella ijimai Dendy, 1924, the giant pipe demosponge Isodictya cavicornuta Dendy, 1924, black corals, and locally endemic gorgonians. The habitats identified in the waters to the northeast of Great Barrier Island are likely to be representative of similar depth ranges in northeast New Zealand. This study provides a baseline of the benthic habitats so that should the area become a Marine Reserve, any habitat change might be related to protection from fishing activities and impacts, such as recovery of epifauna following cessation of trawling. The habitat map

  20. Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The ocean constitutes one of the vastest and richest biomes on our planet. Most recent estimations, all based on indirect approaches, suggest that there are millions of marine eukaryotic species. Moreover, a large majority of these are small (less than 1 mm), cryptic and still unknown to science. However, this knowledge gap, caused by the lack of diagnostic morphological features in small organisms and the limited sampling of the global ocean, is currently being filled, thanks to new DNA-based approaches. The molecular technique of PCR amplification of homologous gene regions combined with high-throughput sequencing, routinely used to census unculturable prokaryotes, is now also being used to characterize whole communities of marine eukaryotes. Here, we review how this methodological advancement has helped to better quantify the magnitude and patterns of marine eukaryotic diversity, with an emphasis on taxonomic groups previously largely overlooked. We then discuss obstacles remaining to achieve a global understanding of marine eukaryotic diversity. In particular, we argue that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and suggest combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve our understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481783

  1. Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-09-01

    The ocean constitutes one of the vastest and richest biomes on our planet. Most recent estimations, all based on indirect approaches, suggest that there are millions of marine eukaryotic species. Moreover, a large majority of these are small (less than 1 mm), cryptic and still unknown to science. However, this knowledge gap, caused by the lack of diagnostic morphological features in small organisms and the limited sampling of the global ocean, is currently being filled, thanks to new DNA-based approaches. The molecular technique of PCR amplification of homologous gene regions combined with high-throughput sequencing, routinely used to census unculturable prokaryotes, is now also being used to characterize whole communities of marine eukaryotes. Here, we review how this methodological advancement has helped to better quantify the magnitude and patterns of marine eukaryotic diversity, with an emphasis on taxonomic groups previously largely overlooked. We then discuss obstacles remaining to achieve a global understanding of marine eukaryotic diversity. In particular, we argue that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and suggest combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve our understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481783

  2. Marine Education: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Wildman, Terry M.

    1980-01-01

    Examined are the scope and status of precollege marine education, including history of marine education, present interdisciplinary marine education, informal approaches to marine education, marine awareness studies, and some implications of marine education. (Author/DS)

  3. Unraveling the sequence information in COI barcode to achieve higher taxon assignment based on Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Efficacy of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcode in higher taxon assignment is still under debate in spite of several attempts, using the conventional DNA barcoding methods, to assign higher taxa. Here we try to understand whether nucleotide and amino acid sequence in COI gene carry sufficient information to assign species to their higher taxonomic rank, using 160 species of Indian freshwater fishes. Our results reveal that with increase in the taxonomic rank, sequence conservation decreases for both nucleotides and amino acids. Order level exhibits lowest conservation with 50% of the nucleotides and amino acids being conserved. Among the variable sites, 30-50% were found to carry high information content within an order, while it was 70-80% within a family and 80-99% within a genus. High information content shows sites with almost conserved sequence but varying at one or two locations, which can be due to variations at species or population level. Thus, the potential of COI gene in higher taxon assignment is revealed with validation of ample inherent signals latent in the gene. PMID:24409929

  4. Marine Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

  5. Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Sun; Cho, Yong-Joon; Lee, Kihyun; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Mincheol; Na, Hyunsoo; Park, Sang-Cheol; Jeon, Yoon Seong; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yi, Hana; Won, Sungho; Chun, Jongsik

    2012-03-01

    Despite recent advances in commercially optimized identification systems, bacterial identification remains a challenging task in many routine microbiological laboratories, especially in situations where taxonomically novel isolates are involved. The 16S rRNA gene has been used extensively for this task when coupled with a well-curated database, such as EzTaxon, containing sequences of type strains of prokaryotic species with validly published names. Although the EzTaxon database has been widely used for routine identification of prokaryotic isolates, sequences from uncultured prokaryotes have not been considered. Here, the next generation database, named EzTaxon-e, is formally introduced. This new database covers not only species within the formal nomenclatural system but also phylotypes that may represent species in nature. In addition to an identification function based on Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (blast) searches and pairwise global sequence alignments, a new objective method of assessing the degree of completeness in sequencing is proposed. All sequences that are held in the EzTaxon-e database have been subjected to phylogenetic analysis and this has resulted in a complete hierarchical classification system. It is concluded that the EzTaxon-e database provides a useful taxonomic backbone for the identification of cultured and uncultured prokaryotes and offers a valuable means of communication among microbiologists who routinely encounter taxonomically novel isolates. The database and its analytical functions can be found at http://eztaxon-e.ezbiocloud.net/. PMID:22140171

  6. Second-generation environmental sequencing unmasks marine metazoan biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Vera G.; Carvalho, Gary R.; Sung, Way; Johnson, Harriet F.; Power, Deborah M.; Neill, Simon P.; Packer, Margaret; Blaxter, Mark L.; Lambshead, P. John D.; Thomas, W. Kelley; Creer, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity is of crucial importance for ecosystem functioning, sustainability and resilience, but the magnitude and organization of marine diversity at a range of spatial and taxonomic scales are undefined. In this paper, we use second-generation sequencing to unmask putatively diverse marine metazoan biodiversity in a Scottish temperate benthic ecosystem. We show that remarkable differences in diversity occurred at microgeographical scales and refute currently accepted ecological and taxonomic paradigms of meiofaunal identity, rank abundance and concomitant understanding of trophic dynamics. Richness estimates from the current benchmarked Operational Clustering of Taxonomic Units from Parallel UltraSequencing analyses are broadly aligned with those derived from morphological assessments. However, the slope of taxon rarefaction curves for many phyla remains incomplete, suggesting that the true alpha diversity is likely to exceed current perceptions. The approaches provide a rapid, objective and cost-effective taxonomic framework for exploring links between ecosystem structure and function of all hitherto intractable, but ecologically important, communities. PMID:20981026

  7. In situ transcriptomic analysis of the globally important keystone N2-fixing taxon Crocosphaera watsonii.

    PubMed

    Hewson, Ian; Poretsky, Rachel S; Beinart, Roxanne A; White, Angelicque E; Shi, Tuo; Bench, Shellie R; Moisander, Pia H; Paerl, Ryan W; Tripp, H James; Montoya, Joseph P; Moran, Mary Ann; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    The diazotrophic cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii supplies fixed nitrogen (N) to N-depleted surface waters of the tropical oceans, but the factors that determine its distribution and contribution to global N(2) fixation are not well constrained for natural populations. Despite the heterogeneity of the marine environment, the genome of C. watsonii is highly conserved in nucleotide sequence in contrast to sympatric planktonic cyanobacteria. We applied a whole assemblage shotgun transcript sequencing approach to samples collected from a bloom of C. watsonii observed in the South Pacific to understand the genomic mechanisms that may lead to high population densities. We obtained 999 C. watsonii transcript reads from two metatranscriptomes prepared from mixed assemblage RNA collected in the day and at night. The C. watsonii population had unexpectedly high transcription of hypothetical protein genes (31% of protein-encoding genes) and transposases (12%). Furthermore, genes were expressed that are necessary for living in the oligotrophic ocean, including the nitrogenase cluster and the iron-stress-induced protein A (isiA) that functions to protect photosystem I from high-light-induced damage. C. watsonii transcripts retrieved from metatranscriptomes at other locations in the southwest Pacific Ocean, station ALOHA and the equatorial Atlantic Ocean were similar in composition to those recovered in the enriched population. Quantitative PCR and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR were used to confirm the high expression of these genes within the bloom, but transcription patterns varied at shallower and deeper horizons. These data represent the first transcript study of a rare individual microorganism in situ and provide insight into the mechanisms of genome diversification and the ecophysiology of natural populations of keystone organisms that are important in global nitrogen cycling. PMID:19225552

  8. Pararhinebothroides-Neither the Sister-Taxon of Rhinebothroides Nor a Valid Genus.

    PubMed

    Marques, Fernando P L; Caira, Janine N

    2016-04-01

    The genus Pararhinebothroides was established for a species of cestode (Parahinebothroides hobergi) found parasitizing the Tumbes round stingray, Urobatis tumbesensis (McEachran & Chirichigno), in the inshore Pacific waters in the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Its apparent affinities with the freshwater endemic genus Rhinebothroides were considered evidence to support the long-standing, yet controversial, biogeographical hypothesis that freshwater stingrays of the family Potamotrygonidae derived from a Pacific marine ancestor during the Cretaceous Period before the uplifting of the Andes. Here, we re-evaluate the phylogenetic and taxonomic status of P. hobergi based on examination of the available type material and newly collected material from the type host near the type locality. The new material allowed the description of tegumental structures using scanning electron microscopy and the generation of a hypothesis for the phylogenetic position of the species based on molecular data for the first time. Morphological investigations revealed that P. hobergi shares all the diagnostic features of the most recent concept of Anthocephalum, including the previously overlooked presence of bothridial apical suckers. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial 28S rDNA (D1-D3) and complete 18S rDNA sequence data for 4 specimens of P. hobergi, 45 species of other rhinebothriideans, and 5 non-rhinebothriidean outgroup species provided unequivocal support for the transfer of P. hobergi to Anthocephalum. Since this is the type and only species of the genus, Pararhinebothroides is considered a junior synonym of Anthocephalum, and Anthocephalum hobergi n. comb. is redescribed. Furthermore, our results reveal Rhinebothroides and Anthocephalum to be only distantly related among the Rhinebothriidea. Not only do our results confirm reservations expressed earlier about the affinities of P. hobergi, but they also substantially challenge inferences drawn previously about the biogeographical

  9. Screening for Anti-Cancer Compounds in Marine Organisms in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Tamimi, Yahya; Al-Kindi, Mohamed A.; Burney, Ikram

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Marine organisms are a rich source of bioactive molecules with potential applications in medicine, biotechnology and industry; however, few bioactive compounds have been isolated from organisms inhabiting the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. This study aimed to isolate and screen the anti-cancer activity of compounds and extracts from 40 natural products of marine organisms collected from the Gulf of Oman. Methods: This study was carried out between January 2012 and December 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Fungi, bacteria, sponges, algae, soft corals, tunicates, bryozoans, mangrove tree samples and sea cucumbers were collected from seawater at Marina Bandar Al-Rowdha and Bandar Al-Khayran in Oman. Bacteria and fungi were isolated using a marine broth and organisms were extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate. Compounds were identified from spectroscopic data. The anti-cancer activity of the compounds and extracts was tested in a Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF)-7 cell line breast adenocarcinoma model. Results: Eight pure compounds and 32 extracts were investigated. Of these, 22.5% showed strong or medium anti-cancer activity, with malformin A, kuanoniamine D, hymenialdisine and gallic acid showing the greatest activity, as well as the soft coral Sarcophyton sp. extract. Treatment of MCF-7 cells at different concentrations of Sarcophyton sp. extracts indicated the induction of concentration-dependent cell death. Ultrastructural analysis highlighted the presence of nuclear fragmentation, membrane protrusion, blebbing and chromatic segregation at the nuclear membrane, which are typical characteristics of cell death by apoptosis induction. Conclusion: Some Omani marine organisms showed high anti-cancer potential. The efficacy, specificity and molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer compounds from Omani marine organisms on various cancer models should be investigated in future in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:27226907

  10. Molecular evidence for a single taxon, Anopheles nuneztovari s. l., from two endemic malaria regions in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Luz Marina; Gutiérrez, Lina A; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. taxonomic status at a microgeographic level in four malaria endemic localities from Antioquia and Córdoba, Colombia, fragments of the Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the white gene were used. The COI analysis showed low genetic differentiation with FST levels between −0.02 and 0.137 and Nm values between 3 and infinity, indicating the presence of high gene flow among An. nuneztovari s.l. populations from the four localities. The COI network showed a single most common haplotype, 1 (n=55), present in all localities, as the likely ancestral haplotype. Analysis of the white gene showed that An. nuneztovari s.l. populations from both departments grouped with haplotypes 19 and 20, which are part of lineage 3 previously reported. The results of the present study suggest that An. nuneztovari s.l. is a single taxon in the area of the present study. PMID:22241127

  11. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  12. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Szabolcs; Déri, Eszter; Magura, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD) is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR) of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary) and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals) showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale) was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none) was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve biodiversity in

  13. Taxon-rich phylogenomic analyses resolve the eukaryotic tree of life and reveal the power of subsampling by sites.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laura A; Grant, Jessica R

    2015-05-01

    Most eukaryotic lineages are microbial, and many have only recently been sampled for phylogenetic studies or remain in the "dark area" of the tree of life where there are no molecular data. To assess relationships among eukaryotic lineages, we perform a taxon-rich phylogenomic analysis including 232 eukaryotes selected to maximize taxonomic diversity and up to 1554 genes chosen as vertically inherited based on their broad distribution among eukaryotes. We also include sequences from 486 bacteria and 84 archaea to assess the impact of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) from plastids and to detect contamination. Overall, our analyses are consistent with other less taxon-rich estimates of the eukaryotic tree of life, and we recover strong support for five major clades: Amoebozoa, Excavata (without the genus Malawimonas), Opisthokonta, Archaeplastida, and SAR (Stramenopila, Alveolata, and Rhizaria). Our analyses also highlight the existence of "orphan" lineages, lineages that lack robust placement in the eukaryotic tree of life, and indicate the possibility of as yet undiscovered diversity. In analyses including bacteria and archaea, we find that approximately 10% of the 1554 genes, which we choose because they are found in four or five of the five major eukaryotic clades and hence may be more likely to be inherited vertically, appear to have been acquired from cyanobacteria through EGT in photosynthetic lineages. Removing these EGT genes places the green algae as sister to the glaucophytes instead of the red algae, suggesting that unknowingly including genes of plastid origin, and combining them with genes of nuclear origin, may mislead phylogenetic estimates. Finally, the large size of our data set allows comparative analyses of subsets of data; alignments built from randomly sampled sites provide greater support, particularly for deep relationships, than do equivalent-sized data sets built from randomly sampled genes. PMID:25540455

  14. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Szabolcs; Déri, Eszter; Magura, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD) is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR) of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary) and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals) showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale) was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none) was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve biodiversity in

  15. How to Handle Speciose Clades? Mass Taxon-Sampling as a Strategy towards Illuminating the Natural History of Campanula (Campanuloideae)

    PubMed Central

    Mansion, Guilhem; Parolly, Gerald; Crowl, Andrew A.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny; Cellinese, Nico; Oganesian, Marine; Fraunhofer, Katharina; Kamari, Georgia; Phitos, Dimitrios; Haberle, Rosemarie; Akaydin, Galip; Ikinci, Nursel; Raus, Thomas; Borsch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Speciose clades usually harbor species with a broad spectrum of adaptive strategies and complex distribution patterns, and thus constitute ideal systems to disentangle biotic and abiotic causes underlying species diversification. The delimitation of such study systems to test evolutionary hypotheses is difficult because they often rely on artificial genus concepts as starting points. One of the most prominent examples is the bellflower genus Campanula with some 420 species, but up to 600 species when including all lineages to which Campanula is paraphyletic. We generated a large alignment of petD group II intron sequences to include more than 70% of described species as a reference. By comparison with partial data sets we could then assess the impact of selective taxon sampling strategies on phylogenetic reconstruction and subsequent evolutionary conclusions. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum parsimony (PAUP, PRAP), Bayesian inference (MrBayes), and maximum likelihood (RAxML) were first carried out on the large reference data set (D680). Parameters including tree topology, branch support, and age estimates, were then compared to those obtained from smaller data sets resulting from “classification-guided” (D088) and “phylogeny-guided sampling” (D101). Analyses of D088 failed to fully recover the phylogenetic diversity in Campanula, whereas D101 inferred significantly different branch support and age estimates. Conclusions/Significance A short genomic region with high phylogenetic utility allowed us to easily generate a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for the speciose Campanula clade. Our approach recovered 17 well-supported and circumscribed sub-lineages. Knowing these will be instrumental for developing more specific evolutionary hypotheses and guide future research, we highlight the predictive value of a mass taxon-sampling strategy as a first essential step towards illuminating the detailed evolutionary

  16. Early Cenozoic Differentiation of Polar Marine Faunas

    PubMed Central

    Crame, J. Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene – Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability. PMID:23342090

  17. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Crame, J Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability. PMID:23342090

  18. Using clones and copper to resolve the genetic architecture of metal tolerance in a marine invader

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Louise A; Johnston, Emma L; Brooks, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of invasive species may be facilitated by adaptation to the practices that humans use to manage those species. For example, marine invertebrates that adapt to metal-based antifouling biocides on ship hulls may be more likely to be introduced to and establish in metal-polluted environments. We tested this idea by studying clonal variation in tolerance to, and ability to recover from, exposure to copper in a widespread invasive marine bryozoan, Watersipora subtorquata. We cloned colonies of this organism to independently test multiple environments in a genotype by environment design, and then created a genetic variance–covariance matrix. Genotypes were exposed to a gradient of copper concentrations and growth measured during exposure and after a recovery period. There was a significant genotype × environment interaction in growth during exposure and recovery. We found clonal variation in tolerance and ability to recover from exposure to copper, with growth during exposure apparently trading off against growth after exposure. A weak genetic correlation between growth during and after exposure further indicated that they are separate traits. Overall, the genetic variation within this population indicates that there is considerable potential for adaptation to copper, but this comes at a cost to growth in unpolluted environments. PMID:22833804

  19. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Huoming; He, Lisheng; Liu, Changdong; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-06-15

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolide's molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (SCSβ) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCSβ are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. PMID:22458453

  20. Israel Marine Bio-geographic Database (ISRAMAR-BIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greengrass, Eyal; Krivenko, Yevgeniya; Ozer, Tal; Ben Yosef, Dafna; Tom, Moshe; Gertman, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the space/time variations of species is the basis for any ecological investigations. While historical observations containing integral concentrations of biological parameters (chlorophyll, abundance, biomass…) are organized partly in ISRAMAR Cast Database, the taxon-specific data collected in Israel has not been sufficiently organized. This has been hindered by the lack of standards, variability of methods and complexity of biological data formalization. The ISRAMAR-BIO DB was developed to store various types of historical and future available information related to marine species observations and related metadata. Currently the DB allows to store biological data acquired by the following sampling devices such as: van veer grab, box corer, sampling bottles, nets (plankton, trawls and fish), quadrates, and cameras. The DB's logical unit is information regarding a specimen (taxa name, barcode, image), related attributes (abundance, size, age, contaminants…), habitat description, sampling device and method, time and space of sampling, responsible organization and scientist, source of information (cruise, project and publication). The following standardization of specimen and attributes naming were implemented: Taxonomy according to World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS: http://www.marinespecies.org). Habitat description according to Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS: http://www.cmecscatalog.org) Parameter name; Unit; Device name; Developmental stage; Institution name; Country name; Marine region according to SeaDataNet Vocabularies (http://www.seadatanet.org/Standards-Software/Common-Vocabularies). This system supports two types of data submission procedures, which support the above stated data structure. The first is a downloadable excel file with drop-down fields based on the ISRAMAR-BIO vocabularies. The file is filled and uploaded online by the data contributor. Alternatively, the same dataset can be assembled by

  1. DSM-IV Antisocial Personality Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Evidence for Taxonic Structures Among Individuals With and Without Substance Use Disorders in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Saha, Tulshi D; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The categorical-dimensional status of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a source of controversy. This study examined whether the underlying structure of DSM-IV CD and ASPD was dimensional or categorical (taxonic) among individuals with and without substance use disorders. Method: Using a national large representative survey of U.S. adults (n = 43,093), taxometric analyses of DSM-IV CD and ASPD diagnostic criteria were conducted on the total sample and among those with and without substance use disorders. Results: Results of three taxometric procedures were consistent in showing that the structures underlying DSM-IV CD and ASPD were clearly taxonic in the total sample and among individuals with and without substance use disorders. Comparison curve fit indices exceeded 0.57 for each model. Conclusions: Taxonic findings of the present study were in contrast to the dimensional results of prior taxometric research among incarcerated samples with substantial comorbidity of antisocial syndromes and substance use disorders. Results supported the categorical representation and diagnostic thresholds of ASPD and CD as defined in DSM-IV and DSM-5. That the structure of ASPD and CD may be taxonic suggests that further research on these disorders use group comparative designs in which samples with and without these disorders are compared in terms of sociodemographic and clinical correlates, comorbidity, and treatment utilization. The taxonic structure of ASPD and CD may contribute to future research on causal processes through which these antisocial syndromes develop. PMID:24766762

  2. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

  3. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other’s development

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Martina A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  4. In situ detection of freshwater fungi in an alpine stream by new taxon-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Baschien, Christiane; Manz, Werner; Neu, Thomas R; Marvanová, Ludmila; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    New rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probes permitted the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identification of freshwater fungi in an Austrian second-order alpine stream. Based on computer-assisted comparative sequence analysis, nine taxon-specific probes were designed and evaluated by whole-fungus hybridizations. Oligonucleotide probe MY1574, specific for a wide range of Eumycota, and the genus (Tetracladium)-specific probe TCLAD1395, as well as the species-specific probes ALacumi1698 (Alatospora acuminata), TRIang322 (Tricladium angulatum), and Alongi340 (Anguillospora longissima), are targeted against 18S rRNA, whereas probes TmarchB10, TmarchC1_1, TmarchC1_2, and AlongiB16 are targeted against the 28S rRNA of Tetracladium marchalianum and Anguillospora longissima, respectively. After 2 weeks and 3 months of exposure of polyethylene slides in the stream, attached germinating conidia and growing hyphae of freshwater fungi were accessible for FISH. Growing hyphae and germinating conidia on leaves and in membrane cages were also visualized by the new FISH probes. PMID:18776035

  5. Genetic distances within and among species in monophyletic lineages of Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) as a tool for taxon delimitation.

    PubMed

    Del-Prado, Ruth; Cubas, Paloma; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Divakar, Pradeep K; Blanco, Oscar; de Paz, Guillermo Amo; Molina, M Carmen; Crespo, Ana

    2010-07-01

    The species delimitation in fungi is currently in flux. A growing body of evidence shows that the morphology-based species circumscription underestimates the number of existing species. The large and ever growing number of DNA sequence data of fungi makes it possible to use these to identify potential cases of hidden species, which then need to be studied with extensive taxon samplings. We used Parmeliaceae, one of the largest families of lichenized fungi as a model. Intra- and interspecific distances derived from maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees inferred from 491 nuclear ITS rDNA sequences were examined for five major clades of parmelioid lichens. The intra- and interspecific distances were well separated in most cases allowing the calculation of a threshold, with exceptions of highly deviating distances in a few cases. These situations are shown to be taxa in which the current delimitation needs revision. Thus the analysis of the distance distributions is shown to be a powerful tool for identifying species complexes. PMID:20399873

  6. Dispersal and diversity in the earliest North American sauropodomorph dinosaurs, with a description of a new taxon

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Timothy B.; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Reisz, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs originated in the Southern Hemisphere in the Middle or Late Triassic and are commonly portrayed as spreading rapidly to all corners of Pangaea as part of a uniform Late Triassic to Early Jurassic cosmopolitan dinosaur fauna. Under this model, dispersal allegedly inhibited dinosaurian diversification, while vicariance and local extinction enhanced it. However, apomorphy-based analyses of the known fossil record indicate that sauropodomorphs were absent in North America until the Early Jurassic, reframing the temporal context of their arrival. We describe a new taxon from the Kayenta Formation of Arizona that comprises the third diagnosable sauropodomorph from the Early Jurassic of North America. We analysed its relationships to test whether sauropodomorphs reached North America in a single sweepstakes event or in separate dispersals. Our finding of separate arrivals by all three taxa suggests dispersal as a chief factor in dinosaurian diversification during at least the early Mesozoic. It questions whether a ‘cosmopolitan’ dinosaur fauna ever existed, and corroborates that vicariance, extinction and dispersal did not operate uniformly in time or under uniform conditions during the Mesozoic. Their relative importance is best measured in narrow time slices and circumscribed geographical regions. PMID:20926438

  7. Dispersal and diversity in the earliest North American sauropodomorph dinosaurs, with a description of a new taxon.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Timothy B; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-04-01

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs originated in the Southern Hemisphere in the Middle or Late Triassic and are commonly portrayed as spreading rapidly to all corners of Pangaea as part of a uniform Late Triassic to Early Jurassic cosmopolitan dinosaur fauna. Under this model, dispersal allegedly inhibited dinosaurian diversification, while vicariance and local extinction enhanced it. However, apomorphy-based analyses of the known fossil record indicate that sauropodomorphs were absent in North America until the Early Jurassic, reframing the temporal context of their arrival. We describe a new taxon from the Kayenta Formation of Arizona that comprises the third diagnosable sauropodomorph from the Early Jurassic of North America. We analysed its relationships to test whether sauropodomorphs reached North America in a single sweepstakes event or in separate dispersals. Our finding of separate arrivals by all three taxa suggests dispersal as a chief factor in dinosaurian diversification during at least the early Mesozoic. It questions whether a 'cosmopolitan' dinosaur fauna ever existed, and corroborates that vicariance, extinction and dispersal did not operate uniformly in time or under uniform conditions during the Mesozoic. Their relative importance is best measured in narrow time slices and circumscribed geographical regions. PMID:20926438

  8. Taxon combinations, parsimony analysis (PAUP*), and the taxonomy of the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrix flavicauda.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J; Rosenberger, Alfred L

    2008-11-01

    The classifications of primates, in general, and platyrrhine primates, in particular, have been greatly revised subsequent to the rationale for taxonomic decisions shifting from one rooted in the biological species concept to one rooted solely in phylogenetic affiliations. Given the phylogenetic justification provided for revised taxonomies, the scientific validity of taxonomic distinctions can be rightly judged by the robusticity of the phylogenetic results supporting them. In this study, we empirically investigated taxonomic-sampling effects on a cladogram previously inferred from craniodental data for the woolly monkeys (Lagothrix). We conducted the study primarily through much greater sampling of species-level taxa (OTUs) after improving some character codings and under a variety of outgroup choices. The results indicate that alternative selections of species subsets from within genera produce various tree topologies. These results stand even after adjusting the character set and considering the potential role of interobserver disagreement. We conclude that specific taxon combinations, in this case, generic or species pairings, of the primary study group has a biasing effect in parsimony analysis, and that the cladistic rationale for resurrecting the Oreonax generic distinction for the yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Lagothrix flavicauda) is based on an artifact of idiosyncratic sampling within the study group below the genus level. Some recommendations to minimize the problem, which is prevalent in all cladistic analyses, are proposed. PMID:18500746

  9. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other's development.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Martina A; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  10. From Forgotten Taxon to a Missing Link? The Position of the Genus Verhuellia (Piperaceae) Revealed by Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, S.; Vanderschaeve, L.; Mathieu, G.; Neinhuis, C.; Goetghebeur, P.; Samain, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The species-poor and little-studied genus Verhuellia has often been treated as a synonym of the genus Peperomia, downplaying its significance in the relationships and evolutionary aspects in Piperaceae and Piperales. The lack of knowledge concerning Verhuellia is largely due to its restricted distribution, poorly known collection localities, limited availability in herbaria and absence in botanical gardens and lack of material suitable for molecular phylogenetic studies until recently. Because Verhuellia has some of the most reduced flowers in Piperales, the reconstruction of floral evolution which shows strong trends towards reduction in all lineages needs to be revised. Methods Verhuellia is included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Piperales (trnT-trnL-trnF and trnK/matK), based on nearly 6000 aligned characters and more than 1400 potentially parsimony-informative sites which were partly generated for the present study. Character states for stamen and carpel number are mapped on the combined molecular tree to reconstruct the ancestral states. Key Results The genus Peperomia is generally considered to have the most reduced flowers in Piperales but this study shows that this is only partially true. Verhuellia, with almost equally reduced flowers, is not part of or sister to Peperomia as expected, but is revealed as sister to all other Piperaceae in all analyses, putting character evolution in this family and in the perianthless Piperales in a different light. A robust phylogenetic analysis including all relevant taxa is presented as a framework for inferring patterns and processes of evolution in Piperales and Piperaceae. Conclusions Verhuellia is a further example of how a molecular phylogenetic study can elucidate the relationships of an unplaced taxon. When more material becomes available, it will be possible to investigate character evolution in Piperales more thoroughly and to answer some evolutionary questions concerning Piperaceae

  11. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.)

    PubMed Central

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  12. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  13. Frontiers of marine science

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Thomas J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

    2011-01-01

    On 9–13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas. PMID:21208943

  14. Dangerous marine life.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J

    1992-09-01

    All physicians must be educated in treating injuries incurred when a diver comes into contact with any dangerous marine life. Stinging invertebrates are the most commonly encountered dangerous marine animals. Venomous vertebrate marine animals are less common than stinging invertebrates and easier to recognize. However, they may be much more deadly. Sharks pose the greatest danger to divers. However, bites from other marine animals can be painful, become infected and require extensive medical treatment. PMID:1358999

  15. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Typification and taxonomic status re-evaluation of 15 taxon names within the species complex Cymbella affinis/tumidula/turgidula (Cymbellaceae, Bacillariophyta)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Weliton José; Jahn, Regine; Ludwig, Thelma Alvim Veiga; Hinz, Friedel; Menezes, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Specimens belonging to the Cymbella affinis / Cymbella tumidula / Cymbella turgidula species complex have many taxonomic problems, due to their high morphological variability and lack of type designations. Fifteen taxon names of this complex, distributed in five species, were re-evaluated concerning their taxonomic status, and lectotypified based on original material. In addition to light microscopy, some material was analyzed by electron microscopy. Four new combinations are proposed in order to reposition infraspecific taxa. PMID:26312038

  17. Marine vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornstein, R. J.; Shultz, W. M.; Stair, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of marine vehicle design on passenger exposure to vibration and discomfort are discussed. The ride quality of advanced marine vehicles is examined. as a basis for marine vehicle selection in modern water transport systems. The physiological effects of rough water on passengers are identified as requiring investigation in order to determine the acceptable limits.

  18. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  19. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  20. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  1. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different

  2. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  3. Marine Indole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-08-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  4. Microbial interactions lead to rapid micro-scale successions on model marine particles.

    PubMed

    Datta, Manoshi S; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Gore, Jeff; Polz, Martin F; Cordero, Otto X

    2016-01-01

    In the ocean, organic particles harbour diverse bacterial communities, which collectively digest and recycle essential nutrients. Traits like motility and exo-enzyme production allow individual taxa to colonize and exploit particle resources, but it remains unclear how community dynamics emerge from these individual traits. Here we track the taxon and trait dynamics of bacteria attached to model marine particles and demonstrate that particle-attached communities undergo rapid, reproducible successions driven by ecological interactions. Motile, particle-degrading taxa are selected for during early successional stages. However, this selective pressure is later relaxed when secondary consumers invade, which are unable to use the particle resource but, instead, rely on carbon from primary degraders. This creates a trophic chain that shifts community metabolism away from the particle substrate. These results suggest that primary successions may shape particle-attached bacterial communities in the ocean and that rapid community-wide metabolic shifts could limit rates of marine particle degradation. PMID:27311813

  5. Microbial interactions lead to rapid micro-scale successions on model marine particles

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Manoshi S.; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Gore, Jeff; Polz, Martin F.; Cordero, Otto X.

    2016-01-01

    In the ocean, organic particles harbour diverse bacterial communities, which collectively digest and recycle essential nutrients. Traits like motility and exo-enzyme production allow individual taxa to colonize and exploit particle resources, but it remains unclear how community dynamics emerge from these individual traits. Here we track the taxon and trait dynamics of bacteria attached to model marine particles and demonstrate that particle-attached communities undergo rapid, reproducible successions driven by ecological interactions. Motile, particle-degrading taxa are selected for during early successional stages. However, this selective pressure is later relaxed when secondary consumers invade, which are unable to use the particle resource but, instead, rely on carbon from primary degraders. This creates a trophic chain that shifts community metabolism away from the particle substrate. These results suggest that primary successions may shape particle-attached bacterial communities in the ocean and that rapid community-wide metabolic shifts could limit rates of marine particle degradation. PMID:27311813

  6. Viviparity and K-selected life history in a Mesozoic marine plesiosaur (Reptilia, Sauropterygia).

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, F R; Chiappe, L M

    2011-08-12

    Viviparity is known in several clades of Mesozoic aquatic reptiles, but evidence for it is lacking in the Plesiosauria. Here, we report a Late Cretaceous plesiosaur fossil consisting of a fetus preserved within an adult of the same taxon. We interpret this occurrence as a gravid female and unborn young and hence as definitive evidence for plesiosaur viviparity. Quantitative analysis indicates that plesiosaurs gave birth to large, probably single progeny. The combination of viviparity, large offspring size, and small brood number differs markedly from the pattern seen in other marine reptiles but does resemble the K-selected strategy of all extant marine mammals and a few extant lizards. Plesiosaurs may have shared other life history traits with these clades, such as sociality and maternal care. PMID:21836013

  7. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats. PMID:26610968

  8. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  9. MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

  10. Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

  11. "Marinating" Our Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes marine education programs at the elementary and secondary levels in the New York City area. The city's extensive coastline and numerous learning centers comprise one of the richest educational resources in the country for studying the marine environment. (Author/WB)

  12. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  13. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  14. Direct 16S rRNA-seq from bacterial communities: a PCR-independent approach to simultaneously assess microbial diversity and functional activity potential of each taxon.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Riccardo; Romoli, Ottavia; Vitulo, Nicola; Vezzi, Alessandro; Campanaro, Stefano; de Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Tiarca, Maurizio; Poletto, Fabio; Concheri, Giuseppe; Valle, Giorgio; Squartini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of environmental microbial communities has largely relied on a PCR-dependent amplification of genes entailing species identity as 16S rRNA. This approach is susceptible to biases depending on the level of primer matching in different species. Moreover, possible yet-to-discover taxa whose rRNA could differ enough from known ones would not be revealed. DNA-based methods moreover do not provide information on the actual physiological relevance of each taxon within an environment and are affected by the variable number of rRNA operons in different genomes. To overcome these drawbacks we propose an approach of direct sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA without any primer- or PCR-dependent step. The method was tested on a microbial community developing in an anammox bioreactor sampled at different time-points. A conventional PCR-based amplicon pyrosequencing was run in parallel. The community resulting from direct rRNA sequencing was highly consistent with the known biochemical processes operative in the reactor. As direct rRNA-seq is based not only on taxon abundance but also on physiological activity, no comparison between its results and those from PCR-based approaches can be applied. The novel principle is in this respect proposed not as an alternative but rather as a complementary methodology in microbial community studies. PMID:27577787

  15. Direct 16S rRNA-seq from bacterial communities: a PCR-independent approach to simultaneously assess microbial diversity and functional activity potential of each taxon

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Riccardo; Romoli, Ottavia; Vitulo, Nicola; Vezzi, Alessandro; Campanaro, Stefano; de Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Tiarca, Maurizio; Poletto, Fabio; Concheri, Giuseppe; Valle, Giorgio; Squartini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of environmental microbial communities has largely relied on a PCR-dependent amplification of genes entailing species identity as 16S rRNA. This approach is susceptible to biases depending on the level of primer matching in different species. Moreover, possible yet-to-discover taxa whose rRNA could differ enough from known ones would not be revealed. DNA-based methods moreover do not provide information on the actual physiological relevance of each taxon within an environment and are affected by the variable number of rRNA operons in different genomes. To overcome these drawbacks we propose an approach of direct sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA without any primer- or PCR-dependent step. The method was tested on a microbial community developing in an anammox bioreactor sampled at different time-points. A conventional PCR-based amplicon pyrosequencing was run in parallel. The community resulting from direct rRNA sequencing was highly consistent with the known biochemical processes operative in the reactor. As direct rRNA-seq is based not only on taxon abundance but also on physiological activity, no comparison between its results and those from PCR-based approaches can be applied. The novel principle is in this respect proposed not as an alternative but rather as a complementary methodology in microbial community studies. PMID:27577787

  16. Genetic and historical relationships among geothermally adapted Agrostis (bentgrass) of North America and Kamchatka: evidence for a previously unrecognized, thermally adapted taxon.

    PubMed

    Tercek, Michael T; Hauber, Donald P; Darwin, Steven P

    2003-09-01

    Agrostis species have been known to evolve ecotypes rapidly in response to unusual edaphic conditions. The geographic distribution of Agrostis taxa in Lassen Volcanic National Park (California) and Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming) in the United States and the Valley of the Geysers (Kamchatka Peninsula) in Russia suggests that Agrostis scabra might have independently evolved morphologically similar ecotypes several times. We used RAPDs to show that, contrary to expectation, the thermal populations are not independently evolved, but instead constitute a single taxon that currently has four names. A UPGMA including the four thermal and nine nonthermal Agrostis taxa showed that the thermal cluster divides into geographically distinct subclusters, but that two morphologically distinct thermal taxa do not cluster independently. Even though currently confused with the thermal populations, nonthermal A. scabra is not closely related. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed significant differentiation between the thermal populations and the nonthermal species sampled in this study. Splitting a hypothesized thermal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) into its components (geographically separated populations) does not greatly affect the partitioning of variation among OTUs. All thermal populations therefore should be assigned to the same taxon, but its taxonomic rank cannot be determined at this time. PMID:21659229

  17. Re-Structuring of Marine Communities Exposed to Environmental Change: A Global Study on the Interactive Effects of Species and Functional Richness

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Martin; Link, Heike; Alexandridis, Nicolaos; Thomason, Jeremy C.; Cifuentes, Mauricio; Costello, Mark J.; da Gama, Bernardo A. P.; Hillock, Kristina; Hobday, Alistair J.; Kaufmann, Manfred J.; Keller, Stefanie; Kraufvelin, Patrik; Krüger, Ina; Lauterbach, Lars; Antunes, Bruno L.; Molis, Markus; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Nyström, Julia; bin Radzi, Zulkamal; Stockhausen, Björn; Thiel, Martin; Vance, Thomas; Weseloh, Annika; Whittle, Mark; Wiesmann, Lisa; Wunderer, Laura; Yamakita, Takehisa; Lenz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Species richness is the most commonly used but controversial biodiversity metric in studies on aspects of community stability such as structural composition or productivity. The apparent ambiguity of theoretical and experimental findings may in part be due to experimental shortcomings and/or heterogeneity of scales and methods in earlier studies. This has led to an urgent call for improved and more realistic experiments. In a series of experiments replicated at a global scale we translocated several hundred marine hard bottom communities to new environments simulating a rapid but moderate environmental change. Subsequently, we measured their rate of compositional change (re-structuring) which in the great majority of cases represented a compositional convergence towards local communities. Re-structuring is driven by mortality of community components (original species) and establishment of new species in the changed environmental context. The rate of this re-structuring was then related to various system properties. We show that availability of free substratum relates negatively while taxon richness relates positively to structural persistence (i.e., no or slow re-structuring). Thus, when faced with environmental change, taxon-rich communities retain their original composition longer than taxon-poor communities. The effect of taxon richness, however, interacts with another aspect of diversity, functional richness. Indeed, taxon richness relates positively to persistence in functionally depauperate communities, but not in functionally diverse communities. The interaction between taxonomic and functional diversity with regard to the behaviour of communities exposed to environmental stress may help understand some of the seemingly contrasting findings of past research. PMID:21611170

  18. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

  19. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  20. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  1. Highlights of marine invertebrate-derived biosynthetic products: Their biomedical potential and possible production by microbial associants

    PubMed Central

    Radjasa, Ocky K.; Vaske, Yvette M.; Navarro, Gabriel; Vervoort, Hélène C.; Tenney, Karen; Linington, Roger G.; Crews, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are among the most productive marine ecosystems and are the source of a large group of structurally unique biosynthetic products. Annual reviews of marine natural products continue to illustrate that the most prolific source of bioactive compounds consist of coral reef invertebrates—sponges, ascidians, mollusks, and bryozoans. This account examines recent milestone developments pertaining to compounds from invertebrates designated as therapeutic leads for biomedical discovery. The focus is on the secondary metabolites, their inspirational structural scaffolds and the possible role of microorganism associants in their biosynthesis. Also important are the increasing concerns regarding the collection of reef invertebrates for the discovery process. The case examples considered here will be useful to insure that future research to unearth bioactive invertebrate-derived compounds will be carried out in a sustainable and environmentally conscious fashion. Our account begins with some observations pertaining to the natural history of these organisms. Many still believe that a serious obstacle to the ultimate development of a marine natural product isolated from coral reef invertebrates is the problem of compound supply. Recent achievements through total synthesis can now be drawn on to forcefully cast this myth aside. The tools of semisynthesis of complex natural products or insights from SAR efforts to simplify an active pharmacophore are at hand and demand discussion. Equally exciting is the prospect that invertebrate-associated micro-organisms may represent the next frontier to accelerate the development of high priority therapeutic candidates. Currently in the United States there are two FDA approved marine-derived therapeutic drugs and two others that are often cited as being marine-inspired. This record will be examined first followed by an analysis of a dozen of our favorite examples of coral reef invertebrate natural products having therapeutic

  2. Mariner-Venus 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

  3. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  4. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  5. Exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhenming; Fang, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives, textiles, Pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria, including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  6. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Ottsen, H.; Barker, Th.

    1985-04-23

    An acoustic positioning system for locating a marine cable at an exploration site employs a plurality of acoustic transponders, each having a characteristic frequency, at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures the depth to the transponders as the vessel passes over the cable and measures the slant range from the vessel to each of the acoustic transponders as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable.

  7. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

  8. Serendipity at the Smithsonian: The 107-year journey of Rhipidocyrtus muiri Falin & Engel, new genus and species (Ripidiinae, Ripidiini), from jungle beast to valid taxon

    PubMed Central

    Falin, Zachary H.; Engel, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The long and tortuous history of an enigmatic and rare new genus and species of ripidiine wedge beetle (Ripiphoridae: Ripidiinae: Ripidiini) from Borneo is discussed and the taxon described and figured as Rhipidocyrtus muiri Falin & Engel, gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype male, and only known specimen, was collected 107 years ago in Borneo but subsequent to this it was transferred among early researchers in the early 1900s. The specimen was dissected and many portions slide mounted, but these were disassociated from the pinned body for more than a generation. A happenstance encounter led to the rediscovery and reassociation of the body and slide-mounted abdomen and other sclerites in 2011, and to its eventual description herein. Ripidiine diversity is briefly discussed and comparisons made between Rhipidocyrtus and other members of the subfamily. PMID:25061398

  9. Serendipity at the Smithsonian: The 107-year journey of Rhipidocyrtus muiri Falin & Engel, new genus and species (Ripidiinae, Ripidiini), from jungle beast to valid taxon.

    PubMed

    Falin, Zachary H; Engel, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    THE LONG AND TORTUOUS HISTORY OF AN ENIGMATIC AND RARE NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF RIPIDIINE WEDGE BEETLE (RIPIPHORIDAE: Ripidiinae: Ripidiini) from Borneo is discussed and the taxon described and figured as Rhipidocyrtus muiri Falin & Engel, gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype male, and only known specimen, was collected 107 years ago in Borneo but subsequent to this it was transferred among early researchers in the early 1900s. The specimen was dissected and many portions slide mounted, but these were disassociated from the pinned body for more than a generation. A happenstance encounter led to the rediscovery and reassociation of the body and slide-mounted abdomen and other sclerites in 2011, and to its eventual description herein. Ripidiine diversity is briefly discussed and comparisons made between Rhipidocyrtus and other members of the subfamily. PMID:25061398

  10. Dinomyces arenysensis gen. et sp. nov. (Rhizophydiales, Dinomycetaceae fam. nov.), a chytrid infecting marine dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, Frédéric; Karpov, Sergey A; Alacid, Elisabet; Le Panse, Sophie; Bigeard, Estelle; Garcés, Esther; Jeanthon, Christian; Guillou, Laure

    2014-03-01

    Environmental 18S rRNA gene surveys of microbial eukaryotes have recently revealed the diversity of major parasitic agents in pelagic freshwater systems, consisting primarily of chytrid fungi. To date, only a few studies have reported the presence of chydrids in the marine environment and a limited number of marine chytrids have been properly identified and characterized. Here, we report the isolation and cultivation of a marine chytrid from samples taken during a bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Arenys de Mar harbour (Mediterranean Sea, Spain). Cross-infections using cultures and natural phytoplankton communities revealed that this chytrid is only able to infect certain species of dinoflagellates, with a rather wide host range but with a relative preference for Alexandrium species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that it belongs to the order Rhizophydiales, but cannot be included in any of the existing families within this order. Several ultrastructural characters confirmed the placement of this taxon within the Rhizophydiales as well its novelty notably in terms of zoospore structure. This marine chytridial parasitoid is described as a new genus and species, Dinomyces arenysensis, within the Dinomycetaceae fam. nov. PMID:24709472

  11. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  12. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    PubMed

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  13. 78 FR 28411 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic... Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... occur in the seismic survey area include nine cetacean species, beluga whale (Delphinapterus...

  14. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae. PMID:26987003

  15. TLP marine riser tensioner

    SciTech Connect

    Peppel, G.W.

    1988-03-08

    A riser tensioner for use in maintaining a tension on a marine riser from a tension leg platform, the tension leg platform moving relative to the marine riser and the marine riser having a center line is described comprising: (a) an elastomeric assembly, adjustably deformable in pad shear, for maintaining the riser in tension during vertical movement of the platform relative to the riser, the elastomeric assembly having upper and lower ends; (b) a gimbal assembly for pivotally connecting the upper end of the elastomeric assembly to the tension leg platform to accommodate misalignment between the riser and the tension leg platform; (c) a base ring to which the lower end of the elastomeric assembly is secured; and (d) a collar, securely mounted on the riser, for resting within the base ring to connect the lower end of the elastomeric assembly to the riser.

  16. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  17. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  18. Marine Science Building Dedicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Officials cut the ribbon during dedication ceremonies of the George A. Knauer Marine Science Building on Oct. 17 at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The $2.75 million facility, the first building at the test site funded by the state of Mississippi, houses six science labs, classrooms and office space for 40 faculty and staff. Pictured are, from left, Rear Adm. Thomas Donaldson, commander of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command; SSC Assistant Director David Throckmorton; Dr. George A. Knauer, founder of the Center of Marine Science at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM); Lt. Gov. Amy Tuck; and USM President Dr. Shelby Thames.

  19. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene marine vertebrates from the Uppermost Aruma Formation (northern Saudi Arabia): implications for the K-T transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Herbert; Roger, Jack; Halawani, Mohammed; Memesh, Abdallah; Lebret, Patrick; Bourdillon, Chantal; Buffetaut, Eric; Cappetta, Henri; Cavelier, Claude; Dutheil, Didier; Tonge, Haiyan; Vaslet, Denis

    1999-12-01

    A new assemblage of marine vertebrates from northern Saudi Arabia, east of the Nafud, leads us to reconsider the age of the top unit of the Aruma Formation, the Lina Member, hitherto referred to the Maastrichtian. This assemblage contains the remains of a dozen selachian and actinopterygian fishes, as well as those of a giant sea turtle representing a new dermochelyid taxon. It suggests a Late Paleocene to Early Eocene age for this unit. This new dating and a revision of the stratigraphic position of the Lina Member demonstrate the existence, on a regional scale, of an important hiatus at the K-T boundary.

  20. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  1. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  2. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  3. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  5. Marine microbiology: Evolution on acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Sinéad

    2012-05-01

    The prediction of marine microbial responses to ocean acidification is a key challenge for marine biologists. Experimental evolution offers a powerful tool for understanding the forces that will shape tomorrow's microbial communities under global change.

  6. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Robert K; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Alverson, Andrew J; Daniell, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Background The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. Results The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. However, maximum

  7. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  8. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  9. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... December 9, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76703) that a request for a permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska....

  10. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 14534, issued on July 2, 2010 (75 FR 39665... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  11. Marine Science Sourcebook, First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions…

  12. Marine Science Film Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Frank L.

    Forty-eight motion picture films and filmstrips in the field of marine science are catalogued in this booklet. Following the alphabetical index, one page is devoted to each film indicating its type, producer, recommended grade level, running time, and presence of color and/or sound. A summary of film content, possible uses, and outstanding…

  13. Marine Optical Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dennis K.

    1996-01-01

    The team's major emphasis during this reporting period has been focused on the completion of the operational versions of the Marine Optical Buoys (MOBY's). Other work areas consisted of designing and testing bio-optical instrumentation, evaluating several of the SeaWiFS bio-optical protocols, processing data collected during field experiments, and reprocessing several of the Marine Optical Characteristics Experiment (MOCE) 2 and 3 bio-optical data sets. The team conducted one trip to the operations site in Honolulu, Hawaii, making necessary preparations for future field experiments. Part of the team also traveled to Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Salinas, CA, and to American Holographic Co. Fitchburg MA, to assist with the fabrication of the next generation Marine Optical Buoys. Technical memoranda are being written to address the remote sensing reflectance, and instrument self-shading protocols. During the Ocean Color 96 meeting discussions with the Spanish on acquiring research vessel support during the MODIS validation period were conducted. A proposal will be generated towards this purpose for an experiment to be conducted off the North African coast during the summer of 1999.

  14. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Marine Electrician--Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of electricity, safety, and tools. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work units,…

  16. Marine fog: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  17. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  18. Lectins of marine hydrobionts.

    PubMed

    Chernikov, O V; Molchanova, V I; Chikalovets, I V; Kondrashina, A S; Li, W; Lukyanov, P A

    2013-07-01

    Data from the literature and results of our research on lectins isolated from some kinds of marine hydrobionts such as clams, ascidians, sea worms, sponges, and algae are presented in this review. Results of comparative analysis of the basic physicochemical properties and biological activity of lectins isolated from various sources are discussed. PMID:24010839

  19. Mobile Marine Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, R. D.; Schaadt, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Calfiornia State University (Long Beach) purchased a motor home and converted it into a mobile marine science display unit, outfitting it with built-in display racks inside and an awning to provide shelter displays suited to outdoor use. School activities and programs using the mobile museum are described. (JN)

  20. Mysterious Marine Stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Marine low clouds are important to climate. The difficulties global climate models have in representing the areal extent and temporal variability of these clouds has motivated numerous observational and modeling studies over the last two decades. New observations have challenged accepted explanations for the underlying physical mechanisms that modulate marine stratocumulus. Recent work has revised thinking on the relative importance of feedbacks among aerosols, microphysics, dynamics and radiation. This presentation will showcase some new observational findings of marine stratocumulus that do not fit current theories. For example, data reveal: large multi-day (3-50 days) variability of cloud amount; mesoscale spatial patterns of drizzle cells that are remarkably static for more than 2 hours; individual drizzle cells lifetimes that exceed 2 times the rainout timescale; and shallow clouds < 500 m thick that generate intense rainfall (> 38 dBZ). Further, what potential mechanisms explain why the seasonal variation in the diurnal cycle of regional cloudiness shows the greatest variation in the southeast Atlantic and least in the northeast Pacific? These observations point the way for potential new research that may inspire a more comprehensive physical understanding of marine stratocumulus clouds.

  1. Marine Science Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    A new state-of-the-art marine science laboratory at Eckerd College (Florida) is a study in the power of research, teamwork, attention to detail, and cost control. A redundant piping system brings sea water directly to the students. Once a week the pipes that previously held sea water are flushed and refilled with fresh water. (MLF)

  2. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  3. Law and Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockrath, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

  4. European origin of placodont marine reptiles and the evolution of crushing dentition in Placodontia.

    PubMed

    Neenan, James M; Klein, Nicole; Scheyer, Torsten M

    2013-01-01

    Sauropterygia was the most successful marine reptile radiation in history, spanning almost the entire Mesozoic and exploiting a wide range of habitats and ecological niches. Here we report a new, exceptionally preserved skull of a juvenile stem placodont from the early Middle Triassic of the Netherlands, thus indicating a western Tethyan (European) origin for Placodontia, the most basal group of sauropterygians. A single row of teeth on an enlarged palatine supports this close relationship, although these are small and pointed instead of broad and flat, as is the case in placodonts, which demonstrate the strongest adaptation to a durophagous diet known in any reptile. Peg-like, slightly procumbent premaxillary teeth and an 'L-shaped' jugal also confirm a close relationship to basal placodonts. The new taxon provides insight into the evolution of placodont dentition, representing a transitional morphology between the plesiomorphic diapsid condition of palatal denticles and the specialized crushing teeth of placodonts. PMID:23535642

  5. Discocelis saleuta gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Protista incertae sedis): - A new heterotrophic marine flagellate.

    PubMed

    Vørs, N

    1988-10-01

    The colourless flagellate Discocelis saleuta, a new genus from marine sediments, has been studied by light microscopy and single-cell sectioning for electron microscopy. The cell is discshaped and possesses an anterior velum and two anteriorly inserted unequal flagella. The cell body periphery and the velum are supported by ribbons of microtubules. Three flagellar roots, each of which comprises relatively few microtubules, arise from the flagellar basal bodies. Two of these roots run posteriorly under the ventral cell membrane, whereas the third root mainly runs along the posterior edge of the velum. The cell is further characterized by a microbody-like paranuclear organelle, and by a row of extrusomes bordering the cell periphery. Mitochondria have short tubular cristae. This minute flagellate adheres tightly to sand grains. The ultrastructure is unlike that of any well circumscribed higher order taxon, and the new genus is consequently placed incertae sedis in the kingdom Protista. PMID:23195317

  6. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2011-12-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  7. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  8. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  9. A multigene phylogeny of the fly superfamily Asiloidea (Insecta): Taxon sampling and additional genes reveal the sister-group to all higher flies (Cyclorrhapha).

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Michelle D; Wiegmann, Brian M; Yeates, David K

    2010-09-01

    Asiloidea are a group of 9 lower brachyceran fly families, considered to be the closest relative to the large Metazoan radiation Eremoneura (Cyclorrhapha+Empidoidea). The evidence for asiloid monophyly is limited, and few characters define the relationships between the families of Asiloidea and Eremoneura. Additionally, enigmatic genera, Hilarimorpha and Apystomyia, retain morphological characters of both asiloids and higher flies. We use the nuclear protein-coding gene CAD and 28S rDNA to test the monophyly of Asiloidea and to resolve its relationship to Eremoneura. We explore the effects of taxon sampling on support values and topological stability, the resolving power of additional genes, and hypothesis testing using four-cluster likelihood mapping. We find that: (1) the 'asiloid' genus Apystomyia is sister to Cyclorrhapha, (2) the remaining asiloids are monophyletic at the exclusion of the family Bombyliidae, and (3) our best estimate of relationships places the asiloid flies excluding Bombyliidae as the sister-group to Eremoneura, though high support is lacking. PMID:20399874

  10. Large-scale phylogenomic analysis reveals the phylogenetic position of the problematic taxon Protocruzia and unravels the deep phylogenetic affinities of the ciliate lineages.

    PubMed

    Gentekaki, E; Kolisko, M; Boscaro, V; Bright, K J; Dini, F; Di Giuseppe, G; Gong, Y; Miceli, C; Modeo, L; Molestina, R E; Petroni, G; Pucciarelli, S; Roger, A J; Strom, S L; Lynn, D H

    2014-09-01

    The Ciliophora is one of the most studied protist lineages because of its important ecological role in the microbial loop. While there is an abundance of molecular data for many ciliate groups, it is commonly limited to the 18S ribosomal RNA locus. There is a paucity of data when it comes to availability of protein-coding genes especially for taxa that do not belong to the class Oligohymenophorea. To address this gap, we have sequenced EST libraries for 11 ciliate species. A supermatrix was constructed for phylogenomic analysis based on 158 genes and 42,158 characters and included 16 ciliates, four dinoflagellates and nine apicomplexans. This is the first multigene-based analysis focusing on the phylum Ciliophora. Our analyses reveal two robust superclades within the Intramacronucleata; one composed of the classes Spirotrichea, Armophorea and Litostomatea (SAL) and another with Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea. Furthermore, we provide corroborative evidence for removing the ambiguous taxon Protocruzia from the class Spirotrichea and placing it as incertae sedis in the phylum Ciliophora. PMID:24814356

  11. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Ochoa, Luz E; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7-64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  12. Does Kiitricha (Protista, Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) belong to Euplotida or represent a primordial spirotrichous taxon? With suggestion to establish a new subclass Protohypotrichia.

    PubMed

    Li, Lifang; Shao, Chen; Song, Weibo; Lynn, Denis H; Chen, Zigui; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2009-02-01

    The genus Kiitricha was long assumed to be the most primordial taxon in the Stichotrichia [hypotrichs sensu lato (s. l.)] based on its morphological features and was considered to be an intermediate between heterotrichs and the traditional hypotrichous assemblage. In order to evaluate the phylogenetic position of Kiitricha within the Hypotrichia, we sequenced the small-subunit rRNA gene and the alpha-tubulin gene for a Qingdao population of Kiitricha marina. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared to morphological and morphogenetic data. The results show that (i) Kiitricha is positioned near Phacodinium, both of which always form a sister clade to the assemblage including Stichotrichia, Hypotrichia, Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia, (ii) Kiitricha, which may represent an intermediate between heterotrichs (s. l.) and the Stichotrichia-Hypotrichia complex, is probably an ancestor-like form of the latter group and (iii) in contrast to morphological characters, both molecular and ontogenetic data support the separation of Kiitricha from the hypotrichs (s. l.). Thus, Kiitricha might be placed in the class Spirotrichea at about subclass level, next to Phaconidiidia, Hypotrichia and Stichotrichia, which supports the establishment of a new subclass Protohypotrichia n. subclass within the class Spirotrichea, with characterizations including slightly differentiated somatic ciliature (i.e. cirri on the ventral side generally uniform and non-grouped, no clearly defined marginal cirral rows, ciliature on the dorsal side mixed with cirri and dikinetids, no clearly differentiated dorsal kineties) and a unique but intermediate morphogenetic pattern of cortical structures between Hypotrichia and Stichotrichia. PMID:19196792

  13. BaCoCa--a heuristic software tool for the parallel assessment of sequence biases in hundreds of gene and taxon partitions.

    PubMed

    Kück, Patrick; Struck, Torsten H

    2014-01-01

    BaCoCa (BAse COmposition CAlculator) is a user-friendly software that combines multiple statistical approaches (like RCFV and C value calculations) to identify biases in aligned sequence data which potentially mislead phylogenetic reconstructions. As a result of its speed and flexibility, the program provides the possibility to analyze hundreds of pre-defined gene partitions and taxon subsets in one single process run. BaCoCa is command-line driven and can be easily integrated into automatic process pipelines of phylogenomic studies. Moreover, given the tab-delimited output style the results can be easily used for further analyses in programs like Excel or statistical packages like R. A built-in option of BaCoCa is the generation of heat maps with hierarchical clustering of certain results using R. As input files BaCoCa can handle FASTA and relaxed PHYLIP, which are commonly used in phylogenomic pipelines. BaCoCa is implemented in Perl and works on Windows PCs, Macs and Linux operating systems. The executable source code as well as example test files and a detailed documentation of BaCoCa are freely available at http://software.zfmk.de. PMID:24076250

  14. Micriamoeba tesseris nov. gen. nov. sp.: a new taxon of free-living small-sized Amoebae non-permissive to virulent Legionellae.

    PubMed

    Atlan, Danièle; Coupat-Goutaland, Bénédicte; Risler, Arnaud; Reyrolle, Monique; Souchon, Maud; Briolay, Jérôme; Jarraud, Sophie; Doublet, Patricia; Pélandakis, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Investigation of soil amoebae in 11 cooling towers allowed us to isolate a major unknown small-sized amoeba population (SZA). However, SZA did not appear to be specific to cooling tower ecosystems since they are also a major amoeba population found in muds isolated from different points of a water treatment plant. The SSU-rDNA sequences from SZA strains did not match any known database sequences, suggesting that SZA constitutes a new amoeba taxon. We isolated and further described one of the SZA that we named Micriamoeba tesseris. The phylogenetic analyses showed that Micriamoeba tesseris belongs to the Amebozoa and branched together with genus Echinamoeba+Vermamoeba vermiformis. Phylogenetic analyses within the Micriamoeba group distinguished different subgroups of Micriamoeba strains according to their origin, i.e. cooling tower or mud. Although Micriamoeba are able to feed on viable E. coli cells, they do not uptake virulent Legionella pneumophila strains, thus enabling them to avoid infection by Legionella. Consequently, Micriamoeba is not directly involved in L. pneumophila multiplication. However, an indirect role of Micriamoeba in Legionella risk is discussed. PMID:22677099

  15. Strong host preference of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Tasmanian wet sclerophyll forest as revealed by DNA barcoding and taxon-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Jairus, Teele; Horton, Bryony M; Abarenkov, Kessy; Suvi, Triin; Saar, Irja; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2008-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis is a widespread plant nutrition strategy in Australia, especially in semiarid regions. This study aims to determine the diversity, community structure and host preference of ECM fungi in a Tasmanian wet sclerophyll forest. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified based on anatomotyping and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-large subunit (LSU) sequence analysis using taxon-specific primers. Host tree roots were identified based on root morphology and length differences of the chloroplast trnL region. A total of 123 species of ECM fungi were recovered from root tips of Eucalyptus regnans (Myrtaceae), Pomaderris apetala (Rhamnaceae) and Nothofagus cunninghamii (Nothofagaceae). The frequency of two thirds of the most common ECM fungi from several lineages was significantly influenced by host species. The lineages of Cortinarius, Tomentella-Thelephora, Russula-Lactarius, Clavulina, Descolea and Laccaria prevailed in the total community and their species richness and relative abundance did not differ by host species. This study demonstrates that strongly host-preferring, though not directly specific, ECM fungi may dominate the below-ground community. Apart from the richness of Descolea, Tulasnella and Helotiales and the lack of Suillus-Rhizopogon and Amphinema-Tylospora, the ECM fungal diversity and phylogenetic community structure is similar to that in the Holarctic realm. PMID:18631297

  16. Antimicrobial metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Habbu, Prasanna; Warad, Vijayanand; Shastri, Rajesh; Madagundi, Smita; Kulkarni, Venkatrao H

    2016-02-01

    Marine ecological niches have recently been described as "particularly promising" sources for search of new antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. Marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products, but they are partly explored. Over 30 000 compounds have been isolated from marine sources. Bacteria, fungi, and cyanobacteria obtained from various marine sources secret several industrially useful bioactive compounds, possessing antibacterial, antifungal, and antimycobacterial activities. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising marine organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, along with the establishment of biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The semisynthetic modifications of marine-based bioactive compounds produce their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as novel lead compounds against resistant pathogens. The present review focuses on promising antimicrobial compounds isolated from marine microbes from 1991-2013. PMID:26968676

  17. Habitat preference and the marine-speciation paradox.

    PubMed Central

    Bierne, Nicolas; Bonhomme, François; David, Patrice

    2003-01-01

    Marine organisms challenge the classical theories of local adaptation and speciation because their planktonic larvae have the potential to maintain high gene flow. The marine-speciation paradox is illustrated by contact zones between incipient species that are so large that allopatric divergence seems unlikely. For this reason any mechanism preventing sympatric larvae of two incipient species from coexisting in the same habitats can be a powerful promoter of speciation. The contact zone between two hybridizing taxa of mussel, Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis, in Europe provides an excellent example. Although the zone itself extends over thousands of kilometres, the opportunities for interbreeding are considerably reduced by the small-scale mosaic structure of the zone, where local patches of each taxon alternate at scales of kilometres or less, in response to locally variable ecological factors. Habitat choice by settling larvae would be a less costly mechanism than post-settlement selection to maintain such a mosaic structure. Unfortunately the role of selective settlement has remained hypothetical because larvae could not be scored by classical genetic markers. PCR markers allowed us to study larvae and settlement in ecologically contrasting sites within the zone. We show that only a subset of the genotypes present in the plankton settle in some sites, and that the adults on these sites show the same genetic bias. Genetically based variation in pre-settlement processes therefore accounts for the ecological segregation observed, though it is not the only factor involved in limiting successful interbreeding. The present dataset also supports previous reports of partial spawning asynchrony. PMID:12965032

  18. Effective gene collection from the metatranscriptome of marine microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metagenomic studies, accelerated by the evolution of sequencing technologies and the rapid development of genomic analysis methods, can reveal genetic diversity and biodiversity in various samples including those of uncultured or unknown species. This approach, however, cannot be used to identify active functional genes under actual environmental conditions. Metatranscriptomics, which is similar in approach to metagenomics except that it utilizes RNA samples, is a powerful tool for the transcriptomic study of environmental samples. Unlike metagenomic studies, metatranscriptomic studies have not been popular to date due to problems with reliability, repeatability, redundancy and cost performance. Here, we propose a normalized metatranscriptomic method that is suitable for the collection of genes from samples as a platform for comparative transcriptomics. Results We constructed two libraries, one non-normalized and the other normalized library, from samples of marine microorganisms taken during daylight hours from Hiroshima bay in Japan. We sequenced 0.6M reads for each sample on a Roche GS FLX, and obtained 0.2M genes after quality control and assembly. A comparison of the two libraries showed that the number of unique genes was larger in the normalized library than in the non-normalized library. Functional analysis of genes revealed that a small number of gene groups, ribosomal RNA genes and chloroplast genes, were dominant in both libraries. Taxonomic distribution analysis of the libraries suggests that Stramenopiles form a major taxon that includes diatoms. The normalization technique thus increases unique genes, functional categories of genes, and taxonomic richness. Conclusions Normalization of the marine metatranscriptome could be useful in increasing the number of genes collected, and in reducing redundancies among highly expressed genes. Gene collection through the normalization method was effective in providing a foundation for comparative

  19. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  20. Conus: First Comprehensive Conservation Red List Assessment of a Marine Gastropod Mollusc Genus

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Howard; O'Leary, Bethan C.; Hawkins, Julie P.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine molluscs represent an estimated 23% of all extant marine taxa, but research into their conservation status has so far failed to reflect this importance, with minimal inclusion on the authoritative Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We assessed the status of all 632 valid species of the tropical marine gastropod mollusc, Conus (cone snails), using Red List standards and procedures to lay the groundwork for future decadal monitoring, one of the first fully comprehensive global assessments of a marine taxon. Three-quarters (75.6%) of species were not currently considered at risk of extinction owing to their wide distribution and perceived abundance. However, 6.5% were considered threatened with extinction with a further 4.1% near threatened. Data deficiency prevented 13.8% of species from being categorised although they also possess characteristics that signal concern. Where hotspots of endemism occur, most notably in the Eastern Atlantic, 42.9% of the 98 species from that biogeographical region were classified as threatened or near threatened with extinction. All 14 species included in the highest categories of Critically Endangered and Endangered are endemic to either Cape Verde or Senegal, with each of the three Critically Endangered species restricted to single islands in Cape Verde. Threats to all these species are driven by habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, in particular from urban pollution, tourism and coastal development. Our findings show that levels of extinction risk to which cone snails are exposed are of a similar magnitude to those seen in many fully assessed terrestrial taxa. The widely held view that marine species are less at risk is not upheld. PMID:24376693

  1. Conus: first comprehensive conservation red list assessment of a marine gastropod mollusc genus.

    PubMed

    Peters, Howard; O'Leary, Bethan C; Hawkins, Julie P; Carpenter, Kent E; Roberts, Callum M

    2013-01-01

    Marine molluscs represent an estimated 23% of all extant marine taxa, but research into their conservation status has so far failed to reflect this importance, with minimal inclusion on the authoritative Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We assessed the status of all 632 valid species of the tropical marine gastropod mollusc, Conus (cone snails), using Red List standards and procedures to lay the groundwork for future decadal monitoring, one of the first fully comprehensive global assessments of a marine taxon. Three-quarters (75.6%) of species were not currently considered at risk of extinction owing to their wide distribution and perceived abundance. However, 6.5% were considered threatened with extinction with a further 4.1% near threatened. Data deficiency prevented 13.8% of species from being categorised although they also possess characteristics that signal concern. Where hotspots of endemism occur, most notably in the Eastern Atlantic, 42.9% of the 98 species from that biogeographical region were classified as threatened or near threatened with extinction. All 14 species included in the highest categories of Critically Endangered and Endangered are endemic to either Cape Verde or Senegal, with each of the three Critically Endangered species restricted to single islands in Cape Verde. Threats to all these species are driven by habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, in particular from urban pollution, tourism and coastal development. Our findings show that levels of extinction risk to which cone snails are exposed are of a similar magnitude to those seen in many fully assessed terrestrial taxa. The widely held view that marine species are less at risk is not upheld. PMID:24376693

  2. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  3. Understanding marine mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Heather G; Roberto, Francisco F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  4. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  5. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  6. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  7. Marine Cloud Brightening

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  8. Marine Oil Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Terry C; Prince, Roger C; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2016-03-01

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments, and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to "bloom" in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments. PMID:26698270

  9. Marine botany. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  10. Status of marine biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, O

    1976-01-01

    A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

  11. Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted. PMID:24798925

  12. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7–64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  13. Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    PubMed

    Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

    2004-01-01

    A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and β-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens. PMID:21148861

  14. Genome-Wide Computational Analysis of Musa Microsatellites: Classification, Cross-Taxon Transferability, Functional Annotation, Association with Transposons & miRNAs, and Genetic Marker Potential.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Chunyu; Sheng, Ou; Mayer, Christoph; Yi, Ganjun

    2015-01-01

    The development of organized, informative, robust, user-friendly, and freely accessible molecular markers is imperative to the Musa marker assisted breeding program. Although several hundred SSR markers have already been developed, the number of informative, robust, and freely accessible Musa markers remains inadequate for some breeding applications. In view of this issue, we surveyed SSRs in four different data sets, developed large-scale non-redundant highly informative therapeutic SSR markers, and classified them according to their attributes, as well as analyzed their cross-taxon transferability and utility for the genetic study of Musa and its relatives. A high SSR frequency (177 per Mbp) was found in the Musa genome. AT-rich dinucleotide repeats are predominant, and trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant in transcribed regions. A significant number of Musa SSRs are associated with pre-miRNAs, and 83% of these SSRs are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic SSR markers. Overall, 74% of the SSR markers were polymorphic, and 94% were transferable to at least one Musa spp. Two hundred forty-three markers generated a total of 1047 alleles, with 2-8 alleles each and an average of 4.38 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.31 to 0.89 and averaged 0.71. We report the largest set of non-redundant, polymorphic, new SSR markers to be developed in Musa. These additional markers could be a valuable resource for marker-assisted breeding, genetic diversity and genomic studies of Musa and related species. PMID:26121637

  15. Development, optimization, and single laboratory validation of an event-specific real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of Golden Rice 2 using a novel taxon-specific assay.

    PubMed

    Jacchia, Sara; Nardini, Elena; Savini, Christian; Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan; Kreysa, Joachim; Mazzara, Marco

    2015-02-18

    In this study, we developed, optimized, and in-house validated a real-time PCR method for the event-specific detection and quantification of Golden Rice 2, a genetically modified rice with provitamin A in the grain. We optimized and evaluated the performance of the taxon (targeting rice Phospholipase D α2 gene)- and event (targeting the 3' insert-to-plant DNA junction)-specific assays that compose the method as independent modules, using haploid genome equivalents as unit of measurement. We verified the specificity of the two real-time PCR assays and determined their dynamic range, limit of quantification, limit of detection, and robustness. We also confirmed that the taxon-specific DNA sequence is present in single copy in the rice genome and verified its stability of amplification across 132 rice varieties. A relative quantification experiment evidenced the correct performance of the two assays when used in combination. PMID:25588469

  16. Sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1985-01-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction occurs in all marine sediments that contain organic matter. Aqueous sulfide (HS-, H2S), one of the initial products of bacterial sulfide reduction, is extremely reactive with iron bearing minerals: sulfur is fixed into sediments as iron sulfide (first FeS and then Fe2S2). A working definition is given of sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments. Controls and consequences of sulfate reduction rates in marine sediments are examined.

  17. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    With 63,000 chemicals in common use, the task of identifying specific pollutants and their effects in relation to marine life is immense. The interdisciplinary approach to this complex issue includes studies in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, vertebrate and invertebrate pathology, electron microscopy, immunology, and behavioral biology. Primary concerns are whether pollutants are available to organisms and whether they are transferred through marine food webs. Studies on marine and estuarine pollution in the New York Bight and Puget Sound, Washington, are summarized. Among other results it is interactive effects between two pollutants in marine organism that account for substantial alterations in certain biochemical systems and in cellular morphology. (JGB)

  18. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  19. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  20. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  1. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  2. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  3. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  4. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  5. Submerged marine streamer location

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, F. A.

    1985-11-26

    Method and means are provided for determining the position of a submerged marine streamer towed behind an exploration vessel. An array of at least three transponders secured to the ocean floor generate distinguishable acoustic pulses upon a command signal from the ship. These signals are received by hydrophones housed in the streamer and by the ship. The distance to each hydrophone may be triangulated from the data generated including accounting for changes in velocity between the vessel and the seismic streamer and the bottom transponders during the taking of such data.

  6. Mariner 10 mercury encounter.

    PubMed

    Dunne, J A

    1974-07-12

    Mariner 10's closet approach to Mercury on 29 March 1974 occurred on the dark side of the planet at a range of approximately 700 kilometers. The spacecraft trajectory passed through the shadows of both the sun and Earth. Experiments conducted included magnetic fields, plasma and charged particle studies of the solar wind interaction region, television photography, extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of the atmosphere, the detection of infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and a dual-frequency radio occultation in search of an ionosphere. PMID:17810505

  7. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  8. Effects of early recruits on temperate sessile marine community composition depend on other species recruiting at the time.

    PubMed

    Sams, Michael A; Keough, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In many environments recruitment of dispersive propagules (e.g. seeds, spores and larvae) can vary from situations when particular taxa recruit in relative isolation to times when they recruit simultaneously with other, functionally quite different taxa. Differences in the identity and density of recruiting taxa can have important consequences on community structure, but it is still not clear how the effects of individual taxa on communities are modified when they recruit together with other species. Using an experimental approach we compared early development of a temperate marine sessile community after the recruitment of mixtures of botryllid ascidians and barnacles to that when barnacles or botryllid ascidians recruited alone. Communities exposed to recruitment of botryllid ascidians in isolation differed from those that received barnacles, a mixture of botryllids and barnacles or no recruitment in 2-week-old communities. These early differences were driven by higher abundances of the species that were present as initial recruits in experimental treatments. After 2 months communities also differed between barnacle and mixed recruitment treatments but not mixed and botryllid or botryllid and barnacle treatments. These differences were not directly due to differences in the abundances of our manipulated taxa but occurred because of two abundant arborescent bryozoans, Bugula dentata, which occupied more space in communities that initially received mixed recruitment than in those that received barnacle or no recruitment, and Zoobotryon verticillatum, which occupied more space in communities that initially received only barnacle recruitment than those that initially received botryllid or mixed recruitment. These effects did not persist, and communities did not differ after 6 months. These results suggest that, more generally, species may influence community dynamics differently when they recruit alongside other species than when they recruit in relative isolation

  9. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway...

  10. Marine Propulsion Technology Program Meets the Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Howard G.

    1974-01-01

    The marine technology program cluster at Florida Keys Community College is described. Technicians are trained to maintain and repair engines and selected marine accessories through a marine propulsion technology curriculum (certificate program and associate in science degree). (EA)

  11. 78 FR 3402 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC443 Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... of a forthcoming meeting of the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC). The members will...

  12. 77 FR 46733 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC145 Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... of a forthcoming meeting of the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC). The members will...

  13. 75 FR 44770 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX87 Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... of a forthcoming meeting of the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC). The members will...

  14. 76 FR 14379 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA265 Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... of a forthcoming meeting of the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC). The members will...

  15. FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-12

    FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Marine Stratocumulus was conducted off the southwestern coast of California. ... FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  16. A novel marine silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Dicko, Cedric; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a novel silk production system in a marine amphipod provides insights into the wider potential of natural silks. The tube-building corophioid amphipod Crassicorophium bonellii produces from its legs fibrous, adhesive underwater threads that combine barnacle cement biology with aspects of spider silk thread extrusion spinning. We characterised the filamentous silk as a mixture of mucopolysaccharides and protein deriving from glands representing two distinct types. The carbohydrate and protein silk secretion is dominated by complex β-sheet structures and a high content of charged amino acid residues. The filamentous secretion product exits the gland through a pore near the tip of the secretory leg after having moved through a duct, which subdivides into several small ductules all terminating in a spindle-shaped chamber. This chamber communicates with the exterior and may be considered the silk reservoir and processing/mixing space, in which the silk is mechanically and potentially chemically altered and becomes fibrous. We assert that further study of this probably independently evolved, marine arthropod silk processing and secretion system can provide not only important insights into the more complex arachnid and insect silks but also into crustacean adhesion cements.

  17. A novel marine silk.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Dicko, Cedric; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a novel silk production system in a marine amphipod provides insights into the wider potential of natural silks. The tube-building corophioid amphipod Crassicorophium bonellii produces from its legs fibrous, adhesive underwater threads that combine barnacle cement biology with aspects of spider silk thread extrusion spinning. We characterised the filamentous silk as a mixture of mucopolysaccharides and protein deriving from glands representing two distinct types. The carbohydrate and protein silk secretion is dominated by complex β-sheet structures and a high content of charged amino acid residues. The filamentous secretion product exits the gland through a pore near the tip of the secretory leg after having moved through a duct, which subdivides into several small ductules all terminating in a spindle-shaped chamber. This chamber communicates with the exterior and may be considered the silk reservoir and processing/mixing space, in which the silk is mechanically and potentially chemically altered and becomes fibrous. We assert that further study of this probably independently evolved, marine arthropod silk processing and secretion system can provide not only important insights into the more complex arachnid and insect silks but also into crustacean adhesion cements. PMID:22057952

  18. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  19. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens. PMID:12180100

  20. The Marine Corps University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkey, Carol E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Marine Corps University (Virginia) Library's collections and reserves. States that the library's resources focus on military doctrine, history, arts, and sciences, and that they include Web- and CD-ROM-based specialized military databases. Describes the library's mission to serve the university community and Marine Corps patrons…

  1. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  2. Job Prospects for Marine Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Marine engineering is one of the smaller disciplines that have grown during recent decades. Job prospects in this field, salaries, types of employers (particularly Navy shipbuilding and infrastructure work), and marine/ocean engineers involvement with environmental issues are discussed. (JN)

  3. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  4. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  5. Drug Discovery from Marine Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Fenner, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marine invertebrates are oftentimes populated with enormous quantities of ‘associated’ or symbiotic microorganisms, and that microorganisms are the true metabolic sources of these most valuable of marine natural products. Also, because of the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this field, a high degree of innovation is characteristic of marine natural product drug discovery efforts. PMID:23274881

  6. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  7. Comparison of marine macrophytes for their contributions to blue carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Trevathan-Tackett, Stacey M; Kelleway, Jeffrey; Macreadie, Peter I; Beardall, John; Ralph, Peter; Bellgrove, Alecia

    2015-11-01

    Many marine ecosystems have the capacity for long-term storage of organic carbon (C) in what are termed "blue carbon" systems. While blue carbon systems (saltmarsh, mangrove, and seagrass) are efficient at long-term sequestration of organic carbon (C), much of their sequestered C may originate from other (allochthonous) habitats. Macroalgae, due to their high rates of production, fragmentation, and ability to be transported, would also appear to be able to make a significant contribution as C donors to blue C habitats. In order to assess the stability of macroalgal tissues and their likely contribution to long-term pools of C, we applied thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to 14 taxa of marine macroalgae and coastal vascular plants. We assessed the structural complexity of multiple lineages of plant and tissue types with differing cell wall structures and found that decomposition dynamics varied significantly according to differences in cell wall structure and composition among taxonomic groups and tissue function (photosynthetic vs. attachment). Vascular plant tissues generally exhibited greater stability with a greater proportion of mass loss at temperatures > 300 degrees C (peak mass loss -320 degrees C) than macroalgae (peak mass loss between 175-300 degrees C), consistent with the lignocellulose matrix of vascular plants. Greater variation in thermogravimetric signatures within and among macroalgal taxa, relative to vascular plants, was also consistent with the diversity of cell wall structure and composition among groups. Significant degradation above 600 degrees C for some macroalgae, as well as some belowground seagrass tissues, is likely due to the presence of taxon-specific compounds. The results of this study highlight the importance of the lignocellulose matrix to the stability of vascular plant sources and the potentially significant role of refractory, taxon-specific compounds (carbonates, long-chain lipids, alginates, xylans, and sulfated

  8. Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Meghan A.; Benfield, Mark C.; Branch, Trevor A.; Chen, Catherine; Cosgrove, James; Dove, Alistair D.M.; Gaskins, Lindsay C.; Helm, Rebecca R.; Hochberg, Frederick G.; Lee, Frank B.; Marshall, Andrea; McMurray, Steven E.; Schanche, Caroline; Stone, Shane N.; Thaler, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    What are the greatest sizes that the largest marine megafauna obtain? This is a simple question with a difficult and complex answer. Many of the largest-sized species occur in the world’s oceans. For many of these, rarity, remoteness, and quite simply the logistics of measuring these giants has made obtaining accurate size measurements difficult. Inaccurate reports of maximum sizes run rampant through the scientific literature and popular media. Moreover, how intraspecific variation in the body sizes of these animals relates to sex, population structure, the environment, and interactions with humans remains underappreciated. Here, we review and analyze body size for 25 ocean giants ranging across the animal kingdom. For each taxon we document body size for the largest known marine species of several clades. We also analyze intraspecific variation and identify the largest known individuals for each species. Where data allows, we analyze spatial and temporal intraspecific size variation. We also provide allometric scaling equations between different size measurements as resources to other researchers. In some cases, the lack of data prevents us from fully examining these topics and instead we specifically highlight these deficiencies and the barriers that exist for data collection. Overall, we found considerable variability in intraspecific size distributions from strongly left- to strongly right-skewed. We provide several allometric equations that allow for estimation of total lengths and weights from more easily obtained measurements. In several cases, we also quantify considerable geographic variation and decreases in size likely attributed to humans. PMID:25649000

  9. Caldora penicillata gen. nov., comb. nov. (Cyanobacteria), a pantropical marine species with biomedical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Engene, Niclas; Tronholm, Ana; Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A.; Luesch, Hendrik; Paul, Valerie J.

    2015-01-01

    Many tropical marine cyanobacteria are prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites with ecological relevance and promising pharmaceutical applications. One species of chemically rich, tropical marine cyanobacteria that was previously identified as Symploca hydnoides or Symploca sp. corresponds to the traditional taxonomic definition of Phormidium penicillatum. In this study, we clarified the taxonomy of this biomedically and ecologically important cyanobacterium by comparing recently collected specimens with the original type material and the taxonomic description of P. penicillatum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S ITS regions showed that P. penicillatum formed an independent clade sister to the genus Symploca, and distantly related to Phormidium and Lyngbya. We propose the new genus Caldora for this clade, with Caldora penicillata comb. nov. as the type species and designate as the epitype the recently collected strain FK13-1. Furthermore, the production of bioactive secondary metabolites among various geographically dispersed collections of C. penicillata showed that this species consistently produced the metabolite dolastatin 10 and/or the related compound symplostatin 1, which appear to be robust autapomorphic characters and chemotaxonomic markers for this taxon. PMID:26327714

  10. The novel marine gliding zooflagellate genus Mantamonas (Mantamonadida ord. n.: Apusozoa).

    PubMed

    Glücksman, Edvard; Snell, Elizabeth A; Berney, Cédric; Chao, Ema E; Bass, David; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Mantamonasis a novel genus of marine gliding zooflagellates probably related to apusomonad and planomonad Apusozoa. Using phase and differential interference contrast microscopy we describe the type species Mantamonas plasticasp. n. from coastal sediment in Cumbria, England. Cells are ∼5μm long, ∼5μm wide, asymmetric, flattened, biciliate, and somewhat plastic. The posterior cilium, on which they glide smoothly over the substratum, is long and highly acronematic. The much thinner, shorter, and almost immobile anterior cilium points forward to the cell's left. These morphological and behavioural traits suggest thatMantamonasis a member of the protozoan phylum Apusozoa. Analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences of Mantamonas plasticaand a second genetically very different marine species from coastal sediment in Tanzania show Mantamonasas a robustly monophyletic clade, that is very divergent from all other eukaryotes. 18S rRNA trees mostly placeMantamonaswithin unikonts (opisthokonts, Apusozoa, and Amoebozoa) but its precise position varies with phylogenetic algorithm and/or taxon and nucleotide position sampling; it may group equally weakly as sister to Planomonadida, Apusomonadida or Breviata. On 28S rRNA and joint 18/28S rRNA phylogenies (including 11 other newly obtained apusozoan/amoebozoan 28S rRNA sequences) it consistently strongly groups with Apusomonadida (Apusozoa). PMID:20884290

  11. Caldora penicillata gen. nov., comb. nov. (cyanobacteria), a pantropical marine species with biomedical relevance.

    PubMed

    Engene, Niclas; Tronholm, Ana; Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A; Luesch, Hendrik; Paul, Valerie J

    2015-08-01

    Many tropical marine cyanobacteria are prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites with ecological relevance and promising pharmaceutical applications. One species of chemically rich, tropical marine cyanobacteria that was previously identified as Symploca hydnoides or Symploca sp. corresponds to the traditional taxonomic definition of Phormidium penicillatum. In this study, we clarified the taxonomy of this biomedically and ecologically important cyanobacterium by comparing recently collected specimens with the original type material and the taxonomic description of P. penicillatum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions showed that P. penicillatum formed an independent clade sister to the genus Symploca, and distantly related to Phormidium and Lyngbya. We propose the new genus Caldora for this clade, with Caldora penicillata comb. nov. as the type species and designate as the epitype the recently collected strain FK13-1. Furthermore, the production of bioactive secondary metabolites among various geographically dispersed collections of C. penicillata showed that this species consistently produced the metabolite dolastatin 10 and/or the related compound symplostatin 1, which appear to be robust autapomorphic characters and chemotaxonomic markers for this taxon. PMID:26327714

  12. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  13. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  14. A Spinoff from Mariner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Among the technologies incorporated into the later Mariner missions was a dry film lubricant which offered exceptional lubrication quality for reduced friction and extended wear-life of mating parts in harsh interplanetary environments. Micro Surface Corporation acquired this technology, and currently market it as WS2 modified tungsten disulfide coating. A pressurized refrigerated air application process impinges a dry metallic WS2 coating without heat, curing, binders or adhesives. The coating binds instantly to metal or resin substrates with a 20 millionths of an inch thickness. Performance has been excellent in a variety of industries, particularly in plastics where in some operations, the coating increases production by reducing drag between tool steel and resin. Other advantages include product quality improvement, extension of equipment service life and maintenance elimination or reduction.

  15. Marine optical characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dennis K.; Ge, Yuntao; Hovey, Phil; King, ED; Stengel, Eric; Yuen, Marilyn; Koval, Larisa

    1995-01-01

    During the past three months, the MOCE Team conducted two field experiments in Mill Creek,Chesapeake Bay, from July 24 to August 4, and at the MOBY operations site at Snug Harbor, Honolulu, Hawaii, from August 15-30, prepared two technical memoranda, and continued MOCE-2 and MOCE-3 data reduction. The primary purposes of the experiments were to test the SeaWiFS 'remote sensing reflectance' protocol, obtain turbid water data for ocean color satellite algorithm development, perform calibration for both Near Infrared (NIR) and Visible Rainbow Spectrometer system, continue assembling the operational Marine Optical Buoy, and to test the MOBY cellular phone communications link at the Lanai mooring site.

  16. Why marine phytoplankton calcify.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fanny M; Bach, Lennart T; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E M; Poulton, Alex J; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-07-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton-coccolithophores- are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know "why" coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming. PMID:27453937

  17. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  18. Climate change and marine life

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F.; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J.; O'Connor, Mary I.; Pandolfi, John M.; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S.; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

  19. UNIVERSITY CURRICULA IN THE MARINE SCIENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FROSCH, ROBERT A.

    REPORTED IS A COMPILATION OF MARINE SCIENCE COURSES OFFERED AT AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. THE INFORMATION IS PROVIDED TO ASSIST STUDENTS PLANNING A CAREER IN MARINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. THREE CURRICULUM AREAS ARE INCLUDED--(1) MARINE SCIENCES, (2) OCEAN ENGINEERING, AND (3) MARINE TECHNOLOGY. LISTED FOR EACH COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY ARE…

  20. [Some notes on relation between taxon and character in taxonomy (regarding the paper of A.A. Stekol'nikov "A problem of truth...", Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii. 2003.V.64. No 4. P.367-368)].

    PubMed

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2004-01-01

    Under brief consideration is the problem of primary or secondary status of the judgments about taxa relative to the judgments about characters in the biological classifications. The following formal definition of taxonomic system (classification) TS is provided: TS = BT[T, C(t), R(t), R(c), R(tc)], where BT is a biological theory constituting content-wise background of the system, T is a set of taxa, C(t) is a set of taxonomic characters, R(t) is a set of relationships among taxa (similarity, kinship, etc.), R(c) is a set of relationships among characters (homology, etc.), and R(tc) is a set of correspondences among taxa and characters. The latter correspondences may be complete or incomplete. At ontological level, there two basical traditions exist in biological systematics regarding R(tc) according to which the biological diversity is patterned either as a set of groups of organisms (taxa) or as a set of their properties (characters). In the first case, taxon is "primary" relative to character (in cladistics); in its opposite, character is "primary" relative to taxon (in scholasticism, classical typology, classical phylogenetics). At epistemological level, incompleteness of the taxon-character correspondence makes classificatory procedure iterative and taxonomic diagnoses context-dependent. The interative nature of classificatory procedure makes the "primary" or "secondary" status of both taxa and characters relative and alternating. This makes it necessary to introduces a kind of uncertainty relation in biological systematics which means impossibility of simultaneous definition of both extensional and intentional parameters of the taxonomic system at each step of classificatory iterations. PMID:15125212

  1. Disease in marine aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  2. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  3. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  4. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  5. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  6. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  7. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  8. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  9. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  10. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  11. 33 CFR 72.01-25 - Marine broadcast notice to mariners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine broadcast notice to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-25 Marine broadcast notice to... mines. Radio stations broadcasting marine information are listed in “Radio Navigational Aids”...

  12. 77 FR 25829 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic... Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... only, incidental to a proposed 3- dimensional (3D) ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic survey in...

  13. The role of containerships as transfer mechanisms of marine biofouling species.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ian C; Brown, Christopher W; Sytsma, Mark D; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2009-10-01

    Fouling of ships is an important historical and enduring transfer mechanism of marine nonindigenous species (NIS). Although containerships have risen to the forefront of global maritime shipping since the 1950s, few studies have directly sampled fouling communities on their submerged surfaces, and little is known about differences in the fouling characteristics among commercial ship types. Twenty-two in-service containerships at the Port of Oakland (San Francisco Bay, California) were sampled to test the hypothesis that the extent and taxonomic richness of fouling would be low on this type of ship, resulting from relatively fast speeds and short port durations. The data showed that the extent of macroorganisms (invertebrates and algae) was indeed low, especially across the large surface areas of the hull. Less than 1% of the exposed hull was colonized for all apart from one vessel. These ships had submerged surface areas of >7000 m(2), and fouling coverage on this area was estimated to be <17 m(2) per vessel, with zero biota detected on the hulls of many vessels. The outlying smaller vessel (4465 m(2)) had an estimated coverage of 90% on the hull and also differed substantially from the other ships in terms of its recent voyage history, shorter voyage range and slower speeds. Despite the low extent of fouling, taxonomic richness was high among vessels. Consistent with recent studies, a wide range of organisms were concentrated at more protected and heterogeneous (non-hull) niche areas, including rudders, stern tubes and intake gratings. Green algae and barnacles were most frequently sampled among vessels, but hydroids, bryozoans, bivalves and ascidians were also recorded. One vessel had 20 different species in its fouling assemblage, including non-native species (already established in San Francisco Bay) and mobile species that were not detected in visual surveys. In contrast to other studies, dry dock block areas did not support many organisms, despite little

  14. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  15. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbart, Mya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  16. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-07-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  17. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  18. Extending the Marine Microcosm Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryswyk, Hal Van; Hall, Eric W.; Petesch, Steven J.; Wiedeman, Alice E.

    2007-01-01

    The traditional range of marine microcosm laboratory experiments is presented as an ideal environment to teach the entire analysis process. The microcosm lab provides student-centered approach with opportunities for collaborative learning and to develop critical communication skills.

  19. Marine animal stings or bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2,000 species of animals found in the ocean that are either venomous or poisonous to humans. ... often not aggressive. Many are anchored to the ocean floor. Venomous marine animals in the United States ...

  20. Marine animal stings or bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Almost 2000 species of animals found in the ocean are either venomous or poisonous to humans, and ... usually aggressive, and many are stuck to the ocean floor. Most venomous or poisonous marine animals in ...

  1. Marine Technology: Diversity and Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Dale R.

    1973-01-01

    Training for a specific field must reflect the diversity of that field and also remain flexible enough to accommodate fluctuations in the job market and the field, as marine technology illustrates. (Editor)

  2. Wave energy propelling marine ship

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabayashi, S.

    1982-06-29

    A wave energy propelling marine ship comprises a cylindrical ship body having a hollow space therein for transporting fluid material therewithin, a ship body disposed in or on the sea; a propeller attached to the ship body for the purpose of propelling the marine ship for sailing; a rudder for controlling the moving direction of the marine ship; at least one rotary device which includes a plurality of compartments which are each partitioned into a plurality of water chambers by a plurality of radial plates, and a plurality of water charge and/or discharge ports, wherein wave energy is converted into mechanical energy; and device for adjusting buoyancy of the marine ship so that the rotary device is positioned advantageously on the sea surface.

  3. Mariner Mars 1971: Press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittauer, R. T.

    1971-01-01

    The news release describes the 1971 launches of Mariner 8 and 9 which were to be the first attempt by NASA to orbit another planet, Mars. Described are: (1) mission capsule; (2) planetary missions; (3) aiming zones; (4) the spacecraft; (5) scientific experiments to be performed; (6) Atlas Centaur launch vehicle; (7) launch operations; (8) tracking and data system and mission operations; and (9) Mariner Mars 71 team and subcontractors.

  4. Measurements of Marine Vessel Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from large marine vessels are a significant source of these species to the atmosphere. One estimate indicates that oxidized nitrogen from this source is at least 14% of all combustion emissions globally (1). More importantly, since approximately 70% of all ship emissions occur within 400 km of land (1) marine vessel emissions are of significance regionally in coastal areas and locally in ports. Marine vessel emissions are calculated from marine fuel usage and various emission factors, where sulfur emission factors depend on the sulfur content of fuel and nitrogen emission factors depend on the vessel engine type: slow-speed diesel, medium-speed diesel, and other (generally steam-turbine). Currently, the best available emission factors come from a Lloyd's Register of Shipping sponsored emissions research program. Measurements were made of emissions from engines during bench tests and from in-service marine vessels directly at the stack. While these results are the best available data, the significance of marine vessel emissions suggests that additional evaluation of emission factors be conducted. During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS 2002) the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown was equipped with trace gas and aerosol monitoring instrumentation for the purpose of investigating the factors that affect air quality in coastal New England. As a part of that study, measurements were made of gaseous and particulate emissions from marine vessels, both in port and underway. This talk will present those results and relate them to current inventory estimates of marine vessel emissions. (1) Corbett, J.J., et al., Global nitrogen and sulfur inventories for oceangoing ships, J. Geophy. Res., 104, 3457-3470, 1999.

  5. Marine spatial planning in practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collie, Jeremy S.; (Vic) Adamowicz, W. L.; Beck, Michael W.; Craig, Bethany; Essington, Timothy E.; Fluharty, David; Rice, Jake; Sanchirico, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple competing uses of continental-shelf environments have led to a proliferation of marine spatial planning initiatives, together with expert guidance on marine spatial planning. This study provides an empirical review of marine spatial plans, their attributes, and the extent to which the expert guidance is actually being followed. We performed a structured review of 16 existing marine spatial plans and created an idealized marine spatial plan from the steps included in recent expert papers. A cluster analysis of the yes/no answers to 28 questions was used to ordinate the 16 marine spatial plans and to compare them with the idealized plan. All the plans that have been implemented have a high-level government mandate and the authority to implement spatial planning vested in existing institutions. Almost all the plans used data with clear criteria for data inclusion. Stakeholders were included in almost all the plans; they did not participate in all stages of the planning process but their roles were generally clearly defined. Decision-support tools were applied inconsistently across plans and were seldom used dynamically over time. Most spatial planning processes did not select specific outcomes, such as preferred use scenarios. Success is defined inconsistently across plans; in half the cases there are no metrics of success with reference benchmarks. Although monitoring is included in the majority of plans, only in some cases do monitoring results feed back into management decisions. The process of marine spatial planning had advanced in that some of the more recent plans were developed more quickly and contain more desirable attributes than earlier plans. Even so, existing marine spatial plans are heterogeneous—there are essential ingredients, but no single recipe for success.

  6. Is marine biodiversity at risk

    SciTech Connect

    Culotta, E.

    1994-02-18

    Evidence is beginning to accumulate that human development of coastlines and overfishing may be having deleterious effects on marine biodiversity. Although some biologists doubt marine extinctions, the possibility is being taken seriously by scientific organizations, who have been sponsoring conferences and workshops on the changing diversity of the oceans. Four federal agencies (NSF, NOAA, the Office of Naval Research, and DOE) have banded together to sponsor a National Research Council initiative to chart a research agenda.

  7. Cobalt and marine redox evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Robbins, Leslie J.; Bekker, Andrey; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Saito, Mak A.; Kappler, Andreas; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2014-03-01

    Cobalt (Co) is a bio-essential trace element and limiting nutrient in some regions of the modern oceans. It has been proposed that Co was more abundant in poorly ventilated Precambrian oceans based on the greater utilization of Co by anaerobic microbes relative to plants and animals. However, there are few empirical or theoretical constraints on the history of seawater Co concentrations. Herein, we present a survey of authigenic Co in marine sediments (iron formations, authigenic pyrite and bulk euxinic shales) with the goal of tracking changes in the marine Co reservoir throughout Earth's history. We further provide an overview of the modern marine Co cycle, which we use as a platform to evaluate how changes in the redox state of Earth's surface were likely to have affected marine Co concentrations. Based on sedimentary Co contents and our understanding of marine Co sources and sinks, we propose that from ca. 2.8 to 1.8 Ga the large volume of hydrothermal fluids circulating through abundant submarine ultramafic rocks along with a predominantly anoxic ocean with a low capacity for Co burial resulted in a large dissolved marine Co reservoir. We tentatively propose that there was a decrease in marine Co concentrations after ca. 1.8 Ga resulting from waning hydrothermal Co sources and the expansion of sulfide Co burial flux. Changes in the Co reservoir due to deep-water ventilation in the Neoproterozoic, if they occurred, are not resolvable with the current dataset. Rather, Co enrichments in Phanerozoic euxinic shales deposited during ocean anoxic events (OAE) indicate Co mobilization from expanded anoxic sediments and enhanced hydrothermal sources. A new record of marine Co concentrations provides a platform from which we can reevaluate the role that environmental Co concentrations played in shaping biological Co utilization throughout Earth's history.

  8. Utility of Marine Benthic Associations as a Multivariate Proxy of Paleobathymetry: A Direct Test from Recent Coastal Ecosystems of North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Carrie L.; Kowalewski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Benthic marine fossil associations have been used in paleontological studies as multivariate environmental proxies, with particular focus on their utility as water depth estimators. To test this approach directly, we evaluated modern marine invertebrate communities along an onshore-offshore gradient to determine the relationship between community composition and bathymetry, compare the performance of various ordination techniques, and assess whether restricting community datasets to preservable taxa (a proxy for paleontological data) and finer spatial scales diminishes the applicability of multivariate community data as an environmental proxy. Different indirect (unconstrained) ordination techniques (PCoA, CA, DCA, and NMDS) yielded consistent outcomes: locality Axis 1 scores correlated with actual locality depths, and taxon Axis 1 scores correlated with actual preferred taxon depths, indicating that changes in faunal associations primarily reflect bathymetry, or its environmental correlatives. For datasets restricted to taxa with preservable hard parts, heavily biomineralized mollusks, open ocean habitats, and a single onshore-offshore gradient, the significant correlation between water depth and Axis 1 was still observed. However, for these restricted datasets, the correlation between Axis 1 and bathymetry was reduced and, in most cases, notably weaker than estimates produced by subsampling models. Consistent with multiple paleontological studies, the direct tests carried out here for a modern habitat using known bathymetry suggests that multivariate proxies derived from marine benthic associations may serve as a viable proxy of water depth. The general applicability of multivariate paleocommunity data as an indirect proxy of bathymetry is dependent on habitat type, intrinsic ecological characteristics of dominant faunas, taxonomic scope, and spatial and temporal scales of analysis, highlighting the need for continued testing in present-day depositional settings

  9. In situ DNA hybridized chain reaction (FISH-HCR) as a better method for quantification of bacteria and archaea within marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buongiorno, J.; Lloyd, K. G.; Shumaker, A.; Schippers, A.; Webster, G.; Weightman, A.; Turner, S.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 75% of the Earth's surface is covered by marine sediment that is home to an estimated 2.9 x 1029 microbial cells. A substantial impediment to understanding the abundance and distribution of cells within marine sediment is the lack of a consistent and reliable method for their taxon-specific quantification. Catalyzed reporter fluorescent in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) provides taxon-specific enumeration, but this process requires passing a large enzyme through cell membranes, decreasing its precision relative to general cell counts using a small DNA stain. In 2015, Yamaguchi et al. developed FISH hybridization chain reaction (FISH-HCR) as an in situ whole cell detection method for environmental microorganisms. FISH-HCR amplifies the fluorescent signal, as does CARD-FISH, but it allows for milder cell permeation methods that might prevent yield loss. To compare FISH-HCR to CARD-FISH, we examined bacteria and archaea cell counts within two sediment cores, Lille Belt (~78 meters deep) and Landsort Deep (90 meters deep), which were retrieved from the Baltic Sea Basin during IODP Expedition 347. Preliminary analysis shows that CARD-FISH counts are below the quantification limit for most depths across both cores. By contrast, quantification of cells was possible with FISH-HCR in all examined depths. When quantification with CARD-FISH was above the limit of detection, counts with FISH-HCR were up to 11 fold higher for Bacteria and 3 fold higher for Archaea from the same sediment sample. Further, FISH-HCR counts follow the trends of on board counts nicely, indicating that FISH-HCR may better reflect the cellular abundance within marine sediment than other quantification methods, including qPCR. Using FISH-HCR, we found that archaeal cell counts were on average greater than bacterial cell counts, but within the same order of magnitude.

  10. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600–2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500–542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600–1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000–542 Mya). PMID:26621203

  11. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya). PMID:26621203

  12. Submerged marine streamer locator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, F.A.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for use in determining relative to known geographic locations on a sea floor the position of a moving submerged marine seismic streamer while being towed through the sea by an exploration vessel, which comprises: spaced apart acoustic receivers and at least one acoustic transducer-receiver carried by the streamer. The transducer-receiver is capable of emitting acoustic command signals when triggered by means controllable from the moving vessel and the receivers are capable of receiving and distinguishing distinctly different acoustic frequencies to transmit distinguishable signals responsive thereto along the streamer to recording means on the vessel; at least three sea floor transponders spatially displaced from each other at known positions relative to the sea floor and each of the transponders being capable of responding to a single acoustic command signal from the transducer-receiver in the moving streamer while being towed by the vessel. Each of the transponders emits signals of a distinctly different frequency; and means for recording the time interval from initiation of a command signal from the streamer transducer to the receipt of each signal relayed along the streamer from each of the receivers in response to the signals from the transponders. In this way, the distance of each of the streamer receivers from each of the known positions of the transponders may be calculated.

  13. Marine stratocumulus structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Snider, Jack B.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three Landsat TM scenes of California stratocumulus cloud fields were acquired as part of the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observations in July 1987. They exhibit a wide variety of stratocumulus structures. Analysis has so far focused upon the July 7 scene, in which aircraft from NASA, NCAR, and the British Meteorological Office repeatedly gathered data across a stratocumulus-fair weather cumulus transition. The aircraft soundings validate the cloud base temperature threshold determined by spatial coherence analysis of the TM thermal band. Brightness variations in the stratocumulus region exhibit a -5/3 power-law decrease of the wavenumber spectra for scales larger than the cloud thickness, about 200 m, changing to a -3 power at smaller scales. Observations by an upward-looking three-channel microwave radiometer on San Nicolas Island also show the -5/3 power-law in total integrated liquid water, suggesting that the largest-scale TM brightness variations are primarily due to variations in the liquid water. The Kolmogorov 5/3 power suggests that for some purposes liquid water in turbulent stratocumulus clouds may be treated as a passive scalar, simply reflecting variations in vertical velocity. This may be tested using the velocities measured by the aircraft.

  14. Marine Protistan Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, David A.; Countway, Peter D.; Jones, Adriane C.; Kim, Diane Y.; Schnetzer, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions.

  15. Marine sewage disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.W.

    1981-03-03

    An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

  16. Mobile marine operations structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalaik, A.; Braddick, P.W.; Brittin, D.S.; Johnson, G.L.

    1988-02-16

    The process of fabricating a marine operations structure having a central core and first and second ice walls circumferentially positioned about the central core for fracturing ice features, with the second ice wall above and contiguous with the first ice wall, wherein the first and second ice walls are constructed according to the process is described comprising the steps of: providing a sloping support base system comprising radial bulkheads and circumferentially-positioned web frame series integrally connecting ice wall plating to the bulkheads and web frames series; integrally affixing an exposed cross grid system of interlocking and reinforcing members to the exterior surfaces of the ice wall plating to form first and second ice wall preforms with the members projecting outward from the plating; installing a slip-form adjacent to the ice wall preforms and exteriorly of the plating; pouring cement/aggregate slurry onto the ice wall preforms between the plating and the slip-form to cover the cross grid of interlocking and reinforcing members; moving the slip-form upwards as the void spaces between the slip-form and the ice wall plating are filled with cement/aggregate slurry; and permitting the cement/aggregate slurry to harden to form an orthotropic composite steel/concrete ice wall with an exposed concrete surface.

  17. Mobile marine operations structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalaik, A.; Braddick, P.W.; Brittin, D.S.; Johnson, G.L.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes the process of installing a marine operations structure in a pre-determined sea floor location. The structure has a central core and a support base having at least two differently sloped ice wall surfaces for achieving fracturing of ice features, and having at least two series of circumferentially arranged ballast tanks. It consists of positioning the structure over a selected sea floor location by the use of at least three tug boats connected to the structure by tension cables arranged radially with respect to the structure; flooding a first series of lower ballast tanks in a sequential ballasting operation; flooding a second series of ballast tanks located at a higher elevation within the structure than the first series of ballast tanks; maintaining radial forces along the tension cables during the flooding steps; and after the structure has become founded on the bottom of the sea, pumping sea waver into fluid tanks some of which are located at an elevation above the water level.

  18. Antifouling marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as the their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6 1/2 years in seawater.

  19. Antifouling marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as to their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete for OTEC plants. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6-1/2 years in seawater.

  20. Why marine phytoplankton calcify

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Fanny M.; Bach, Lennart T.; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Poulton, Alex J.; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton—coccolithophores— are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know “why” coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming. PMID:27453937

  1. European Marine Infrastructures: perspectives for Marine and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Egerton, P.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Los, W.

    2009-04-01

    The European Commission (EC) is supporting a variety of Research Infrastructures in many different scientific fields: Social Sciences and Humanities, Environmental Sciences, Energy, Biological and Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Engineering and e-Infrastructures. All these infrastructures are included in the new report of the "European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures" published in late 2008 by ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/). In particular, some research infrastructures for the Environmental Sciences specifically addressed to the marine environment are presented: • EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory). The development of this underwater network is being supported by several other EC initiatives, ESONET-NoE (European Seas Network), coordinated by IFREMER (http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/). • ERICON AURORA BOREALIS (European Research Icebreaker Consortium, http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/). • EURO-ARGO (Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure, http://www.euro-argo.eu/). • LIFEWATCH (E-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity data and observatories, http://www.lifewatch.eu/). In particular through its scientific marine networks: EUR-OCEANS (European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis, http://www.eur-oceans.eu/); MARBEF-NoE (MARine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, http://www.marbef.org/ and Marine Genomics (http://www.marine-genomics-europe.org/). Possible profitable links with new research infrastructures recently included in the roadmap, such as EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and SIAEOS (Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System) are also pointed out. The marine EC infrastructures presented constitute the fundamental tools to support the Earth Sciences, both terrestrial and marine.

  2. Disentangling the impacts of heat wave magnitude, duration and timing on the structure and diversity of sessile marine assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Yunnie, Anna L.E.; Vance, Thomas; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Extreme climatic events, including heat waves (HWs) and severe storms, influence the structure of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Despite growing consensus that anthropogenic climate change will increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of extreme events, current understanding of their impact on communities and ecosystems is limited. Here, we used sessile invertebrates on settlement panels as model assemblages to examine the influence of HW magnitude, duration and timing on marine biodiversity patterns. Settlement panels were deployed in a marina in southwest UK for ≥5 weeks, to allow sufficient time for colonisation and development of sessile fauna, before being subjected to simulated HWs in a mesocosm facility. Replicate panel assemblages were held at ambient sea temperature (∼17 °C), or +3 °C or +5 °C for a period of 1 or 2 weeks, before being returned to the marina for a recovery phase of 2–3 weeks. The 10-week experiment was repeated 3 times, staggered throughout summer, to examine the influence of HW timing on community impacts. Contrary to our expectations, the warming events had no clear, consistent impacts on the abundance of species or the structure of sessile assemblages. With the exception of 1 high-magnitude long-duration HW event, warming did not alter not assemblage structure, favour non-native species, nor lead to changes in richness, abundance or biomass of sessile faunal assemblages. The observed lack of effect may have been caused by a combination of (1) the use of relatively low magnitude, realistic heat wave treatments compared to previous studies (2), the greater resilience of mature adult sessile fauna compared to recruits and juveniles, and (3) the high thermal tolerance of the model organisms (i.e., temperate fouling species, principally bryozoans and ascidians). Our study demonstrates the importance of using realistic treatments when manipulating climate change variables, and also suggests that biogeographical context may

  3. 75 FR 67948 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program (Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program (Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey) AGENCY: National Oceanic and... is a renewal of an existing information collection. Marine recreational anglers are surveyed...

  4. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters

    PubMed Central

    Westrich, Jason R.; Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.; Joyner, Jessica L.; Kemp, Keri M.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrio after natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust–Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health. PMID:27162369

  5. Towards a better understanding of magnesium-isotope ratios from marine skeletal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippler, Dorothee; Buhl, Dieter; Witbaard, Rob; Richter, Detlev K.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2009-10-01

    This study presents magnesium stable-isotope compositions of various biogenic carbonates of several marine calcifying organisms and an algae species, seawater samples collected from the western Dutch Wadden Sea, and reference materials. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of mineralogy, taxonomy and environmental factors (e.g., seawater isotopic composition, temperature, salinity) on magnesium-isotopic (δ 26Mg) ratios of skeletal carbonates. Using high-precision multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we observed that the magnesium-isotopic composition of seawater from the semi-enclosed Dutch Wadden Sea is identical to that of open marine seawater. We further found that a considerable component of the observed variability in δ 26Mg values of marine skeletal carbonates can be attributed to differences in mineralogy. Furthermore, magnesium-isotope fractionation is species-dependent, with all skeletal carbonates being isotopically lighter than seawater. While δ 26Mg values of skeletal aragonite and high-magnesium calcite of coralline red algae indicate the absence or negligibility of metabolic influences, the δ 26Mg values of echinoids, brachiopods and bivalves likely result from a taxon-specific level of control on Mg-isotope incorporation during biocalcification. Moreover, no resolvable salinity and temperature effect were observed for coralline red algae and echinoids. In contrast, Mg-isotope data of bivalves yield ambiguous results, which require further validation. The data presented here, point to a limited use of Mg isotopes as temperature proxy, but highlight the method's potential as tracer of seawater chemistry through Earth's history.

  6. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters.

    PubMed

    Westrich, Jason R; Ebling, Alina M; Landing, William M; Joyner, Jessica L; Kemp, Keri M; Griffin, Dale W; Lipp, Erin K

    2016-05-24

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrio after natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust-Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health. PMID:27162369

  7. Southern Ocean Asteroidea: a proposed update for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species

    PubMed Central

    Aguera, Antonio; Jossart, Quentin; Danis, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS, De Broyer et al. 2015) is the regional component of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS Editorial Board 2015) in the Southern Ocean. It has been operating for the last ten years, with a special effort devoted towards its completion after the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008, in the framework of the Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML, 2005 - 2010). Its objective is to offer free and open access to a complete register of all known species living in the Southern Ocean, building a workbench of the present taxonomic knowledge for that region. The Antarctic zone defined by this dynamic and community-based tool has been investigated with a particular interest. The Sub-Antarctic zone was a secondary objective during the establishment of the RAMS and is still lacking the impulse of the scientific community for some taxa. New information In the present study, more than 13,000 occurrences records of Asteroidea (Echinodermata) have been compiled within the RAMS area of interest and checked against the RAMS species list of sea stars, using WoRMS Taxon Match tool. Few mismatches (basionym mistakes : i.e. original name misspelled or incorrect) were found within the existing list and 97 unregistered species are actually occurring within the RAMS boundaries. After this update, the number of Asteroidea species was increased by around 50%, now reaching 295 accepted species. PMID:26696769

  8. Management of marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korringa, P.

    1980-03-01

    Marine fish and shellfish constitute important natural resources. Provided they are wisely exploited, they are not liable to exhaustion but continue to renew themselves. Wise exploitation requires sound management, and for such management one should be well informed about the factors governing the fluctuations in the stocks and about the costs of exploitation. A century of scientific fisheries research provided a wealth of information on reproduction, migration and growth of commercially important species of fish and shellfish and about the losses the stocks suffer through natural causes such as predation, diseases and parasites, and through the fishery itself. Such information is available for areas which are intensively fished. In fertile waters, the approximate growth increase of fish stocks is some 15 % by weight year-1. If one were to harvest this 15 % only, to be considered as interest on this natural capital, and to leave the capital itself untouched, one could go on fishing for ever. There would be no overfishing or stock depletion. For sound management we need not only ecological data but also information on economic fishery aspects, e. g. on size and power of the fleet, type of fish-finding apparatus installed, costs of netting and wages, fuel required per fishing trip, and on the capital invested. Further we need statistical information on the landings and on the proceeds. Such information is available in countries which participate intensively in fishing. Therefore, one would assume that governments which are well informed by their fishery biologists about fluctuations in stocks of fish and shellfish and by their economists on various aspects of the exploitation would apply sound management to ensure that fishing may continue for many years to come without depletion. A number of examples related to the North East Atlantic area, where intensive fishing is carried out and from where a wealth of scientific information is available, makes clear that cases

  9. Marine riser connector

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, J.

    1982-05-18

    A marine riser is disclosed including a uniquely designed three element connection structure and associated connecting and releasing means for the inhibiting of fatigue failure caused by moments and axial loads resulting from relative motion between the fixed ocean bottom and a floating drilling platform or ship, such as a semisubmersible rig. The system includes a preloaded connection including a female member and a male member coaxially aligned and held in compression by a nut placed in tension. The connection holds riser pipe sections together. The connection is preloaded through a tool to a degree such that when a load equal to the yield strength of the pipe section material is applied to the pipe sections joined by the connector, the compressed faces of the male and female members do not separate from each other. The degree of preload would be sufficient to maintain the contact between the compressed faces under expected working loads of the pipe sections. The tool operates in conjunction with lugs located on the nut and a flange or platform with mounting holes located on the male member. A lock is provided on the nut to prevent the disengagement of the male and female members after they are brought into compression by the nut. The position of the lock relative to the nut lugs determines the sustained preload of the connection. Seals are provided between the male and female member to prevent leakage of fluid between the interior of the riser connector and the surrounding environment. The connector also includes provision for the support and connection of sections of kill and choke lines.

  10. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160/sup 0/ W (20/sup 0/N to 20/sup 0/S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low /sup 234/Th//sup 238/U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru.

  11. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE’s Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database provides up-to-date information on marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, both in the U.S. and around the world. The database includes wave, tidal, current, and ocean thermal energy, and contains information on the various energy conversion technologies, companies active in the field, and development of projects in the water. Depending on the needs of the user, the database can present a snapshot of projects in a given region, assess the progress of a certain technology type, or provide a comprehensive view of the entire marine and hydrokinetic energy industry. Results are displayed as a list of technologies, companies, or projects. Data can be filtered by a number of criteria, including country/region, technology type, generation capacity, and technology or project stage. The database was updated in 2009 to include ocean thermal energy technologies, companies, and projects.

  12. Marine loading vapor control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babet, F.H.

    1996-09-01

    The EPA and State air quality control boards have mandated the collection and destruction or recovery of vapors generated by the loading of some hydrocarbons and chemicals into marine vessels. This is a brief overview of the main US Coast Guard requirements for marine vapor control systems. As with most regulations, they are open to interpretation. In an attempt to more clearly define the intent of the regulations, the US Coast Guard has issued guidelines to assist the certifying entities in ensuring compliance with intended regulations. If a company is contemplating the installation of a marine loading vapor control system, the authors strongly recommend that one engage the services of a certifying entity, either as the designer, or an advisor and ultimately the certifier of the system. This should be done well up front in the design of the system to avoid costly mistakes which can occur as a result of lack of knowledge or misinterpretation of the regulations and guidelines.

  13. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Desriac, Florie; Jégou, Camille; Balnois, Eric; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs. PMID:24084784

  14. Colour vision in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Justin; Carleton, Karen L; Cronin, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Colour vision in the marine environment is on average simpler than in terrestrial environments with simple or no colour vision through monochromacy or dichromacy. Monochromacy is found in marine mammals and elasmobranchs, including whales and sharks, but not some rays. Conversely, there is also a greater diversity of colour vision in the ocean than on land, examples being the polyspectral stomatopods and the many colour vision solutions found among reef fish. Recent advances in sequencing reveal more opsin (visual pigment) types than functionally useful at any one time. This diversity arises through opsin duplication and conversion. Such mechanisms allow pick-and-mix adaptation that tunes colour vision on a variety of very short non-evolutionary timescales. At least some of the diversity in marine colour vision is best explained as unconventional colour vision or as neutral drift. PMID:25725325

  15. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species. PMID:26564847

  16. Heritable pollution tolerance in a marine invader.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Louise A; Brooks, Rob; Johnston, Emma L

    2011-10-01

    The global spread of fouling invasive species is continuing despite the use of antifouling biocides. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that non-indigenous species introduced via hull fouling may be capable of adapting to metal-polluted environments. Using a laboratory based toxicity assay, we investigated tolerance to copper in the non-indigenous bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata from four source populations. Individual colonies were collected from four sites within Port Hacking (Sydney, Australia) and their offspring exposed to a range of copper concentrations. This approach, using a full-sib, split-family design, tests for a genotype by environment (G×E) interaction. Settlement and complete metamorphosis (recruitment) were measured as ecologically relevant endpoints. Larval sizes were also measured for each colony. Successful recruitment was significantly reduced by the highest copper concentration of 80μgL(-1). While there was no difference in pollution tolerance between sites, there was a significant G×E interaction, with large variation in the response of colony offspring within sites. Larval size differed significantly both between sites and between colonies and was positively correlated with tolerance. The high level of variation in copper tolerance between colonies suggests that there is considerable potential within populations to adapt to elevated copper levels, as tolerance is a heritable trait. Also, colonies that produce large larvae are more tolerant to copper, suggesting that tolerance may be a direct consequence of larger size. PMID:21295292

  17. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to identifying chemical pollution in the marine environment and assessing the effects of such pollution on living marine resources is described. Such a study requires knowing: what pollutants organisms are exposed to, which pollutants are accumulated; the fate of pollutants taken up by organisms, and biological changes caused by the pollutants. Analytical limitations of such studies are noted. Examples of specific interdisciplinary laboratory and field investigations are presented, for instance, the finding of liver tumors in flatfish that accumulated sediment-bound naphthalene.

  18. Marine injuries. Prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Frey, C

    1994-08-01

    Penetrating wounds, stings, and inoculation of venom are common marine injuries to unwary walkers during the summer season. In many circumstances, foreign bodies such as wood splinters or small shards of glass can be removed readily with fine-pointed forceps. Other times, objects may not be noticed until radiographic examination of the injured area. With deeply penetrated foreign bodies, attempts at removal must often be weighed against the likelihood of continued symptoms and damage should the object be left in the foot. This review presents methods of prevention and treatment for common sources of marine foot injuries. PMID:7997347

  19. Habitat and water quality variables as predictors of community composition in an Indonesian coral reef: a multi-taxon study in the Spermonde Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Polónia, Ana Rita Moura; Cleary, Daniel Francis Richard; de Voogd, Nicole Joy; Renema, Willem; Hoeksema, Bert W; Martins, Ana; Gomes, Newton Carlos Marcial

    2015-12-15

    Assemblages of corals, sponges, foraminifera, sediment bacteria and sediment archaea were assessed at two depths in the Spermonde Archipelago. Our goal was to assess to what extent variation in composition could be explained by habitat and water quality variables. The habitat variables consisted of depth, substrate type and scleractinian coral cover while water quality variables were derived from ocean color satellite imagery, including the colored dissolved organic matter index (CDOM), chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) and remote sensing reflectance at 645n m (Rrs_645). Together, habitat and water quality variables explained from 31% (sediment bacteria) to 80% (forams) of the variation in composition. The variation in composition of corals, sponges, forams and sediment archaea was primarily related to habitat variables, while the variation in composition of sediment bacteria was primarily related to water quality variables. Habitat and water quality variables explained similar amounts of variation in the composition of corals and sediment bacteria. CDOM (sponges, sediment bacteria and sediment archaea), Chlor-a (corals and forams) and Rrs_645 (sponges and forams) proved significant predictors of variation in composition for the studied taxa. In addition to water quality variables, all taxa responded to a range of habitat variables including depth and the percentage cover of various benthic life forms including coral cover variables, rubble and sand. Sand cover was the most important habitat variable for corals, sponges, sediment bacteria and sediment archaea. Coral life forms including the cover of branching and tabular corals were important habitat variables for sponges and forams. These results show marked differences in how various taxa respond to variation in habitat and water quality in the Spermonde Archipelago. Moreover, our results indicate that variables estimated from ocean color satellite imagery proved to be better predictors of variation in marine community

  20. A Model Marine Science Laboratory, North Kitsap Marine Environmental Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Andrew L.; And Others

    The project had two overall goals: (1) to establish and maintain a model marine science facility to be used as a teaching station and a base for research; and (2) to increase student and public awareness about the oceans and the important role they will play in man's future. The project served all the school districts in Kitsap County (Washington)…

  1. The National Marine Educators' Association Historical Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the formation of the National Marine Education Association (NMEA) in 1976. Provides summaries of conferences dealing with marine education since 1960 along with a year-by-year reporting on NMEA conferences and activities from 1976-1988. (TW)

  2. FUNGI AND HYDROCARBONS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrocarbons from various sources--anthropogenic pollution, marine seeps, marine algae, atmospheric fallout and terrestrial runoff--enter the ocean daily. These complex hydrocarbon mixtures are dispersed and degraded by abiotic and biogenic processes. Most commonly, bacteria are ...

  3. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-01-01

    A huge wetland (the ‘Pebas system’) covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical–tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ18O, δ13C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  4. 77 FR 49921 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... from ION Geophysical (ION) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by... comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to ION to take, by harassment, nine species of marine mammals... March 1, 2012, from ION for the taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to a marine...

  5. Whale Multi-Disciplinary Studies: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit deals with whales, whaling lore and history, and the interaction of the whale with the complex marine ecosystem. It seeks to teach adaptation of marine organisms. It portrays the concept that man is part of the marine ecosystem and man's activities can deplete and degrade marine ecosystems, endangering the survival of…

  6. Marine Education for Hawaii: A Prospectus. A Report for the Hawaii Marine Education Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Curriculum Research and Development Group.

    This report includes the history and background of marine education in Hawaii, goals and objectives of marine education, guidelines for marine education implementation, and a proposed development plan for a marine education curriculum. The report also presents a general schedule of developmental activities that calls for the establishment of a…

  7. 75 FR 5290 - Notice of the Record of Decision for the United States Marine Corps Grow the Force at Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station New River, and Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) New River, and MCAS Cherry Point,...

  8. Marine Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of ten terminal objectives for a two-semester course (3 hours daily). This 540-hour intermediate course includes advanced troubleshooting techniques on outboard marine engines, inboard-outboard marine engines, inboard marine engines, boat…

  9. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Elissawy, Ahmed M.; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S.; Singab, AbdelNasser B.; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities. PMID:25854644

  10. The Education and Training of Marine Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Gordon L.

    This report includes a study of the need for marine technicians in California, implications for the national scene, and observations made at a national conference held in Florida in 1968. Problems treated are: (1) definition of a marine technician, (2) how marine technicians should be classified, (3) how great is the demand for them, (4) the type…

  11. Standardized Curriculum for Outboard Marine Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for outboard marine engine mechanics was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all outboard marine engine mechanics programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for outboard marine engine…

  12. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  13. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  14. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  15. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  16. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  17. Marine mammals of Hawaii: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography is a product of a literature survey on marine mammals at proposed OTEC sites in the Hawaiian Islands. Emphasis is on publications about abundance and distribution, migration routes, and feeding ecology of the marine mammals known to inhabit the main and leeward Hawaiian Islands. Some works on the general biology of marine mammals are also included. 214 references.

  18. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  19. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  20. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  1. 49 CFR 171.4 - Marine pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine pollutants. 171.4 Section 171.4..., AND DEFINITIONS Applicability, General Requirements, and North American Shipments § 171.4 Marine... or transport a marine pollutant, as defined in § 171.8, in intrastate or interstate commerce...

  2. Jobs in Marine Science. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of marine science. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of oceanography and marine-related careers. A shore research station and the activities of a marine biologist are…

  3. The Source Book of Marine Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beakley, John C.; And Others

    Included is a teachers resource collection of 42 marine science activities for high school students. Both the biological and the physical factors of the marine environment are investigated, including the study of tides, local currents, microscope measuring, beaches, turbidity, sea water solids, pH, and salinity, marine bacteriology, microbiology,…

  4. Marine Science Career Awareness, Grade Four. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for fourth grade students. The unit, focusing on the various types of careers and occupations connected directly and indirectly with marine science, is divided into sections dealing with: commerce and intertidal…

  5. Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Violetta F.

    This is the second of two volumes comprising a resource unit designed to help students become more knowledgeable about the marine environment and its resources. Included in this volume are discussions of changes in the human and marine environment, human needs, marine resources, living marine resources, marine transportation, marine energy…

  6. Perspectives in Marine Citizen Science.

    PubMed

    Bear, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Citizen science can be defined as the process by which any non-scientist collects data or uses the scientific method under the guidance or mentorship of a scientist. This article presents an overview of several marine citizen-science projects as practiced by three non-profit organizations. PMID:27047591

  7. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  8. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  9. Marine Program Annual Report 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Marine Program.

    This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and…

  10. Marine mammal neoplasia: a review.

    PubMed

    Newman, S J; Smith, S A

    2006-11-01

    A review of the published literature indicates that marine mammal neoplasia includes the types and distributions of tumors seen in domestic species. A routine collection of samples from marine mammal species is hampered, and, hence, the literature is principally composed of reports from early whaling expeditions, captive zoo mammals, and epizootics that affect larger numbers of animals from a specific geographic location. The latter instances are most important, because many of these long-lived, free-ranging marine mammals may act as environmental sentinels for the health of the oceans. Examination of large numbers of mortalities reveals incidental proliferative and neoplastic conditions and, less commonly, identifies specific malignant cancers that can alter population dynamics. The best example of these is the presumptive herpesvirus-associated metastatic genital carcinomas found in California sea lions. Studies of tissues from St. Lawrence estuary beluga whales have demonstrated a high incidence of neoplasia and produced evidence that environmental contamination with high levels of polychlorinated biphenols and dichlorophenyl trichloroethane might be the cause. In addition, viruses are suspected to be the cause of gastric papillomas in belugas and cutaneous papillomas in Florida manatees and harbor porpoises. While experimental laboratory procedures can further elucidate mechanisms of neoplasia, continued pathologic examination of marine mammals will also be necessary to follow trends in wild populations. PMID:17099143

  11. Field Techniques in Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is one teacher's method of teaching students to use various marine and scientific apparati while studying important relationships within the ecosystem. A data retrieval chart is included with questions and problems to ask about the data, along with information on how to interpret the data chart. (MA)

  12. Sensational Studies in Marine Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, E. C., Jr.; Schroyer, Fred C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a description of a five-week summer course in marine biology and oceanography offered to college-bound, secondary students with varied physical handicaps. Summarizes insights gained after four summer sessions related to communication problems, physical arrangements for the wheelchair-bound, and handicap-proof maps; evaluates the course's…

  13. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  14. Blood Rheology in Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Michael A.; Baskurt, Oguz; Castellini, Judith M.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology) is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals. PMID:21423386

  15. Marine Engine Technology. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seminole Community Coll., Sanford, FL.

    This instructor's manual covers 20 competency-based instructional units designed to prepare entry-level outboard marine technicians. The first section explains how to use the materials and lists the units and the modules that constitute each. The second section lists the competencies taught in the course. The third section suggests instructional…

  16. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... No. 14241, issued on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 3668), authorizes the permit holder to conduct research on...) issued on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 47779): (1) Included authorization for collection of a skin and blubber... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XO45 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...

  17. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... (75 FR 68757), notice of receipt of an application to amend Permit No. 781-1824 was published... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...

  18. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). On May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28236), notice was published that an amendment to Permit No. 13602, issued on September 4, 2009 (74 FR 46569), had been requested by the permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...

  19. Marine bacteria which produce tetrodotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Simidu, U; Noguchi, T; Hwang, D F; Shida, Y; Hashimoto, K

    1987-01-01

    A number of type strains of marine bacteria, including members of the family Vibrionaceae, were cultured and examined for tetrodotoxin productivity by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most of the Vibrionaceae strains produced tetrodotoxin, anhydrotetrodotoxin, or both. PMID:3310884

  20. Bioassay for assessing marine contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lapota, D.; Copeland, H.; Mastny, G.; Rosenberger, D.; Duckworth, D.

    1996-03-01

    The Qwiklite bioassay, developed by the laboratory at NCCOSC, is used as a biological tool to gauge the extent of environmental contamination. Some species of marine phytoplankton produce bioluminescence. The Qwiklite bioassay determines acute response and chronic effects of a wide variety of toxicants upon bioluminescent dinotlagellates by measuring their light output after exposure.

  1. Marine Planning Benefits the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

  2. Perspectives in Marine Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science can be defined as the process by which any non-scientist collects data or uses the scientific method under the guidance or mentorship of a scientist. This article presents an overview of several marine citizen-science projects as practiced by three non-profit organizations. PMID:27047591

  3. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  4. Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, pale-yellow pigmented, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, designated A6F-11(T), was isolated from a marine sponge collected in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel marine strain was affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it shared the highest (92.9 %) sequence similarity with Arenibacter palladensis LMG 21972(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from related members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain A6F-11(T) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.7 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel taxon in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is A6F-11(T) (= KCTC 42753(T) = NBRC 111401(T)). PMID:27125652

  5. The Surf Zone Ichthyoplankton Adjacent to an Intermittently Open Estuary, with Evidence of Recruitment during Marine Overwash Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, P. D.; Whitfield, A. K.; Bell, K. N. I.

    2001-03-01

    The composition, structure and seasonality of ichthyoplankton in the surf zone adjacent to the mouth of the intermittently open East Kleinemonde Estuary (33°32'S, 27°03'E) were investigated over a period of 2 years. Altogether 451 fishes, representing at least 21 taxa from 14 families, were collected. The assemblage was dominated by postflexion larvae of euryhaline marine species that are dependent on estuaries as nursery areas. The sparid Rhabdosargus holubi was the most abundant taxon and constituted more than 77% of the total catch. A distinct modal size class was identified for R. holubi , while the mean individual size of this and other abundant taxa was comparable to the observed recruitment size range reported from a wide variety of estuarine nursery habitats in southern Africa. Periodic regression analyses revealed significant peaks in abundance of larval R. holubi during late winter (August), at down and dusk, at new and full moon (spring tides), and on the flood stage of the tidal cycle. Evidence for estuarine immigration during marine overwash events (surging rough seas that enter the estuary) is provided by (1) the stranding of postflexion larvae in the region of the closed estuary mouth following these events, and (2) back extrapolation from length modes within the estuary to coincide with such an event. The advantages and disadvantages of such a recruitment strategy are discussed.

  6. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  7. Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, isolated from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone and Atlantic salmon).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Tsuruya, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Youhei; Sawabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Higgins, Melissa; Carson, Jeremy; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-08-01

    Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6 % similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) ( = JCM 16453(T)  = LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 ( = JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 ( = JCM 16455). PMID:21984666

  8. Marine Isonitriles and Their Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Emsermann, Jens; Kauhl, Ulrich; Opatz, Till

    2016-01-01

    Marine isonitriles represent the largest group of natural products carrying the remarkable isocyanide moiety. Together with marine isothiocyanates and formamides, which originate from the same biosynthetic pathways, they offer diverse biological activities and in spite of their exotic nature they may constitute potential lead structures for pharmaceutical development. Among other biological activities, several marine isonitriles show antimalarial, antitubercular, antifouling and antiplasmodial effects. In contrast to terrestrial isonitriles, which are mostly derived from α-amino acids, the vast majority of marine representatives are of terpenoid origin. An overview of all known marine isonitriles and their congeners will be given and their biological and chemical aspects will be discussed. PMID:26784208

  9. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

  10. Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, Sophie L.; Radford, Andrew N.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Nedelec, Brendan; Lecchini, David; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2014-07-01

    Human activities can create noise pollution and there is increasing international concern about how this may impact wildlife. There is evidence that anthropogenic noise may have detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology in many species but there are few examples of experiments showing how fitness may be directly affected. Here we use a split-brood, counterbalanced, field experiment to investigate the effect of repeated boat-noise playback during early life on the development and survival of a marine invertebrate, the sea hare Stylocheilus striatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). We found that exposure to boat-noise playback, compared to ambient-noise playback, reduced successful development of embryos by 21% and additionally increased mortality of recently hatched larvae by 22%. Our work, on an understudied but ecologically and socio-economically important taxon, demonstrates that anthropogenic noise can affect individual fitness. Fitness costs early in life have a fundamental influence on population dynamics and resilience, with potential implications for community structure and function.

  11. The mercury resistance (mer) operon in a marine gliding flavobacterium, Tenacibaculum discolor 9A5.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rachel C; Tu, Yen-Kuei; Nevarez, Michael J; Bobbs, Alexander S; Friesen, Joseph W; Lorsch, Jon R; McCauley, John A; Voet, Judith G; Hamlett, Nancy V

    2013-01-01

    Genes conferring mercury resistance have been investigated in a variety of bacteria and archaea but not in bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes, despite their importance in many environments. We found, however, that a marine gliding Bacteroidetes species, Tenacibaculum discolor, was the predominant mercury-resistant bacterial taxon cultured from a salt marsh fertilized with mercury-contaminated sewage sludge. Here we report characterization of the mercuric reductase and the narrow-spectrum mercury resistance (mer) operon from one of these strains - T. discolor 9A5. This mer operon, which confers mercury resistance when cloned into Flavobacterium johnsoniae, encodes a novel mercury-responsive ArsR/SmtB family transcriptional regulator that appears to have evolved independently from other mercury-responsive regulators, a novel putative transport protein consisting of a fusion between the integral membrane Hg(II) transporter MerT and the periplasmic Hg(II)-binding protein MerP, an additional MerP protein, and a mercuric reductase that is phylogenetically distinct from other known mercuric reductases. PMID:22816663

  12. Anthropogenic noise playback impairs embryonic development and increases mortality in a marine invertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Nedelec, Sophie L.; Radford, Andrew N.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Nedelec, Brendan; Lecchini, David; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities can create noise pollution and there is increasing international concern about how this may impact wildlife. There is evidence that anthropogenic noise may have detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology in many species but there are few examples of experiments showing how fitness may be directly affected. Here we use a split-brood, counterbalanced, field experiment to investigate the effect of repeated boat-noise playback during early life on the development and survival of a marine invertebrate, the sea hare Stylocheilus striatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia). We found that exposure to boat-noise playback, compared to ambient-noise playback, reduced successful development of embryos by 21% and additionally increased mortality of recently hatched larvae by 22%. Our work, on an understudied but ecologically and socio-economically important taxon, demonstrates that anthropogenic noise can affect individual fitness. Fitness costs early in life have a fundamental influence on population dynamics and resilience, with potential implications for community structure and function. PMID:25080997

  13. Controls on marine carbon fluxes via phytoplankton-microzooplankton interactions in continental shelf waters. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The project is an in-depth evaluation of the phytoplankton-microzooplankton trophic link. The principal goals of the project remain as originally proposed: (1) Impact of grazing by phagotrophic microzooplankton on phytoplankton, particularly on phototrophic cells <5 {mu}m in size, which are not effectively grazed by macrozooplankton. (2) Impact of grazing by phagotrophic microzooplankton on bacterioplankton. (3) Taxon-specific growth rates of phytoplankton in situ, particularly of <5 {mu}m sized cells, as they are affected by phagotrophy rates. The authors are developing protocols for making quantitative estimates of grazing by phagotrophic protists on ultraphytoplankton, and for determining the intrinsic reproductive rates of phytoplankton species. They have also begun a series of experiments, testing and utilizing these methods, evaluating the grazing impact of flagellates and ciliates on phytoplankton species of different sizes and taxonomic affinities. A series of preliminary experiments in coastal waters adjacent to the Oregon Institute of Marine Biology have provided a coastal benchmark. They participated in a preliminary cruise in May, 1993 to the OMP field site off Cape Hatteras. Their purpose was to obtain background information on heterotrophic microbial distributional patterns in this region and to measure rates of protist bacterivory.

  14. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km3 yr-1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km3 yr-1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture.

  15. Marine systems analysis and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedra, K.

    1995-03-01

    Oceanography and marine ecology have a considerable history in the use of computers for modeling both physical and ecological processes. With increasing stress on the marine environment due to human activities such as fisheries and numerous forms of pollution, the analysis of marine problems must increasingly and jointly consider physical, ecological and socio-economic aspects in a broader systems framework that transcends more traditional disciplinary boundaries. This often introduces difficult-to-quantify, “soft” elements, such as values and perceptions, into formal analysis. Thus, the problem domain combines a solid foundation in the physical sciences, with strong elements of ecological, socio-economic and political considerations. At the same time, the domain is also characterized by both a very large volume of some data, and an extremely datapoor situation for other variables, as well as a very high degree of uncertainty, partly due to the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the marine environment. Consequently, marine systems analysis and management require tools that can integrate these diverse aspects into efficient information systems that can support research as well as planning and also policy- and decisionmaking processes. Supporting scientific research, as well as decision-making processes and the diverse groups and actors involved, requires better access and direct understanding of the information basis as well as easy-to-use, but powerful tools for analysis. Advanced information technology provides the tools to design and implement smart software where, in a broad sense, the emphasis is on the man-machine interface. Symbolic and analogous, graphical interaction, visual representation of problems, integrated data sources, and built-in domain knowledge can effectively support users of complex and complicated software systems. Integration, interaction, visualization and intelligence are key concepts that are discussed in detail, using an

  16. Monitoring the marine environment using marine mammal tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Day, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Marine environments, both inshore and open ocean, receive numerous inputs of anthropogenic chemicals. Cetaceans provide a valuable resource for monitoring the low level contamination of marine environments with persistent organic contaminants. Comparative studies using inshore and offshore southern ocean cetaceans have revealed significant differences in the types of contamination in these two environments. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) deposited in the southern oceans are characterized by an abundance of lower chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are not present at significant concentrations in cetaceans from the open southern ocean. In contrast significant concentrations of PCDD/F congeners are detected in the blubber of the inshore living Hector`s dolphin. This species lives close to the shore and has a very small home range (approximately 30 km) for a cetacean. Analysis of tissue PCDD/F and PCB profiles from different populations and their food sources will be presented. The data are being used to determine if there are local variations in the contamination of the New Zealand inshore marine environment.

  17. Antibiotic activity of lectins from marine algae against marine vibrios.

    PubMed

    Liao, W-R; Lin, J-Y; Shieh, W-Y; Jeng, W-L; Huang, R

    2003-07-01

    Saline and aqueous ethanol extracts of marine algae and the lectins from two red algal species were assayed for their antibiotic activity against marine vibrios. Experimental studies were also carried out on the influence of environmental factors on such activity, using batch cultures. The results indicated that many of the saline extracts of the algal species were active and that the activity was selective against those vibrios assayed. The algal extracts were active against Vibrio pelagius and the fish pathogen V. vulnificus, but inactive against V. neresis. Algal lectins from Eucheuma serra (ESA) and Galaxaura marginata (GMA) strongly inhibited V. vulnificus but were inactive against the other two vibrios. The antibacterial activity of algal extracts was inhibited by pretreatment with various sugars and glycoprotein. Extracts of the two red algae, E. serra and Pterocladia capillacea, in saline and aqueous ethanol, inhibited markedly the growth rate of V. vulnificus at very low concentrations. Culture results indicated that metabolites active against V. vulnificus were invariably produced in P. capillacea over a wide range of temperature, light intensity, and nutritional conditions. Enhanced antibacterial activity occurred when P. capillacea was grown under higher irradiance, severe nutrient stress and moderate temperature (20 degrees C), reflecting the specific antibiotic characteristics of this alga. The strong antibiotic activity of lectins towards fish pathogenic bacteria reveals one of the important roles played by algal lectins, as well as the potential high economic value of those marine algae assayed for aquaculture and for biomedical purposes. PMID:12884128

  18. Kernel Density Surface Modelling as a Means to Identify Significant Concentrations of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier; Lirette, Camille; Sacau, Mar; Koen-Alonso, Mariano; Kenny, Andrew; Ollerhead, Neil; Wareham, Vonda; Beazley, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE) to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify “significant concentrations” of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores), and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here and

  19. Kernel density surface modelling as a means to identify significant concentrations of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicators.

    PubMed

    Kenchington, Ellen; Murillo, Francisco Javier; Lirette, Camille; Sacau, Mar; Koen-Alonso, Mariano; Kenny, Andrew; Ollerhead, Neil; Wareham, Vonda; Beazley, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME) from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE) to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify "significant concentrations" of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores), and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here and elsewhere

  20. An assessment of natural product discovery from marine (sensu strictu) and marine-derived fungi

    PubMed Central

    Overy, David P.; Bayman, Paul; Kerr, Russell G.; Bills, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from ‘marine-derived’ fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms. Furthermore, we address some of the reasons for the apparent disconnect between the stated objectives of discovering new chemistry from marine organisms and the apparent neglect of the truly exceptional obligate marine fungi. We also offer suggestions on how to reinvigorate enthusiasm for marine natural products discovery from fungi from exclusive marine lineages and highlight the need for critically assessing the role of apparently terrestrial fungi in the marine environment. PMID:25379338

  1. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  2. Marine carotenoids and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the etiology of many diseases. Dietary phytochemical products, such as bioactive food components and marine carotenoids (asthaxantin, lutein, β-carotene, fucoxanthin), have shown an antioxidant effect in reducing oxidative markers stress. Scientific evidence supports the beneficial role of phytochemicals in the prevention of some chronic diseases. Many carotenoids with high antioxidant properties have shown a reduction in disease risk both in epidemiological studies and supplementation human trials. However, controlled clinical trials and dietary intervention studies using well-defined subjects population have not provided clear evidence of these substances in the prevention of diseases. The most important aspects of this special issue will cover the synthesis, biological activities, and clinical applications of marine carotenoids, with particular attention to recent evidence regarding anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22363224

  3. Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the etiology of many diseases. Dietary phytochemical products, such as bioactive food components and marine carotenoids (asthaxantin, lutein, β-carotene, fucoxanthin), have shown an antioxidant effect in reducing oxidative markers stress. Scientific evidence supports the beneficial role of phytochemicals in the prevention of some chronic diseases. Many carotenoids with high antioxidant properties have shown a reduction in disease risk both in epidemiological studies and supplementation human trials. However, controlled clinical trials and dietary intervention studies using well-defined subjects population have not provided clear evidence of these substances in the prevention of diseases. The most important aspects of this special issue will cover the synthesis, biological activities, and clinical applications of marine carotenoids, with particular attention to recent evidence regarding anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22363224

  4. Microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony L

    2011-08-01

    This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition. The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested POPs across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web. PMID:21742351

  5. Multispectral observations of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joseph; Podobna, Yuliya; Wells, Tami; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Multispectral visible and infrared observations of various species of whales were made in the St. Lawrence Seaway near Quebec, Canada and Papawai Point in Maui, Hawaii. The Multi-mission Adaptable Narrowband Imaging System (MANTIS) was deployed in two configurations: airborne looking down, and bluff mounted looking at low-grazing angles. An Infrared (IR) sensor was also deployed in the bluff mounted configuration. Detections of marine mammals were made with these systems of submerged mammals and surface mammals at ranges up to 8 miles. Automatic detection algorithms are being explored to detect, track and monitor the behavior of individuals and pods of whales. This effort is part of a United States Navy effort to insure that marine mammals are not injured during the testing of the US Navy's acoustic Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) systems.

  6. Paleoecologic Megatrends in Marine Metazoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Andrew M.; Bambach, Richard K.

    2011-05-01

    Since their appearance in the Neoproterozoic, marine metazoan ecosystems have increased in ecological diversity, complexity, energy use, motility, predation, infaunality, and biological disturbance. A common theme is an increase in organismal control over internal physiology and the external environment. Often, these changes have been examined in the context of discrete events (e.g., the Cambrian Explosion, Mesozoic Marine Revolution), but they may represent linked, ongoing megatrends. This review examines changes in ecological composition in the context of changes in taxonomic composition, as represented by a more detailed version of Sepkoski's evolutionary fauna analysis. Ecological change occurred during major radiations and extinctions, as well as between them. Due to its ecological selectivity, the Permian-Triassic extinction had particularly significant ecological effects on the biota. Recoveries from mass extinctions may be important episodes of ecological change. Further research could help elucidate the fundamental causes of long-term ecological change, including any role played by the environment.

  7. Parasites in marine food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  8. Sulfated compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Kornprobst, J M; Sallenave, C; Barnathan, G

    1998-01-01

    More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activities, when available, are also given. Macromolecules have also been included in this review but without structural details. PMID:9530808

  9. Eutrophication, marine biotoxins, human health.

    PubMed

    Viviani, R

    1992-01-01

    Eutrophication phenomena in marine coastal waters can today be explained on the basis of natural or anthropogenic causes. Undesirable effects and also sanitary problems in both types of eutrophication are often produced, but they may differ greatly in frequency and significance. Some algal biotoxins can affect both marine animals and man, whilst others affect man alone. From data currently available it appears that the sanitary state of man can be affected through the digestive, respiratory and cutaneous apparatus. Four main dinoflagellate biointoxications are now recognized: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and venerupin poisoning. Other biointoxications are due to a diatom bloom responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and to blue algae blooms which have effects on the skin and the respiratory tract. All these marine toxins are considered and particular attention is paid to: producing organisms, chemistry of the components, compromised sea foods, methods of analysis, occurrence worldwide, human intoxications, toxicology and mechanism of action on a molecular level, therapeutical notes, tolerance levels and remarks on safety. Attention is also paid to the relationship between the anthropogenic eutrophication and PSP and DSP since these are the most widespread biointoxications from toxic marine dinoflagellates in the world today and for which the European Economic Community (EEC) is proposing health legislation such as tolerance limits and methods for official analysis. In view of the harmful potential of coastal anthropogenic eutrophication, the main current committment of various countries concerns control. Finally, it is important to develop a suitable monitor research system using all the specific standards of allowed toxic substances, and also research on effective antiodotes against all biotoxins. PMID:1475681

  10. Marine sediments in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Toer, Aurelie; Le Divenah, Claudie

    2013-04-01

    In the present context of global climatic change, studies of the past natural climate variability is critical for the knowledge of the Earth climate mechanism. One of the major climatic reservoir is the ocean which covers more than 70% of the surface of the earth. It exchanges moisture and heat with the atmosphere and plays an important role in the climatic changes at different latitudes. The marine sediments are therefore archives of the past oceanographic/climatic changes. These marine sediments are collected as long cores penetrating into the sediment and therefore giving access to the progressive climatic changes with time. Marine sediments are classically composed of skeleton of micro-organisms and of terrigenous fraction. The main micro-organisms used as tracers of paleoclimatic changes are foraminifera. Their species change with the properties of the water mass in which they live (in particular temperature and salinity). With the aim of showing the students in a classroom how to recognize these species and to reconstruct the past oceanographic changes, "real" sediment has been taken during different cruises in different oceanic basins. We will present here the type of sediments available and the type of analysis/observation which can be made in a class. We will show how to perform the preparation of the samples and what are the possible observations through a binocular microscope. The students will then be able to extract information from their own observation about climate: its variations over time and through the differences between the areas of coring operations. In order to allow this activity to be introduced into your class, a program of distribution of these marine sediments will be proposed and will be presented. A registration form will be available. A limited number of proposals will be accepted and a report of their activity in the classroom will be mandatory a few months after the distribution of samples.

  11. Marine geomorphometry: Overview and opportunities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micallef, Aaron; Lecours, Vincent; Dolan, Margaret; Lucieer, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    Multibeam echosounder data comprise the primary source for digital terrain models of the seafloor. Recent advances in seafloor surveying technologies have resulted in a dramatic increase in the quantity and resolution of multibeam echosounder data, prompting a renewed interest in employing geomorphometric techniques to investigate the seafloor. Marine geomorphometric techniques are not as varied and as extensively applied as in terrestrial environments. This is due to the difficultly with capturing terrain variability underwater, since changes in topography are more subdued in comparison to terrestrial landscapes. Issues related to scale are also relevant in submarine settings, but they manifest themselves differently due to the differences in input data. In the last decade, a suite of marine geomorphometric techniques have been developed - terrain attributes, feature-based quantitative representation, automated classification - and employed to investigate a wide range of phenomena - seafloor landforms and geomorphic processes, geohazards, hydrodynamics, habitats. This contribution provides an overview of progress made in marine geomorphometry in the last decade as well as highlights the opportunities and challenges faced by this thriving field of research in the near future.

  12. Priming effects in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontikaki, Evina; Thornton, Barry; Witte, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Continental margin sediments (<2000 m) cover merely 15 % of the ocean's seafloor but are responsible for more than 70 % of the global benthic mineralization. Understanding when these systems act as a source or sink of carbon (C) is thus of primary importance if we are to produce reliable global C budgets and predict the effects of future perturbations on the global C cycle. The chemical nature of organic matter (OM) is thought to be one of the major controls on the degradation/preservation balance in sediments; labile and refractory OM pools degrade at different rates but not independently. Priming effects (PE), i.e. changes in the decomposition of refractory organic matter following inputs of labile OM, have the potential to alter the C budget in sediments but have been largely ignored by marine scientists. Climate-driven changes in primary production, and land erosion and run-off are likely to change the quantity and composition of organic matter inputs in marine ecosystems and influence the magnitude and direction of PEs in seawater and sediments. Here, we attempt to evaluate the importance of priming effects on C cycling in marine sediments by use of labelled substrates of different quantity and quality in stable isotope tracer experiments and argue that PEs need to be incorporated in global change models.

  13. Ecological Genomics of Marine Picocyanobacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Scanlan, D. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Mazard, S.; Dufresne, A.; Garczarek, L.; Hess, W. R.; Post, A. F.; Hagemann, M.; Paulsen, I.; Partensky, F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Marine picocyanobacteria of the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus numerically dominate the picophytoplankton of the world ocean, making a key contribution to global primary production. Prochlorococcus was isolated around 20 years ago and is probably the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth. The genus comprises specific ecotypes which are phylogenetically distinct and differ markedly in their photophysiology, allowing growth over a broad range of light and nutrient conditions within the 45°N to 40°S latitudinal belt that they occupy. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are closely related, together forming a discrete picophytoplankton clade, but are distinguishable by their possession of dissimilar light-harvesting apparatuses and differences in cell size and elemental composition. Synechococcus strains have a ubiquitous oceanic distribution compared to that of Prochlorococcus strains and are characterized by phylogenetically discrete lineages with a wide range of pigmentation. In this review, we put our current knowledge of marine picocyanobacterial genomics into an environmental context and present previously unpublished genomic information arising from extensive genomic comparisons in order to provide insights into the adaptations of these marine microbes to their environment and how they are reflected at the genomic level. PMID:19487728

  14. Genomics and marine microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Genomics has brought about a revolution in all fields of biology. Before the development of microbial ecology in the 1970s, microbes were not even considered in marine ecological studies. Today we know that half of the total primary production of the planet must be credited to microorganisms. This and other discoveries have changed dramatically the perspective and the focus of marine microbial ecology. The application of genomics-based approaches has provided new challenges and has allowed the discovery of novel functions, an appreciation of the great diversity of microorganisms, and the introduction of controversial ideas regarding the concepts of species, genome, and niche. Nevertheless, thorough knowledge of the traditional disciplines of biology is necessary to explore the possibilities arising from these new insights. This work reviews the different genomic techniques that can be applied to marine microbial ecology, including both sequencing of the complete genomes of microorganisms and metagenomics, which, in turn, can be complemented with the study of mRNAs (transcriptomics) and proteins (proteomics). The example of proteorhodopsin illustrates the type of information that can be gained from these approaches. A genomics perspective constitutes a map that will allow microbiologists to focus their research on potentially more productive aspects. PMID:17061209

  15. Conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the marine sequence of the Tapajós Group, Early-Middle Pennsylvanian of Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in the south and western regions of the Amazonas Basin to describe the conodont biostratigraphy and paleoecology of Pennsylvanian carbonate rocks of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group comprising the upper Monte Alegre, Itaituba, and lower Nova Olinda formations. The analyzed area includes one outcrop along the Tapajós river (TAP), two carbonate quarries (QI, QII), and 18 wells (dots 1-18). The conodont fauna is dominated by Idiognathoides sinuatus and Neognathodus symmetricus in the Monte Alegre Formation, followed by Idiognathodus incurvus, Diplognathodus coloradoensis and Neognathodus bassleri in the Itaituba and Nova Olinda formations. The conodont association suggests an Early to Middle Pennsylvanian age to the analyzed section. Relative ages attributed to the three lithostratigraphic units using conodonts, palynomorphs, and foraminifers are consistent. Herein are proposed one local taxon-range zone of Idiognathodus incurvus in the Itaituba and lower part of the Nova Olinda Formation and one local taxon-range subzone of Diplognathodus coloradoensis in the Itaituba Formation, suggesting a late Bashkirian - Moscovian (Atokan - early Desmoinesian) age to these strata. The Itaituba Formation marks the establishment of large Pennsylvanian marine conditions in the Amazonas Basin and is composed primarily of marine carbonates of abundant fossil content, tidal flat evaporites and siliciclastic thin intervals. Its lower limit, with the Monte Alegre Formation, is characterized by the predominant occurrence of fluvial-deltaic sandstones superimposed on an extensive sequence of aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales intercalated with the interdune and lakes. From the upper strata of Itaituba Formation the faunal and lithological characteristics indicate the occurrence of a regressive phase culminating in a restricted environment, arid which indicates the Nova Olinda Formation. This is characterized by the occurrence of evaporites

  16. The type strain of Lactobacillus casei is ATCC 393, ATCC 334 cannot serve as the type because it represents a different taxon, the name Lactobacillus paracasei and its subspecies names are not rejected and the revival of the name 'Lactobacillus zeae' contravenes Rules 51b (1) and (2) of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 82.

    PubMed

    2008-07-01

    The Judicial Commission affirms that typification of Lactobacillus casei is based on ATCC 393, that ATCC 334 is a member of a different taxon and that the publication rejecting the name Lactobacillus paracasei (and its included subspecies) together with the revival of the name 'Lactobacillus zeae' contravenes Rules 51b (1) and (2) of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. PMID:18599731

  17. The Enigmatic Marine Reptile Nanchangosaurus from the Lower Triassic of Hubei, China and the Phylogenetic Affinities of Hupehsuchia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The study of the holotype and of a new specimen of Nanchangosaurus suni (Reptilia; Diapsida; Hupehsuchia) revealed a suite of hitherto unrecognized characters. For example, Nanchangosaurus has bipartite neural spines and its vertebral count is nearly identical to that of Hupehsuchus. It differs from the latter in having poorly developed forelimbs despite the advanced ossification in the rest of the skeleton. Other differences all pertain to hupehsuchian plesiomorphies retained in Nanchangosaurus, such as low neural spines. The relationship of Hupehsuchia within Diapsida was analyzed based on a data matrix containing 41 taxa coded for 213 characters, of which 18 were identified as aquatic adaptations from functional inferences. These aquatic adaptations may be vulnerable to the argumentation of character homology because expectation for homoplasy is high. There is an apparent incongruence between phylogenetic signals from aquatic adaptations and the rest of the data, with aquatic adaptations favoring all marine reptiles but Helveticosaurus to form a super-clade. However, this super-clade does not obtain when aquatic adaptations were deleted, whereas individual marine reptile clades are all derived without them. We examined all possible combinations of the 18 aquatic adaptations (n = 262143) and found that four lineages of marine reptiles are recognized almost regardless of which of these features were included in the analysis: Hupehsuchia-Ichthyopterygia clade, Sauropterygia-Saurosphargidae clade, Thalattosauria, and Helveticosaurus. The interrelationships among these four depended on the combination of aquatic adaptations to be included, i.e., assumed to be homologous a priori by bypassing character argumentation. Hupehsuchia always appeared as the sister taxon of Ichthyopterygia. PMID:25014493

  18. Phylogenetic and Morphologic Analyses of a Coastal Fish Reveals a Marine Biogeographic Break of Terrestrial Origin in the Southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Acero P., Arturo; Duque-Caro, Hermann; Santos, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a ∼2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by ∼150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM) in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated ∼0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at ∼0.78 my. Main Conclusions/Significance Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of additional Southern Caribbean taxa, particularly those with

  19. The impact of debris on marine life.

    PubMed

    Gall, S C; Thompson, R C

    2015-03-15

    Marine debris is listed among the major perceived threats to biodiversity, and is cause for particular concern due to its abundance, durability and persistence in the marine environment. An extensive literature search reviewed the current state of knowledge on the effects of marine debris on marine organisms. 340 original publications reported encounters between organisms and marine debris and 693 species. Plastic debris accounted for 92% of encounters between debris and individuals. Numerous direct and indirect consequences were recorded, with the potential for sublethal effects of ingestion an area of considerable uncertainty and concern. Comparison to the IUCN Red List highlighted that at least 17% of species affected by entanglement and ingestion were listed as threatened or near threatened. Hence where marine debris combines with other anthropogenic stressors it may affect populations, trophic interactions and assemblages. PMID:25680883

  20. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. PMID:25300547

  1. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  2. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  3. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  4. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  5. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  6. 78 FR 66336 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC956 Marine Mammals; File No. 17030 AGENCY...., Oregon State University, Marine Mammal Institute, Hatfield Marine Science Center, 2030 SE ] Marine... marine mammals specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must...

  7. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  8. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take...

  9. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take...

  10. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  11. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  12. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  13. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  14. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  15. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  16. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  17. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering... subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  18. Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Colin D; Jimenez, Jose L; Bahreini, Roya; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H; Hämeri, Kaarle; Pirjola, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Jennings, S Gerard; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2002-06-01

    The formation of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei--from which marine clouds originate--depends ultimately on the availability of new, nanometre-scale particles in the marine boundary layer. Because marine aerosols and clouds scatter incoming radiation and contribute a cooling effect to the Earth's radiation budget, new particle production is important in climate regulation. It has been suggested that sulphuric acid derived from the oxidation of dimethyl sulphide is responsible for the production of marine aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei. It was accordingly proposed that algae producing dimethyl sulphide play a role in climate regulation, but this has been difficult to prove and, consequently, the processes controlling marine particle formation remains largely undetermined. Here, using smog chamber experiments under coastal atmospheric conditions, we demonstrate that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapours, which are the photolysis products of biogenic iodocarbons emitted from marine algae. Moreover, we illustrate, using aerosol formation models, that concentrations of condensable iodine-containing vapours over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. We suggest therefore that marine iodocarbon emissions have a potentially significant effect on global radiative forcing. PMID:12050661

  19. 76 FR 32313 - Regattas and Marine Parades; Great Lakes Annual Marine Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Part 100 Regattas and Marine Parades; Great Lakes Annual Marine Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... annual regattas and marine parades in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone from 8 a.m. on June 24, 2011 through 6 p.m. on July 31, 2011. This action is necessary and intended to ensure safety of life on...

  20. 75 FR 39335 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Seismic Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine seismic survey in the Arctic Ocean during August to September, 2010. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS requests comments on its proposal to authorize USGS to......